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Introduction to Food Technology,

General Aspect of Food Industry

Module- 1
Lec- 1
Dr. Shishir Sinha
Dept. of he!ical "ngineering
IIT #oor$ee
Introduction to Food Technology
The I!portance and Source of Food
The raw products of present day foods generally originate from two major sources: the plant
and animal kingdoms. We still rely on the agricultural lands, lakes, rivers, and the seas for
their origin in forests and wildlife, and in many parts of the world they still constitute
important sources of food. The plant and animal products that compose our foods and food
products may be classified in the following way:
%lant %roducts
A. Grains &cereals' wheat, corn (maize, sorghum (kaoliang, jowar, barley, oats, rye, millets
(including ragi, rice, adlay, buckwheat
(. %ulses beans (red kidney, lima beans, navy beans, peas, lentils, broad beans, cowpea
(chickpea, vetch (fitches
. Fruits
!. Tropical fruits banana, plantain, pineapple, papaya, guava, mango, passion fruit,
breadfruit, avocado, zapote, cherimoya, naranjilla, surina ("razil cherry.
#. $ubtropical fruits
(a %itrus fruits orange, lemon, tangerine, grapefruit, pomelo, citron, lime, kum&uat.
(b 'ther figs, pomegranate, olives, persimmon tunas (cactus figs, peijabe.
(. )eciduous fruits *ome (seed fruits, +pple, ,rapes, *ear, -uince.
.. $tone fruits peach, cherry, plum, apricot.
/. "erries strawberries, raspberries, black raspberries, blackberries, loganberries,
boysenberries, cloudberries, blueberries, cranberries, lingo berries (whortleberries,
elderberries, black currants, red currants, gooseberries, rose hips.
D. Melons and s)uashes
cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, s&uashes.
". *egeta+les
!. 0eaf(y vegetables cabbage, "russels sprouts, spinach, celery, artichoke, leeks,
lettuce, endive, bamboo shoots, heart of palms, herbs.
#. 1oot vegetables carrot, radish, parsnip, turnip, rutabaga, salsify.
(. $eeds green peas, green beans, lima beans, okr.
.. 'thers cauliflower and broccoli, cucumbers, onions ,garlic,tomatoes.
F. Tu+er products
(2rish or white potatoes, sweet potatoes (yams,taro, cassava (maniok, 3erusalem artichoke
(topinambur, true yams ()ioscorea spp., earth almonds.
G. ,uts
+lmond, beech, "razil nut, breadnut, butternut, cashewchestnut, filbert, peanut (groundnut,
pecan, pinole, pistachio, walnut.
-. Fungi
(! 4at type bakers5 yeast, brewers5 yeast, food yeast
(# *rotein type champignon , truffles, morels,antharels
miscellaneous, 2. 6oney (nectar
I. Manna
+sh tree, oak, tamarisk, alhagi
.. Sugars sugar cane, sugar beet, maple syrup
palm sugar (date.
/. 0ilseeds soy+ean
olive, cottonseed, peanut (groundnut, sunflower, palm kernels, coconut (copra, rapeseed,
L. Sea1eeds
0aver, nori (*orphyra spp., kombu (0aminaria spp., wakame (7ndaroainnatifida
M. (e2erage ingredients %offee, tea, cocoa,yerba mate, miscellaneous (mint, fenugreek,
tilia, etc.
The above given items are major items of plant and animal origin that compose the multitude
of food articles available at present8day markets. They also constitute the raw material for a
number of major industries 9 manufactured products. The major manufactured food products
are listed below:
!. $ugars: cane, beet, maple, corn.
#. $tarches: corn, potato, cassava (manioc, arrowroot, sago, wheat.
(. 4lour, bread, and cereals.
.. $weet baked goods.
/. %onfectionery products.
:. %anned foods.
;. 4rozen foods.
<. )ried (dehydrated foods.
=. *ickled and marinated foods.
!>. $alted and cured foods.
!!. )airy products: market milk (homogenized>, cheese, butter, cultured milks, ice cream,
dry nonfat solids, milk concentrates.
!#. ?eat products: sausages, hams, luncheon meats, meat e@tract, pastes.
!(. $eafood products: fillets, fish sticks, breaded shrimp, sausages, pastes.
!.. 'leomargarine and other food fats and oils: soybean, corn, sunflower, cotton seed, olive.
!/. 3ams and jellies
!:. 4ermented foods: pickles, sauerkraut, fish sauces.
!;. 4ermented beverages: wine, beer.
!<. $oft drinks: carbonated and still drinks.
!=. ?i@es: baking, soup.
#>. $oybean products.
#!. %orn products.
##. Aeast: food yeast, bakers5 yeast, brewers5 yeast.
#(. 4ish flour.
#.. *rotein hydrolyzates.
#/. 2mitation foods (spun proteins, fruit drinks, synthetic cream, etc.
#a1 !aterial selection
Definition of 3uality
)egree of e@cellence and include such things as taste, appearance, and nutritional content.
The composite of characteristics that have significance and make for acceptability
B 3uality Factors in Foods
Appearance Factors
Te4tural Factors
Fla2or Factors
Additional 3uality Factors
Appearance Factors
2nclude such things asC
o $ize
o $hape
o Wholeness
o )ifferent forms of damage
o ,lass
o Transparency
o %olor
o %onsistency
o $ize and shape
o Dasily measured
o 2mportant factors in federal and state grade
B Si5e
+ppro@imated by weight after rough grading
D@. )etermining the weight of dozen eggs
B Shape
6ave more than visual importance
The grades of certain types of pickles include the degree of curvature
B olor and Gloss
%olor is commonly an inde@ of ripeness and spoilage:
*otatoes darken in color as they are fried
"lenching of dried tomato powder on storage
B onsistency
?ay be considered a te@tural &uality attribute
?easured by viscosity of food:
E 6igher viscosity E higher consistency
E 0ower viscosity products E lower consistency
BTe4ture Factors
Te@ture 1efers to those &ualities of food that we can feel either with the fingers, the tongue,
the palate or the teeth.
+ departure from an e@pected te@ture is a F&uality defectG.
B D@pected te@ture
E %hewing gum to be chewy
E %rackers and potato chips to be crisp
E $teak to be compressible and shearable between the teeth
B Fla2or factors
4lavor + combination of both taste and smell
0argely subjective
6ard to measure because of difference of opinion:
*eople differ in
E Their sensitivity to detect different tastes and odors
E Their preference
E Their cultures
B Additional 3uality Factors
B Hutritional -uality
B $anitary -uality ?ay not always be apparent by sensory observation.
B Ieeping -uality
B ,utritional 3uality
%an be assessed by chemical or instrumental analyses for specific nutrients,+nimal feeding
tests or e&uivalent biological tests must be used in many cases*articularly common in
evaluating the &uality of
E protein sources
E 2nteracting variables of
B protein level
B amino acid composition
B digestibility
B absorption of amino acid
B Sanitary 3uality usually measured by counts of bacteria, yeast, mold, and insect,
fragments sediment levels
/eeping 3uality or storage sta+ility
?easured under storage and handling conditions
stimulated conditions:
E e@tremes of temperature
E e@tremes of humidity
E other variables
B %rinciples of 3uality ontrol
B 1aw ?aterial %ontrol
E The use of good and sound raw material is of primary importance for the achievement
of the re&uired end product of consistent &uality.
B *rocess %ontrol
B 4inished *roduct 2nspection
B The I!portance of #a1 Material Selection
B + poor raw material cannot be converted into a good finished product.
B 2n food processingC
8 ,eneral rule:8 the effective methods must be carefully applied to conserve the original
&ualities of the raw materials
8 cannot improve the raw material
B Definition of Food Technology
4ood Technology is the application of food science to the selection, preservation, processing,
packaging, distribution, and use of safe, nutritious, and wholesome food.
Scope of Food Technology
B Food Technology developed as a discipline to systematically organize and link the
various kinds of knowledge which are necessary to inform human activity in food handling,
processing, distribution and marketing.
B Food Technology applies :
!. The principles and concepts of engineering to problems of food handling and processing,
#. $tudies the interrelationships between the properties of materials and the changing
methods of handling and manufacturing them.
Food (usiness
B The food business may be characterized as:
B Julnerable to spoilage,
B 6igh volume,
B0ow margin,
B ?ultiple products,
B Transportation intensiveC and
B Dnd user marketing intensive.
B $ince WW22 the value added part of the food industry has increased steadily, and in !=<>
surpassed agricultureKs contribution.
B There is great emphasis on speed and efficiency in production, and on optimization of the
food system from production through consumption.
B 2t has even been predicted that Lnutrient delivery packagesL, customized for particular
situations, will be developed to take the place of traditional LmealsL.
o!ponents of Food Technology
B 4ood analysis and chemistry
B 4ood -uality 4actors and their ?easurement
B Hutritive aspects of food constituents and effect of processing and handling
B 4ood microbiology, mycology, and to@icology
B 4ood processing and engineering
"!erging trends in Food Technology
2ncreased concern about the nutritional content of technologically derived, refined foods is
e@pressed by both consumers and nutritionists.
B )ietary guidelines and nutrition education focus on partially replacing refined foods with
whole grains, legumes, and other foods which retain their biochemical unity.
B %oncern about food safety issues is very strong. Food scientists are responding to these
nutritional and safety concerns in a variety of ways,
B 2ncreased attention to food interactions and bioavailability of nutrients,
B 2mproved analytical and detection methods, and research and education in food safety.
B Hew product development, particularly in the area of reduced8fat and reduced8calorie
products is predicted. Hew processing technologies such as high energy electric pulse
processing, freeze concentration, and hydrostatic pressure processing (which are often not
yet available in the 7.$. show promise.
B "iotechnology is a growing area.
I!pact of de2elop!ents in other Technologies on Food Technology
4or the sake of completeness it should also be mentioned that development of food
technology draws heavily on developments in other technologies, such as those in steel,
tinplate, glass, aluminum, plastics, engineering, instrumentation, electronics, chemicals, and
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