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Achilles tendon: the calcaneal tendon. Achilles in Greek Mythology was slain by a wound in his
vulnerable heel inflicted by Paris in the Trojan War.
Adamkiewicz's artery: the largest anterior medullary feeder artery to the anterior spinal artery. It
varies in level, arising from the lower (T9-11) posterior intercostal, the subcostal, or less frequently
the upper, lumbar (L1-2) arteries. Most often occurs on the left side.
Albert Adamkiewicz (1850-1921), Professor of Pathology, University of Cracow, Poland.
Allen's test: test of sufficiency of the blood supply to the hand by compression and release of the
ulnar and radial arteries and observation of the colour change of the hand.
E V Allen (1901-1961), Professor of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Ammon's horn: the hippocampus.
Friedrich August Von Ammon (1799-1861), Professor of Pathology and Materia Medica, Dresden,
Andresen lines: structural lines within dentine, representing incremental lines that run more or less
perpendicular to the direction of the tubules. They represent an incremental period of about 1 week
and are best visualized when longitudinal ground sections are viewed between crossed polars.
Viggo Andresen (1870-1950), orthodontist, Norway.
Arantius' nodules: small nodules in the free border of the aortic valves.
Julio Caesar Aranzio (Arantius) (1530-1589), pupil of Vesalius. Professor of Medicine and Surgery,
Bologna, Italy.
Argyll Robertson pupil: pupil reacts to accommodation but not light. Occurs in neurosyphilis.
Douglas Argyll Robertson (1837-1909), ophthalmic surgeon, Edinburgh, UK.
Arnold-Chiari malformation: congenital brain stem and cerebellar herniation through the foramen
Julius Arnold (1835-1915), Professor of Pathology, Heidelberg, Germany.
Hans Chiari (1851-1916), gynaecologist, Austria. Professor of Obstetrics first in Prague, then in
Auerbach's plexus: autonomic nervous plexus between circular and longitudinal layers of muscle of
the intestine.
Leopold Auerbach (1828-1897), Professor of Neuropathology, Breslau, Poland.
Babinski's sign: upgoing plantar response in pyramidal tract disturbances.
Joseph Babinski (1857-1922), pupil of Charcot, neurologist, Piti Hpital, Paris, France.
Baillarger's bands, lines, striae: visible striations seen in sections of the cerebral cortex.
Jules Baillarger (1809-1890), alienist, Charenton Asylum, Paris, France.
Bankart's lesion: detachment of the anteroinferior glenoid labrum and damage to the humeral head,
leading to recurrent dislocation of the shoulder.
A S Bankart (1879-1951), surgeon, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London, UK.
Barr body: chromatin mass in the nucleus of female cells.
Murray Barr (1908-1995), Professor of Anatomy, University of Western Ontario, Canada.
Barret's oesophagus: abnormal columnar ('gastric') cell lining of the lower oesophagus, with risk of
development of adenocarcinoma.
Norman Rupert Barrett (1903-1979), surgeon. St Thomas' Hospital and Brompton Hospital, London,
Bartholin's: ducts and gland - the sublingual salivary gland and its ducts;
glands - the greater vestibular glands on either side of the vaginal orifice.
Casper Bartholin (1655-1738), Professor of Medicine, Anatomy and Physics, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Batson's vertebral venous plexus: the valveless vertebral venous veins that communicate with the
prostatic venous plexus and explain the readiness with which carcinoma of the prostate spreads to
the pelvic bones and vertebrae.
Oscar Batson (1894-1979), Professor of Anatomy, University of Philadelphia, USA.
Battle's sign: bruising over the mastoid process developing two or three days after fracture of the
posterior cranial fossa.
William Battle (1855-1936), surgeon, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.
Bellini, ducts of: orifices of the renal tubules.
Lorenzo Bellini (1643-1704), Professor of Anatomy, Pisa, Italy.
Bell's palsy: viral infections of the facial nerve.
Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), surgeon, Middlesex Hospital, London, UK.
Bergmann cells: glial cells of the cerebellum.
Gottlieb Heinrich Bergmann (?-1861), Medical Director of the Hildersheim Asylum, Germany.
Bernouilli effect: fluid flowing through a tube of varying diameter travels fastest and exerts the
largest lateral pressure at its narrowest point.
J Bernouilli (1654-1705), mathematician, Switzerland. Shares with Isaac Newton the invention of
Betz cells: large pyramidal cells of cerebral cortex.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Betz (1834-1894), Professor of Anatomy, Kiev, Russia.
Bezold's abscess: subperiosteal temporal bone abscess.
Freiderich Bezold (1842-1908), otologist, Munich, Germany.
Bichat's buccal fat pad: the buccal pad of fat - corpus adiposum.
Marie Bichat (1771-1802), Professor of Anatomy and physician, Htel Dieu Paris, France. Pioneer in
study of tissues.
Billroth's cords (or tubes): sex cells in the developing ovary.
Christian Albert Theodore Billroth (1829-1894), Professor of Surgery successively at Zurich and
Vienna, Austria.
Birbeck granules: small cross-striated granules first reported in the Langerhans cells of the
Michael S Birbeck (b.1925), cancer researcher, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.
Blaschko lines: pattern adopted by many skin lesions.
Alfred Blaschko (1858-1892), dermatologist, Berlin, Germany.
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Bowman's: anterior limiting lamina - anterior elastic membrane of the cornea;
capsule - sheath surrounding the renal glomerulus;
glands - glands in the olfactory mucosa.
Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), surgeon at Birmingham General Hospital then Professor of
Anatomy and Physiology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.
Broca's: diagonal band - a fibre tract in the basal forebrain;
area - speech area of cerebral cortex.
Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880), Professor of Clinical Surgery, Paris, France.
Brdel, bloodless line of: the line of division between the areas of kidney supplied by the anterior
and posterior branches of the renal artery.
Max Brdel (1870-1941), medical artist, first at Leipzig then Director of Institute of Art as Applied to
Medicine, Baltimore, USA.
Brodmann's area 17, area 18: primary visual cortex.
Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918), Professor of Anatomy, Tubingen, Germany.
Bruch's choroidal basal lamina: basal membrane of the choroid.
Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Bruch (1819-1884), Professor of Anatomy at Basle, Switzerland, and then
Brunner's glands: duodenal glands lying deep to the muscularis mucosae.
Johann Konrad Brunner (1653-1727), Professor of Anatomy successively at Heidelberg and
Buck's fascia: the penile fascial sheath.
Gordon Buck (1807-1877), surgeon, New York, USA.
Cajal, interstitial cells of: nerve cells of the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex.
Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934), Professor of Anatomy, Valencia, then Barcelona, then
Professor of Histology and Morbid Anatomy, Madrid, Spain.
Calot's triangle: triangle bound by the liver, common hepatic duct and cystic duct.
Jean Franois Calot (1861-1914), surgeon, Rothschild Hospital, France, where he specialised in the
treatment of surgical tuberculosis in children.
Carpenter's syndrome: mental retardation, acrocephaly and syndactyly related to, but genetically
distinct from, Alpert's syndrome.
George Carpenter (1859-1910), physician, UK.
Carabelli's cusp or tubercle: an occasional fifth tubercle lingual to the antero-medial cusp of the first
upper molar tooth.
Edler Carabelli (1787-1842), Professor of Dental Surgery, Vienna, Austria.
Charcot's artery of cerebral haemorrhage: lenticulostriate branch of middle cerebral artery.
Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893), neurologist and physician, Salpetrire, Paris, France.
Chassaignac's carotid tubercle: the prominent anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the
sixth cervical vertebra against which the carotid artery can be compressed.
Charles Marie Edouard Chassaignac (1805-1879), surgeon, Paris, France.
Clara cells: bronchial cells secreting surfactant.
Max Clara (1899-1966) Professor of Anatomy, Leipzig, Germany.
Clarke's column: basal nucleus in posterior horn of spinal grey matter.
Jacob Augustus Lockhart Clarke (1817-1880), neurologist, Hospital for Epilepsy and Paralysis,
London, UK.
Claudius, supporting cells of: supporting cells on the floor of the cochlear canal of the inner ear.
Friedrich Matthias Claudius (1822-1869), Professor of Anatomy successively in Kiel and Marburg,
Cleland's ligament (transverse retrovascular ligament): thin fibres passing from the lateral
surfaces of the interphalangeal joints to the skin of the fingers.
John Cleland (1835-1925), Professor of Anatomy, Glasgow, UK.
Cloquet's node (gland): lymph node in the femoral canal.
Jules Germain Cloquet (1790-1883), Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, Paris.
Colles': fascia - continuation of Scarpa's layer of abdominal fascia;
fracture - fracture of the lower end of the radius with dorsal displacement.
Abraham Colles (1773-1843), Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons of
Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
Cooper's pectineal ligament: thickened periosteum on the penten.
Sir Astley Pastor Cooper (1768-1841), surgeon, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.
Corti, organ of, or rods of: auditory hair cells of the cochlea.
Alfonso Corti (1822-1888), histologist. Held no academic post but worked in Vienna, Berlin, Utrecht
and Turin.
Couinard's segments: the segments of the liver.
Claude Couinard (contemporary), Professor of Anatomy and surgeon, Paris, France.
Cowper's glands: the bulbourethral glands.
William Cowper (1666-1709), surgeon, London, UK.
Crouzon's syndrome: craniofacial dysostosis. Premature closures of cranial vault sutures, maxillary
hypoplasia and ocular and aural anomalies.
Octave Crouzon (1874-1938), neurologist, Salptrire, Paris, France.
Cullen's sign: bluish discolouration at the umbilicus from extravasated blood in ruptured ectopic
pregnancy and pancreatitis - an uncommon physical sign.
Thomas Cullen (1869-1953), Professor of Gynaecology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, USA.
Cushingoid syndrome: the syndrome produced by glucocorticosteroid excess.
Harvey Cushing (1869-1939), Professor of Surgery, Harvard, neurosurgeon, Peter Bent Brigham
Hospital, Boston, USA.
Cuvier's duct: termination of the cardinal vein in the fetus.
Baron Georges Cuvier (1760-1832), zoologist and palaeontologist, Paris, France.
Darkschewitsch, nucleus of: posterior commissural nucleus.
Liverij Osipovich Darkschewitsch (1858-1925), neuroanatomist, University of Moscow.
Deiters': phalangeal supporting cells - outer hair cells in the organ of Corti;
nucleus - lateral vestibular nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
Otto Deiters (1834-1863), Professor of Anatomy and Histology, Bonn, Germany.
Denonvillier's fascia: fascia separating the prostate from the rectum.
Charles Pierre Denonvilliers (1808-1872), Professor of Anatomy, Paris, France.
De Quervain's disease: stenosing tenovaginitis of the tendon sheath of abductor pollicis longus and
extensor pollicis brevis.
Fritz de Quervain (1868-1940), Professor of Surgery, Berne, Switzerland.
Descemet's posterior limiting lamina: posterior membrane of the cornea.
Jean Descemet (1732-1810), Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, Paris.
Diss, perisinusoidal space of: space between the venous sinusoid and the hepatic cells.
Josef Dis'se (1852-1912), anatomist, Germany
Douglas, pouch of: rectouterine peritoneal pouch.
James Douglas (1675-1742), anatomist and obstetrician, London, UK.
Drummond, marginal artery (or arch) of: the anastomoses between the ileo-colic, right colic,
middle colic, left colic and sigmoid arteries (the arch of Roilan is the part of this arch between the
middle and left colic artery).
Hamilton Drummond (1882-1925), surgeon, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
Dupuytren's contracture: contraction and fibrosis of the palmar (and occasionally the plantar)
Baron Guillaume Dupuytren (1777-1835), surgeon, Htel Dieu, Paris, France.
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(von) Ebner's: glands - serous glands in relation to the circumvallate papillae on the dorsum of the
lines -incremental lines of dentine.
Victor Ritter Von Rosenstein Ebner (1842-1925), Professor of Histology and Embryology, Innsbruck,
Edinger-Westphal nucleus: midbrain nucleus containing preganglionic neurons destined to synapse
in the ciliary ganglion; it lies close to the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve.
Ludwig Edinger (1855-1918), Professor of Anatomy, Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany.
Karl Westphal (1833-1890), Professor of Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany.
Erb-Duchenne paralysis: the result of injury to the C5 and C6 roots of the brachial plexus.
Wilhelm Erb (1840-1921), Professor of Neurology, Heidelberg, Germany.
G B A Duchenne (1806-1875), neurologist, Paris, France.
Eustachian: tube - the pharyngotympanic tube;
valve - inferior vena caval valve in right atrium.
Bartolomeo Eustachi (1513?-1574), Professor of Anatomy, Rome, Italy, and physician to the Pope.
Fallopian: aqueduct or canal - canal for facial nerve in the temporal bone;
tube - the uterine tube.
Gabrielle Fallopio (1523-1562), Professor of Anatomy, Padua, Italy; a pupil of Vesalius.
Fallot's tetralogy: congenital heart disease comprising pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular
hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect and over-riding of the aorta.
Etienne Fallot (1850-1911), Professor of Medicine, Marseilles, France.
Fordyce's spots: small mucosal cysts of cheeks, lips and tongue.
J Fordyce (1858-1925), dermatologist, New York, USA.
Forel's fields (decussation): ventral tegmental decussation between the red nuclei.
August Forel (1848-1931), anatomist and neurologist, Zurich, Switzerland.
Frey's syndrome: sweating in distribution of auriculotemporal nerve triggered by eating ('auriculo-
gustatory sweating') after injury to the facial nerve.
Luiji Frey (1889-1944), neurologist, Warsaw, Poland.
Froehse, arcade of: arcade between the two layers of supinator; it transmits the posterior
interosseous nerve.
Fritz Froehse, anatomist, Germany.
Froriep's ganglion: inconstant ganglion on posterior aspect of hypoglossal nerve.
August Froriep (1849-1917), physiologist, Tbingen, Germany.
Galen's: nerve (ansa galeni) - branch of the superior laryngeal nerve to the recurrent laryngeal
(deep galenic venous system) vein - the great cerebral vein.
Claudius Galen (130-200 AD), born Pergamum, Asia Minor, studied there and in Smyrna, Corinth and
Alexandria. Physician to Marcus Aurelius and taught Anatomy and Medicine in Rome. Author of
numerous texts on anatomy, surgery and medicine.
Gartner's duct: paravaginal duct; mesonephric duct remnant.
Hermann Treschow Grtner (1785-1827), surgeon in Norwegian and then Danish army.
Gennari's, stria (white line) of: characteristic line in occipital visual cortex.
Francesco Gennari (1750-1795), physician, Parma, Italy.
Gerdy's tubercle: the attachment of the ilio-tibial tract to the proximal tibia.
Pierre Nicolas Gerdy (1797-1856), surgeon and pathologist, Paris, France.
Gerota's fascia: the renal fascia; encapsulates the perinephric fat.
Dumitru Gerota (1867-1939), Professor of Surgery, Bucharest, Romania.
Giacomini's band: band on surface of the uncus.
Carlo Giacomini (1840-1898), Professor of Anatomy, Turin, Italy.
Glisson's capsule: the fibrous capsule of the liver.
Francis Glisson (1597-1677), Regius Professor of Medicine, Cambridge. Described rickets in 1671.
Goethe, ossicle of: the incus (an auditory ossicle).
Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832), poet, philosopher and scientist, Germany.
Golgi: complexes or apparatus or bodies - network of intracellular elements;
cells or neurones - GABA-ergic cerebellar interneurones;
corpuscles - tactile end organs in skin and muscle.
Camillo Golgi (1844-1926), Professor of Histology and Anatomy successively in Padua and then
Sienna, Italy.
Graafian follicle: the ovarian follicle.
Regnier de Graaf (1641-1673), anatomist and physician, Delft, Holland.
Grayson's ligament: fascial fibres which pass from the lateral sides of the phalanges volar to the
neurovascular bundle.
J Grayson, Professor of Anatomy, Manchester, UK.
Grey Turner's sign: bluish discoloration in the left loin caused by extravasated blood in acute
pancreatitis - an uncommon physical sign.
George Grey Turner (1877-1951), Surgeon at Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle Upon Tyne and the
Professor of Surgery, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith, London, UK.
Guerin's fracture: a LeFort I level fracture of the maxilla (see below).
Alphonse Guerin (1816-1895), surgeon, Paris, France.
Guyon's canal: canal for the ulnar nerve and vessels; defined medially by the pisiform, and
posteriorly by the flexor retinaculum.
Jean Casimir Guyon (1831-1920), surgeon, Paris, France.
Haller's cells: infraorbital ethmoid cells (synonym: orbitoethmoidal cells) which may be specified as
either anterior or posterior ethmoid. They may lie lateral to the infundibulum and then open in to the
middle meatus. They grow into the bony orbital floor and may obstruct the ostia of either the ethmoid
infundibulum or the maxillary sinus during endonasal procedures.
Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777), Professor of Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery and Botany, University
of Gttingen, Germany.
Harris's growth lines: transverse juxta-epiphyseal lines of long bones seen on X-ray and
representing temporary growth arrest.
Henry Harris (1886-1951), Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge, UK.
Hartmann's pouch: dilatation above the neck of the gallbladder - a pathological entity produced by a
contained gallstone.
Henri Hartmann (1860-1952), Professor of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Paris, France.
Haversian systems, canals: spaces in the compact tissue of bone.
Clopton Havers (1817-1894), physician practising first in London, then in Isle of Wight, UK.
Henle's: layer - outer layer of cells in the root sheath of a hair;
loop - the looped portion of the renal tubule.
Friedrich Gustav Henle (1808-1885), Professor of Anatomy successively in Zurich, Heidelberg and
Gttingen, Germany.
Hensen: node of - thickening at the site of the first formation of the primitive streak;
supporting cells of - in the organ of Corti (see above) to the outer side of the cells of Deiters (see
Viktor Hensen (1834-1924), Professor of Physiology, Kiel, Germany.
Hering-Brewer reflex: lung stretch reflex mediated by the vagus.
Carl Ewald Hering (1834-1918), physiologist, Vienna and then Leipzig.
J osef Brewer (1842-1925), psychiatrist and physiologist, Vienna, where he collaborated with Hering.
Hering's canal: fine terminal ductules lined by cuboidal epithelium, linking the intralobular bile
canaliculi with bile ducts in the portal canals.
Carl Ewald Hering (1834-1918), physiologist, Vienna and Leipzig
Heschl's transverse temporal gyri: gyri on temporal lobe of brain.
Richard Heschl (1824-1881), Professor of Pathology, Cracow, and then of Clinical Medicine, Graz,
Heuser's membrane: the parietal hypoblast layer.
Chester Heuser (1885-1965), embryologist, USA.
Hilton's law: nerves crossing a joint supply the joint, the muscles acting on the joint and the skin
overlying the joint.
John Hilton (1805-1878), surgeon, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.
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Hirschsprung's disease: megacolon resulting from congenital absence of autonomic ganglion cells
in distal contracted segment.
Harald Hirschsprung (1830-1916), physician, Queen Louise Children's Hospital, Copenhagen,
His: bundle of - the atrioventricular bundle of the heart;
furcula of - an inverted U which appears in the central wall of the developing pharynx.
Wilhelm His (Junior) (1863-1934), Professor of Anatomy successively at Leipzig, Basle, Gttingen
and Berlin. Son of Wilhelm His Senior.
His, septum intermedium of: part of the primitive atrial septum.
Wilhelm His (Senior) (1831-1904), Professor of Anatomy and Physiology first in Basle then Leipzig.
Hoboken's valves: valve-like projections in the vessels of the umbilical cord.
Nicolas Von Hoboken (1632-1678), Professor of Anatomy, Harderwyk, then Professor of Medicine
and Mathematics in Steinfurt, The Netherlands.
Hofbauer cells: ellipsoid cells in chorionic villi.
Isrid Isidore Hofbauer (1878-1961), gynaecologist, USA.
Holden's line: transverse skin crease at the groin caused by flexion of the hip.
Luther Holden (1815-1905), surgeon, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK.
Horner's syndrome: ptosis and pupillary constriction following interruption of the sympathetic supply
to the eyelid and pupil, respectively.
Johann Horner (1831-1886), Professor of Ophthalmology, Zurich, Switzerland.
Howship's lacunae: absorption spaces in bone.
John Howship (1781-1841), surgeon, St George's and Charing Cross Hospitals, London, UK.
Suffered himself from osteomyelitis of the tibia and made special study of bone pathology.
Humphrey's ligament: meniscofemoral ligament - Humphrey described this ligament as running
from the lateral meniscus to the posterior cruciate ligament.
George Murray Humphrey (1820-1896), Professor of Anatomy and then of Surgery, Cambridge, UK.
Founder of Journal of Anatomy.
Hunter's canal: the subsartorial canal.
John Hunter (1728-1793), surgeon, St George's Hospital, London, UK. Described ligation of the
femoral artery in the subsartorial canal for popliteal aneurysm.
Huschke, foramen of: deficiency in the floor of the bony part of the external auditory meatus, which
usually closes by the fifth year, but may persist throughout life.
Emil Huschke (1797-1858), Professor of Anatomy, Jena, Germany.
Huxley's layer: the inner layer of cells of the root sheath of a hair.
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), lecturer in Natural History, Royal School of Mines, UK. An early
supporter of Darwinism.
Hyrtl's anastomosis (loop): occasional anastomosis between right and left hypoglossal nerves.
Joseph Hyrtl (1811-1894), anatomist, Austria.
Ito, cells of: hepatic stellate cells.
Hayozo Ito (1865-?), Professor of Surgery, Kyoto, Japan.
Jackson's membrane: peritoneal fold between caecum or ascending colon and lateral abdominal
Jabez North Jackson (1868-1935), Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, Kansas City, USA.
Jacobson's organ: the vomeronasal organ.
Ludwig Levin Jacobson (1783-1843), anatomist, Copenhagen, Denmark; later physician in French
Kartagener's syndrome: transposition of the viscera associated with abnormal cilia which results in
Manes Kartagener (1887-1975), physician, Switzerland.
Kent, bundle of: the atrioventricular bundle (also known as bundle of His, see above).
Albert Kent (1863-1958), Professor of Physiology, Bristol, UK.
Kerckring's valve: valvulae conniventes - the circular folds of the small intestine (already completely
described by Fallopio, see above)
Theodor Kerckring (1640-1693), physician and anatomist, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Kiesselbach's plexus: site of haemorrhage on nasal septum.
Wilhelm Kiesselbach (1839-1902), ear nose and throat surgeon, Erlangen, Germany.
Killian's dehiscence: gap between the attachments of the inferior constrictor of the pharynx to the
cricoid and thyroid cartilages - site of origin of a pharyngeal pouch.
Gustav Killian (1860-1921), Professor of Laryngorhinology successively in Freiburg and Berlin,
Klippel -Feil syndrome: congenital fusion or reduction in number of cervical vertebrae.
Maurice Klippel (1858-1942), neurologist at Salpetrire, Paris.
Andr Feil (1884-?), neurologist, France.
Klumpke's paralysis: injury to the lowest root of the brachial plexus (T1).
Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke (1859-1927), neurologist, Paris, France. Married to another neurologist,
Joseph Dejerine.
Klver-Bucy syndrome: experimental syndrome in rhesus monkey produced by ablation of the
temporal limbic system.
Heinrich Klver (1897-1974), German-born neurologist, USA.
Paul Clancy Bucy (1904-1992), neurologist, USA.
Koch's triangle: triangular area in the wall of the right atrium which marks the site of the
atrioventricular node.
Walter Koch (1880-?), physician and pathologist, Berlin and Freiburg, France.
Kohn, interalveolar pores of: pores that link adjacent alveolar air spaces of the lung.
Hans Kohn (1866-?), pathologist, Berlin, Germany.
Klliker, nucleus of: substantia intermedia centralis in spinal cord.
Rudolf Albert Von Klliker (1817-1905), anatomist, Switzerland.
Kraissl's lines: lines of greatest tension in the skin.
Cornelius Kraissl (d. 1999), plastic surgeon, New Jersey, USA
Kulchitsky cells: neuroendocrine cells in lung and gut.
Nicholas Kulchitsky (1856-1925), Professor of Histology, Kharkov, Russia. After the Russian
revolution he came to London to continue his work in neuropathology at University College.
Kupffer cells: reticuloendothelial cells of the liver.
Karl Wilhelm Von Kupffer (1829-1902), Professor of Anatomy successively at Kiel, Kningsberg and
Munich, Germany.
Labb's inferior anastomotic vein: connects superficial middle cerebral vein to the transverse
Leon Labb (1832-1916), surgeon, France.
Ladd's bands: congenital bands across the duodenum in volvulus neonatorum.
William Edward Ladd (1880-1967), surgeon, Boston Children's Hospital, USA.
Landsmeer's ligament: transverse and oblique retinacular ligaments of the fingers.
Johan Landsmeer (1919-1999), Professor of Anatomy, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Langer's lines: cleavage or crease lines in the skin produced by the arrangement of the
subcutaneous fibrous tissues.
Karl Ritter von Edenberg Langer (1819-1887), Professor of Anatomy, Hungary, and then Vienna,
Langerhans: cells - dendritic epithelial cells;
islets of - clumps of insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas.
Paul Langerhans (1847-1888), Professor of Pathology, Freiburg, Germany. Described the islet cells
in his doctorate thesis in 1869, at the age of 22.
Langhans: cells - cytotrophoblastic cells of a chorionic villus lying deep to the syncytiotrophoblast.
Theodore Langhans (1839-1915), pathologist, Berne, Switzerland.
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Le Fort: classification of maxillary fractures.
Ren Le Fort (1829-1893), surgeon, Paris, France.
Leydig cells: the interstitial testosterone-secreting cells of the testis.
Franz Von Leydig (1821-1908), Professor of Histology successively at Wrzburg, Tbingen and
Bonn, Germany.
Lieberkuhn, crypts of: tubular glands of the small intestine.
Johann Nathaniel Lieberkuhn (1711-1756), physician and anatomist, Berlin, Germany. These glands
were described by Malphighi (see below) in 1688.
Lisfranc's ligament: interosseous ligament between the second metatarsal and first cuneiform bone
of the foot.
Jaques de St. Martin Lisfranc (1790-1847), Professor of Surgery, Paris, France.
Lissauer, tract of: ascending tract in the spinal cord.
Heinrich Lissauer (1861-1891), neurologist, Breslau.
Lister's tubercle: a prominence on the posterior surface of the distal radius, ulnar to the groove for
the tendon of extensor pollicis longus.
Joseph (Lord) Lister (1827-1912), successively Professor of Surgery at Glasgow, Edinburgh and
King's College, London, UK.
Littr's glands: submucosal glands of the male urethra.
Alexis Littr (1658-1726), anatomist and surgeon, Paris, France.
Little's area: site of haemorrhage on the nasal septum.
James Laurence Little (1836-1885), Professor of Surgery, University of Vermont, USA.
Lockwood's tails: hypothetical bands interfering with downgrowth of the processus vaginalis,
resulting in ectopia testis.
Charles Barrett Lockwood (1856-1914), surgeon, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK.
Luschka: bursa of - accessory pharyngeal recess in front of the anterior arch of the atlas;
foramen of - lateral aperture in the roof of the fourth cerebral ventricle;
uncovertebral joints of - small synovial joints on either side of the intervertebral cartilaginous joint in
cervical vertebrae C3-7 (between the uncinate process of the inferior vertebral body and the bevelled
lateral border of the superior body at each level).
Hubert Luschka (1820-1875), Professor of Anatomy, Tbingen, Germany.
Mackenrodt's ligament: the transverse cervical (or cardinal) ligament of the uterus.
Alwin Mackenrodt (1859-1925), Professor of Gynaecology, Berlin, Germany.
Magendie, foramen of: the median aperture in the roof of the fourth ventricle.
Franois Magendie (1783-1855), physician to the Htel Dieu, Paris, France.
Malpighian: corpuscle - splenic corpuscles;
layer - deep layer of the epidermis.
Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), Professor of Medicine successively in Bologna, Pisa and Messina,
Italy. Finally physician to the Papal Court, Rome. Regarded as the founder of microscopic anatomy.
Meckel's: cartilage - the cartilage of the first branchial arch;
diverticulum - the remains of the vitello-intestinal duct.
Johann Meckel (1781-1833), Professor of Anatomy, Halle. His grandfather was Professor of Anatomy
in Berlin and described the pterygopalatine ganglion and the dural sac which contains the ganglion of
the trigeminal nerve. His father was also Professor of Anatomy in Halle.
Meibomian tarsal glands: the tarsal glands of the eyelid. If blocked they become distended into
meibomian cysts.
Heinrich Meibom (1638-1700), Professor of Medicine, History and Poetry, Helmstadt, Germany.
Meissner's: corpuscles - tactile nerve endings in skin;
plexus - submucosal autonomic plexus of the intestine.
George Meissner (1829-1905), Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, Basle, of Zoology and
Physiology at Freiburg, and Physiology at Gttingen, Germany.
Merkel cells (or corpuscles): sensory nerve endings.
Friedrich Sigmund Merkel (1845-1919), Professor of Anatomy successively at Rostock, then
Gttingen, Germany.
Meyer's loop: portion of the geniculocalcarine radiation.
Adolf Meyer (1866-1950), neurologist, USA.
Meynert, basal nucleus of: part of the 'substantia innominata' of the basal forebrain: contains large
cholinergic neurones that project to the cerebral cortex, amygdala and thalamus.
Theodore Herman Meynert (1833-1892), Professor of Neurology, Vienna, Austria.
Moll's glands: the ciliary glands.
Jacob Antonius Moll (1832-1914), ophthalmologist, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Monro, foramen of: the foramen between the lateral and third ventricles of the brain.
Alexander Monro (1733-1817), Professor of Anatomy, Edinburgh, UK. The chair was also held by his
father and his son - all named Alexander.
Montgomery, glands or tubercles of: sebaceous glands situated in the areola of the breast.
William Montgomery (1797-1859), Professor of Midwifery, Dublin, Ireland.
(previously described by Morgagni, see below).
Morgagni: columns of - the columns of the anal canal;
hernia - congenital diaphragmatic hernia between the sternal and costal attachments of the
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), Professor of Anatomy, Padua, Italy, for 59 years. Founder of
modern morbid anatomy.
Morison's pouch: the right subhepatic space.
James Rutherford Morison (1853-1939), Professor of Surgery, Durham, UK.
Mller's: cells - neuroglial cells in the retina;
muscle - radial fibres of the ciliary muscles.
Heinrich Mller (1820-1864), Professor of Anatomy, Wrzburg, Germany.
Mllerian duct: the paramesonephric duct of the fetus.
Johannes Mller (1801-1858), Professor of Anatomy, Berlin, Germany.
Nabothian cyst: retention cyst of uterine cervix.
Martin Naboth (1675-1721), Professor of Medicine, Leipzig, Germany.
Nissl: granules - basophil granules in cytoplasm of neuronal somata;
stain - specific stain for these granules.
Franz Nissl (1860-1919), neurologist successively of Frankfurt, Heidelberg and Munich, Germany.
Nitabuch's layer or stria: layer in the intervillous spaces of the placenta.
Raissa Nitabuch (19th Century), physician, Germany.
Nuel's spaces: space between outer rods of Corti and hair cells.
Jean Pierre Nuel (1847-1920), Professor of Otology, Louvain and later Liege, Belgium.
Oddi, sphincter of: the sphincter at the termination of the common bile duct.
Ruggero Oddi (1845-1906), surgeon, Rome, Italy. The sphincter had already been described by
Glisson (see above) in the 17th century.
Pacchionian bodies: arachnoid granulations.
Antoine Pacchion (1665-1726), physician and anatomist, Rome, Italy.
Pacinian corpuscles: end organs of sensory nerves.
Filippo Pacini (1812-1883), Professor of Anatomy and Physiology successively at Pisa and then
Florence, Italy.
Pancoast tumour: apical carcinoma of the lung involving C8 and T1 nerves, the cervical sympathetic
chain and upper ribs.
Henry Pancoast (1875-1939), Professor of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
Paneth cells: cells at bases of the intestinal crypts.
Joseph Paneth (1857-1890), Professor of Physiology first in Breslau, then Vienna, Austria.
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Papez circuit: a neuroanatomical circuit mediating emotion, involving the hippocampal formation,
mammillary body, anterior nuclei of the thalamus and cingulate gyrus.
James Wenceslas Papez (1883-1958), neurologist, USA.
Passavant's: muscle - upper fibres of palatopharyngeus;
ridge (bar) - projecting ridge, or bar, on posterior wall of pharynx which appears during swallowing.
Phillip Gustav Passavant (1815-1893), surgeon, Frankfurt, Germany.
Petit, canal of: the space between the zonule of Zinn (see below) and the vitreous humour.
Franois Pourfois de Petit (1664-1741), ophthalmologist, Paris, France.
Peyer's patches: lymphoid aggregates in the ileum.
Johann Conrad Peyer (1653-1712), Professor of Logic, Rhetoric and Medicine in Schaffhausen,
Purkinje: cells - large neurones forming a single eponymous layer in cerebellar cortex;
fibres - subendocardial muscle fibres.
Johannes Purkinje (1787-1869), Professor of Physiology, Breslau and then Prague, Poland.
Ramsay Hunt syndrome: herpes zoster involvement of the geniculate ganglion associated with
facial paresis, hyperacusis, unilateral loss of taste, decrease in lacrimation and salivation and otalgia.
James Ramsay Hunt (1874-1937), Professor of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, USA.
Rathke's pouch: diverticulum of roof of stomodaeum which forms the anterior pituitary gland.
Martin Heinrich Rathke (1793-1860), Professor of Zoology and Anatomy, Knigsberg, Germany.
Reidel's lobe: supernumerary lobe projecting from right lobe of the liver.
Bernhard Reidel (1846-1916), Professor of Surgery, Jena, Germany.
Reinke's: crystals - rod-shaped crystals in the interstitial cells of the testis and hilus cells of the
space - chronic laryngitis with swelling of the membranous part of the vocal cords.
Friedrich Berthold Reinke (1862-1919), anatomist, France.
Reissner's membrane: the vestibular membrane of the cochlea.
Ernst Reissner (1824-1878), Professor of Anatomy in Dorpat and then Breslau.
Renshaw's cells: inhibitory interneurones modulating the response of anterior horn cells.
Birdsy Renshaw (1911-1948), neurologist, USA.
Retzius' lines (or striae): brown lines in the dental enamel.
Gustav Magnus Retzius (1842-1919), Professor of Anatomy, Carolinska Institute, Stockholm,
Sweden. (Son of Andreas Adolf Retzius 1796-1860, who described the cave of Retzius - the
retropubic space - also Professor of Anatomy, Carolinska.)
Rexed's lamina: subdivisions of cells of spinal cord grey matter.
Bror Rexed (1914-?), neuroanatomist, Sweden.
Riolan, arc of: the anastomosis between the middle and left colic arteries.
Jean Riolan (secondus) 1577-1657, Professor of Anatomy and Botany, Paris, France. A great
teacher, but rejected the doctrines of William Harvey. Son of Jean Riolan (primus) of Paris.
Rohr's stria: layer of placenta.
Karl Rohr (1863-?), embryologist and gynaecologist, Berne, Switzerland.
Rosenmller, fossa of: the pharyngeal recess.
Johann Christian Rosenmller (1779-1820), Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, Leipzig, Germany.
Rosenthal's canal: spiral canal of the cochlea.
Friedrich Christian Rosenthal (1779-1829), Professor of Anatomy, Greifswald, Germany.
Rotter's node: lymph node between pectoralis major and minor.
Josef Rotter (1857-1924), surgeon, Germany.
Ruffini endings (bodies, corpuscles): sensory nerve endings, originally described in skin of fingers.
Angelo Ruffini (1887-1929), Professor of Histology, Bologna, Italy.
Santorini: duct of - the accessory pancreatic duct;
fissures of - two fissures in the anterior cartilaginous wall of the external acoustic meatus;
plexus of - retropubic venous plexus giving rise to pudendal vein.
Giovanni Domenico Santorini (1681-1737), Professor of Medicine and Anatomy, Venice, Italy.
Scarpa's: fascia - the fibrous layer of the superficial fascia of the lower abdomen;
ganglion - the vestibular ganglion.
Antonio Scarpa (1747-1832), Professor of Anatomy, Padua, Italy.
Schlemm, canal of: canal at junction of the cornea and sclera.
Freidrich Schlemm (1795-1858), Professor of Anatomy, Berlin, Germany.
Schmidt-Lanterman incisure or cleft: helical inclusion of glial cytoplasm within the myelin sheath of
central and peripheral nerves
Henry Schmidt (1823-1888), pathologist, Charity Hospital, New Orleans, USA.
A J Lanterman (19th Century), anatomist, Strasbourg, France.
Schwann cells: the major glial cell of the peripheral nervous system.
Theodor Schwann (1810-1882), Professor of Anatomy first in Louvain and then Liege, Belgium. One
of the instigators of the cell theory.
Schutz's fasciculus: the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus.
Hugo Shutz, neurologist, Leipzig, Germany
Scoog's fibres: transverse fibres of the palmar aponeurosis of the hand.
Tord Skoog (1915-1977), Foundation Professor of Plastic Surgery, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
Sertoli cells: supporting cells of the testicular tubules.
Enrico Sertoli (1842-1910), Professor of Experimental Physiology, Milan, Italy.
Sharpey's fibres: connective tissue joining periosteum to bone.
William Sharpey (1802-1880), Professor of Anatomy successively in Edinburgh and University
College, London, UK.
Stahl's deformity: congenital deformity of the ear - broad helix, fossa of the antihelix and upper
scaphoid fossa are both absent.
Friedrich Stahl (1811-1879), Physician, Germany.
Stensen's duct: the parotid duct.
Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Professor of Anatomy, Copenhagen, Denmark. Demonstrated the parotid
duct at the age of 23.
Struther, ligament of: fibrous band (occasionally ossified) running between medial epicondyle and
shaft of the humerus.
Sir John Struthers (1823-1899), Professor of Anatomy, Aberdeen, UK. An authority on the anatomy of
Sylvian: aqueduct - midbrain channel connecting the third and fourth cerebral ventricles;
fissure - the lateral cerebral fissure.
Franois de la Boe Sylvius (1614-1672), Professor of Medicine, Leyden, The Netherlands.
Tenon's capsule: fascial sheath of the eyeball.
Jaques Ren Tenon (1724-1816), Professor of Pathology, Academy of Sciences, Paris, France. Chief
Surgeon, Salpetrire, Paris. Specialized in ophthalmology.
Testut's ligament: radio-scaphoid-lunate connection.
Leo Testut (1849-1925), Professor of Anatomy, Lyons, France.
Thebesian: valve - valve at orifice of coronary sinus;
veins - venae cordis minimae of heart.
Adam Christian Thebesius (1686-1732), anatomist and pathologist, Leyden, The Netherlands.
Todaro, tendon of: a variable tendinous strand attached to the valvular fold at the termination of the
inferior vena cava. It forms the superior border of the triangle of Koch.
Francesco Todaro (1839-1918), Professor of Anatomy at Messina and then Rome, Italy.
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Towne's projection: positioning of the head in the radiological examination of the foramen magnum
and posterior cranial fossa.
Edward Towne (1883-1957), neurosurgeon, Stanford Medical School, USA.
Treitz, ligament of: 'suspensory' ligament of peritoneum passing from the right crus of the diaphragm
to the fourth part of the duodenum.
Wenzel Treitz (1819-1872), Professor of Pathology successively at Cracow and Prague,
Trendelenburg's sign: dipping gait due to hip abductor dysfunction, e.g. in congenital dislocation of
the hip or paralysis of gluteus medius and minimus.
Freidrich Trendelenburg (1844-1924), Professor of Surgery successively at Rostock, Bonn and
Leipzig, Germany.
Treves, bloodless fold of: peritoneal fold adjacent to mesoappendix.
Sir Frederick Treves (1853-1923), surgeon, London Hospital, UK. Drained the appendix abscess of
King Edward VII in 1902.
Valsalva, aortic sinuses of: the aortic sinuses.
Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), Professor of Anatomy, Bologna, Italy.
Vater, ampulla of: ampulla at junction of common hepatic and pancreatic ducts.
Abraham Vater (1684-1751), Professor of Anatomy, Botany, Pathology and Therapeutics, Wittenburg,
Vesalius sphenoidal emissary foramen: small foramen for emissary vein immediately anterior and
medial to the foramen ovale in the sphenoid bone.
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), Professor of Anatomy, Padua, Italy. In 1543 published De Humani
Corporis Fabrica, the most famous text of anatomy.
Vidian nerve: nerve of the pterygoid canal.
Guido Guidi Vidius (1500-1561), Professor of Medicine, Pisa, Italy.
Vieussens, anulus of: ansa subclavia of sympathetic nerves.
Raymond de Vieussens (1641-1715), physician and anatomist, Montpellier, France.
Virchow-Robin space: perivascular space in the central nervous system.
Rudolf Ludwig Virchow (1821-1902), Professor of Pathological Anatomy, Wrzburg and then Berlin,
Charles Filippe Robin (1821-1885), Professor of Histology, Paris, France.
Voigt lines: the hair tracts
Christian August Voigt (1809-1890), Professor of Anatomy, Vienna, Austria.
Voit's nerve: branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that supplies the saccule.
Max Voit (1876-1920), Professor of Anatomy, Gttingen, Germany.
Volkmann's canals: osseous canals carrying blood vessels from the periosteum.
Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1877), Professor of Anatomy and Physiology first at Dorpat and later
Von Brunn's nests: epithelial masses in the male urethra.
Albert Von Brunn (1849-1872), Professor of Anatomy, Gttingen, Germany.
Waldeyer's: sheath - adventitia of distal segments of the ureter;
ring - a ring of lymphoid tissue which includes the palatine, pharyngeal, tubal and lingual tonsils.
Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer (1836-1921), Professor of Pathology at Breslau and then Berlin,
Wallenberg's syndrome: lesion of the lateral medullary region of the brain stem.
Adolf Wallenberg (1862-1949), physician, Germany.
Wernicke's speech area: motor speech area in superior temporal lobe of cerebral cortex.
Karl Wernicke (1848-1904), Psychiatrist at Breslau and then Halle, Germany.
Wharton's: duct - duct of the submandibular salivary gland;
jelly - the gelatinous connective tissue of the umbilical cord.
Thomas Wharton (1616 ? -1673), Physician, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK. Remained on duty
there during the Great Plague of 1665.
Whitnall's tubercle: tubercle on the orbital surface of the zygomatic bone.
Samuel Ernest Whitnall (1876-1950), Professor of Anatomy successively at McGill University,
Montreal, Canada, and Bristol, UK.
Wiebel -Palade bodies: rod-shaped storage granules in endothelial cells.
Euald Wiebel (contemporary), physician, Switzerland.
George Emil Palade (contemporary), born in Romania, cytologist, Rockefeller Institute, New York,
USA, Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1974.
Willis, circle of: the arterial anastomosis at the base of the brain.
Thomas Willis (1621-1675), physician to King James II, practised first in Oxford, then London, UK.
Winslow, foramen of: the epiploic foramen leading to the lesser sac.
Jacob Winslow (1669-1760), Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, Paris, France.
Wrisberg's ligament: band attached to posterior cruciate ligament of the knee.
Heinrich August Wrisberg (1739-1808), Professor of Anatomy, Gttingen, Germany.
Wolffian: body - the mesonephros;
duct - the mesonephric duct.
Caspar Wolff (1733-1794), born in Berlin, Professor of Anatomy, St Petersburg, Russia, one of the
pioneers of embryology.
Zinn, circle (or zonula) of: hyaloid membrane adjacent to the margin of the lens.
Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727-1759), Professor of Medicine and Director of Botanical Gardens,
Gttingen, Germany.
Zuckerkandl's fascia: the retrorenal fascia.
Emil Zuckerkandl (1849-1910), Professor of Anatomy at Graz and then Vienna, Austria.
Many of the eponyms listed above are described in more detail in Firkin BG, Whitworth J A 2001
Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. London: Parthenon.
2008 Elsevier