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# Control Valve (CVAL)

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The control valve calculates the flow rate through the valve based on the output signal it receives from a
controller. The control valve was originally intended to be used in dynamic flowsheets with a PID Controller.
It is possible to use the CVAL in steady state flowsheets to calculate flow as a function of position (or vice
versa).
The control valve can handle compressible and incompressible flow as well as critical and sub-critical flow.
The control valve calculates the following variables at each time step:
In Fix valve position, adjust flowrate mode, the flow rate of the inlet and outlet streams will be reset to the
calculated flow through the control valve.
The output from a linked controller is used by the control valve to determine the steady state valve position.
The steady state valve position is how far open (in percentages) the valve is at any point in time. The valve
position, U, is determined using the following equation:

where
Tv = Valve time constant; default = 0
U = Valve position (in fractions); must be between 0 and 1
P = Controller output signal in milliamps
Av, Bv = Valve constants; defaults: Av = 0.0625 and Bv = 0.25.
Normally the controller output, P, is between 4 and 20 milliamperes. Controller output range can be
specified in the PIDC dialog.
The valve position, U, varies between 0 and 1.0
The valve position is related to the valve flowrate by the following equations.
For subcritical non-compressible flow:

where
R = Rangeability (ratio of maximum to minimum controllable flow)
U = valve position (as percentage)
Q = calculated flowrate from Cv, Sg, DeltaP (see the equations below, in Calculated Flow through
Valves)
Valve Specifications Tab
Valve geometry
Valve flow coefficient
This is the valve C
v
. This field must be populated.

If you do not know a good value for C
v
, you can select Sizing > Control valve to calculate a value of C
v
for
a flowsheet stream.
The following formula defines the flow coefficient:

Rangeability
Rangeability is the ratio of the maximum to minimum controllable flow. This value is most important for equal
percentage valves because the relationship of R to U is non-linear. The default is 10. Newer control valves
may have higher values (values of 25 50 are not uncommon).
Critical flow factor
The valve position
The flow through the valve
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The critical flow factor, Cf, is used to determine if the flow through the valve is above or below critical
velocity.
The default value for Cf in CHEMCAD is 0.98.
If flow is subcritical, the valve position determines the flow. If critical flow conditions exist, then flow through
the valve comes from the calculated critical flowrate.
Valve type
Choose from equal percentage, linear, or user-specified valves.
Linear valves relate the actual valve flow to the capacity valve flow as shown:

Equal percentage valves relate actual flow to capacity flow as shown:

User-specified valve curves will be entered in the Control Valve Curve dialog box as datapoints of stroke
(valve position) versus capacity. This dialog box appears when you click OK at the bottom of the main
Control Valve dialog box.
where
Q = Flow, US gpm for liquids; SCFH for gases
Cv = Valve flow coefficient
Cf = Critical flow factor
P1 = Inlet pressure in psia
Pc = Critical pressure of the fluid
G = Specific gravity of fluid; liquids refer to water at standard conditions; gases refer to air at
standard conditions
T = Flow temperature, R
Operating mode
Critical flowrate, pressure drop, and valve position are coupled variables. Specify which variables should be
considered as specifications. Note that entering a PID Controller or changing the Valve Operation (second
page of the dialog) may override this setting.
Valve position %
The valve position ranges from 0 (closed) to 100 (fully open). If the valve is controlled by a controller, the
value is determined by the controller signal. If no controller is specified, the valve is assumed to be manual
and the user must enter a value here. Units are percentages.
Minimum position %
Optional. Enter a minimum valve position. The CVAL will not close further than this position, regardless of
signal sent to the valve. In practice, some valves have minimum positions to prevent damage to the valve.
Fix flowrate, adjust valve position This mode allows valve position to be calculated, based on flow
rate through the valve. Unless a downstream pressure is
specified (or detected from a downstream UnitOp) the valve
may have difficulty converging. This mode will not be used if
you specify a PID controller for the valve.
Fix valve position, adjust flowrate In this mode, the valve position can be set by the signal from a
PID controller. The valve position is used to calculate a critical
flow rate through the valve. The flow rate entering the valve is
adjusted to match the calculated flow rate. This mode is meant
to be used when the stream entering the valve comes from a
Feed arrow, to avoid mass balance issues. It is not required to
use a PID controller with this mode.
Fix
flow
and
position,
calculate
Pout
Valve position and flow rate are used as specification. The
pressure drop will be calculated as a function of flow rate. Be
careful that you do not specify a flow rate which exceeds critical
flow through the valve at given position. This mode will not be
used if you specify a PID controller for the valve.
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Maximum position %
Optional. Enter a maximum valve position. The CVAL will not open further than this position, regardless of
signal sent to the valve. In practice, some valves have maximum positions to prevent damage to the valve.
Controller ID
Enter the equipment ID number of the controller (PIDC) which controls this valve.
If an elevation change is to be included in the flow calculation, enter this value in this field. The elevation
change will affect the available pressure drop across the valve, and therefore it will affect the flow rate as
well.
Supply pressure
Enter the control valve supply pressure. If not specified, the pressure of the inlet stream will be used.
Downstream pressure
The control valve downstream pressure can be specified here. If downstream pressure is not specified, the
output pressure of the valve will be determined by the pressure of the downstream unit operation which is
specified in the field labeled Destination ID. A control valve used for the utility stream on a Batch Reactor
can take the downstream pressure from the jacket pressure of the Batch Reactor..
If downstream ! not specified
Destination ID
If the downstream pressure is not specified, the output pressure of the valve will be determined by the
pressure of the downstream unit operation specified in this field.
Variable
Identify the downstream variable which contains the pressure. If the downstream(s) is going to a batch
reactor, it will be necessary to identify which batch reactor pressure (jacket, coil, or process) is to be used.
Select the appropriate pressure from this list.
"orce forward flow only
Check this box to prevent backward flow from occurring through this valve. On hydraulic balance flowsheet
(using the NODE unit), backwards flow through a valve is a possible solution. The stream results show a
negative flow rate through the valve, if there is backwards flow.
!ase model
Pressure drop calculations for two phase flow are different than calculations for single phase flow. Pressure
drop calculations for compressible flow are different than those for noncompressible (liquid) flow. At very
high or very low vapor fractions, there is occasionally a discrepancy between the pressure drop models. It is
possible to force CHEMCAD to use a single phase pressure drop model. This will generally increase the
speed of calculations. This can be a significant benefit on hydraulic balance (NODE unit) flowsheets.
Calculated Results
Calc# flow rate
The value displayed in this field is the current instantaneous flow rate through the valve, expressed in lb/h..
Controller output
This is the value currently being received from the controller.
This is the steady state valve position determined from the steady state controller output, Po. (See the "PID
Controller Field Descriptions".)
Selected by program In this mode, CHEMCAD will calculate pressure drop using single or two
phase models, determined by the vapor fraction of the inlet and outlet.
Non-flashing liquid In this override mode, CHEMCAD will use single phase (liquid) methods to
calculate pressure drop through the cval. The inlet or outlet may contain
vapor; the calculation method will not reflect the effect of vapor.
All vapor In this override mode, CHEMCAD will use single phase (vapor) methods to
calculate pressure drop through the cval. If the inlet vapor fraction is less than
0.98, CHEMCAD will ignore this selection and use
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Controller output SS
This is the output signal from the controller at steady state. CHEMCAD calculates this at the initial valve
position, assumed to be closed.
Controller Specifications Tab
Valve \$ime Constant
The time constant, Tv, is used in the time position calculation below:

Tv must be positive; therefore, the term tends to slow down the valve response to the controller
signal. The larger the value of this term, the more it slows down the response.
Valve Av and Bv
These are the Av and Bv terms in the control valve position equation above. The default valve equation is
for a fail closed valve. In the default condition, the controller output is assumed to be between 4 and 20
milliamps and the term . Since at the minimum position, the valve is closed and U = 0 and
at the maximum position the valve is fully open and U = l, then the defaults are determined as:
0 = Av * 4 + Bv
1 = Av * 20 + Bv
therefore
Av = 0.0625
Bv = 0.25
For a fail open valve, solve for U=U(Av,Bv). A fail open valve has Av = -0.0625 Bv= 1.25
%ias
Enter the controller output bias. The actual input to the valve equation will be {signal from controller} + {bias}
Valve operation
These modes are useful for dynamic flowsheets used as part of a training simulator. The CVAL should be
linked to a PIDC controller and / or in mode fix valve position, adjust flow rate if you intend to change this
setting. This mode is most useful if dynamic flowsheet convergence is set to allow dynamic editing anytime
and / or in OTS mode.
Optional mass flowrate transfer
These fields can be used to pass the control valve flow rate into another unit operation variable. This is
particularly useful if the CVAL follows a divider unit. The CVAL can be in mode Fix valve position adjust flow
rate and send the calculated flow rate backwards to the divider. This allows mass balance to be maintained.
&'uip# ID
Specify the unit operation ID number of the UnitOp into which the flow rate passes.
Variable
Specify the variable number of the parameter into which the flow rate passes.
Normal The valve operates normally, per specifications.
Power failure Simulated power failure to the valve actuator. The valve
position cannot change, regardless of controller output signal.
Manually close The valve position will be 0 (full closed), regardless of
controller output signal.
Manually open The valve position will be 100% (full open), regardless of
controller output signal.
Manually set valve position The user specified valve position will be used, regardless of
controller output signal.
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Calculation of Flow Rate through Control Valve
Cec( for Critical flow
The Cf is used to determine if flow through the valve is critical or subcritical.
The base flow rate is calculated, depending on phase of the material and whether flow is critical or
subcritical.
"or Subcritical Compressible "low of )i'uids*

"or subcritical Compressible "low of Vapors*

"or Critical Compressible "low of )i'uids*

"or Critical Compressible "low of Vapors*

"or Critical +on,Compressible "low

Calculation of flow rate troug valves*

"or critical compressible flow of li'uids*

where
R = Rangeability (ratio of maximum to minimum controllable flow)
Cv = Valve flow coefficient
SGf = Specific gravity of flowing fluid
= Pressure drop across the valve
U = valve position (as percentage)
Cf = Critical flow factor, supplied by the user; default = 0.98
Pv = Vapor pressure of liquid at flowing temperature
Pc = Thermodynamic critical pressure of fluid
P1 = Upstream pressure
P2 = downstream pressure

Topology
A control valve has one input and up to two outlets. If two outlets are present, the first outlet is vapor and the
Page 5 of 6 Control Valve (CVAL)