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1.

Economy Analysis (Chad):


Business cycle reflects movements in economic activity as a whole, which is comprised of much diverse
part. The diversity of the parts ensures that business cycle is virtually unique, with no two parts identical.
However, cycle does have a common framework, with a beginning, a peak and an ending. Thus economic
activity starts in depressed conditions builds up in the expansionary phase, and ends in a downturn, only
to start again.
Resources, infrastructure and Population
Approximately 80% of the 7 million citizens lived on less than $1.00 a day. Except for oil, the landlocked
country had few natural resources and lacked even rudimentary infrastructure needed for development:
there were only 267 kilometers (166 miles) of paved roads in a country almost three times larger than
France, no railways, poor tele- communications (two phones per 1,000 people), and irregular electricity
supply.
In terms of living conditions, poor nutrition and unsafe waterless than 25% of the population had
access to clean watercontributed to a life expectancy of 49 years and an infant mortality rate of 115
deaths per 1,000 births, compared to 78 years and 3 to 6 deaths per 1,000 births in developed countries.
In fact, more than 20% of children born in Chad died by age five. Based on these conditions and other
similar statistics, the United Nations ranked Chad 167 out of 174 counties in terms of development.
Chad's total population is relatively small in relation to its large area and is mainly concentrated in the
southern half of the country.. There is no accurate estimate of the number of deaths during the three
decades of civil violence.
Chad erupted in a civil war, with rebel groups in the north fighting against the government in the south.
Conflict raged through most of the 1960s and 1970s, and escalated through the 1980s. According to a
government study, over 20,000 people were killed and thousands more were tortured during this period

Natural resources and the environment
An arid country with large oil reserves
Chad is split between the arid, sparsely populated north and the economically more active south. In the
east cattle-herding and other forms of nomadic pastoralism is common, as well as smuggling with Sudan.
In the south at least 1m people derive direct or indirect cash earnings from cotton cultivation, and an
embryonic middle class has emerged. More than 10% of the total population lives in and around
N'Djamena, which is the main economic centre and transport hub in an otherwise poorly integrated
national economy.
Economy: Economic structure.
Agriculture dominates the economy
Main economic indicators, 1999
Real GDP growth (%) 0.3
Consumer price inflation (av; %) -8.0
Current-account balance (US$ m) -392
Exchange rate(av; CFAfr:US$) 615.7
Total external debt (US$ bn) 1.1
Chad is one of the poorest countries in the world. Economic growth has been hampered by a
combination of minimal infrastructure in a landlocked and largely desert/Sahelian country, limited
natural resources, and poor administration, all compounded by political-military conflicts over much of
the 40 years since independence. Subsistent rain-fed agriculture has traditionally dominated the
economy while industry has been confined to the close surroundings of N'Djamena.

Economic policy
An economic strategy emerges
For most of the post-independence period, there has been little recognisable economic strategy. From
the 1960s to the 1980s, government administration consisted of crisis management and financial pillage,
as recurring factional conflicts bred a state of near anarchy. Attempts to stabilise policy seldom had
much effect in the vast hinterland of the centre and the north. In the still disaffected south the state's
grip has also often been tenuous.

Economic performance
Economic growth is back on track
Chad has made solid economic growth since the devaluation of the CFA franc in 1994. The devaluation,
and the essential aid and concessional loans which accompanied it, stimulated the economy, providing
incentives to rural growers to replace food imports and produce cash crops for export. Favourable
weather conditions have also been a contributory factor. Cotton output, in particular, benefited greatly
in 1994-98 from good rains added to improved support services for farmers. With the stabilisation of the
financial situation and improvement in revenue, the crisis situation of the early 1990s-when public
service wages and salaries were often several months in arrears (with attendant trade union problems)-
has ended.



Capital flows and foreign debt
Aid dependency is set to continue
Public aid and foreign investment came largely from international development institutions such as the
World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the war had significantly reduced overall
investment. To offset the persistent current-account deficit, Chad has relied on a combination of
concessional debt inflows on the capital account and aid inflows below the line. Until recently, foreign
investment in Chad was negligible and it has remained so far limited to the oil and cotton sectors. From
the mid-1980s to the end of the decade, official development assistance from OECD and OPEC countries
and multilateral institutions has been on a broadly rising trend. It then eased back a little, but
multilateral funding recovered strongly following the currency devaluation in 1994. Despite improved
performance by agriculture and the prospect of petroleum revenue, it is likely that Chad will remain
dependent on external aid for the foreseeable future.

Plitical and Legal system
Unsecured people with sloth legal system
State security forces continue to commit extrajudicial killings, and they torture, beat, abuse and rape
persons. Prison conditions remain harsh and life threatening. Security forces continue to use arbitrary
arrest and detention. Although the Government detains and imprisonsit rarely prosecutes. Many years
of political instability severely hampered Chads economic development. Since Dby seized power,
output levels had declined, the government had consistently run budget deficits, and the external debt had
more than doubled.

2. Economy Analysis (Cameroon):
Business cycle reflects movements in economic activity as a whole, which is comprised of much diverse
part. The diversity of the parts ensures that business cycle is virtually unique, with no two parts identical.
However, cycle does have a common framework, with a beginning, a peak and an ending. Thus economic
activity starts in depressed conditions builds up in the expansionary phase, and ends in a downturn, only
to start again.

The economy
Economic growth is back on track with huge corruption
Cameroon gained its independence from France in 1960. The country developed its oil resources and
agricultural sector, but a severe drop in commodity prices in the mid-1980 threw the country into a
decade-long recession. Despite the improvement and favorable relative position vis--vis other African
countries, Cameroon was still a very poor nation, ranking 134 out of 174 countries on the UN
Development Index and 99 out of 99 countries in terms of corruption according to Transparency
International, a non-governmental organization (NGO). Gross domestic product (GDP) fell by more than
60% from 1986 to 1994. The economy responded favorably and grew at an average rate of 5% per year
during mid to late 1990s.

Economic policy
An economic strategy emerges to alleviate poverty
The government, with support from IMF and the World Bank, implemented several reform programs in
an effort to improve accelerate growth and alleviate poverty.


Capital flows and foreign debt
Aid dependency is set to continue like Chad
Until recently, foreign investment in Cameroon was negligible. Official development assistance from
OECD and OPEC countries and multilateral institutions has been on a broadly rising trend. It then eased
back a little. Despite improved performance by agriculture and the prospect of petroleum revenue, it is
likely that Cameroon will remain dependent on external aid for the foreseeable future.

Plitical and Legal system
Human rights are neglected and people are oppressed
In addition, activists criticized President Biyas administration for its human rights record. Amnesty
International reported: Large numbers of people were extrajudicially executed in the north of the country.
Torture and ill treatment by the security forces remained routine, and prison conditions amounted to cruel,
inhuman and degrading treatment, resulting in high mortality rate. Critics of the governmentwere
harassed, arrested and imprisoned. Thirty-six were convicted after an unfair trial before a military
tribunal.