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COURSE TITLE/CODE:

BASIC ELECTRONICS
COURSE CODE/PIP 008

Experiment 1

Title:
Physical Identification Of A PN-Junction Diode
And Test Of Its Functionality.

Objective: At the end of the experiment the student should be able to identify pn-
junction diode physically and test for its functionality.

Background Theory: The pn-junction diode is formed by growing one crystal, (it
must be continous) of semiconductor, material and doping separate but adjacent layers of it
with the appropriate impurities. At equilibrium, a depletion layer is formed at the junction
that is void (depleted) of loosely held charge carriers. When conducting leads are attached to
a pn-junction, the device exhibits a useful characteristics and is called a PN-junction diode.

Apparatus:
1. Multi-meter
2. Semiconductor diode type IN4007.



Diagram:











Procedure:

Identifying the PN-junction diode physically
P N
P N
P N
+ + + - + - - -
+ + + - + - - -
+ + + - + - - -
1. The Semiconductor diode IN4007 looks cylindrical in shape
2. Identify the cathode by locating the end with a white stripe around it as shown in the
diagram
3. The other end with no white stripe is the anode
Test of Functionality using a multi-meter
1. Switch on the multimeter
2. Select the semiconductor test mode on the digital multimeter
3. Connect the red probe to the anode as earlier identified.
4. Connect the black probe to the cathode
5. Observe what happens
6. Connect the black probe to the anode
7. Connect the red probe to the cathode
8. Observe what happens


Results:
Resistance reading
Forward bias
Reverse bias



Experiment 2

Title:
Operation Of Zener Diode As Voltage
Regulator

Objective: At the end of the experiment the student should be able to understand
regulation in power supplies and measurements in linear voltage regulators.

Background Information: The zener diode is the basic component in
regulation circuits. The zener diode is a diode operated in the reverse breakdown region. It is
made from a heavily doped PN junction and reverse breakdown voltage or zener voltage is
specified by the manufacturer.

Apparatus: TPS 3321, Multimeters, Banana wires.

Procdure:
1. Implement the circuit as shown above
2. Turn the trainer
3. Change Vi and fill the following table




Diagram:











Results:

t 1 2 3 4
V
i
7V 8V 9V 10V
V
o
4.33 4.42 4.49 4.52
V
i

V
o

S
v

V
i
V
o

1 K IN4001
Meter 1
Meter 2

Exercises:
V
o
(t) = V
o
(t+1) V
o
(t)
V
i
(t) = V
i
(t+1) V
i
(t)
Plot graph of V
i
against V
o

Calculate the regulation coefficient for each column
S
v
= V
o
/ V
in

Determine the zener voltage
State your observations
Draw your conclusions








































Experiment 3

Title:
Determination Of Transistor (NPN)
Characteristic Curve

Objective: At the end of the experiment the student should be able to measure and
draw the output characteristic curve of an NPN transistor.

Background Information: Bipolar junction transistors have base (B), an
emitter (E) and a collector (C) as its electrodes. However, when the transistor is connected
such that the emitter is common to the base-emitter side and the collector-emitter output side,
then the configuration is said to be common emitter configuration. The output or collector
characteristics plots of the output current (I
c
) versus output voltage (V
ce
) for fixed values of
input current, I
b
.

Apparatus: TPS 3321and multimeter.

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown above.
2. Output characteristics
3. Adjust the input resistance R1 and R2 until Ib = 0A initially.
4. Turn R3 to increase Vce in steps of 1V, starting from 0V to 10V, measure and record
corresponding values of Ic using table1.
5. Follow the procedure in step 1 and set Ib =20A to 80A for each fixed value of Ib,
repeat step 2 and complete the table.
Diagram:



A
V
ce

A
R
1
100K
R
2
1M
5V
I
b

0 100mA
0 30mA
I
c

R
3
100
10V
Results:
Table 1

Ib(A) 0 20 40 60
Vce(V)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Experiment 4

Title:
Output Characteristics Of A Common Source
Fet

Objective: At the end of the experiment the student should be able to understand the
operation of a field effect transistor and draw its output characteristics.

Background Information: The field effect transistor is a three terminal
unipolar device, the FET is a voltage controlled device used in digital and analogue circuits
for control and switching. It has three terminals, the Gate, the Drain and the Source. A plot of
the drain current against the gate source voltage yields the output characteristics.

Apparatus: TPS 3321, Voltmeters and Ammeters.

Procedure:
1. Connect the TPS 3321 trainer to the power supply and the power supply to the mains.
2. Implement the diagram shown above
3. Turn on power supply
4. Change V
GG
according to the following table and register the measured values of V
GS
,
V
D
and V
S



Diagram:



Results:


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
V
GG

V
G

5.1 K
1 K
1 M
+ 12V
V
GG
(V)

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 .5 0 -0.5 - 1 - 1.5 - 2
V
G
(V)
V
D
(V)
V
S
(V)
V
GS
(V)
I
D
(mA)
I
S
(mA)
V
DS
(V)

Exercises:

Calculate V
GS
for every V
GG
value according to the following formulae:
V
G
= V
GG

V
GS
= V
G
- V
S

I
D
= (V
DD
V
D
)/ R
D
V
GS
, = V
S
/R
S

Calculate V
PO
and I
DSS
of the component.
Plot I
D
against V
GS.