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Introduction to anatomy

Anatomy is the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans,
animals, and other organisms, esp. as revealed by dissection.
There are two major areas of study within anatomy; macroscopic and microscopic.
Anatomy and Its Various Sub-Disciplines
I. Majorly anatomy is subdivided in to gross (macroscopic) anatomy and
microscopic (histology)
A. Gross or macroscopic anatomy
the study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a
B. Microscopic !istology etc."
istology, or microscopic anatomy, deals with the minute structure,
composition and function of tissues. A light microscope is used to
describe microstructure. #arious dyes and stains can be used to colour
tissues, cells, and cell components eg nucleus" seen with a light
microscope. The study of the reaction of tissues with chemicals is $nown
as histochemistry. An electron microscope %M" is used to describe
ultrastructure. The electron beam in an electron microscope can either be
transmitted through an ultrathin slice of tissue transmission !M" or
bounced off the surface of a structure scanning !M" which produces
very pretty pictures.
&. The other branches of anatomy are
1. 'urface anatomy
2. (euroanatomy
3. )evelopmental %mbryology"
4. *ross sectional anatomy
5. +adiological anatomy
6. 'urgical Anatomy
Sur"ace anatomy is the study of form and mar$ings of the surface of the body,
especially in relation to deeper parts.
#euroanatomy is the study of the structure of the nervous system, which includes the
techni,ues of both gross anatomy and histology.
Developmental anatomy$ or embryology $
%mbryology from Gree$ -./012, embryon, 3unborn, embryo3; and 451678, 4logia" is
a science which is about the development of an embryo from the fertili9ation of the
ovum to the fetus stage.
%ross sectional anatomy is the study of the shape and relationships of structures in
sections ta$en through the body. This branch of anatomy has assumed major
prominence in medicine in recent times with the development of new imaging
techni,ues 4 *T scans and M+&.
&n *T %omputer Assisted &omogtaphy", slices are produced by :4ray technology
*AT scans".
&n M+&, magnetic resonance images are produced by causing resonance of molecular
components when placed in a strong magnetic field, which is not considered harmful
to the human body.
'adiological anatomy is the study of the structure of organs and tissues based on
their visualisation on :4ray films. Bone can be seen easily because it is radio4opa,ue
but other tissues and organs can be visualised using radio4opa,ue substances eg. the
digestive tract can be investigated by following a barium meal through the digestive
system. ;idneys can also be visualised by the injection of 3dye3 into the circulatory
system of blood.
Surgical Anatomy( 'tudy of anatomical landmar$s important for surgical procedures.
%linical (applied) anatomy( emphasi9es aspects of bodily structure and function
important in the practice of medicine. &t incorporates the regional and systemic
approaches to studying anatomy and stresses clinical application. *linical anatomy
often involves inverting or reversing the thought process typically followed when
studying regional or systemic anatomy. <or e=ample, instead of thin$ing, >The action
of this muscle is to ...,? clinical anatomy as$s, >!ow would the absence of this
muscle@s activity be manifestA?&nstead of noting, >The ... nerve provides innervation to
this area of s$in,? clinical anatomy as$s, >(umbness in this area indicates a lesion of
which nerveA?*linical anatomy is e=citing to learn because of its role in solving
clinical problems.

A))'*A%!S &* S&+D, A#A&*M,
'egional anatomy
Based on organi9ation of the human body
!ead, nec$, thora=, abdomen, pelvis and perineum, upper and lower limb.
S,S&!MA&I% A#A&*M,
*steology is the scientific study of bones and the body of $nowledge relating to bones
and bone tissue.
Arthrology is the study of joints and the sum of what is $nown concerning joints,
including the connective tissues related to joints.
Myology is the scientific study of muscles and muscle tissue and the body of
$nowledge relating thereto.
#eurology is the branch of science dealing with the nervous system, both normal and
in disease. *linical neurology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis
and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. This subject will introduce you to
the basic structure of the human nervous system, neuroanatomy.
Angiology is the scientific study of the vessels of the body; it is the sum of $nowledge
relating to blood and lymph vessels. This subject includes the heart as part of the
circulatory system.
Splanchnology is the scientific study of the viscera of the body and the related body
of $nowledge. &t includes in order of
respiratory system
digestive system
urinary system
reproductive systems male and female"
The human body is composed ofC
muscle mainly s$eletal muscle"
bone and other connective tissues"
nervous tissue brain etc."
organs heart, liver etc."

Anatomicomedical &erminology -
Anatomical terminology introduces and ma$es up a large part of medical
terminology. To be understood, you must e=press yourself clearly, using the proper
terms in the correct way. Although you are familiar with common, collo,uial terms for
parts and regions of the body, you must learn the international anatomical terminology
e.g., a=illary fossa instead of armpit and clavicle instead of collarbone" that
enables precise communication among healthcare professionals and scientists
worldwide. !ealth professionals must also $now the common and collo,uial terms
people are li$ely to use when they describe their complaints. <urthermore, you must
be able to use terms people will understand when e=plaining their medical problems to
Anatomical position
All anatomical descriptions are e=pressed in relation to one consistent position,
ensuring that descriptions are not ambiguous. Bne must visuali9e this position in the
mind when describing patients or cadavers", whether they are lying on their sides,
supine recumbent, lying on the bac$, face upward", or prone lying on the abdomen,
face downward". The anatomical position refers to the body position as if the person
were standing upright with theC
head, ga9e eyes", and toes directed anteriorly forward",
arms adjacent to the sides with the palms facing anteriorly, and
lower limbs close together with the feet parallel.
This position is adopted globally for anatomicomedical descriptions. By using this
position and appropriate terminology, you can relate any part of the body precisely to
any other part. &t should also be $ept in mind; however, that gravity causes a
downward shift of internal organs viscera" when the upright position is assumed.
'ince people are typically e=amined in the supine position, it is often necessary to
describe the position of the affected organs when supine, ma$ing specific note of this
e=ception to the anatomical position.
A#A&*MI%A. ).A#!S */ 0*D,
The sagittal plane is a vertical plane running from front to bac$, dividing the body into
left and right sides.
The median plane is the mid4sagittal plane dividing the body into e,ual left and right
The coronal also called frontal" plane is another vertical plane running from side to
side at right angles to the sagittal plane, and therefore dividing the body into front and
ori1ontal also called transverse" plane is what it says, dividing the body into top
and bottom.
&!'MI#*.*2, - '!.A&IV! )*SI&I*#S I# 0*D,
The basis for all anatomical terminology is the Anatomical )osition$ which is
standing erect, facing forwards, big toes together and with the palms facing forward.
The following terms relate to this position and apply whether the person is lying on
their bac$ or abdomen, or is in some other posture..
Superior is 3up3, or towards the head, while in"erior is 3down3, or towards the tail.
&n the limbs, use the terms pro3imal towards trun$ along limb" and distal away
from trun$ towards end of limb".
The terms medial closer to median plane" and lateral away from median plane" are
used for all parts of the body.
The terms anterior towards front" and posterior towards bac$" are also used for all
Because the feet are at an angle to the rest of the body it is common to refer to the
3top3 of the foot as the dorsal aspect, and the part you stand on as the plantar surface.
The dorsal aspect of the hand faces posteriorly while the palmar surface faces
Super"icial means towards the surface of the body or s$in" and deep means away
from the surface. These terms are also used for all parts of the body.
Ipsilateral Datin ipse; selfEsame"C on the same side as another structure. Thus,
the left arm is ipsilateral to the left leg.
%ontralateral Datin contra; against"C on the opposite from another structure.
Thus, the left arm is contralateral to the right arm, or the right leg.
Super"icial Datin superfacies; at the surface or face"C near the outer surface of
the organism. Thus, s$in is super"icial to the muscle layer. The opposite is 3deep3,
or 3visceral3.
DeepC further away from the surface of the organism. Thus, the muscular layer
is deep to the s$in, but superficial to the intestines.
Intermediate Datin intermedius; inter, between and medius, middle"C between
two other structures. Thus, the navel is intermediate to or intermediate bet4een"
the left arm and the contralateral right" leg.
Visceral Datin viscus; internal organs, flesh"C associated with organs within the
bodyFs cavities. The stomach is a viscus within the abdominal cavity, and is covered
with a lining called the visceral peritoneum.
. By the broadest definition, a body cavity is any fluid filled space in a
multicellular organism. !owever, the term usually refers to the space, located
between an animal@s outer covering epidermis" and the outer lining of the gut
cavity, where internal organs develop. 3The body cavity3 of the human body
cavities normally refers to the ventral body cavity, because it is by far the largest
one in volume
)arietal Datin paries 3wall3"C pertaining to the wall of a body cavity. The
parietal peritoneum is the lining on the inside of the abdominal cavity. Garietal can
also refer specifically to the parietal boneof the s$ull or associated structures."
A3ial Datin axis from Gree$ axn 3a=le3"C Towards the central a=is of the
organism or an e=tremity.
'ostral Datin 4 rostrum", beak or nose "C situated toward the oral or nasal
region, or in the case of the brain, towards the tip of the frontal lobes.
%audal Datin 4 cauda", tail"C of, at, or near the tail or the posterior end of the
body. &n the human case, towards the bottom of the feet also the 3tail3 of the spinal
cord, and body".
A#A&*MI%A. &!'MS */ M*&I*# A& 5*I#&S
The movement of body structures is accomplished by the contraction of muscles.
Muscles may move parts of the s$eleton relatively to each other, or may move parts of
internal organs relatively to each other. All such movements are classified by the
directions in which the affected structures are moved. &n human anatomy, all
descriptions of position and movement are based on the assumption that the body is its
complete medial and abduction stage in anatomical position.
All motions are considered to be a mi=ture of or a single contribution by the following
types of movement.
Most terms of a motion have clear opposites, and as such, are treated below in pairs.
2eneral motion
two parts
/le3ion 4 Bending movement
that decreases the angle between two
parts. Bending the elbow, or
clenching a hand into a fist, are
e=amples of fle=ion.".
!3tension 4 The opposite of fle=ion;
a straightening movement
thatincreases the angle between body
parts. &n a conventional handsha$e,
the fingers are fully e=tended.
relation to
mid-line of
Abduction 4 A motion that pulls a
structure or part away from the
midline of the body or, in the case of
fingers and toes, spreading the digits
apart, away from the centerline of the
hand or foot". Abduction of the wrist
Adduction 4 A motion that pulls a
structure or part towards the midline
of the body, or towards the midline
of a limb. )ropping the arms to the
sides, or bringing the $nees together,
are e=amples of adduction. &n the
is called radial deviation. +aising the
arms laterally, to the sides, is an
e=ample of abduction.
case of the fingers or toes, adduction
is closing the digits together.
Adduction of the wrist is
called ulnar deviation.
body parts
Internal rotation or medial
rotation" of the shoulder or hip
would point the toes or the fle=ed
forearm inwards towards the
!3ternal rotation or lateral
rotation" is the opposite of &nternal
+otation. &t would turn the toes or
the fle=ed forearm outwards away
from the midline".
!levation 4 Movement in a superior
Depression 4 Movement in an
inferior direction, the opposite of
Special motions o" the hands and "eet
surfaces of
the hands
and feet
The palm adj palmar" of the hand
corresponds to the sole adj plantar" of
the foot. The adjective volar, used mainly
in orthopaedics, is synonymous
with palmar andplantar.
The dorsum bac$" of the hand
corresponds to the dorsum top"
of the foot.
rotation of
the forearm
)ronation 4 A rotation of the forearm that
moves the palm from an anterior4facing
position to a posterior4facing position, or
palm facing down. This is not medial
rotation as this must be performed when
the arm is half fle=ed..
Supination 4 The opposite of
pronation, the rotation of the
forearm so that the palm faces
anteriorly, or palm facing up.
The hand is supine facing
anteriorly" in the anatomical
bending of
the entire
Dorsi"le3ion 4 %=tension of the entire
foot superiorly, as if ta$ing oneFs foot off
an automobile pedal.
)lantar"le3ion 4 <le=ion of the
entire foot inferiorly, as if
pressing an automobile pedal.
Bccurs at an$le.
of the sole
of the foot
!version 4 the movement of the sole of
the foot away from the median plane.
Inversion 4 the movement of
the sole towards the median
plane same as when an an$le is
*ther special motions
movement - general
)rotrusion 4 The anterior
movement of an object. This term
is often applied to the jaw.
'etrusion 4 The opposite
of protrusion, moving a
part posteriorly.
movement - shoulders
)rotraction 4 Anterior movement
of the arms at the shoulders.
'etraction 4 Gosterior
movement of the arms at
the shoulders.
'ome additional motions without clear opposites are as followsC
'otation 4 A motion that occurs when a part turns on its a=is. The head rotates
on the nec$, as in sha$ing the head FnoF.
%ircumduction 4 The circular or, more precisely, conical" movement of a
body part, such as a ball4and4soc$et joint or the eye. &t consists of a combination of
fle=ion, e=tension, adduction, and abduction. 3Hindmilling3 the arms or rotating
the hand from the wrist are e=amples of circumductive movement.
*pposition 4 A motion involving a grasping of the thumb and fingers.
Terms related to the skeletal muscle
*rigin I is the end of the muscle, which is fi=ed and shows relatively less movement
during contraction.
Insertion4 is the end of the muscle, which shows relatively more movement during
contraction. The origin of the muscle is considered as the pro=imal attachment and
insertion as the distal attachment.
0elly4 the fleshy and contractile part of a muscle
&endon4 the fibrous, non4contractile part of the muscle.
Aponeurosis4 the flattened, sheet of dense connective tissue, which attaches the
muscles to the boneEs$in.
'aphe- a fibrous band made up of interdigitating aponeurotic fibers of the muscles.
0one "eature De"inition
articular process A projection that contacts an adjacent bone to form a joint
A long, tunnel4li$e foramen, usually a passage for notable nerves or
blood vessels.
condyle A large, rounded articular process.
crest A prominent ridge.
eminence A relatively small projection or bump.
epicondyle A projection near to a condyle but not part of the joint.
facet A small, flattened articular surface.
foramen An opening through a bone.
fossa A broad, shallow depressed area.
fovea A small pit on the head of a bone.
labyrinth A cavity within a bone.
A long, thin projection, often with a rough surface. Also $nown as
a ridge.
malleolus Bne of two specific protuberances of bones in the an$le.
meatus A short canal.
process A relatively large projection or prominent bump.gen."
ramus An arm4li$e branch off the body of a bone.
sinus A cavity within a cranial bone.
spine A relatively long, thin projection or bump.
suture Articulation between cranial bones.
trochanter Bne of two specific tuberosities located on the femur.
A projection or bump with a roughened surface, generally smaller
than a tuberosity.
tuberosity A projection or bump with a roughened surface.
/ascias D. fasciae" constitute the wrapping, pac$ing, and insulating materials of the
deep structures of the body. Jnderlying the subcutaneous tissuesuperficial fascia"
almost everywhere is the deep fascia The deep "ascia is a dense, organi9ed connective
tissue layer, devoid of fat, that covers most of the body parallel to deep to" the s$in
and subcutaneous tissue. %=tensions from its internal surface invest deeper structures,
such as individual muscles and neurovascular bundles, as investing "ascia. &ts
thic$ness varies widely. <or e=ample, in the face, distinct layers of deep fascia are
0ursaC A pad li$e sac usually found near a joint. &t is lined with a synovial membrane
and contains synovial fluid that reduces friction between tendon and bone, tendon and
ligament, or other structures where friction is li$ely to occur.