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An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Technical Session-09

Traditional Medicine
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Quality control and standardisation of traditional
medicine/herbal drugs
M.J. Nanjan
Director, TIFAC CORE HD, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund-643001
e-mail : mjnanjan@hotmail.com
Traditional medicine may be defined as diverse health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs
incorporating plant, animal and/or mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises
applied singularly or in combination to maintain the well being as well as to treat, diagnose or prevent
illness. Herbal drugs, on the other hand, may be defined as finished, labeled medicinal products that contain
as active ingredients, aerial or underground parts of plants or other plant material, or combination thereof,
whether in the crude state or as plant preparations. Plant material includes juices, gums, fatty acids, essential
oils or any other substances of this nature. Herbal medicines may also contain excipients in addition to active
ingredients. But the problem with Traditional medicine/Herbal dugs is that the method of their action is not
understood in terms of modern science. They often consist of mixtures of different substances. It is difficult,
therefore, to subject them to modern scientific methods of analysis or to meet the regulatory and approval
mechanisms designed for single molecules of modern medicine.
It is estimated that the world market for traditional medicine and herbal drugs is $ 62 billion and this market
is growing at a rate of 20% per annum. Further, WHO has forecasted a global market of $ 5 trillion by the
year 2050. India has one of the 12 mega biodiversities in the world with an estimated 47 thousand plant
species. India, therefore, has a tremendous potential to become a world leader in Traditional medicine/Herbal
drugs. Unfortunately, our share is only about 2% of the global market, in spite of the hub of our traditional
medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, etc. This is because our products are not backed by rigorous scientific
studies to establish their quality, safety, efficacy and standards.
What is quality of traditional medicine/herbal drugs and how do you assess it? In the Indian context, quality
seems to mean different thing to different people. Some equate quality with efficacy and potency. Others
focus on the relationship between quality and safety and still others focus on the marker content. Generally,
the consensus on herbal drugs has been focused on the issue of marker content. The over emphasis on marker
content, however, has been a boon for unethical businessmen. Potency and efficacy are two different aspects.
Efficacy is a qualitative term defined as the power to produce an effect whereas potency is a quantitative
term defined as the amount of the active ingredient or drug required to produce a therapeutic effect. If
chemical assays are used to measure potency, a product may be extremely potent but fail to be efficacious
if a sub therapeutic dosage schedule is used, if it is not bioavailable, if it is neutralized by the other
substances in the body and if the patients constitution significantly differs from that an average person
(genetic, environmental and idiosyncratic factors). The presence the predetermined amount of marker(s)
compound(s) does not guarantee the potency of the product. Potency requires biological assessment of a
product and cannot be determined solely by marker or active compound measurements.
There was a time when life was simple for both pharmacist and physician. When a drug was drug and plant
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
was a plant. This changed in 1994 when the US Congress proposed the Dietary Supplement Health and
Education Act (DSHEA) wherein they brought the idea of standardization of herbal products. Standardization
of herbal products is believed to guarantee therapeutically effective doses of stable, active principles that
maintain consistency from batch to batch. Translating this concept to herbal drugs is not as simple as it may
appear because the content of botanical preparations depend on growing conditions, climate, soil quality,
time of harvest, drying, powdering, extraction, stabilization, etc.
The single most important factor which is standing in way of Indian Traditional Medicine/Herbal Drugs
being widely accepted, especially in developed countries is the non availability or inadequacy of standards
to check the quality of our products. Traditional people/Herbalists believe standardization is chemicalization
or pharmaceuticalization . They say should nature be standardized and should we not allow nature to continue
its role herself.But then, standardization seems to be a complex and controversial subject. For some it means
manufacturing a product to contain the specific amount of the herb in a dosage unit, for others it means
manufacturing a product to contain a certain marker compound(s) to a specified level. For still others, it is
consistent manufacturing product. Scientific validation should be the key to standardization. The product
should be therapeutically effective as claimed. Toxicological studies should have been done on the product
to check its safety and the product should be free from harmful contaminants like, heavy metals, microbials,
pesticides, etc. The key to achieve this is to,
Carry out well designed, randomized and double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials on humans
To determine the activity of the product by pharmacological and clinical method and then to prepare a
qualitative and quantitative chemical profile of the all significant chemical constituents by HPLC/GC-MS
and other methods to established phyto equivalence
To establish the dosage form composition by carefully selecting the excipients and other diluents and
To establish the bioavailability of at least the major constituents
According to WHO standardization refers to the whole body of information and controls required to produce
a formulation of reasonable consistency. This is achieved through minimizing the inherent variation in the
composition of the natural products through quality assurance practices applied to medicinal plant growing,
extraction and formulation development.
Standardization can serve a number of purposes including batch to batch consistency, correct amount of the
extract/marker per dosage unit and positive control to indicate the possible loss or degradation during
manufacturing. Standardizing Traditional/ Herbal products is challenging because every step, right from
botanical identity, botanical purity, assessing potency and designate markers and availability of reference
materials, is crucial.
Whether in the future highly active, safe and causality based traditional medicine/herbal drug will be able
to replace modern drugs depends on the level of evidence-based therapeutic efficacy is achieved for herbal
drugs. It will also be necessary to find scientific rationale for the fact that many herbal drugs usually when
applied in low doses exhibit no immediate pharmacological or therapeutic effect, but achieve their optimal
efficacy only after long term treatment.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
As traditional medicines/herbal drugs continue to increase slowly their popularity, it has become vital to
educate medical and scientific establishments and show that there are some features which are unique to this
medicine which contribute to, both efficacy and safety. One of this is the concept of synergy in that a plant
extract is more than sum of its parts. Further research is required to prove that synergy is a true phenomenon
to be appreciated and utilized for therapeutic benefits. We must also consider what the drug law stipulates
in terms of guaranteeing the quality, safety and effectiveness of traditional medicine/herbal drugs. These may
differ from country to country, but a global consensus exists at least on a couple of points, namely;

Traditional/Herbal drugs must become safer and more effective

Their use in treatment must be rationalized scientifically
We give the respect due to our traditional medicine/herbal drugs, as the real strength of traditional medicine
lies in its basic philosophical considerations based on thousands of years of observations and experience. But
then there cannot be two kinds of medicine, modern and traditional. There can be only one kind of medicine,
medicine that has been adequately tested and medicine that has not; medicine that works and medicine that
does not. It is time that traditional medicine/herbal drugs is subjected to same rigorous testing long applied
to modern medicine. For this to happen people from traditional medicine/herbal drugs, modern medicine and
modern science should come together and work.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Medicinal value of under exploited fruits in Tripura
Sukhen Chandra Das
, Jai Prakash
and A.K. Deb
College of Agriculture, Assistant Professor (Horticulture), Lembucherra, Tripura (West)-799210, India
Scientist, SS, Division of Fruits & Horticulture Technology, IARI, Pusa, New Delhi-110012, India
Medicinal plants Board of Tripura, Forest Research Division, Gandhi gram, Agartala-12, India
e-mail : sukhenchandra@rediffmail.com
The state is covered by picturesque hills and dales, deep and green valleys which have added beauty to its
landscape. The diverse agro-climatic condition, fertile and acidic soil with good depth and abundance rainfall
favour the cultivation of different under exploited fruits namely, Elephant Apple (Dillenia indica), Sat Kara
(Citrus hystrix), Tal (Borassus flabellifer), Mankey jack (Artocarpus lakoocha), Chamal (Artocarpus
chaplasha), Jalpai (Elaeocarpus floribundus), Khajoor (Phoenix humilis), Jambura (Citrus grandis), Ban
gayam (Pisidium guineense), Bilimbi (Averrhoea bilimbi), Star Aonla (Phyllanthus acidus), Jack fruit
(Artocarpus heterophyllus), Latka (Baccauea sapida), Paniala (Flacourtia jangomas), Bael (Aegle marmelos),
Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Karonda (Carissa carandas), Amra (Spondias pinnata), Passion fruit (Passiflora
edulis), Annona sp, Aonla (Emblica officinalis), Wood apple (Feronia limonia), Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana),
Carambola (Averrhoa carambola), Fig (Ficus carica), Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and others fruits are
Jamrul and Bhali Jamun are endowed with medicinal values and are helpful in curing of number of ailments
with ease. These fruits are not yet totally exploited and systematic cultivation of these fruits are awareness
about the importance is the immediate need. These crops are hardy in nature and can grow even under fallow
and marginal lands and playing a vital role in nutrition for tribal masses and income generation. Apart from
nutritive value, these fruits are important for medicinal properties and famous for the retentive value in
Ayurvedic medicine. This paper would focus the under exploited fruits and their utility in tribals and other
peoples of State.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Sustainable use and traditional knowledge on medicinal plants
among Gond and Halba tribes of Kanker District, Chhattisgarh
R.N. Pati
Consultant, UNDP Project, C.G. State Medicinal Plants Board, Jail Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
e-mail : drpati54@gmail.com
The conservation of natural resources is closely linked with matrix of local knowledge on medicinal plants
and natural resources upheld by forest dwelling communities since time immemorial. There is an urgent need
to revive local health tradition and community based sustainable use and conservation strategies. It is becoming
increasingly essential in framing the strategies and actions for conservation of natural resources. This
component constitutes an integral component of local health tradition which is profoundly interrelated with
community based protocol of conservation of natural resources. The piece of research attempts to generate
data from forest dwelling tribes of Kanker district Chhattisgarh unfold in different dimensions of sustainable
use of medicinal plants, verifying the sources of medicinal plants used and determining the relative importance
of these plant species surveyed. This piece of empirical exercise also attempts to estimate the stakeholders
consensus factor relating to sustainable use of medicinal plants. The investigators of this study have adopted
semistructured schedules, qualitative tools like focus group discussion, key informant interview and rapid
biodiversity appraisal for collecting relevant information on use, conservation and regeneration of specific
plant species in the habitats. The study has validated that the forest dwelling tribal communities of Kanker
Forest Regions of Chhattisgarh use common medicinal plant species for treatment of skin diseases where as
they use different plants species to treat respiratory and digestive disorders. Well over 80% of medicinal
plants are collected from wild. The scarcity of rare and endangered medicinal plants occurred due to over
harvesting and premature exploitation has encouraged a section of enterprising herbalists to promote medicinal
plant gardens and cultivate these species in private farms. This piece of research has identified a wide
number of gaps and deficiencies in ongoing programmes and suggested appropriate remedial measures.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Health care Role of kayakalpam drugs in siddha medicine
R.S. Ramaswamy
Professor & Head, Department of Sirappu Maruthuvam,
National Institute of Siddha, Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
Govt. of India, Chennai- 47, India
e-mail : dr.rsramaswamy@gmail.com
Kayakalpam is a unique part of Siddha system of medicine. Kayam means the body and Kalpam means
stone-like i.e. preservation of our body like a stone which does not wither away long. In Siddha system of
medicine Kayakalpam (or Kayakarpam) plays an important role in the health care of an individual. There are
two divisions in Kayakalpam (i) Karpa avizhtham (drugs) and (ii) Karpayogam (Yogam techniques).
This paper deals with important herbal Siddha drugs which act as Kalpa avizhtham. Karpa avizhtham is
classified into Pothu Karpam (preventive) and Sirappu Karpam (curative). Pothu Karpam forms the group
of drugs which can prevent or postpone signs of aging like Narai (graying of hair), Thirai (wrinkling of skin),
Pini (disease), Mooppu (ripening of body due to old age) and Sakkadu (death). Sirappu Karpam forms the
group of drugs which cures diseases causing damage to our body and mind and thereby reducing the lifespan.
This paper also describes the causes and mechanism which produce the signs of aging and the role of karpa
avizhtham in fighting against the process of aging.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Ethnopharmacological assessment of medicinal plants : A case
study of Bhatwa medicinal plant conservation area of Chhattisgarh
S.C. Agrawal
Chief Executive Officer, C.G. State Medicinal Plants Board, Jail Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
e-mail : cgvanoushadhiboard@yahoo.co.in
Traditional knowledge on Medicinal Plants has been preserved by forest dwelling communities in Chhattisgarh
for generations. This unique traditional knowledge protected within local health tradition reserves valuable
inputs that can shed light on eco system change and conservation of forest resources. There is an urgent need
to assess the validity and accuracy of traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. The scientific research and
documentation of traditional knowledge is essential to ensure meaningful interrelationship between science
and traditional knowledge and how they complement to one another. The present study has been conducted
among forest dwelling tribal communities in two surrounding villages of Bhatwa MPCA of Southern Kondagaon
Forest Range of Chhattisgarh. These villagers are highly dependant on natural resources for their survival
and livelihood. The rapid infrastructural development after formulation of the state has brought about radical
changes in the traditional lifestyle of these forest dwelling communities. The industrialization and urban rural
interaction through seasonal outmigration of forest dwelling communities to cities of neighboring states have
damaged the base of traditional knowledge and local health tradition. This has multiplied biopiracy. The
study has indicated that the traditional knowledge on medicinal plants is unevenly spread and held by
individuals rather than the community as a whole. The traditional knowledge on medicinal plants is upheld
by few selected healers of the community who add value to the science by providing detail insights into the
ultimate cause of change and by contributing a rare historical perspective. The present piece of research
examines critically different sensitive areas where local knowledge on medicinal plants can effectively
contribute to the scientific contribution of botanists and biotechnologists. The participatory team work of
traditional knowledge holders and modern scientists would certainly contribute towards evolving mechanism
and strategies for sustainable use, conservation and regeneration of medicinal plants.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Medicinal plants and traditional health care knowledge of Tripuri,
Reang, Jamatia, Lusai, Halam, Mog, Chakma and others Tribes of
Tripura, India
Sukhen Chandra Das
, A.K. Deb
and T. Prabhu
College of Agriculture, Assistant professor (Horticulture), Lembucherra, Tripura (west)-799210, India
Medicinal plants Board of Tripura, Forest Research Division, Gandhi gram, Agartala-12, India
Horticulture College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbature-03, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail : sukhenchandra@rediffmail.com
Systematic surveys of Medicinal plants and other ethnobotanical species was carried out in the remote Tribal
area of Tripura state, India, by group discussions, personal interview with different group of tribes. To
examine the distribution of traditional knowledge of local plant species across the tribal area, the knowledge
was categorized and assessed at different levels- Plant identification and their uses are described. Among the
medicinal plant species, Abroma angusta, Achyranthus aspera, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda Zeylanica, Ageratum
conizoides, Aegle marmelos, Aloe barbadensis, Amaranthus spinosus, Alpinia galangal, Amorphophallus
muelleri, Andrographis paniculata, Anthocephalus cadamba, Argemone mexicana, Aquilaria agallocha,
Asteracantha Longifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Averrhoa carambola, Azadirachta indica, Bauhinia racemosa,
Bacopa monnieri, Boerhaavia diffusa, Bombax ceiba, Byayphlium calycinum, Catharanthus roseus, Clitoria
ternatea, Colocasia esculanta, Costus speciosus, Crataeva nurvala, Centella asiatica, Coccimia indica,
Cissus quadrangularis, Cajanus cajan, Cleome viscose, Datura stamonium, Dillenia indica, Dioscorea (D.
alata, D.Bulbifera, D. esculenta and D. hamiltonia), Eclipta prostrate, Emilia sonchifolia, Enhydra fluctuans,
Eryngium foetidum, Heliotropium indicum, Heliotrapium indcum, Lawsonia inemis, Leucas aspera, Mucuna
pruirens, Ocimum sanctum, Piper longum, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus emblica, Rauvolfia serpentine,
Suscata reflexa, Sida cordifolia, Solanum spp., Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula,
Tarminalia bellirica, Withania somnifera, Mentha arvensis, Vitex negundo and others medicinal plants available.
The tribal peoples of state are familiar with the medicinal properties of available medicinal plants and used
for common ailments. This paper would focus the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and their
usefulness in tribals area of state.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Ethnopharmacological investigations at Tropical Botanic Garden
and Research Institute
P.G. Latha
Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology Division, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute,
Palode, Thiruvananthapurm-695562, Kerala
e-mail : plathagopalakrishnan@gmail.com
The great civilizations of the world have assiduously preserved and promoted their knowledge of medicinal
plants. Indian traditional medicine has relied heavily on medicinal plants and developed significant expertise
in compounding them to medicinal preparations. While the wisdom of indigenous knowledge is not in doubt,
Indian systems of medicine need to adopt globally accepted methods of codification, validation and
standardization to place Indian herbal medicine on a globally competitive footing like its Chinese counterpart.
At TBGRI, the Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology Division is routinely engaged in the scientific validation
of the important ethnomedicinal plants of Kerala since 1992.
My lecture will focus on the salient findings of the ethnopharmacological investigations at TBGRI.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Phyto-remedies and their uses in the folk medical systems for
primary health care
S. Rajan
Survey of Medicinal Plants & Collection Unit, Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy
Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India,
Indira Nagar, Emerald-643 209, The Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail : srajan68@rediffmail.com / srajan68@gmail.com
The traditional medical systems have made visible entry into our society. Natural products of plant origin are
still known to play a vital role in the native medical system worldwide. In recent times, a great deal of
interest in the revitalization of herbal drugs is in rapid rise as alternative sources of drugs for many refractory
diseases. In this context, the present work on Nilgiri tribes assumes greater significance than one can
This research deals with a brief account of plant remedies used by the Nilgiri ethnic groups in the treatment
of the sick. We have undertaken the field surveys in different tribal settlements located in the Nilgiris as
shown in the map. This article describes the analysis, approaches (methodology) used in recovering local
knowledge of medical practices and cross-cultural studies of plant cures for treating various ailments by
them. The usefulness of the local knowledge of the ethnic groups concerning plant drugs for the promotion
of the health care and ethnopharmcolgical research is discussed.
The Nilgiri district, a part of Western Ghats is a fruitful place for medico-ethnobotanical and anthropological
research. It is rich in diversified flora and fauna of good remedial value. There are six anthropologically
significant ethnic groups living in this region since 1200 B.C. They are Todas, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas,
Paniyas and Kattunayakas.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal people
in Tamil Nadu, India
M. Ayyanar
, S. Ignacimuthu
and T. Sekar
Division of Biodiversity and Biotechnology, Department of Botany, Pachaiyappas College,
Chennai - 600030, Tamil Nadu, India
Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600 034,
Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail : asmayyanar@yahoo.com
Medicinal plants continue to be an important therapeutic aid for alleviating ailments of humankind. According
to the World Health Organization, over 80% of the worlds populations rely upon such traditional plant-based
systems of medicine to provide them with primary healthcare. India, with its diverse agro-climatic conditions
and regional topography, is recognized as one of the worlds top 12 mega diversity countries of the world.
In Tamil Nadu (southern most state in India), most of the tribal communities are inhabiting the Nilgiris,
Anamalais, Cardamom hills, Palni hills and Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats; Javadi, Shevaroys, Pachamalais
and Kolli hills of Eastern Ghats. Out of over 18000 species of flowering plants described from India about
5640 species of flowering plants are recorded in Tamil Nadu. Of which over 50% of the plants are identified
as medicinal plants and more than 1000 plants are used by the various tribal communities of Tamil Nadu.
More than fifty papers have been published and several unpublished reports are also available with
ethnomedicinal claims among different tribal communities of Tamil Nadu. Some of the medicinal plants are
of great use in forest areas of Tamil Nadu and are regularly used by the traditional healers to treat more
number of diseases. The plants such as Adhatoda vasica, Areca catechu, Azadirachta indica, Cassia auriculata,
Centella asiatica, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Elettaria cardamomum, Ficus bengalensis, Gymnema
sylvestre, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Phyllanthus emblica, Piper nigrum,
Pongamia pinnata, Santalum album, most of the Solanum species, Strychnos nux-vomica, Syzygium cumini
and Tribulus terrestris are having high medicinal properties and are reported to treat various types of
ailments. The study revealed that plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems
among the tribal people in Tamil Nadu.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Biodiversity and bioprospection of ethnomedicinal and
nutraceutical plants of North-Eastern Terai Region of U.P.
V.N. Pandey, Abhai K. Srivastava, Nidhi Gupta and R.K. Pandey
Experimental Botany Laboratory, Department of Botany, DDU Gorakhpur University,
Gorakhpur-273009, U.P.
e-mail : vnpgu@yahoo.co.in
Biodiversity of any region in total provides holistic approach towards the natural need as well as environment
and climatic condition. In real sense, it is concerned with environment, climate change and biogeography of
the region. Confinement of specific biodiversity in a specific biogeographical region provides a natural array
towards the different grades of biomolecules established in many biospecific strata, genus and species which
provide polyvalent assurance including food and medicine. North Eastern Terai region of U.P. is a biospecific
region situated in the foot of Himalaya in Gangetic region comprises of 11 district viz. Deoria, Kushinagar,
Gorakhpur, Maharajganj, Santkabir Nagar, Basti, Sidharth nagar, Gonda, Balrampur, Bahraich and Shrawasti.
One hundred twenty nine angiospermic plant species belonging to fifty four families were surveyed and
scientifically explored for validation of plant species and their biofuctional parts. Out of them 89
ethnonutraceutical and 40 ethnomedicinal plants and their biofunctional parts were collected and identified
with rigorous interaction with natives, tribals, taungya people and inhabitants of locality for confirming their
day to day use in their primary health care. Ethnofood and ethnomediclnal plants were characterized on the
basis of their utility by ethnic group and rural people.
These nutraceutical and medicinal plants were characterized for food security, nutraceuticals, poverty
eradication and natural resource management for conservation of biodiversity and biodiversity- climatic link.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Traditional knowledge systems and biodiversity conservation of
medicinal plants
G.V. Gopal and V.V. Anand
Regional Institute of Education, Manasagangothri, Mysore-6
e-mail : gopalgumma@gmail.com
The present paper deals with the ethno botanical information about the tribes of B.R. Hills and plant based
medicines and the profile of other uses of plants have been incorporated in detail.
The indigenous knowledge systems and the contributions of the tribal families have evolved the knowledge
of the conservation and genetic enhancement of plant biodiversity has been recognized. However the knowledge
systems have evolved in a continuous manner, but the preservation of these systems happened due to tradition,
culture, art, agricultural patterns and healthcare in different discreet patterns, thus systems with various
ecological and socio cultural variations has many practices which resulted in the folklore systems. The result
of this paper helped in indigenous knowledge systems evolution and ethno botany of the tribes. The term
ethno botany was coined by Harshberger (1896); Schultes (1938, 1954, 1963); Shah et al. (1981); Rao
From time immemorial man is dependent on nature for the cure or ailments. Biodiversity and health are
intrinsically linked. A variety of life forms live in diverse ecosystems in a healthy way in their own natural
habitats. Now at present man has become so greedy that he is disturbing the basic habitat of the biodiversity
of life forms with his interference in nature. From 1986 to 1996 an all India coordinated research project on
ethno biology was carried out by the Department of Environment, Government of India. In this project all
the tribal communities which were studied revealed that there are about 17725 species of wild plants which
were used by them of which a single largest category i.e. medicinal plants number over 7500 species. Besides
this 3900 are used for edible purpose, 700 for material and cultural requirements. 525 for fiber and cordage,
400 as fodder, 300 as pesticides, 300 as gums and dyes and 100 in perfumes.
Mans vital Interest in plants primarily as a source of food, shelter and clothing dates back to the very origin
of human civilization.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Trends of herbal home remedies in rural and urban environments
in India
R.B. Singh and Nitu
Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
e-mail : rbsgeo@hotmaul.com; neetu_goswami@2005@rediffmail.com
The linkage of rural people with their natural surroundings led to the existence of herbal home remedies in
the rural community whereas urban people have to depend on the secondary sources to access herbal based
medication facilities such as Ayurvedic doctors and medicines. Irrespective of geographical localities or rural
and urban settlements within the home, the role of kitchen garden or home garden is very significant in
providing accessible health facilities. Traditional healers are the providers of herbal based medicines in the
rural community of Haridwar. North-West Delhi is dependent more on allopathic medicines compared to
rural neighbourhood of Haridwar. People worship god and goddesses in the form of nature and natural
resources like trees, plants etc. such as worshipping Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum). Many items of our kitchen
and kitchen garden such as Laung (Syzygium aromaticum), Illaichi (Elletaria cardamomum), Paan (Piper
betal), Banana leaves, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaves, Mustard (Brassica campestris) oil etc. are considered
pure and offered during worship. There are more than 19 plant species which are used to treat 18 common
ailments. This cultural belief system reminds us that it is not mere cultural belief but became way of life as
our great Vedic saints have recognized their medicinal importance and practiced in daily life. There are
many plant species available in the surroundings and in kitchen garden which can be used as home remedies.
The statistical package called Special package for statistical software (SPSS) is also used for factor analysis
of the attributes and other relevant techniques for analysis. The purpose of using factor analysis is to find
the most important attribute which participate or play maximum contribution towards the household use
pattern of herbal home remedies (HHR). The analysis is based on the sixteen attributes (for Haridwar). Out
of sixteen, only six have most significant contribution in the herbal home remedies use pattern. Number of
attributes for North-West Delhi is fifteen. out of which only six have major role to play.
We find that factor 1 comprises mainly of those herbal products which act as antiseptics. Here, Domestica
curcuma has got the maximum factor loading of 0.548 and a mean of 2.1067, So people should understand
the importance of herbal home remedy and for this proper propagation and mass awareness is required.
Factor 2 comprises of herbal Common kitchen remedy. Here Allivum sativum has got the maximum factor
loading of 0.475 and mean of 2.9733. This shows that Allivum sativum play significant role in peoples
life as a home remedy. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration. Factor 3 comprises of common
kitchen spices. Trigonella foenum graecum has got a high factor loading and high mean .This shows that this
attribute play an important role as a herbal remedy but due to lack of awareness and other reasons, its use
has become reduced. Factor 4 consists of Dakhnimirch and Sarson oil. Here Sarson oil has got a low factor
loading of 0.510 but the mean is high. So the health care providers of both government and non-government
agencies should take steps to increase the use of readily available home remedy (Sarson oil), its use has
reduced in the recent time though its benefits are well known by the households. Proper and effective
strategy needs to be evolved for the dissemination of the knowledge about efficacy of the medicinal plants
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
in health care system, value addition and capacity building to use this knowledge in promoting and
strengthening the medicinal plants for health care. It is indeed necessary to develop research on the suitability
of site for the cultivation of various medicinal plants and particular geographical and climatic condition must
be taken into consideration. The wasteland or degraded land should be utilized to grow certain medicinal
plants which are compatible with particular land and environment. For instance, Dudhi (Euphorbia Hirta)
can be grown in the wastelands.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Ethnomedicinal practices of Kurumba tribes of Niligiri district,
Tamil Nadu
P. Deepak and G.V. Gopal
Department of Science Education, Regional Institute of Education, Mysore
e-mail : deepakpuravankara@gmail.com
Indigenous knowledge and biodiversity are complementary phenomena essential to human development as it
provides an immensely important data base on how numerous indigenous communities have interacted with
their environment.
The Niligiri district also called The Niligiris is a biodiversity hotspot located at the junction of Eastern
and Western Ghats. It is home to several indigenous communities who are dependent on the natural resources
for their livelihood. As the region is rich in medicinal plants the study examines the ethnomedicinal practices
of the Kurumba healers who have extensive knowledge of the flora of the region. Three taluks- Kotagiri,
Coonoor and Kundah of Niligiri District were selected to carry out the field investigation based on literature
survey. Information about the ethnomedicinal practices was collected by interviewing traditional Kurumba
healers as they are the repositories of this indigenous knowledge. Based on the information gathered from
the Kurumba healers 60 medicinal plants species from 40 families have been collected, identified and
preserved. The plants are of varying habits - herbs (65 %), shrubs (25 %) and trees (10 %).Varying plant
parts (leaves- 85 %, roots- 35 %, and bark- 8%) from a single species or from multiple species is used by
these traditional healers. These medicinal plants are used to treat skin diseases, gastro intestinal problems,
headache and wounds. The mode of preparation and usage of these medicines have been documented.
The percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increases with altitude. This is due to the preference
given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas as well as lack of alternative choices, poverty and trust in
the effectiveness of folklore medicine.
This scientific research can be integrated with traditional knowledge of conservation to facilitate education
and training as part of overall management of the Niligiri Biosphere Reserve.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Ethno-botanical survey of a potential mushroom Termitomyces in
Gorakhpur region
Bobby Srivastava, A.K. Dwivedi and V.N. Pandey
Exp. Botany Laboratory, Department of Botany, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009, UP
e-mail : anup_airgkp@rediffmail.com
Termitomyces spp. is wildly growing mushroom which are a potent source of food and medicine. It grows
symbiotically in Termite mound in association with Termite. This ethno-botanical survey include the nature
of growing, occurrence and use of Termitomyces by Tribal and local people. The survey is mainly localised
in Kusumhi forest, Tinkonia forest, Baanki range forest, Luxmipur forest and Chowk forest of Gorakhpur and
Maharajganj District. The result shows that there are more than four species of Termitomyces mushroom
which are abundantly found in rainy season, especially in month of July to October, when heavy rainfall and
lightening occur. It is a good and potential source of food and medicine and used by Tribes and local people
since ancient time. The exploitation of Termitomyces mushroom is benefited to the Tribal and local people
and Nation as a whole.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Ethnomedicinal plant resources of Uttarakhand: Implication of
traditional knowledge in health care system
P.C. Phondani
, R.K. Maikhuri
and N.S. Bisht
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit Srinagar,
Uttarakhand, India
H.N.B. Garhwal Central University Srinagar, Campus Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India
e-mail : prakashphondani@gmail.com
An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from rural communities on the use of
medicinal plants based on the extensive field study over a period of three years in 8 high altitude valleys
(Niti, Urgam, Pindar, Berahi, Binsar, Nadakini, Mandakini and Bhilangana/Gangi) of Alaknanda catchment
and its adjoining areas of Uttarakhand. The indigenous knowledge of traditional herbal healers (Vaidyas)
about the native plants used for medicinal purposes was collected following three basic approaches such as
interview based approach, inventory based approach and interactive discussions with stakeholders. The
present investigations have resulted in the documentation of 400 medicinal plant species belonging to 115
families were used for curing 135 ailments. Several ethnobotanical species have been listed as endangered,
vulnerable and threatened due to over exploitation and impact of climate change. These medicinal plant
species collected from various localities i.e. kitchen garden, agriculture field and from wild in a particular
time/season and used as per the method prescribed by Vaidyas that provide effective results for curing
ailments. The use method of these plants varies according to the nature of disease with specific doses. About
more than 60% Vaidyas were consulted so as to reveals their perceptions on weakening/deteriorating of
traditional health care system (THCS) from the region. About 90% respondents emphasized that unavailability
of MAPs for curing ailments is one of the main cause of weakening traditional health care system. However
on the other hand, majority of the respondents (92%) expressed that both local herbal healers and experts
to be encouraged for collection of MAPs from wild while adopting sustainable harvesting practices through
government channels to enable regular supply and that is a viable option for development of THCS.
The dependence of local people on herbal and allopathic system of medicine among the different income
groups (rich, middle and poor) were assessed on the basis of their income earned from various sources i.e.
agriculture, livestock, business and services. It was observed that in all the valleys poor people still depend
more on herbal systems and mostly preferred to take medicines from Vaidyas for curing ailments followed
by people belonging to middle and rich income groups. It was also noticed that for some particular ailments
poor people prefer to be treated through allopathic system as they are well aware that Vaidyas system of
treatment usually take more time for cure. Similarly for some particular diseases even rich people also
depend on herbal system either due to remoteness from road head or easy access to Vaidyas. Approximately
66.1 % population of different communities (tribal and non-tribal) was found dependent on herbal treatment
for curing various ailments (i.e. fever, head ache, cold and cough, wounds and boils, stomach ache, jaundice,
dysentery, piles, skin diseases etc.) and rest 33.9% were found depending on allopathic system of treatments
for curing ailments such as tuberculosis, cancer, abortion, bone fracture, rheumatism, kidney stone etc. A
detailed investigation and consultations with Vaidyas further suggested that for curing 15 common ailments
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
people prefer to be treated by the local traditional healers except the disease like tuberculosis for which
allopathic form of treatment is preferred. Among the medicinal plants used in traditional health care system,
the root (31.7%) and leaves (27.5) of medicinal plant species contributes in curing a verity of diseases. In
addition to this, out of the total medicinal plants used majority of them belonged to herbaceous community
(73.4%) followed by trees (18.3%) and shrubs (8.3%). Based on the present study it is suggested that there
is a strong need for allowing the knowledgeable healers to collect the desired herbs from the nature and need
for scientific validation before it used for industrial application. Besides, traditional knowledge of curing
diseases needs to be documented carefully before they vanish from the region.
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Bioprospection of an underutilized ethno-nutraceutical plant
Xeromphis uliginosa Retz. Maheshwari
Richa Srivastava and V.N. Pandey
Experimental Botany Laboratory, Department of Botany, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University,
Gorakhpur-273009, UP, India
e-mail : madhuaaidu@gmail.com
Xeromphis uliginosa is a biospecific plant of north-eastern terai region of U.P. which is situated at foot hills
of Himalayas covered by dense forest, adorned with rich vegetation all the year round nurtured under diverse
edaphic, topographic and sub-tropical climatic conditions. Some ethnic people (tharus and vantangia) living
in the fringe of the forest have been using the forest plants as food and for curing their ailments as medicine.
The underutilized plant or species with underexploited potential contributing to food security and nutrition
by combating hidden hungers caused by micronutrient deficiency; they often have medicinal properties and
other multiple uses; they provide options for improved income to the poor, and for environmental services
to the global community.
In the past few years, due to fast increasing population, depletion in arable land and stagnant production of
crops, habitat modification of such plant, a wealth of information lies scattered with these ethnic peoples
resulting fast disappearing of ethnic knowledge compelled us to have greater attention to explore these
underutilized plants. Unfortunately these species received little attention from research, extension services,
farmers, policy and decision makers, donors, technology providers and consumers.
Keeping in mind the above mentioned points, an exploration trip was organized to collect the ethnic information
about the Xeromphis uliginosa. The information were recorded by personal interaction with the people
regarding habitat, plant parts used, diseases etc.
This paper has been discussed with a view to bioprospect and utilize the underexploited potential for not only
increasing the economy of local ethnic people but also for food security, health care and sustainable
An International Conference on
Challenging and Emerging Dimensions in Medicinal/Herbal Plants and their Products: A Global
Perspective; 26-28 November 2010; Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
Sustainable and fair trade through sustained use of medicinal
plants: Implementation of the fair wild standard
M.K.S. Pasha
Coordinator - Research & Training, TRAFFIC India, WWF India Secretariat
172-B, Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110003, India
e-mail : kpasha@wwfindia.net
Throughout the world between 50,000 and 70,000 plant species are used in traditional and modern medicinal
systems and around 3,000 medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP) species are traded. There are more than 8,000
medicinal plants listed in different classical and modern texts on medicinal plants. Around 960 medicinal
plant species are in active use and traded throughout India and around 2,000 species are documented in
Indian Systems of Medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Similarly, around 4,000 species are used by
rural communities in local health practices. The All India Ethno-biology Survey estimated that over 7,500
plant species are used by 4,635 ethnic communities for human and veterinary health care across the country.
In 1999, the world market for herbal medicines was US$19.4 billion with an annual growth rate of 15%.
Traditional medicine manufacture and practices are largely based on plant products. The international market
for traditional products is estimated to be worth US$62 billion today, and is expected to reach US $ 5 trillion
by 2050. There is presently no standard system of verification and quality control that is in use by the MAP
sector in India. This situation demands immediate attention from the Central Government, respective State
Governments, industry and other sectors and stakeholders dependent on the market. In the past decade,
industry and consumer interest in organic certification of foods and other products has grown substantially.
Many wild-collected botanicals have been entering global commerce with organic certification. Similarly,
Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP) guidelines intended to improve quality, safety, and efficacy
of resources used in foods and medicinal products have been developed by the World Health Organization
(WHO 2003), upon which a number of national and regional industry associations have based their own
guidelines. The issue receiving less attention has been the control over the sustainability (ecological and
social) of wild collected MAPs. TRAFFIC India has engaged with stakeholders in the medicinal plant trade
at various levels for over a decade. One recent engagement is promotion of the FairWild Standard. The
FairWild Standard (www.fairwild.org) has been developed as a set of principles and indicators with a purpose
to ensure the continued use and long-term survival of wild plant species and populations in their natural
habitats, while respecting the traditions and cultures, and supporting the livelihoods of all stakeholders, in
particular collectors and workers. The FairWild Standard, its principles and possible applications for the
private sector, community resource management and policy-makers is presented here by TRAFFIC India. In
India, the FairWild Standard (and in particular its former ecological moduleISSC-MAP) was implemented
with local communities at two locations in Karnataka and Uttarkhand. The FairWild principles of sustainable
harvesting and trade in MAPs were also the basis for changes introduced into the Guidelines for Good Field
Collection Practices of Medicinal Plants of the National Medicinal Plants Board. Internationally, the FairWild
Standard principles and methodologies were instrumental in informing the CITES non-detriment finding
(NDF) procedures, and selected Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) processes.
Late Abstract TS-6/LP-3