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Riches of the forest:

For health life and

spirit in Africa
Citlalli Lpez
Patricia Shanley
Rches o the orest:
lor heath, e and sprt n Arca
Rches o the orest:
lor heath, e and sprt n Arca
ta lopez
Patrca Shaney
Scentc revewer: Anthony unnngham
Revewer and copy edtor: Tess Hoderness
Assstant copy edtor: are Ner
ase study ustratons: Dad Sungkowo
Botanca ustratons: lshak Syamsudn
(except laccosperma secundorum, by lucy Smth)
over ustraton (o an Arcan woman): Apr Nansyah
lay-out desgn: Yan Saoh
lay-out: Eko Pranto
_oo( by enter or lnternatona lorestry Research
A rghts reserved. Pubshed n oo(
Prnted n SNK Desa Putera, lndonesa
lSBN ,;,-+--o
Nang address:
P.O. Box. , JKPvB, Jakarta +oo, lndonesa
Oce address:
Jaan llOR, Stu Gede
Sndang Barang, Bogor Barat +8o, lndonesa
Te: +(+)
lax: +(+) +oo
E-ma: corQcgar.org
vebste: www.cor.cgar.org
ve woud ke to thank the resttuton thematc workng group, especay Aredo lantn, Roco
Aarcon Gaegos, Pau Hersch-Nartnez and Narana avatta-Pantoja, or ther cataysng roe and
dedcaton to ths project. Narna Gooubno, Anthony unngham, Ousseynou Ndoye, Koen
Kusters, Sheona E. Shacketon, Terry Sunderand, Ncoas esard, Takesh Toma, Ttn Suhartn,
lorence Nunoh, Ramadhan Achdawan and Andy Darmawan oered vauabe assstance durng the
compaton o ths voume. The llOR-ommuncatons Unt, lnormaton Servces Group, especay
Nchae Hau, Yan Saoh, Eko Pranto and Gdeon Suharyanto, aso oered technca assstance and
support. Ths book was deveoped as part o llOR's broader NTlP ase omparson Project, ed by
Nanue Ruz-Perez and Bran Becher, who supported ths pubcaton throughout ts deveopment.
Ths book woud not have been possbe wthout the generous support rom the UK Department or
lnternatona Deveopment (DllD) and the European ommsson (E).
Arca s a dverse contnent, rch n human and natura resources. lt s aso a contnent acng major
deveopment chaenges: wth the hghest proporton o poor peope compared to any other
contnent, cv conct, poor governance, sow economc growth and the spread o HlV/AlDS.
Throughout Arca, non-tmber orest products (NTlPs) ncudng pants and bush meat, are n day
use, commony provdng cruca resources or oca vehoods where no other soca securty s
provded by the state. ln a typca Arcan country, where ony one person n ten has a orma job,
economcay mportant orest speces provde a sgncant source o norma ncome.
Rather than eectrcty, wood gathered rom orests and eds represents the major source o
househod energy. Nne out o ten peope ve n normay but houses, oten made rom oca
pants, and eght out o ten peope consut tradtona heaers. Tradtona toothbrushes, caed
"chewng stcks" make a major contrbuton to denta care and edbe wd oods and ung commony
provde detary suppements. lorest anmas and sh consttute a major source o proten, and n
entra Arca aone, an estmated mon kogrammes o bush meat are consumed each year.
Harvestng and seng wd ung, pant and anma resources s one o the ew ways n whch poor
rura peope can sht rom a subsstence way o e nto the cash economy. Generay, t s the most
popuar speces that enter commerca trade, and the hghest prces are pad or those speces that
are the most scarce and dcut to obtan. vth an ncrease n trade, t s the speces that produce
the most decous ruts, the strongest bres, the most eectve medcna pants or the tastest bush
meat that can become at rsk o over-expotaton. Yet, t s precsey these speces whch have the
greatest vaue to oca vehoods. The sht rom subsstence use to commerca sae can have
mportant mpcatons or resource management, wth arger voumes beng harvested, and at a
hgher requency and ntensty.
Gven the great reance o many peope on ocay harvested pant and anma resources, n a regon
where mons o poor peope ve, how can "boom and bust" stuatons and the unsustanabe use
o ths "green soca securty" be avoded' vhat are the causes o actua or potenta aure n the
commercasaton o non-tmber orest products' Despte the research that has ocused on NTlPs,
there s st a ack o knowedge, on the part o both the genera pubc and pocy makers, regardng
the mportance o these orest products or both subsstence vehoods and trade. lor sustanabe
harvestng and use to become a reaty, harvesters, ndustres and consumers need to be aware o
the ecoogca and socoeconomc actors nked to the products that they work wth and consume.
To date, the NTlP research that has been conducted and communcated has been targeted towards
a very narrow audence. Ths book, as part o a three voume set, s a rare and vauabe excepton. lt
brngs to e the peope and products behnd the research resuts, communcatng n a very readabe
ormat. The ndvdua cases are drawn rom a seres o studes carred out by the enter or
lnternatona lorestry Research (llOR) and other partner organsatons, as part o a comparson
project ocusng on Asa, latn Amerca and Arca. vthn ths voume, a varety o derent orest
products are ncuded, rom varous parts o Arca. lt s our hope that you enjoy readng these case
studes, and that through the sharng o ths normaton, awareness w ncrease about the dversty
o peope and andscapes that are cosey connected to the orest products we use.
Anthony unnngham
vvl/UNESO/Kew Botanca Gardens
Peope and Pants lntatve
Do you know how many o the products that you buy n shops contan ngredents, components or
materas extracted rom Arcan orests' Nany orest products or exampe, are used n the ood,
cosmetc and pharmaceutca ndustres. The raw materas oten trave a ong way rom ther
orgna source and some o the end products have even become part o modern cty e. Such orest
resources are not ony mportant or cty dweers, they are essenta or the ves o peope based n
oca communtes throughout Arca - and have been or centures.
Among the many resources obtaned rom the orest, such as bush meat, rattan and caterpars,
trees have been mportant or peope vng n rura Arca or hundreds o years. A snge tree can be
the source o varous products, sometmes wth dozens o derent uses. Some trees grow on sacred
stes or they and ther products are used n ceremones, or n nnumerabe other ways, are essenta
to the sprtua e o Arcan peope. The bounty obtaned rom trees has endess uses - wd ruts,
nuts and bush meats are eaten, eaves are used or anma ood, bark or medcne, and wood or
manuacturng domestc and arm utenss. Another o the great gts o trees s the shade under
whch peope can meet and rest.
Over tme, ruts, nuts, eaves and bark have traveed ar rom ther paces o orgn, makng ther
way to ctes and even dstant ands outsde o Arca. ln recent tmes, some products wth tradtona
uses have become more manstream and new uses have aso been dscovered. lor exampe, the
seeds, pup and skn o some ruts are beng processed nto os and essences. Reachng nternatona
markets, marua ruts are now beng used n the producton o certan pstcks and shea butter s
enrchng mostursng body creams.
Today, peope around the word can apprecate the avours and exotc ar-away tastes o wd ruts
and condments. Ghanaans, ameroonans, Kenyans and other Arcans vng overseas can deght
n ndng oca stores that stock the avoured ruts and spces they used to eat n ther home
vages. lrom the sheves o ood shops and drugstores we can buy dred mango, njansang kernes,
and ps or arthrts and rheumatsm whch contan extracts rom dev's caw pants. Away rom the
paces where these pants grow however, tte s known about ther oca uses or whether they are
beng wsey harvested.
Unortunatey, hgh demand rom consumers and wdespread ndustry marketng o products, such
as medcna bark rom Prunus and varburga, has ueed rampant over-harvestng. Ths has ed to
the dsappearance o trees - n the case o Prunus, rom certan areas o ameroon and wth regard
to varburga, rom throughout Zmbabwe. ln the process, vagers who rey on such trees or curng
derent nesses are osng access to an mportant source o medcne. ln addton to over-
harvestng, changes n and use are aso threatenng some orest products. Predatory oggng, the
cearance o orests or arm expanson, and modern agrcutura practces that avour the use o
pestcdes and herbcdes, are erodng away the rch tapestry o natve pant dversty.
Another change that has had an mpact on the use and sae o orest resources s road budng. Not
so ong ago, ew vages had road access. But n recent tmes, the sae o goods aong Arcan
roadsdes has become a custom, and a amar part o the andscape. Nen, women and chdren
trave aong dusty and mud-caked roads between vages and ctes buyng thngs ke bush meat,
btter coa nuts, weev arvae brochettes and marua beer. Through the pacement o ther wares n
roadsde stas, woodcarvng artsans have created a thrvng tourst market. Some o the most
amous Arcan handcrats ony became we known ater roads were opened up - ke the beautu
hand crated kaat wooden bows n South Arca, and the carved back ebony eephants and rhnos,
and spotted graes n Zmbabwe and Kenya. A over Arca, oca traders oer the kes o ruts,
spces, carvngs, potons and amuets, ad out on coouru coths.
The next tme you go to a handcrat shop or oca market, you ook careuy you may come across
beautu Arcan woodcarvngs, exotc ruts or medcna products derved rom Arcan resources.
The stores wthn ths book aow you to earn about the paces that these orest goods come rom
and the hard-workng peope aong the way who make t possbe or us to have them n our homes.
Acknowedgements v
loreword v
Preace v
Nap o Arcan cases and ocatons x
lntroducton: Settng the scene +
Anmas / lnsects
Bush meat - Anthony unnngham
veev arvae - Edmond Dounas ,
Narua - arone Suvan +
Btter coa - Atade Akanmu Adebs +;
Dred kernes - Danee lema Ngono 8 Ousseynou Ndoye +
Bush pum - Hassan G. Adewus
Shea butter - Kathrn Schreckenberg ,
Tabe o contents
Bark / Roots
Prunus medcna bark - Nouhou Ndam
UmNemez cosmetc bark - Nchee ocks 8 Tony Dod ;
varburga medcna bark - Anthony unnngham (+
Dev's caw medcna root - Rache vynberg (
voodcarvng n Kenya - Smon K. hoge (,
voodcarvng n Zmbabwe - vave Standa-Gunda
Kaat carvngs - Sheona E. Shacketon 8 hare N. Shacketon ;
hewng stcks - Domnc Bay, Jr. +
luewood - Tata Preca ljang
Rattan / Pam
Rattan n entra Arca - Terry Sunderand ,
Rattan n ameroon and Ghana - lous Deo 8 hares Adu-Annng ;
Pam baskets - Phosso Soa ;;
oncusons: The essons earned 8+
Reerences 8,
Gossary +oo
Acronyms +o;
Authors' contact detas +o8
Source matera used or the ustratons ++




























The pages o ths voume contan rea e stores about a wde range o orest products and the
peope who use and manage them. The ndvdua chapters ustrate how derent orest oods,
bres and medcnes are grown, harvested, processed and traded. Through these stores, we earn
about the hstory o such products - some o whch have been used and traded or centures and
some o whch are reatvey new. ve aso nd out about the varous opportuntes and probems
that coectors and traders ace, and the way they respond to change.
The group o goods caed non-tmber orest products (NTlPs) ncudes a great varety o orest
resources, used or both domestc and commerca purposes. entures ago, hnese and mdde-
eastern traders woud cross seas, mountans and deserts n search o orest spces and resns.
later, durng the coona perod, there was great nterest n Europe n the many vauabe oods
and spces that can be sourced rom orests. Voyages o exporaton, sometmes astng a year or
more, were aunched to seek new avourngs and preservatves or European markets. Ater the
Second vord var however, a sht occurred and orests began to be vaued prncpay or ther
tmber resources and or wood bre or paper-makng. At the same tme, commerca and
scentc nterest n other orest products waned.
lntroducton: Settng the scene
Begnnng n the +,8os, recognton o the rapd rates o deorestaton, and a newound
apprecaton o the dcutes acng peope vng n rura areas, ed to a renewed ocus on orest
products other than tmber. Researchers began assessng both the commerca and subsstence
roes o these products. Studes carred out n latn Amerca compared potenta ncome rom a
varety o orest products (ke ruts, medcna pants and bres) wth the possbe ncome rom
oggng and other and uses, concudng that over the ong term, NTlPs coud potentay provde
more vaue. Some aspects o the eary studes have snce been crtcsed on economc grounds,
however the research has served to create a wave o nterest n NTlPs, and ths has ed to an
ncreased apprecaton o ther overa mportance or peope n both orest communtes and
Durng the ast + years, governmenta and non-governmenta organsatons (NGOs) have gven
ther attenton and support to varous NTlP-reated actvtes, wth the am o mprovng the
vehoods o ames vng n and near orests. Some o these ntatves have been eectve n
achevng soca, economc or conservaton goas. However, overa resuts have been mxed,
party due to the great dversty o condtons and the derent crcumstances n whch orest
resources are harvested, processed and traded.
Sharng knowedge about orest products
Nany researchers have studed orest products n derent parts o the word usng methods
rom varous dscpnes, ncudng boogy, economcs and anthropoogy. vhe these studes
have ncreased our knowedge about orest resources, they have aso rased mportant new
questons. Due to the wdey derng methods used however, t has been dcut to compare
the studes and draw genera essons. To overcome ths probem, a group o researchers rom
around the word recenty combned eorts to compare and contrast ndvdua case studes. Ths
coaboratve research project, coordnated by the enter or lnternatona lorestry Research
(llOR), wth major undng rom the UK Department or lnternatona Deveopment (DllD),
ncuded + derent cases o orest product commercasaton rom Asa, Arca and latn
Amerca. llOR worked wth sma teams and ndvdua researchers, representng (; NGOs,
unverstes and government research agences, rom ; derent countres. The researchers -
whch ncuded ecoogsts, oresters, agronomsts and anthropoogsts - wanted to gan a better
understandng about the wde range o condtons that nuence whether NTlP trade benets
rura peope and heps to conserve orests and so, how. vth mproved knowedge about the
mpacts o commerca trade on orest products and peope, the researchers now hope to share
ths normaton about rura deveopment and natura resource conservaton wth decson
makers n government and deveopment agences.

An n-depth, three voume set o scentc reports has been pubshed, ocusng on the three
regons o Asa, Arca and latn Amerca - lorest products, vehoods and conservaton: ase-
studes o NTlP systems. The researchers were aso keen to share ther knowedge about orest
resources wth a more genera audence, beyond scentsts and donors, usng smper anguage
and an ustrated, breer ormat. To acheve ths goa, three suppementary voumes have been
produced: Rches o the orest - lood, spces, crats and resns o Asa, Rches o the orest - lor
heath, e and sprt n Arca, and Rches o the orest - lruts, os, remedes and handcrats n
latn Amerca.
The voume n your hands s one o the products o the researchers' coaboratve eorts. The
researchers nvoved n the Arcan case studes expan how a seecton o orest resources are
harvested, processed and traded. onsumers generay go to markets, stores and bazaars,
choosng and buyng ood and goods ke decoratve or beauty products wthout knowng much,
anythng, about the hstory o these products or the peope nvoved n ther coecton and
sae. Ths comes at a tme when orest cover wordwde s decreasng rapdy, and orest-reant
communtes are havng to respond to enormous changes. vhat can we earn rom peope who
carve out a vng harvestng orest products' And how can our buyng patterns aect or assst
vhe readng ths voume, t s useu to keep n mnd the man characterstcs o Arca's physca
and soca andscape. About percent o Arca s covered wth orests - rangng rom dry
vegetaton types, ke open savanna, to ranorests and mangroves. vthn the ranorests the
dversty o pant and anma e s rch but generay to a esser degree than or ranorests n
other parts o the word. lor centures, orest products rom Arca have been traded to other
countres. Durng the sxteenth century, coves, catte, sugar and bananas, among other products,
were shpped to countres on the other sde o the Atantc and lndan Oceans. Such trade
ntensed when European countres started to coonse and contro natura resources across the
ln recent decades, the decoonsaton o Arca has shaped a new context or the Arcan peope
and ther envronment, as have more recent events, such as cv wars, envronmenta dsasters
and waves o mgraton. As the cases n ths book ustrate, ths broader context, aong wth the
ndvdua crcumstances surroundng each orest product, can present chaenges or the
harvesters, processors and traders o orest goods. As you w dscover, the products descrbed
wthn are as dynamc and dverse as the Arcan andscape and the peope who nhabt t.

The case studes

Ths voume brngs to e +, case studes eaturng orest pants and anmas. The botanca cases
are presented accordng to the man part o the pant beng used - the rut, bark, roots or wood.
Sometmes the pants have mutpe uses, or derent cutures may use the same part o a
partcuar pant n derent ways. Anmas and anma products that requre orest habtat are
aso crtca or rura vehoods, and are represented n ths voume by bush meat and weev
arvae. ln each case, the contrbutors descrbe the man characterstcs o the orest product, ts
hstorca usage, harvestng and management, and how t s processed and traded. ln cosng,
each author comments brey on trends and current ssues regardng the resource. The na
chapter revews common themes and essons that can be drawn rom these cases.
* Throughout the oowng cases, the symbo denotes words or whch dentons can be
ound n the gossary, at the end o the book.
* At the start o each case, you w notce the scentc names o the derent orest pants (and
anmas) that are proed. A u expanaton about the use o botanca and scentc names can
aso be ound n the gossary.
Bush meat
Ghanaan case by Anthony unnngham
Trageaphus scrptus Paas

'hop bars' and the bush meat trade

Accordng to an Arcan sayng: Neat s a vstor, but morogo (edbe eay vegetabes) are
a day ood. Throughout the tropcs, starchy stape oods ke cassava, rce and maze are
made more nterestng and appetsng wth the addton o sauces and sde-dshes prepared
rom wd or cutvated pant products. lor most peope, meat remans a uxury reserved or
speca occasons. vhen meat s eaten n many parts o Arca, t s meat rom wd anmas
('bush meat' or 'bush bee') that s the preerence - athough t s more expensve than meat
rom domestcated anmas such as goats, sheep, cows or chckens. ln entra Arca aone,
the bush meat harvest s beeved to tota more than two mon tonnes annuay.
lncomes are hgher or urban 'whte
coar' workers than or peope n
rura communtes and ths means
that cty peope can aord to buy
bush meat more reguary. Urban
markets n Ghana provde a good
exampe o ths trade, and some
markets, such as the Atwemonom
market n Kumass, are even named
ater bush meat. ln Akan, atwe =
dukers and mono = resh,
reerrng to a market or resh
duker meat. Such markets are ke
'barometers', reectng what s
happenng to wde popuatons
n orests, woodands and
savannas. Bush meat markets n
Ghana have been studed snce the
+,;os and natonay the trade s
estmated to be worth around US;
o mon per year. vordwde,
the trade s as much o a concern to
conservaton agences as t s to
those ookng at oca vehoods
and deveopment.
Nen domnate two aspects o the bush meat trade n Ghana - huntng
and the preparaton o carcasses or whoesaers. They prepare these
goods by ether sknnng them or sngeng the har o over a re. Ther
payment ncreases accordng to the sze o the anma.
lrom orests to markets and chop bars
Durng the week, throughout Ghanaan ctes, oce workers crowd ther avourte 'chop
bars' ('chop' s a wdespread pdgn word or ood) to enjoy bush meat. Tak to any o them
and they w te you that bush meat has a speca avour, whch s not ound n the kes
o bee or mutton, and whch goes we wth decous oca soups or wth starchy 'u-u' (a
popuar paste made rom cassava, corn or sorghum).
Bush meat s sourced rom rura bushands and orests. Ater harvestng, ths wd product
changes hands down marketng chans, rom hunters to whoesaers, then on to retaers,
most o whom are women - wth the excepton o a ew men, who run chop bars. ln
genera, men domnate two man actvtes. lrsty, huntng and secondy, provdng the
market servce o burnng the har o carcasses beore sae.
Both the whoesang and retang o bush meat are domnated by women - and what
ncredbe busnesswomen they are too! lemae whoesaers generay contro the prce
pad to hunters or bush meat, as we as the reta prce. lndvdua whoesaers are oten
supped by partcuar hunters, wth whom they bud a busness reatonshp. ln these cases,
women reguary pre-nance the hunters,
who then have to repay them wth
bush meat. These canny whoesaers
aso provde credt actes to
retaers. Such soca and economc
nks provde a good return or
whoesaers. But these nks aso
address a key probem o the NTlP
trade - the uncertanty o suppy
and the hgh demand - by ensurng
reguar suppes and a more stabe
market or bush meat.
vd orest anmas
under pressure
The actua trade n bush meat s
huge. Studes o a snge market
(Kantamanto) n Kumass or
exampe, show that between +,;+
and +,8, an annua average o
A hunter sets up a trap on a og
used by sma anmas or crossng
a stream.
neary ;o tonnes o resh bush meat carcasses were sod (rangng rom o-+o tonnes per
year). Some markets specase n smoked bush meat, but the markets seng resh bush
meat oten carry a sma stock o smoked carcasses as we - ncudng the popuar gant
Arcan and snas, whch come served on a stck.
The most common bush meat speces sod n Ghana ncude grass-cutters (Thrynomys
swnderanus), Naxwe's dukers (ephaophus maxwe) and bushbuck (Trageaphus
scrptus). ln Ghana's markets +o- derent bush meat speces are known to be sod,
ncudng pangons, porcupnes and monkeys. These anmas are caught n derent types
o traps and snares or are shot wth guns. ln more recent tmes, anmas are aso beng
caught usng posoned bats. Ths s an ssue whch has rased consderabe concern, wth
recent estmates that around one thrd o Ghana's bush meat s contamnated by chemca
ln an attempt to essen the mpact o the bush meat trade on wd anma popuatons,
Ghana's Department o Game and vde has nomnated a perod durng whch the
huntng o some speces s outawed. Ths s ntended to protect the anmas rom beng
hunted at a tme when they are pregnant or have recenty borne young. Athough ths
seasona ban s advertsed n the natona newspaper, ths measure s consdered to be
neectve n the ace o the hgh demand and prces or bush meat - and prces are
contnung to ncrease rapdy. Ths stuaton encourages many rura househods to se
bush meat rom the anmas they catch, rather than consumng t themseves or ts
nutrtona vaue.
lor certan aster growng herbvores, such as grass-cutters
and gant snas, hgh prces can provde an ncentve or
producton through ranchng. But or the arge boded,
habtat-specc speces, and partcuary those wth sow
reproductve rates, the uture may be beak. Ths s a
cutura ssue as much as t s a conservaton one. As
Ghanaan tradtona eader, Okatakye Agyeman Kudom,
ponted out at a recent meetng: "The proverba porcupne
s the symbo or totem o the Ashant naton and we used
to nd them here, but now they have competey
dsappeared l we are not careu, a our wde w
dsappear and we w have nothng to show uture
The porcupne s the symbo or totem
o the Ashant naton.
veev arvae
ameroonan case by Edmond Dounas
Rhynchophorus phoencs O.
Edbe weev arvae: A pest or pam
trees but a decacy or cty-dweers
The nger that extracts a weev arva shoud not be st.
everness s sometmes more sutabe than orce.
Nvae Proverb, southern ameroon
lnsects have payed an mportant roe n the hstory o human nutrton, and n Arca, Asa
and latn Amerca, hundreds o speces are st eaten. Some o the more mportant groups
ncude grasshoppers, caterpars, beetes, termtes, bees, ant arvae and pupae, ccadas,
and a varety o aquatc nsects. Generay havng a hgh cutura and symboc vaue, nsects
are aso rch n nutrents and are avaabe n arge quanttes, wthout the rsk o resource
extncton. Some nsects, ke the arvae o the Arcan pam weev (Rhynchophorus
phoencs), are even sources o substanta and sustanabe prots.
The edbe arvae o Rhynchophorus weevs are ound throughout tropca areas.
vth a avour resembng hazenuts, they are a true decacy or orest
nhabtants o the Amazon, Borneo, Papua and entra Arca. However, t s
ameroon where these edbe nsects have the hghest economc vaue. ty-
dweers n Yaounde and Douaa crave these atty arvae, whch are sometmes as
bg as a thumb, and do not hestate to pay or them.
The pam-nsect marrage: A ong evoutonary
Pam weev arvae are many harvested n Rapha pams, and secondary, n
o-pams. Pams beong to the Pamaceae amy, whch s dstrbuted
throughout the tropcs and contans more than +(oo wd and domestcated
speces. Pams are vsted by countess nsect speces. Some, ke mosqutoes,
nd optma condtons or ther reproducton. Others, ke bees, occasonay
vst the pam owers, and nsects ke spders may take up resdence n search
o prey. Other nsects, ke certan weev speces, have deveoped
reatonshps wth pams that provde mutua benets to both partners. ln
exchange or 'bed and breakast', the nsect actvey contrbutes to the
reproducton o ts host-pant, or exampe, by ertsng owers. However,
ths s not the case or the Arcan pam weev, whch s a true pest.
Roasted pam weev arvae are
sod at to roads or cty bars as
a nutrtous snack.
Ncknamed the 'stpe drer', the aduts perorate the pam trunks and expot njures to
the pant caused by human actvtes, unga dsease or the attack o other nsects. vhen
they nvade agro-ndustra o-pam pantatons they can cause severe economc damage.
lndng larvae: look, sme, sten and ee
Nost ethnc groups o the humd orest zone o ameroon
harvest and consume weev arvae rom o-pams. The
arvae are systematcay extracted rom trunks that
have been cut down or pam-wne producton.
Adut emaes ay eggs n the decayng trunks that
are et ater the extracton o sap. Nature arvae
may then be harvested a ew weeks ater. But ther
unpeasant ermented wne taste connes ther
consumpton to a domestc eve.
ln ameroon, arvae are many extracted rom the
trunk o Rapha pams, growng densey n swampy
owands. Harvesters spend hours n the dark,
muddy waters, oten up to ther wasts, suerng
nsect btes and encounters wth snakes. Ony ha
a dozen vages n southern ameroon specase n
the harvestng o arvae or trade. A ew ethnc
groups, such as the Naka, Buu, Eton and Nangsa,
have deveoped some expertse, each wth specc
harvestng toos and technques.
larvae may be coected rom juvene trees, athough dentyng nested ones does
requre some expertse. Sghty yeow eaves can be a good ndcaton. A sked harvester
may detect the partcuar sme that arvae emt or they sten careuy, they mght
recognse the characterstc sound o arvae crawng wthn the pam rond staks (rachs).
Ths nsect movement aso causes a sma vbraton, whch harvesters may be abe to ee.
Sometmes, the pams are aso host to arge Oryctes caterpar arvae. Athough edbe,
these are ess avoured than the weev arvae and are sedom traded. Oryctes aduts eave
recognsabe hoes when they perce the rachs, provdng an access pont or the weevs.
veev arvae are many sought n adut Rapha pams. ldentyng nested pants s much
easer, as the weevs coonse ony sck pams, causng them to ose ther eaves and turn a
greysh coour. The Oryctes hoes are aso more vsbe on the adut trunks, and both
caterpar and weev arvae are requenty harvested smutaneousy.
Extractng sap rom o-pams. The consumpton o weev
arvae assocated wth pam-wne s an unorgettabe
gastronomc experence!
A sma maggot that makes
bg money
The average monthy ncome or arvae
harvesters s about US; ;+ or ve arvae,
sod to retaers suppyng cty markets,
and US; o or roasted arvae, sod as
snacks aong roadsdes or n bars. Such
ncome s sgncanty hgher than that
obtaned by unsked workers n town, or
by the producers o coee (US; o n
good years) or cocoa (US; 8). ompared
wth other notabe ameroonan orest
products, weev arvae generate better
ncome than bushmeat (US; 8), Gnetum
eaves (US; +), or rattan (US; ).
Nargns or retaers are aso good: arvae
bought rom harvesters or US; o.+(-o.+, apece etch around US; o. apece n the Douaa
markets. Uncooked arvae are aways traded ave and can be mantaned or around +o days.
lor consumers, ths guarantees the product s 'resh'.
ls the resource sustanabe'
Rapha pams are among the most utsed pants on the Arcan contnent. Numerous pant
parts are used - or constructon, urnture-makng, uewood, basketry, weavng, cosmetcs,
textes, and even or makng sh poson, ubrcants, medcna soap and cough mxture.
lruts, as we as the sap, stoons and young shoots are aso consumed, and even the ash
obtaned ater burnng the eaves s used as a sat. Yet despte these age od, mutpe uses,
scentsts know reatvey tte about the ecoogy o ths tree, and n turn, ths ack o
knowedge about the weevs' host pant, hnders a better understandng o the arvae.
larvae harvestng does not endanger the weev popuatons, as arvae producton contnues
a year round, and a emae adut may ay up to 8oo eggs at a tme. The actor mtng the
ong-term expotaton o weev arvae s the host-tree: Rapha swamps are generay
perceved as ow vaue and nhosptabe ecosystems. The bodversty o swamps that
sheter ndgenous pant and anma speces s negected by orest management pans, whch
oten ca or a drastc converson o these andscapes. The economc vaue o weev arvae
coud provde a strong argument or the preservaton o Rapha swampands. vhat a nce
endng to the story the Rapha pams coud nay be saved by ther nsect parastes!
A snge adut Rapha pam may yed up to oo weev arvae.
Namban - South Arcan case by arone Suvan
Scerocarya brrea (A. Rch) Hochst.
Narua: A tree or everyone!
lrut, juce, beer, jam, avourngs, medcnas, shade, caterpars, handcrats, uewood
and more a rom the marua tree! Ths versate member o the mango amy grows on
open savanna grassands across southern Arca, n Namba and South Arca (and aso,
Botswana, Swazand, Nozambque and Zmbabwe). The marua tree (Scerocarya brrea)
oten towers some + m above the surroundng andscape, a beacon o shade n a hot, dry
and. lt bears huge amounts o jucy ruts, provdng a vta source o nutrents or many
speces, rom peope rght down to the nsects and ung that consume whatever remans
uncoected on the ground.
A mut-purpose tree
Throughout the year the eay branches o marua trees oer respte rom the reentess
sun. vhen the tree s rutng, a speca type o ermented beer s produced, sgnang a
perod o communty ceebraton. These estvtes provde an opportunty to bud
rendshps or orm mportant soca networks, and even draw home dstant amy
members, cementng cruca urban-rura bonds. Bags
o marua kernes are exchanged as gts o rendshp,
a snge nut may be ted around the wast o a young
chd to ward o dsease and msortune, and a rare,
msshapen nut may be used as one o a number o
dvners' dce.
vhe the marua tree has mutpe uses, the man
ones reate to ts rut. These round yeow, pum-ke
ruts hang n abundance rom every branch. As they
mature the ruts a to the ground, where they are
eaten by wde and vestock or are coected by
peope. Nany women and chdren gather the
harvest, or eatng or brewng nto beer - a product
greaty apprecated by the men and shared between
Athough ess common, the producton o marua jams
and juces s on the rse, generatng useu cash
ncome. ompared to orange juce, marua juce
contans around our tmes the amount o vtamn !
oncdng wth the start o the schoo year, the trade o
marua beer provdes mportant amy ncome (US; o-8o
per season). Ths s a sgncant sum n a regon where the
mnmum wage s US; + per day. ln some areas however,
the seng o beer s consdered taboo.
The use o marua or avourng yoghurts, chocoates, bscuts and acohoc queurs s
aso becomng more wdespread. lnsde each rut s a nut contanng -( sma, nutrtous
kernes - and even these are useu! They are eaten as a snack or mxed wth wd greens,
or aternatvey, are crushed to produce a cookng o. Due to ts speca mostursng
propertes, ths o s aso used to create marua skn care products, whch are sod n oca
markets. On a arger scae, an nternatona natura skn care and cosmetcs company
caed The Body Shop s purchasng co-operatve producton o the o n Namba, or use
n a new ne o pstcks. lt s hoped that such new deveopments w oster an
nternatona market or the o, wth ncreased benets or a.
The bark and wood rom the marua tree aso
have a number o uses. lor exampe,
tradtona heaers use the bark or
medcna purposes. Sometmes on od
tree branches, parastc mstetoe
causes speca outgrowths to sprout and
these 'woodroses' are used as
decoratve ornaments or are sod to
toursts. The wood tse provdes a
major source o raw matera or
woodcarvng, or domestc mpements
and the toursm trade, whe the
deadwood and aen branches are used
or uewood. l you ook cosey at the
marua eaves, you are key to nd
caterpars rom severa emperor moth
speces. These provde an mportant
source o proten or oca peope, who
regard them as a decacy.
Harvestng and processng the ruts and seeds
As the marua ruts a when they are ready or consumpton, harvestng s easy and
accessbe - athough customary restrctons on certan trees can pace some mts on
harvestng. The rut's accessbty means chdren can eat t on ther way to schoo, and
oder women can earn a tte money through ts coecton and sae. lortunatey, wth
ths ease o harvestng, there s no desre to cut the tree down - savng them rom the sad
ate that aces other rutng trees n many parts o the word.
ln an average season, each marua tree produces ,ooo-
,ooo ruts. Not surprsngy, the emae trees, whch
bear the rut, have become symbos o ertty and penty.
Narketng ssues
As gobasaton takes hod, marua users become subject to
the same pressures o market orces that nuence us a.
Unortunatey, ths means that pressure on the use o the
'wd' resource may become too great or entrepreneurs may
take advantage o trustng communtes by not gvng them
a ar prce. l marua products become more popuar, the
demand or raw suppes w ncrease, provdng potenta
ncome or peope n communtes wth access to these
However, t s mportant that those nvoved n the
coecton and trade are normed about how ths tree can
be used n an ecoogcay sustanabe way. The economc
and soca aspects regardng ts varous other uses aso need
to be consdered. To mantan a these oca vaues, respect
or tradtona uses s vta, as s the strengthenng o and
tenure rghts and systems or managng the marua
resource. ln the past, the tradtona vaues and uses have
too oten been orgotten n resource commercasaton
decsons. Perhaps ths trend can be reversed through
hghghtng a o the vaues o the marua tree, not just the
monetary ones. Ony by deveopng eectve poces or
equtabe and sustanabe use, w we contnue to see the
great marua tree as a amar eature n the andscape o
southern Arca, provdng ood securty, ncome streams
and other benets to oca communtes and uture
vomen remove the eathery marua skn wth a
ork (ormery a cow horn) and squeeze the juce
nto a basn, puttng the nuts asde or ater
extracton o the kernes. To make beer, the juce
s then ermented.
Extractng the o s dcut as the shes are hard and each kerne ony produces a
sma amount o o. Tradtonay, nuts were opened by crackng them aganst a
partcuary hard stone. ln areas where such objects are not easy ound, 'marua
cuttng stones' have been passed on rom one generaton to another, ke herooms.
Btter coa
Ngeran case by Atade Akanmu Adebs
Garcna koa Hecke
Btter coa: The Arcan wonder nut
Btter coa nuts come rom Garcna koa
trees, whch grow n coasta ranorests n the
south, west and eastern parts o Ngera.
Tradtonay, these nuts were chewed as a
mastcatory substance (to stmuate the ow
o sava) but today they are wdey
consumed as a snack. They contan arge
amounts o caene and other stmuants
(ke theobromne, koatn and gucose) and
are aso beeved to be an aphrodsac. Unke
other coa nuts (oa ntda, . acumnata),
btter coa s thought to cean the dgestve
system, wthout sde eects such as
abdomna probems, even when a ot o nuts
are eaten.
Btter coa s cuturay very mportant or the
Yoruba and lgbo trbes and or many other
peope vng n the sub-Saharan regon. lor centures, the nuts have been an mportant
part o ther ves - rom brth to death. They are used n tradtona ceremones, markng
speca events ke brths, marrages and the conerrng o chetancy. A coa nut tree may
be panted when a baby s born, wth the chd becomng ts eong owner. ln proposas o
marrage, young men oer coa nuts to the ather o the brde, and an exchange o coa
nuts s essenta n many busness deangs as we.
Nutpe uses
Btter coa nuts are extracted rom the rut o Garcna koa trees. ln herba medcne, the
rut pup s used or the treatment o jaundce, or hgh ever, whe the bark o the tree s
used n medcna preparatons to hep hea varous aments. The nuts are aso dred,
ground and mxed wth honey to make a tradtona cough mxture. ln the ast -( years,
ground nuts have aso been used as an ndustra btterng agent n some Ngeran
breweres. The hard wood o btter coa trees s not oten used or tmber or rewood, but
the stems, branches and roots are commony used n the producton o chew stcks.
vhen a Yoruba baby s od enough to be carred on ts mother's back,
the parents arrange the namng ceremony. eremona oods, such as
btter coa nuts, are ntroduced to the baby wth prayers that the chd
w not use them aganst anyone or have them used aganst hm.
Garcna koa grows n humd ranorests near the coast, as a medum szed tree that can
toerate shade. Unt the eary +,os, these trees were ound n dense popuatons n most o
the orest reserves set asde by the then regona governments n south-eastern and south-
western Ngera. However, deorestaton n recent decades has dramatcay reduced the
number o these trees growng wd. Over the ast decade however, Garcna koa trees have
been ncreasngy cutvated n secondary orests, as a component tree n pantatons, or n
agroorestry systems. The trees can be panted rom seed and bear rut ater +o-+ years. At
ts peak, a mature tree yeds on average, amost oo ruts and +;oo nuts each year.
ln Ngera, amost ;o per cent o btter coa s produced rom natura or secondary orests n
government reserves. The rest comes rom trees growng n cocoa/coa combned armng
pots n south-western Ngera, and rom o-pam/cassava arms and home gardens n south-
eastern Ngera.
Extractng and marketng the nuts
The rut o Garcna koa s coected ater ang to the ground
and s kept unt ts orange-cooured, vevety skn sotens. Ths
may take -; days. Extractng the nuts s a smpe househod
aar that s not very abour ntensve. The harvest s
threshed to reease each rut's -( kernes. These are
reerred to as btter coa nuts as soon as the rut pup
s thoroughy washed o. At ths pont, the nuts are
ready or eatng resh or can be ar-dred and stored
n a coo, dry pace. Both the resh and dred nuts
are apprecated by rura and urban popuatons
and demand or them cuts across the three major
ethnc trbes n Ngera (Yoruba, Hausa and
As we as beng sod n oca and nearby cty
markets, the nuts are aso transported n arge
quanttes to the ar north o the country where
Garcna koa trees do not grow. They aso nd
ther way nto roadsde kosks n major ctes and
towns n the northern part o the vest Arcan
sub-regon, ncudng ameroon. The trade n
btter coa s worth an estmated US; o,ooo a
vhenever buk buyers do not purchase the btter coa nuts
drecty rom coectors, an apponted vage trader takes the
harvest to the cosest market. At the arm gate, + kg o btter coa
etches around US; o.8o, whe n the oca market, t ses or US;
+.o, n a marketng scene domnated by women.
Processng btter coa nuts takes tme, but entas tte or no economc cost to the armers
nvoved n ths actvty. The resutng ncome heps poor rura ames pay or schoo ees
and materas or househod goods. Btter coa's ncreasng commerca vaue means t s
mportant or armers to cutvate Garcna koa trees rather than rey on the dwndng
wd suppes.
The nuts are more protabe than any other orest resource n Ngera. ln one season, a
amy can coect an average o three baskets o btter coa, weghng kg. Ths generates
about US; ( n househod ncome. The abty to store the nuts and use them resh or dred
makes ths a wonderuy versate and useu product.
Btter coa has become an ncreasngy mportant and vauabe commerca commodty or
the rura poor o Ngera, but deorestaton and the converson o orests or deveopment
and pantatons has reduced the number o wd btter coa trees. ln the ast decade,
attempts to grow more trees have proven rutu. Peope have earned how to rase and
manage the trees, and due to the dversty o uses or ths tree and the cutura anty that
peope have wth btter coa nuts, ndvduas and organsatons ake are now actvey
pantng Garcna koa. The trees are beng grown rom seed or wd seedngs are beng
transpanted rom the orest, but there are aso tras o aternatve methods underway,
amed at reducng the tme t takes or the trees to mature and bear rut.
Buk buyers wrap kg o btter coa nuts n eaves and store them n baskets ned wth jute coth. These
are taken to the arger cty markets where + kg ses or around US; . Retaers purchase the nuts n buk and
sort them nto + kg packages - seng them rom roadsdes or kosks or US; .(o per kg.
Dred kernes
ameroonan case by Danee lema Ngono and Ousseynou Ndoye=
Rcnodendron heudeot (Ba.) Perre ex Hecke
Njansang and bush mango:
ameroonan seeds n natona
and nternatona markets
lor centures, ameroonan ames vng n both vages and ctes have enjoyed dred kernes
rom 'njansang' and 'bush mango' ruts - partcuary or avourng and thckenng soups, stews
and sauces. Today, these kernes are mported nto Europe as we, argey or the benet o the
Arcan expatrate popuatons that now ve there. These popuar 'oseeds' as they are known,
represent an mportant source o ncome or the rura ames who coect and process them,
especay n the wet orest bet o ameroon.
Kernes rom the dred seeds o Rcnodendron heudeot,
ocay known as njansang, are amongst the most avoured
orest products consumed and sod n oca markets. These
energy-rch kernes, whch contan hgh eves o at,
proten and cacum, can be substtuted or groundnuts or
used n cookng, ether ground or n a paste. The ruts are
generay harvested (many rom centra ameroon) rom
Juy to September, appearng earer or ater n derent
regons. The eshy ruts, whch change rom yeowy-
green to back on rpenng, are not eaten by peope
athough they are enjoyed by some anmas. Each rut
contans - reddy-brown or back seeds, wth sma whte
kernes wthn.
Bush mango
Bush mango kernes, rom a wd speces o mango, are another popuar orest product n
ameroon. The ruts, whch turn rom green to yeow on rpenng, are harvested rom two
reated tree speces. lrvnga gabonenss bears rut rom June to August, whe l. wombuu ruts
rom January to Narch. The oca name or these trees s 'andok', and the ruts and kernes, both
o whch are edbe, are known as 'ndok'. The seeds contan snge kernes, whch change rom
whte to yeow when dred. Ther coour and odour are the most appeang characterstcs. ln the

vomen se the bush mango kernes n heaps or n the

orm o a soded paste.

south-west, the resh kernes st covered wth ther stones are preerred because o the avour
they mpart when cookng sauces. But n the rest o the country, peope preer the odour o the
dred kernes.
Harvestng the bounty
Both njansang and bush mango trees sometmes reach (o m n heght and + m n dameter. They
grow n the humd orest zone o ameroon but are ncreasngy beng cutvated as we, n cocoa
pantatons, home gardens and on arms. vhen grown rom seed, they take around +o years to
start producng rut. The wood o these trees can be used as a budng matera, whe the roots,
eaves and bark are sometmes gathered or medcna purposes.
Harvestng the ruts or ther kernes however, represents the trees' man usage. lortunatey, ths
harvestng s non-destructve. vomen and chdren coect arge quanttes o the ruts and prepare
the seeds or processng. vth access to the necessary capta and transport however, t s the men
who contro the whoesae marketng o the njansang kernes. lor bush mango, t s argey the
women who market and se the kernes n urban and rura markets, athough men carry out much
o the producton.
Harvestng and processng njansang seeds
The abour ntensve producton o njansang kernes occurs
partcuary around the man growng area - ameroon's
entra provnce. lrst, the rut s coected and then
covered wth oage to acceerate the ermentaton o the
pup. Ater approxmatey one week, the stones are washed
and separated rom the sotened rut by hand. The stones
are then boed over a ow re or at east ( hours to crack
the seed coats.
The kernes are extracted usng smpe toos ke knves or
attened nas, beore beng dred n the sun or on a tray
over a re - a process whch turns them a yeowy-brown
coour and ensures that they deveop the avour and
scent buyers avour. The hghest quanttes o njansang
kernes are traded n Yaounde's Nound market, and
Douaa's New-Be market - and rom these ocatons, the
product nds ts way to many other urban and rura
Bong the njansang seeds sotens and cracks open the
seed coats, makng t easer to extract the kernes.
Extractng bush mango kernes
Bush mango processng, ke that o njansang, s a
abour ntensve, oca actvty that ony requres the
use o basc toos. The ruts are crushed and the
stones are extracted wth the assstance o a
machete or kne. The stones are then soaked n
water to actate the remova o ther tough brous
coatng. Aternatvey, the rpe ruts may be juced,
sometmes commercay, producng a drnk that
chdren n partcuar enjoy. vhen a the pup has
been removed, the remanng stones are dred -
another technque that asssts wth the remova o
the brous coatng.
The dred seeds are much easer to hande than the stcky resh ones and can be preserved or qute
a ong tme or kept n the orm o a seed cake or paste. Bush mango producton vares between
cutura areas and s most ntensve n the South, South-vest and entra provnces. The man
tradng centres and dstrbuton ponts are the Eboowa and Nound markets.
The harvester/processors generay receve amost two thrds o the na consumer prce. However,
oca market prces uctuate, dependng upon actors ke kerne quaty, the season (and eve o
scarcty or abundance), and the transport dstance rom the man producton areas. lor exampe,
the prce per kg o bush mango kernes was US; +.(o n +,,; but n +,,8 and +,,,, durng a perod
o ncreased scarcty, the prce rose to US; .o. The commerca vaue o njansang kernes has aso
uctuated. At the Nound market t atered a tte, rom US; +,;o n +,,; to US; +,+8o n +,,8.
Durng the same tmespan at the New-Be market, the man market n ameroon's admnstratve
provnce, where most o the marketng and aso, reseng (to domestc and export traders) takes
pace, the tota vaue ncreased rom US; (8,;oo to US; ((,.
ln addton to the domestc trade, the kernes are sod to a number o neghbourng countres. lor
exampe, the trade o bush mango kernes to Gabon, Equatora Gunea, Ngera and the entra
Arcan Repubc was vaued at US; o,ooo per annum n +,,;. Both bush mango and njansang
kernes are aso exported to Europe, where they are sod n specaty shops and grocers, argey to
mmgrants rom vest and entra Arca. Around US; + buys o gm o bush mango kernes or +oo
gm o njansang kernes - wth much o the proceeds gong towards sustanng the ameroonan
ames who harvest, process and trade these popuar products.
= The authors woud ke to acknowedge the assstance o Abdon Awono (llOR research assstant) n the
compaton o ths case.
Bush mango and njansang kernes are sod n specaty shops and
grocers n Europe.
Bush pum
Ngeran case by Hassan G. Adewus
Dacryodes edus (G. Don) H.J. lam

Bush pum: The a-purpose amy tree

The bush pum o vest Arca (Dacryodes edus) has amost as many uses as t has shapes,
szes and names. Ths ndgenous ranorest tree suppes vagers wth ood or ther
tabes, wood or makng toos, cookng o, vestock eed, resn to sea gourds and mend
earthenware, and tradtona medcnes. The speces' mutpe and vared uses make t one
o the most hghy vaued wd pants n vest Arca.
Bush pum trees grow wd n humd, owand tropca ranorests. These orests spread
rom south-western Ngera down through ameroon, Gabon, the ongo Basn and as ar
south as Angoa and Zamba. The speces has been graduay cutvated and commercased
over the past o years, and bush pum trees are now ound n garden pots and arms ar
beyond ther natura habtat.
larmers commony have three to our sem-
domestcated trees growng on ther
average-szed, one-hectare arms. Ther
patent seecton and cutvaton o desrabe
trats has created seven varatons o ths
rut, derng n shape, coour, sze, taste,
and n the thckness o the 'mesocarp' or
eshy pup. larmers have aso succeeded n
'orcng' ther trees to produce much earer.
ln the wd, bush pums begn to rut ater
+o-+ years. On arms, pruned and cutvated
trees bear rut wthn three years, whe
unpruned trees start reproducng ater ve years.
A mut-purpose tree
Bush pum trees are a nutrtous source o ood. Ther rut -
whch s known by varous other names, ncudng Arcan pum,
bush pear, natve pear, saou or saouter (n lrench-speakng
Arcan natons) - s eaten as a suppement to the man det or as
a snack. The resh pup s qute oy and has a pear-ke avour. lt
can be eaten raw (once thoroughy washed), or ater beng
steamed, or roasted and sotened n hot ash. lt s oten eaten
between meas, partcuary wth boed or roasted maze durng
the 'hungry season', when most stapes such as yam, cocoyam,
and rce are not yet mature.
lruts are graduay harvested as
they rpen. None are et by the end
o the season.
The rut pup s rch n proten and has a good baance o amno
acds. The rut tse yeds about (8 per cent edbe o, whch s
reported to be reatvey stabe, and compares avouraby wth
wdey used vegetabe os. The 'cotyedon' or seed sprout,
aso yeds o, as do the kernes - whch can be ed to
sheep and goats ater the o has been extracted.
Resn rom the bark o the tree s used to sea vesses
ke bows made rom 'caabashes' or gourds, and
to repar earthenware. The tmber s good or
too handes, axe shats, mortars and carpentry,
whe the eaves, bark, roots and other parts o
the tree are used to treat a varety o aments.
utura uses are aso wdespread. ln certan
parts o south-eastern Ngera, or exampe,
bush pum trees are a sgn o ether hosptaty
or hostty to vstors, whe the kernes are
used to orete the uture.
A amy aar
ln the typca rura househod o seven peope, about ha the amy members are nvoved
n harvestng bush pums and makng varous products rom the tree. About a thrd o the
amy, many the women and chdren, are nvoved n marketng the goods.
The bush pum tree's prmary economc vaue es n the sae o ts rut. Nature trees yed
between +oo and +o ooo ruts a year, generatng US; ;-+o n cash ncome. ln Ngera,
the trade extends through the major ctes, and nto dstant sem-ard and ard areas
thousands o kometres away rom where the trees are grown.
The rut s packed nto kg baskets and transported through the coo o the nght or
eary mornng devery n ctes. Durng the peak producton perod, baskets se or
between US; o.,-+.o at the arm gate, and are resod n ctes or US; +.oo-+.;o.
The uture
Bush pum trees have been commercay mportant ocay and natonay or many years,
and nternatona markets are currenty expandng. The trade appears sustanabe because
harvestng methods do not harm the tree tse, and ew trees n the wd are expoted.
Nore than ,o per cent o bush pum products are made rom trees n home gardens and
agroorestry systems. Bush pums provde a ong-term source o ncome as rut
producton eves ony begn to decne ater o years.
The rut s generay avaabe n markets between Nay
and November.
But there s st penty o room or mprovement. Some researchers have noted a need to
study the boogy and the commerca potenta o Dacryodes edus. Despte beng grown
on arms or many years, the speces remans argey unmproved and sem-domestcated,
whch means there s scope to greaty boost producton and quaty.
Potenta mprovements ncude bgger, sma-seeded, creamer ruts, thcker esh, and
shorter, aster maturng trees. Encouragng the cutvaton and commercasaton o D.
edus w enhance the seecton o ete specmens rom the hghy varabe wd stocks.
Ths w n turn, promote the adopton and practce o conservaton strateges or bush
pum trees n the wd. onservaton o the speces and mprovement o ts rut w hep
boost nternatona trade. Addtona export products rom these trees coud ncude
cookng o, margarne, soap, cosmetcs and anma eed.
vhat s mosty needed, however, are better organsed producton and marketng systems.
The road network wthn the producton area s n a serous state o dsrepar. Easy passage
s ony partay possbe durng the short dry perod o the year, and ths s aectng the
producers' capacty to get bush pums to market. Ths vauabe rut w contnue to benet
a o the peope nvoved natonay n ts producton, transportaton and trade. vth
urther mprovements n producton and marketng uture soca and economc gans may
be possbe or rura communtes.
Bush pums are exported rom ameroon and entra Arca, to Europe. ln Pars, lrance,
where ameroonans can buy products rom ther home country and other Arcan
natons, + kg o resh Dacroydes edus rut costs +o-+ Euro (about US; +(-+).
Vteara paradoxa .l. Gaertner
Shea butter
Benn case by Kathrn Schreckenberg
Shea butter: lrom cookng at
to cosmetcs and chocoates
vhen there s no botted sunower or maze o or cookng, what do peope do'
ln northern Benn, as n most o the southern Sahe and Sudan zones o Arca, shea butter
s the most common and aordabe type o cookng at. ln non-pastora areas t s
sometmes the ony type avaabe, wth a typca amy consumng around +o gm per day.
Nade rom dred shea rut kernes, shea butter s aso used n tradtona medcne and soap
makng, whe the rut tse makes a tasty and nutrtous snack.
lnternatonay, shea butter s used as a cocoa butter equvaent. lor exampe, n chocoate
makng ts hgh metng pont resuts n ncreased shne and hardness at room temperature.
ln addton to ood appcatons, a new market has aso recenty opened up - the producton
o 'natura' cosmetcs. Shea butter's hydratng, protectng and sotenng propertes are
makng t a vauabe ngredent n skn care creams and shampoos.
Shea butter has been traded n Arca snce the
ourteenth century. ln the eary twenteth
century, t was exported to Europe or margarne
and cande producton and today, the European
export market s worth around US; + mon per
year. The coecton and trade o shea products s
argey the doman o women, wth oca peope
descrbng shea as a 'gt rom God to hep
women survve'. lts lrench name, 'karte', comes
rom the Doua anguage, meanng 'tree o e'.
Shea trees on agrcutura and
vhen armers cear new eds, they generay
retan ther mature shea trees. These medum
szed trees grow best n open sunght and have a
thck bark protectng them aganst the requent
savanna grassand res. Regeneratng easy
rom seed, shea trees bear rut ater about +
years and can contnue rutng or around oo
lamy hodngs throughout the Sahe and Sudan regon are
oten surrounded by agrcutura eds, contanng about shea
trees per hectare - ar more than you woud nd growng n
natura vegetaton.
years. Yeds are generay good once every years but ths does vary between trees. A
snge tree may produce around o kg o rut (or kg o dred kernes).
Harvestng and processng shea butter
vomen and chdren coect ruts o the ground rom Apr to
August, usuay when gong to and rom the eds. The rottng rut
esh s dscarded or ed to vestock and the nuts are dred n the sun
or n ta ovens beore beng genty pounded to remove ther shes.
Ater beng sun dred or a ew days, the kernes can then be stored
or up to years.
Nakng the butter requres arge amounts o uewood and water.
The kernes are coarsey pounded and roasted beore beng ground
nto a smooth brown paste and mxed wth water to separate out the
at. vashng, bong and decantng removes mpurtes and the
resutant butter can then be stored n a coo pace or severa months.
The transormaton rate o oca processng s very ecent and
produces + kg o butter rom kg o dred kernes.
Nost processng or the nternatona ood ndustry occurs n
European actores, usng modern technoogy to obtan the butter.
Ths renng process stabses the butter but aso reduces some o
the quates vaued or cosmetcs. So, some cosmetcs companes
source ther butter drecty rom Arcan processors.
To market
A ew women are consdered 'specasts' n makng shea butter,
producng arge quanttes or sae, but most retan ony enough
kernes to make butter or home consumpton, seng the
remander. ln an average year, women may coect +o-oo kg o
dred kernes and dependng on ther nanca needs, may se the
entre coecton or sma amounts at the market to cover weeky
ood costs. Prces vary rom US; o.o-o.o per kg but can reach
US; o. per kg the cocoa harvest s poor.
Dependng on the prce and the amounts coected and aso,
retaned or home use, women can earn US; ;- rom the sae o
kernes. Ths can provde an mportant source o 'ump-sum'
ncome, or exampe, or buyng agrcutura stocks or cothes.
l tme aows, women undertake speca
ha day trps to gather shea ruts,
returnng wth headoads o over (o kg.
To produce butter pats or sae, warm
creamy butter s scooped nto a sma
caabash and then aowed to harden n
cod water.

Between August and November, agents vst oca markets or vages to purchase kernes.
Some are processed nto butter n vest Arcan actores but most are exported to Europe
and Japan or processng, ater reappearng as cosmetc ngredents or as 'vegetabe ats' n
a varety o ood products.
Shea has provded oca peope n the Sahe regon wth a
ong and reatvey stabe hstory o moderate ncome
generaton. Narket stabty has been assured argey
because the product can ether be consumed and traded
ocay or nternatonay and ts mutpe uses have
protected t rom the threat o substtuton. lnvovement
n shea coecton s open to a women and the benets
are ary eveny dstrbuted aong the marketng chan.
Nevertheess, certan trends are pacng onger term
pressure on the resource. hanges n agrcutura practces
(e.g. the ntroducton o cotton monocutures) are
promotng the remova o shea and other natve trees. loca butter consumpton s aso
changng. Shea butter s st the cheapest cookng at but some ethnc groups are movng
to pam or groundnut os.
Snce harvestng and processng don't requre capta nvestment, shea kernes are
partcuary mportant or those wth ew other optons, ncudng edery or
newywed women. But as coecton s tme consumng and yeds and prces are
uncertan, more ucratve actvtes are sought. The combnaton o
agrcutura pressures, decnng butter consumpton and the preerence o
women or aternatve actvtes, means the uture o shea w depend on
nternatona (and to some extent domestc) demand. Ths s
nuenced n part, by cocoa butter prces, the proporton o shea
butter aowed n chocoates (currenty ony per cent) and
ncreasngy, the cosmetc ndustry's requrements or kernes or
ocay produced butter.
Butter seers typcay transorm + kg o dred kernes per week, nto ( kg
o butter. Kerne prces vary three-od over the season but prots reman
steady at around US; o.;o per week, through retanng a standard butter
pat prce but varyng the sze.
vomen buy shea kernes or processng nto butter.
Prunus medcna bark
ameroonan case by Nouhou Ndam
Prunus arcana (Hook. .) Kakman
Prunus arcana: A tradtona
medcne nds nternatona ame
Prunus arcana, ocay known and traded as 'pygeum', s a medum szed evergreen tree
wth mutpe uses, rangng rom oca to goba. Prunus eaves and bark have been used n
tradtona remedes or centures and they contnue to pay an mportant medcna roe
today. Rura peope n ameroon and other Arcan countres where these trees grow, aso
use the strong, hard wood to make tems ke axe handes and poes or budng
constructon, or as a source o rewood. The pygeum ruts are eaten by brds and nsects,
and sometmes humans as we, athough they are beeved to contan some toxc
ln tradtona medcne ea nusons are consumed to mprove appette or are used as an
nhaant to remedy ever, whe the resh eaves can be used to dress wounds. Varous bark
preparatons treat a range o aments - ncudng maara, stomach-aches, urnary
probems, sexuay transmtted dseases, chest pans and heartburn. Bark concoctons are
aso used as a purgatve or catte.
ln the ate +,os, t was dscovered that Prunus arcana
aso had potenta n modern medcne. ln recent decades,
actve ngredents rom the bark have been utsed
around the word to treat mons o oder men suerng
rom nammaton o the prostate, a dsorder that eads
to urnaton dcutes.
Prunus trees n danger
Prunus arcana grows to m n heght n mountanous
orest regons n countres, mosty on the eastern sde
o the Arcan contnent. lts range extends rom eastern
Arca westward towards centra Arca, wth a number o
separate popuatons aso appearng n vest Arcan
countres ke ameroon and Ngera, and n Nadagascar
as we.
A number o actors have adversey aected Prunus
arcana stocks. ln ameroon, entre trees are sometmes
cut down beore the bark s removed, or the bark may be
Prunus arcana bark s processed nto non-
crystane and pured crystane extracts, the
actve ngredents n the medca treatment o
prostate dsorders. An estmated oo kg o resh
bark yeds around + kg o extract.

competey peeed o standng trees. Ether way, trees harvested

n such a manner tend to de. Another major threat s the
wdespread cearance o montane orest or armng, n maara-
ree hghands. vth the decne o word market prces or cocoa
and coee, arge areas o orest are beng cut down to create more
crop arms to compensate or ost revenues.
Amdst concerns or the uture o ths speces, the nternatona
communty ncuded Prunus arcana n the onventon on
lnternatona Trade n Endangered Speces (lTES). Ths means
exports now need to be montored. ameroon was the major
exporter o Prunus bark throughout the +,8os and ,os, accountng
or an average +8oo tonnes per year. However, ths has taken
pace wthout any assessment o standng stock or sustanabe
harvestng practces, and the eect on Prunus arcana
popuatons has been devastatng, partcuary n north-west
Savagng the stuaton
Gven the unrestraned depeton o natura stocks, the
ameroonan government s currenty revewng harvestng
practces and the need or conservaton measures. lt s aso
supportng ntatves to determne expotaton quotas, expore
the prospect o pantng to boost suppes, and undertake an
educaton campagn. However, the rate o progress has been
crtcsed and t appears too ate or expotaton quotas n some
areas, gven the aready hgh eves o over-expotaton. Athough
n a ew paces, ke Nount ameroon, nternatona deveopment
or commerca projects are ocusng on assessng sustanabe
harvest eves and methods.
A number o technques have been dented, ncudng takng bark ony rom mature trees,
removng the bark n patches, and not re-harvestng or a perod o (- years to aow or
regrowth. The bark s harvested wth cutasses and stakes and then ted nto bundes or
carryng home. Drt and debrs are removed and the bark s dred n the sun beore beng
sod to traders or drecty to actores or processng. Sustanabe practces w have the
best outcomes n areas where there are adequate suppes, harvestng and access are secure,
and ncentves exst to encourage harvesters to better manage Prunus stocks.
ln ameroon, a harvester coectng o kg o
bark per day can earn an average o US;
o.(o+.oo per kg. Ths prce can ncrease to
around ;US +- per kg the mddeman s
cut out. lor harvesters vng n Nount
ameroon, bark coecton accounts or
about ;o per cent o ther tota annua
The uture o the Prunus trade and
ln addton to ts tradtona oca uses, Prunus arcana
generates a ot o money. vordwde, ts reta vaue s
n the order o US; o mon per year, athough ony
about + per cent o prots reach the rura communtes
where t s harvested. Nevertheess, sucent ncome
s generated to make bark harvestng a worthwhe
actvty or oca peope. lookng to the uture,
thousands o sma scae armers have aso
commenced growng ths tree on ther and.
To date, actors such as the State's aure to set
sustanabe quota eves and contro expotaton have
exacerbated the over-harvestng o ths speces,
partcuary n paces where corrupton eves are hgh,
or where there s a "ree or a" harvest. l the
management o Prunus arcana s to become more
sustanabe, the eorts o many peope w be
requred - ncudng authortes, oca communtes,
traders, processors and consumers. onstructve
actons on the part o the government coud ncude
smpyng the acquston o speca permts by
groups commtted to sustanabe management, caryng the ownershp o panted stands
and the harvestng rghts o owners, and determnng quota aocatons and other
management gudenes or both wd and cutvated Prunus stocks.
Rura communtes coud demonstrate ther commtment to mprovng oca management
by controng ega expotaton wthn the ramework o oca unons, avodng deas wth
mddemen, and enhancng Prunus cutvaton n agroorestry systems. Harvesters and
traders shoud compy wth the provsons o ther expotaton permts and censes. lor
nstance, ensurng that extracted wd stocks are compensated or through regeneraton
measures, accordng to government requrements. Aso, pharmaceutca companes shoud
provde source countres wth a arer share o benets rom the Prunus bark trade. vth
market demand key to ncrease, such coaboratve eorts by a stakehoders w be
requred to ensure the contnuous avaabty o Prunus bark - not ony to meet cash needs,
but aso onger term amy and heath care needs.

Bark harvestng s hard work, requrng coectors to

cmb Prunus trees and carry o-;o kg oads o bark
through mountanous orest. Hence, ths actvty s
most sutabe or strong, young men.
UmNemez cosmetc bark
South Arcan case by Nchee ocks and Tony Dod
asspourea anagan (Schnz) Aston
UmNemez bark: osmetc use
threatens natve tree
"Ukumemeza!" ln the Xhosa anguage o South Arca, t
means to ca aoud or to attract attenton. Ths expresson
aso ends ts meanng to a sma orest tree and the popuar
skn cosmetc made rom ts powdered bark. The endangered
UmNemez tree grows wd n a sma area o South Arca's
Eastern ape Provnce, where poor vage women n
partcuar, harvest ts bark to suppy a growng natona
market. Young Xhosa women mx the powdered bark wth a
tte water to make a pae, reddsh brown paste, whch they
appy to ther aces to concea bemshes, mprove ther
compexon and ghten ther skn.
The quest or beauty
Xhosa peope consder a ghter skn tone to be more attractve
and have used varous products as ghtenng agents. The
desrabty o ghter skn was renorced durng the years o
aparthed n South Arca, when dark skn was nked to raca
nerorty and ghter skn tones oten made t easer to nd
avour. Ths desre or ghter skn has not dmnshed n recent
tmes and varous cosmetcs, both natura and synthetc, are
st used today.
Athough Xhosa women have made cosmetcs rom grass roots, ung and even cay or
centures, the use o UmNemez was ony documented or the rst tme n the md-+,;os.
lts popuarty ncreased dramatcay ater +,,o, when new aws restrcted mercury-based,
commerca ghtenng products, whch coud cause serous damage to the skn. The
growng trade n tradtona preparatons based on pants such as UmNemez (asspourea
anagan) and a cosey reated speces (. gerrard), has seen the bark become avaabe
n herba street markets and 'amayeza' stores (chemsts) throughout South Arca.
However, ths desre to be ght-sknned s posng a threat to these speces, as over-
harvestng s occurrng to suppy the urban demand.
vomen use the powdered UmNemez
bark as a skn cosmetc to mprove ther
compexon and ghten ther skn.
oectors and traders
ln the Eastern ape, bark harvesters, many women, reguary coect UmNemez bark and
other pant materas to se n the herba markets o nearby towns and ctes. Harvestng
takes pace many on the weekends or eary on weekday mornngs. The work s qute
strenuous and oder chdren oten assst ther mothers. Together they remove the bark
rom the trees wth an axe, takng t home to scrape and remove debrs such as chen. The
bark s then et to dry n the sun or two days beore beng cut nto sma peces o about
+ x cm. Hardy any transormaton takes pace rom raw matera to end product and no
urther processng or packagng s requred.
UmNemez s bought drecty rom the coector-street traders and s resod at much hgher
prces at smar markets n the arger ctes. Some urban entrepreneurs package
UmNemez powder n sma bottes and se t n herba medcne shops. vth the ncreased
commercasaton o the product, recenty a actory-processed and packaged product has
aso become avaabe n the centra busness dstrcts o some provnces. onsumers smpy
buy the dred bark and grnd t wth a grante stone, or they purchase the bark n a
powdered orm. Ths powder s then mxed wth water to make a paste, whch can be
apped day to the ace as a skn ghtener.
The sae o dred UmNemez bark has created a
ucratve norma trade. lt ses or about US; .(
per kg. lt s estmated that neary +oo kg s
harvested every year rom the Pre State
lorest aone - the man source o suppes.
UmNemez accounts or +( per cent o the
coector-traders' tota ncome rom the
sae o varous wd pants. ln arge
neghbourng ctes, ths hgh vaue
product ses or as much as US; +,.(8
per kg, representng a mark up by street
traders, o some oo per cent.
Nost coector-traders are women aged
( to . Understandng the use and
vaue o the bark, they adjust the prce
dependng on the buyer - wth whte
entrepreneurs payng sgncanty more
than back entrepreneurs.
The uture or ths embatted tree'
The desre or ghter skn has not dmnshed n recent years despte the end o aparthed.
The bannng o harmu commerca skn products has ony ncreased demand or the
UmNemez cosmetc and arge quanttes o bark are beng harvested to suppy urban
markets. However, the number o trees growng wd s very mted and strppng too much
bark rom them can ead to ther death. oupe a o these actors together and the end
resut s over-expotaton o natura stocks.
UmNemez s an understorey pant that grows wd n certan orests. Despte the rarty
and hgh vaue o these sma trees, there are no managed or cutvated pantatons. Nost
orests contanng UmNemez are State-owned and managed, but the State acks the
capacty to manage the orests eectvey and there s very tte contro over harvestng.
lurthermore, there are no customary rues or communty orest management
programmes, and current harvestng rates are smpy unsustanabe. lndscrmnate
remova o the bark s kng these trees. lew arge UmNemez trees reman ater beng
rngbarked n the past, rasng concern that there are now vrtuay no mature trees et to
reproduce and keep the speces ave. Ths speces, the boogy o whch s poory
understood scentcay, has been sted as crtcay endangered.
UmNemez harvesters are oten poor, terate women who rey on seng wd pant
matera to support ther ames. ln +,,8, the State adopted a Partcpatory lorest
Nanagement Pocy that nvoves oca communtes more and endeavours to oster
sustanabe orest use. ommerca harvestng o UmNemez bark remans ega, yet ts
coecton contnues to occur, argey due to the strong demand or suppes, and the
opportunty t provdes or poor peope to earn ncome rom a ree resource. But wthout
approprate steps beng taken to ncrease user groups' ownershp o and responsbty or
the resource, the kehood o sustanabe extracton s extremey ow.
There s an urgent need or studes nto ths tree's boogy, aternatve harvestng methods
and the potenta or domestc cutvaton at a grassroots eve to ensure that ths speces s
not harvested to extncton. The bark gatherers are tradtonay subsstence armers and
possess armng sks as we as ecoogca knowedge o both the orest and the speces
tse, whch woud be essenta or successu domestcaton. lurther research s aso
recommended to determne whether parts o the tree other than the bark can be used, to
possby reduce the destructve bark harvestng.
varburga medcna bark
Zmbabwean case by Anthony unnngham
varburga sautars (Berto. .) hov.
Nuranga returns! Zmbabwean
medcna bark
Ths s the story o the rentroducton o Zmbabwes most mportant medcna pant
speces. ln the +,;os, the pepper-bark tree (varburga sautars) was over-expoted,
becomng ocay extnct wthn ts natura habtat - the margns o hgh attude,
evergreen orests. But n recent years, armers have been repantng varburga n
agroorestry systems heradng the return o ths economcay and cuturay mportant
The pepper-bark tree produces an eectve medcna bark whch has been tradtonay
used n southern Arca. A natura ant-mcroba remedy, both the bark and eaves are
used to treat yeast, unga, bactera and protozoa nectons. They are aso used as a
duretc and n the treatment o dyspepsa. The bark and eaves have a hot peppery taste
and are commony chewed n an unprocessed orm, or the bark s ground nto a powder.
locay known as muranga (Shona), sbaha (Zuu, sNdebee, sSwat) or chbaha
(Tsonga), varburga bark can be ound or sae n the urban markets o Nozambque,
Swazand, South Arca, lesotho and Zmbabwe.
varburga sautars trees have smpe, gossy eaves and generay grow -+o m hgh,
athough they can reach up to o m. ln southern Arca, ths speces has a mted
dstrbuton and was recenty sted as a vunerabe regona speces by the vord
onservaton Unon (lUN). The stuaton n Zmbabwe however, s partcuary acute.
vd growng varburga trees were ormery restrcted to orest ecotones on a ew most,
hgh attude stes n south-eastern Zmbabwe. But the hgh commerca demand or ther
bark has ed to the depeton o these stocks.
Over-harvestng o muranga trees
The combnaton o weak and tenure, destructve bark harvestng and the hgh vaue o
ths product has had a negatve mpact on muranga stocks throughout southern Arca. ln
the eary +,os, the German botanst Jacob Gerstner, who spent many years vng n
northern KwaZuu, South Arca, recorded that bags o muranga bark were beng
transported rom Huhuwe to Durban or sae. lor more than a decade he attempted to
coect the owers or ruts o ths speces or scentc dentcaton but a he ound were
stere coppce shoots sproutng rom aready expoted trees. ln +,;, three Zmbabwean
botansts had a smar experence, ndng ony a ew dead or dyng trees and coectng the
ast root coppces to pant sx trees n the Harare Botanca Garden. Today, these have
grown ta - but they too are beng debarked!
By the ate +,,os, muranga had become ocay extnct due to over-harvestng or medcna
purposes. Bark suppes then had to be brought nto Zmbabwe rom the Nozambcan sde
o the hmanman mountans. The destructon o muranga popuatons n Zmbabwe was
seen as a conservaton probem as
we as an ssue o concern to oca
peope and tradtona heaers, who
ost access to ths mportant herba
ln +,,, the vord vde lund or
Nature (vvl), Unted Natons
Educatona, Scentc and utura
Organzaton (UNESO) and the
Kew Botanca Gardens Peope and
Pants lntatve carred out a "oca
needs" survey. The resuts showed
that the rentroducton o muranga
through the transpantng o rooted
cuttngs was a vabe opton or
our reasons. lrsty, ths tree
speces has a hgh cutura vaue
assocated wth ts medcna roe. Secondy, the rentroducton o muranga s useu rom
a conservaton perspectve. Thrdy, the hgh vaue o the bark (around US; per kg n
Zmbabwe), couped wth ts vgorous resproutng abty and reasonaby rapd growth rate,
suggest that t s an economcay vabe agroorestry tree speces. lnay, severa thousand
rooted cuttngs were avaabe rom a South Arcan orestry company whch had mass
produced varburga pants rom cuttngs n the md-+,,os when the pepper-bark tree was
nomnated as South Arca's Tree o the Year.
ln ate +,,; and eary +,,8, a pot project was set up to rentroduce varburga seedngs
back nto Zmbabwe. Ths was coordnated by vvl-Zmbabwe and the oca non-
government organsaton, SAllRE (the Southern Aance or lndgenous Resources).
However, despte metcuous documentaton (phytosantary certcates, export and
mport permts), careu packng n cooer boxes and the expense o ar-reghtng +oo
cuttngs (temporary removed rom the so or phytosantary reasons), the young trees
had a rude awakenng. They were deayed by Zmbabwean ustoms or severa hot summer
Hgh market prces ed to pepper-bark trees beng competey
grded and arge branches beng chopped down to obtan the
bark. vhen a the above-ground bark has been removed n ths
way, roots are then dug up and the root bark s taken as we -
sgnang the death kne or the tree!
days beore SAllRE was abe to rescue them. Severa hundred seedngs ded but enough
survved or pantng out n the south-east o the country - the speces ormer Zmbabwean
heartand. lmportanty, ths rentroducton dd not take pace n the orests, as the ack o
ndvdua rghts woud have been key to ead to over-harvestng agan. lnstead, the
seedngs were panted nto the home gardens o oca armers.
ln +,,,, a group o botansts, economsts and rura deveopment ed
workers assessed the muranga rentroducton as part o a Unversty o
Zmbabwe tranng course. Ther economc anayss o ths pot
project, aong wth market prce data rom a survey o oca herba
medcne markets, strongy suggest that the rentroducton o
varburga sautars n south-eastern Zmbabwe s a vabe practce.
The repantng aso has great potenta to enhance the conservaton o
an endangered speces whe smutaneousy mprovng the vehoods
o oca rura peope. The muranga cutvaton s protabe and
beneca or both soca and economc reasons, partcuary or
tradtona heaers (wth a benet to cost rato o (:+) and aso or
sma-hoder armers (wth a benet to cost rato o (:+).
The soca vaues o ths speces are mportant to consder at a tme
when HlV s wdespread n southern Arca, and most Zmbabweans
are acng economc chaos, hyper-naton and decnng access to
pharmaceutca medcnes. varburga bark rom cutvated trees
represents a source o ncome and aso contrbutes to oca se-
sucency n heath care. ln South Arca, ps contanng reeze-dred
varburga eaves are beng used to treat secondary nectons n
patents wth HlV. lresh eaves can aso be used and these are now
beng harvested by the armers who panted muranga and who have
asssted ts return to Zmbabwe.
varburga and other tradtona
Arcan medcnes, ke Sutheranda
and Arcan Gnger, can be bought
va the nternet. varburga s
descrbed as the most vauabe o the
natura Arcan ant-mcrobas and
the bark and eaves have been used
to treat nectons or centures.
Devs caw medcna root
Namban - Botswanan - South Arcan case by Rache vynberg
Harpagophytum procumbens subsp. procumbens (Burch.) D. ex Nesn
Dev's aw: The root o tradtona
and modern medcnes
'Dev's caw' s sad to str wd anmas nto a crazy dance to rd ther eet o ts thorny
seeds, but the root o ths weed, whch grows n the red, sandy sos o the Kaahar Desert
n southern Arca, brngs wecome ree to humans the word over. The pant's roots are
hghy vaued both ocay and n the vest or treatng a wde varety o human and
vestock aments.
Tradtonay, the root s used to reeve ever and abour pan, cure bood dseases, ease
muscuar aches, pans and stomach probems, and treat sores. Ths tradtona knowedge
ed a German researcher to rease the pant's commerca potenta and commence ts
exportaton n the +,os. ln the vest, extracts are wdey used n pharmaceutca products,
herba remedes and cosmetcs. The pant s best known or ts roe n the treatment o
arthrts and rheumatsm, and studes have conrmed ts ant-nammatory propertes.
Extracts are consdered comparabe wth cortsone and the drug phenybutazone, but
wthout the sde eects.
A gt rom the desert
Two reated speces are used: Harpagophytum procumbens
and Harpagophytum zeyher. They are easy conused, but H.
procumbens s the most commony traded and nternatonay
recognsed. Dev's caw s a sprawng, ow-yng pant wth
grey-green eaves and pnk owers, whch deveop nto ruts
wth severa ong arms and sharp, hooked thorns. These catch
on the woo, tas or eet o passng anmas, servng to
dsperse the seeds wthn. The most common name, 'dev's
caw', s thought to orgnate rom the bedeved dance o
anmas desperate to dsodge the prcky seeds, but the pant
aso goes by around o other oca names.
Dev's caw grows n sandy, ard regons, survvng dry
perods by ormng water-storng secondary roots that
sprout rom the man tubers. Nedca treatments are made
rom these secondary roots, whch sprout as ar down as m,
vary n ength rom (- cm and are up to cm n dameter.
A weath o tradtona knowedge underpns the
vestern use o dev's caw.
Dev's caw s consdered a weed and s oten more abundant
n dsturbed, tramped or overgrazed areas. Thrty years ago,
vagers reported dev's caw was common around ther
homes. Nowadays, coecton requres "campng out" because
the pant s no onger ound wthn an easy dstance or day
harvestng. Drought and goats are party to bame or the
scarcty but commerca harvestng s aso takng ts to. On
the other hand, the remoteness and naccessbty o these
pants n many areas aords them some measure o
Nonetheess, harmu harvestng technques, combned wth
an escaaton o nternatona trade, have rased concerns
about ths pant's uture. There s dscusson about stng
dev's caw under the onventon on lnternatona Trade n
Endangered Speces (lTES), whch montors trade n
speces consdered at rsk n the wd. ompanes are aso
ncreasngy ookng at the pant's potenta or cutvaton,
but oten wthout consderng the broader soca, economc
and envronmenta mpacts. Successu cutvaton coud
reduce pressure on wd stocks but aso, dsadvantage
mpovershed rura peope who rey on coectng dev's caw
as ther ony source o cash ncome. lstng the speces under
lTES woud urther aect trade rom the wd.
Harvestng and processng
Dev's caw s harvested n some o the most nhosptabe and ard parts o southern Arca.
Peope n these areas, ke the San, are among the most margnased groups - oten
extremey poor and wth ew ways to make a vng. Dev's caw s a very mportant source
o ncome or about , ooo such peope.
Permt condtons ntroduced n both Namba and Botswana conne harvestng to the dry
perod between Narch and October, a restrcton mposed argey to curta over-
harvestng. Nethods o harvestng der between areas and can be destructve the whoe
pant s removed. l the secondary roots are removed careuy however, eavng the man
tuber, harvestng need not k the pant - and there s growng awareness about ths
method. Ater coecton, the roots are washed, peeed and sced nto peces, then sun-dred
on suspended nets. The dred root s then packed nto bags and stored, ready or sae.
lurther processng s mosty done n Europe.
Dev's caw s most abundant n ard regons,
where there s tte grass cover and shrubs
and trees are sparse.
A vauabe commodty
Dev's caw has been traded nternatonay or more than o years, wth most exports
gong rom Namba to Germany. There has been a substanta ncrease n export voumes
and about oo-;oo tonnes, worth US; +oo mon, are traded each year. Trade chans are
compex and vary between countres. ln most cases, harvesters suppy oca traders, who
then se the dred roots to oca exportng companes. ln some cases, non-government
organsatons (NGOs) hep harvesters trade drecty wth exporters, or purchase matera
themseves or export. lve to ten companes - one o whch contros ; per cent o word
trade n dev's caw - domnate the European market. Nost prots are reased at ths eve:
harvesters receve US; +.o per kg, and oca exporters US; +.(o-+.8o per kg, whe the reta
prce n the vest s US; +(o per kg.
l managed we, dev's caw coud: be
harvested sustanaby, contrbute to
rura vehoods and brng economc
benets to southern Arcan natons.
Some governments have good poces n
pace, but montorng and enorcement s
extremey dcut, especay n the
remote areas where dev's caw grows.
Harvesters ack good busness and
management sks, and there s
nsucent cooperaton among traders
and the governments o exportng
natons. There s vrtuay no vaue-
addng wthn the regon, and
government poces to protect the
speces and montor trade are conned to
nature conservaton departments rather than the more strategc departments o trade and
ndustry. At the nternatona eve, nsenstve cutvaton eorts and monopoy contro o
the trade prevent producers gettng ther ar share o the pant's commerca potenta and
protabty. A ths, combned wth the dcuty o competng aganst sophstcated
vestern companes, weakens the barganng power o oca traders and harvesters. Such
ssues coud be addressed n part, through harvesters assocatons.
Sometmes deep, wde hoes are dug wth a spade to extract the
entre root. However, ths harvestng technque s destructve or
both the pant and ts broader envronment. A preerabe method s
to harvest ony the secondary tubers whst eavng the man tap
root ntact.
Azadrachta ndca A. Juss.
Kenyan case by Smon K. hoge
vooden anmas rom Kenya:
leavng tracks around the word
Kenya s word amous or ts wooden carvngs. Nutsya Nunge, a muKamba man rom
vamunyu, n the Nachakos dstrct, poneered the producton and trade o woodcarvngs,
as ar back as +,+,. Today, the waKamba peope (muKamba=snguar, waKamba=pura),
who ve n the drought prone, eastern parts o Kenya, create most o the country's
carvngs. They argey contrbute to makng Kenya the bggest producer o Arcan
woodcarvngs or nternatona trade.
Kenyan carvngs are exported to countres ke the Unted States o Amerca, anada, Japan,
Span, South Arca, Germany and the Unted Kngdom. Popuar gures o wd game such
as ons, graes, rhnos and eephants, aong wth many other types o wooden scuptures,
are the end resut o an oten engthy producton and marketng chan, whch a begns
wth the acquston o wood.
arvng out a vng
Kenya s home to o,ooo-8o,ooo carvers who n turn,
generate the man source o ncome to support around
(oo,ooo dependants. These carvers depend upon wood
rom orests, arms and bushands and each year, about
o,ooo trees are eed to suppy the commerca carvng
trade. Unortunatey, ony a reatvey sma number o
tree speces are sutabe or quaty carvngs. Nost o the
preerred wood comes rom very sow growng speces
ound n orests and woodands. However, due to ntense
harvestng ther natura popuatons have been severey
reduced. Nany carvers vng n depeted areas have snce
moved to other provnces (such as entra Kenya and the
coast) n search o new raw materas and markets.
Over o per cent o woodcarvngs are currenty made rom Brachyaena huenss, known
ocay as 'muhugu'. However, t can take +oo years or these dry orest trees to attan a
grth o around (o cm and a heght o m. Suppes rom these trees have been dwndng
n recent years due to the hgh demand and ong tme span requred or regeneraton. As a
arvngs are created rom the wood o varous tree
resut, aternatve woods have been sought rom
speces ke Azadrachta ndca, ocay known as
'neem'. Ths ntroduced speces s wdey dstrbuted
aong the Kenyan coast and s ncreasngy beng used
or woodcarvng. lt s sometmes vewed as a weed due
to ts abundance and prouse natura regeneraton but
ths abundance and ts ast growth rate and good
carvng quates make t an exceent substtute or the
avoured but depeted ndgenous hardwoods.
vood or carvng s usuay harvested rom orests,
woodands and arms, and s generay obtaned wth
the ad o a power saw operated by a snge person. vood deaers, who are the man
coectors, scout or suppes rom both dstant and nearby sources, buyng rom and
owners and harvestng and deverng the wood to carvng centres.
The commerca chan
voodcarvers acqure ther sks and tranng through workng cosey wth experenced
carvers or severa years, earnng how to specase n certan types o products. The
producton o carvngs s very abour ntensve and nvoves severa processng steps,
ncudng ng, sandng, pantng and poshng. Products made rom resh or juvene
wood are dred n the shade or severa days beore the na touches are apped. The
nshed products are then sod to deaers or toursts. lt s excusvey men who carve
athough women sometmes hep wth poshng and pantng, partcuary at a househod
eve. vth a trend towards the specasaton o actvtes, some carvers aso contract out
tme demandng stages ke sandng to sked operators, whose work creates a nce smooth
nsh and resuts n the products etchng a hgher prce.
Generay, woodcarvers work n groups or co-operatves or the convenence o obtanng
wood suppes and marketng nshed products. Estabshed groups se ther products
through show rooms ocated at strategc paces n towns and ctes. arvngs are aso sod
n shops, at the entrances to game parks and aong beaches and roadsdes. large quanttes
are exported to overseas markets as we. An ncreasng number o mddemen are gettng
nvoved n the carvng marketng chan, buyng products rom carvers n a sem-nshed
state, or a cheaper prce, and then addng vaue usng sked workers to sand, posh and
pant these products. vth a hgh quaty nsh, such carvngs are destned or excusve
shops n major centres or or the export market.
Bcyces, handcarts and vehces are used to transport
the wood to carvng centres.
lnks n the chan
Nany steps can be nvoved n the producton o woodcarvngs, wth prots derng aong
the varous stages o the producton chan.
+) vood s harvested and bought or US; +-+ per m

) loadng and transport charges are US; per m

and US; o.+ per m

/km, dependng on the

) Sem-nshed products are bought or US; o- per m

(about US; +- per carvng).

Approxmatey oo peces are produced rom + m

o wood.
() Sked workers are hred to sand and posh the carvngs, whch are sod to mddemen
or toursts at carvng centres or US; -(.
) Specased mddemen and deaers arrange or urther nshng and ther hgh quaty
carvngs are then sod n excusve shops or US; -+o.
) Deaers export orders, prcng the carvngs at over US; o each.
lncreased demand or raw matera s eadng to wdespread
depeton o the more popuar carvng speces n the orests
and woodands where these trees naturay grow. Aternatve
speces wth smar carvng quates but whch are more
abundant and aster growng are graduay brdgng the gap
between suppy and demand. arvers, woodcarvng co-
operatves and prvate nvestors are consderng programmes
to encourage on-arm producton o ast growng trees to
make woodcarvng a more sustanabe ndustry n Kenya.
Ths s nked wth the 'good wood' campagn amed at
deveopng sustanabe suppes o wood rom sources
outsde natura orests - usng speces such as A. ndca, whch
can be panted n between crops and n pantatons. Ths
campagn aso encourages buyers to choose 'good wood'
carvngs. However, t s currenty dcut to dstngush
between these products and those made rom the scarcer
There s a cear need to assst both traders and buyers wth the dentcaton o carvngs
made rom 'good wood'. Ths coud be acheved through attachng abes rom an
ndependent certer to carvngs whch are made excusvey rom 'good woods' and/or are
ted to a strategy amed at suppyng wood (both 'good woods' and ndgenous speces) rom
pantatons and arms.

arvers deveop ther sks through many years o

experence and are abe to qucky transorm
peces o wood nto scuptures, usng smpe hand
Zmbabwean case by vave Standa-Gunda
Azea quanzenss vew.
NuKamba: voodcarvng rom
a ran-makng tree n Zmbabwe
Ths s the story o the Azea quanzenss tree, whch the Shona peope o Zmbabwe ca
'muKamba' and the Ndebee peope know as 'umkamba'. ln Engsh, t s reerred to as 'pod
mahogany'. Throughout Arca, the roots, seeds, eaves and wood rom these dry orest
trees have a ong and vared hstory o use, n both urban and rura househods. uturay,
because o ther arge sze, muKamba stes have oten been used or rtuas, ran-makng
and sprt appeasement ceremones. The root s tradtonay
used n herba medcne as a treatment or chest pans, kdney
probems and snakebtes. At tmes, sprtua heaers have used
the strkng red and back seeds to exorcse bad omens, whe
women have ound an aternatve use or the seed pods - as
decoratve neckaces.
Durng droughts and ood shortages, muKamba eaves are
eaten as a vegetabe and the wood has ong been used as a raw
matera or the househod manuacture o domestc
equpment ke yokes, stoos, spoons and pates. Such tems are
sometmes bartered n exchange or ood or even soca capta.
ln recent tmes, the wood has attracted a more commerca
ocus as we, n the producton o woodcarvngs and modern
oce and home urnture.
The woodcarvng boom
ln Zmbabwe, the escaaton o trade n woodcarvngs s nked
to varous natona and regona events. lrsty, the coapse o
aparthed n South Arca and severa years o domestc
potca stabty n Zmbabwe ed to ncreased toursm
between the two countres. The devauaton o the Zmbabwean doar contrbuted to the
woodcarvng boom as we - makng the country more attractve to toursts. Another actor
was the serous droughts o the ate +,8os and eary +,,os, whch orced many peope to
nd aternatve sources o ncome to suppement ther agro-pastora actvtes.
Growth n the number o crat producers and markets has been phenomena. The number
o roadsde markets seng woodcarvngs and other handcrats aong the oo km stretch
Poes ashoned rom the wood o muKamba
are used or grndng maze.
o road nkng Nasvngo to Betbrdge, on the
route connectng South Arca wth entra
Zmbabwe, has grown rom just a ew n the ate
+,8os, to more than n the ate +,,os, drecty
nvovng approxmatey (,ooo peope. Recenty
however, the country's potca nstabty has
resuted n a genera decne n the ndustry, the
Zmbabwean doar has been over-vaued and ewer
toursts are enterng the country.
Harvestng the trees
NuKamba trees are naturay ound n eastern and
southern Arca, n woodands and dry orests.
These drought resstant trees grow to +-+ m but
sometmes reach up to m. As t s ega to cut
these trees, secret harvestng occurs at nght.
Aternatvey, Zmbabwean aws aowng vagers
to coect dead trees are expoted, wth harvesters
rng barkng the trees and eavng them to de. They ater cut them wth an axe or hand saw
(as none o the wood harvesters own a motorsed power saw). l t s a arge tree, the
harvesters may dg around the edges to a depth o around + m, settng re to the root system
and pung the tree down wth ropes and oxen t doesn't a. Such harvestng technques
are destructve and eave nothng or regeneraton.
Processng the wood
Rough carvngs are shaped wth chses nto Arcan anmas ke hppos, graes or warthogs.
Next, sandpaper s used to smooth the carvngs beore they are poshed wth oor or shoe
wax. Ths whoe process can take up to + days, earnng the carver an average US;, per
product. lnanca returns or carvers vary between markets and over tme. voodcarvers
generay earn between US; +oo-oo per person, per month, dependng on market
condtons and the eve o toursm, wth the peak months beng n August and January.
ln Zmbabwe, unke woodcarvng ndustres n other parts o Arca, and especay Kenya,
there s no specasaton. The same person carres out a o the actvtes nvoved n
woodcarvng n Zmbabwe, rom harvestng through to seng. ln Kenya, where there s a
greater degree o specasaton, the product quaty s hgh and the prces etched per cubc
metre o wood are aso hgher than n Zmbabwe and Naaw.

Sma branches are taken or rewood, whe the arger ones or

carvng are removed wth an adze (chse-ke too) or axe. Ths
reduces the weght o the og or transportng to the homestead
or roadsde market, where the na carvng takes pace.

Avodng the bust - osterng more sustanabe trade

The sustanabty o the woodcarvng ndustry depends entrey on the uture suppy o
raw matera. The regon's orests are unkey to be abe to sustan the current rate o
harvestng, sgnang uture scarcty or woodcarvers and a oss o muKamba's mutpe uses
and benets or rura popuatons. To avod shortages and concts, and to oster
sustanabe management, changes are requred ocay and natonay.
legsatve reorm s needed to make woodcarvng ega and to sht the contro o trees
and harvestabe tmber to a sub-dstrct eve. The greatest successes have been where
contro has been transerred to communty organsatons such as vages or wards wth ow
popuatons. To support communty management and contro, a permt system coud be
ntroduced to mt the harvest o tmber or carvng and the amount o wood that can be
purchased by carvers. Such a permt system coud aso resut n the communty recevng
the payments or harvested suppes.
Vauabe essons can be earnt rom the Kenyan experence. ln response to the scarcty o
ndgenous hardwoods, tmber rom aternatve speces, ke jacaranda and mango, s now
beng used n the Kenyan carvng ndustry. These trees can be ound throughout Zmbabwe
as we - where ther wood coud aso be substtuted or carvng. ampagns promotng the
use and advantages o such 'good woods' shoud ocus on provdng normaton to carvers
and the toursts buyng ther products. Both groups stand to benet rom these measures
and educaton campagns.
ompetton characterses the roadsde crat
markets, where toursts and oca buyers browse and
hunt or bargans. l they reman n ther cars, askng
prces through the wndow, traders need to oer
avourabe deas, as the buyers are key to eave at
any tme.
Kaat carvngs
South Arcan case by Sheona E. Shacketon and hare N. Shacketon
Pterocarpus angoenss D.
The kaat tree: Tmber or appetsng
lood seems a the more decous when t s served wth beautu wooden spoons, and
green saads are reshy mxed n wooden bows. There are ew more beautu tmbers to
whet the appette than that o southern Arca's kaat tree. A smpe approach brngs out
the best n ths warm brown, medum-graned wood. leavng ther woodcrats unadorned,
carvers merey posh ther bows, spoons, patters, wakng stcks and the ke, beore
takng them to catch a tourst's eye at crat and curo markets.
The kaat tree (Pterocarpus angoenss) was
greaty sought ater durng the coona era,
partcuary or makng urnture. About o
years ago, a ew unempoyed men n the regon
borderng the Kruger Natona Park decded to
try ther uck at carvng ths attractve, hard
wood and seng ther products to toursts.
Nany o these orgna cratsmen are st pyng
ther trade. They have been joned by numerous
others, who a work ndvduay rom ther
homes, wth the hep o ther ames. Kaat
tabeware and utenss are now common tems
n markets and other outets n ths regon.
Hangng n the baance
Kaat s an extremey sow growng tree, takng more than 8o years to reach a mnmum
harvestabe sze. lts dstrbuton n the woodands o South Arca s reatvey restrcted,
and years o expotaton are takng ther to. arvers are ndng t ncreasngy dcut to
nd sutabe trees wthn the communa ands surroundng ther vages, and takng trees
rom and around other vages s causng soca tenson. Athough the speces s state
property and egay protected, there has been uncontroed pagng n some nature
conservaton reserves.
Scarcty has ed to some substtuton wth other speces but, on the whoe, there are ew
aternatves avaabe. Unortunatey, attempts to propagate the pant have been argey
unsuccessu. The kaat crat ndustry thus hangs n the baance as the resource dwndes.
arvers produce bows, spoons and many other woodcrats,
rom kaat's beautu tmber.
A job between jobs
Hgh eves o unempoyment, combned wth a shrnkng job
market, a ack o and or armng and an ncreased need or cash,
have drven many rura househods to seek aternatve sources o
ncome. voodcarvng and urnture-makng represent one
wdey adopted strategy n parts o South Arca where sutabe
wood speces occur.
ratsmen tend to enter the ndustry oowng retrenchment,
wth some movng contnuousy back and orth between carvng
and orma jobs. Thus, the abty to access wood and ashon t
nto saeabe products s an mportant saety net or the
arvers harvest ther own wood, usuay eng whoe trees,
whch they cut nto smaer ogs and transport home. By aw a
permt s requred to cut the trees and the tmber s pad or,
abet at a very subsdsed prce compared wth the open market,
where t ses or more than US; ;oo per cubc metre. ln ther
makesht workshops, carvers metcuousy ashon the wood by
hand nto a range o products usng homemade axes, adzes and
other toos. vomen and chdren do the sandng and poshng.
Once a carver has adequate stock, he boards a mnbus tax and vsts the varous norma
markets, whch are oten ocated at key tourst destnatons such as wateras, game
reserves and vewng ponts. A seng trp usuay takes the whoe day, wth the cratsman
coverng oo km or more. lemae traders buy the goods at these norma markets and
then se them to toursts. Sometmes the carvers se ther handwork to orma retaers,
athough n recent years the curo shops have begun stockng mported goods rom Kenya
and vest Arca rather than ocay made tems. The best tmes or saes are the peak
hoday perods o Easter and hrstmas.
However, the trade s not a protabe one or carvers, wth most smpy subsstng rom one
day to the next. Saes uctuate rom month to month and costs are hgh, especay the costs
o extractng tmber and vstng the markets. The consderabe abour nvoved n harvestng
and carvng s rarey recognsed n the prces receved, and carvers are oten orced to accept
expotatve prces n order to pay ther tax are home and put ood on the tabe.
ompetton rom other Arcan countres has made South Arcan kaat cratsmen even
more vunerabe. lmported carvngs began oodng n ater trade embargoes were ted n
+,,(. ln rea terms, carvers are ess we o now than +o years ago, as prces have not kept
Kaat ogs are hghy vaued due to ther
beautu, rch wood, wth ts contrastng
streaked coouraton.
pace wth naton. However, dependency on woodcarvng remans hgh, and t s
estmated that the carvers obtan around ; per cent o ther annua househod ncome
rom ths actvty. Gven ths, and the dwndng natura resource base, the outook s not
good or these cratsmen - uness the Government and deveopment agences ntervene to
hep secure ther uture.
lor kaat carvers makng pan but useu utenss, market opportuntes are not as great as
or cratspeope producng a wde array o ancer carvngs or toursts and export. Ony a
sma number o South Arcans are nvoved n kaat woodwork, but t represents ther
prncpa source o ncome n rura areas wth ew jobs and unempoyment rates o over ;
per cent. lor carvers to contnue earnng a vng and practcng the specast sks that
they have deveoped, access to aternatve sources o wood s essenta, and eorts must be
made to nvove kaat producers n managng the resource the trees are not to become
ocay extnct.
ln the ast ve years, there has been an ncrease n externa support to producers and
traders but ths needs to be better coordnated, and a more ocused ong-term eort by a
key stakehoders w be requred to oster a more sustanabe ndustry. lessons rom other
Arcan countres and esewhere coud aso
assst ths process. New sks, products,
organsatona structures and perspectves
are needed to dversy producton and
trade n the oca ndustry and brng
carvers more nto the manstream -
partcuary gven the competton rom
neghbourng country mports. onsumers
aso need to be made more aware o the
vaue o kaat wood, and the tme and
eort requred to produce carvngs and
handmade urnture. loca products
shoud be promoted and apprecated,
rather than beng regarded as neror to
mports and the ancer actory produced
tems. l such ssues can be addressed then
there can be hope or the uture or the
oca woodcrat ndustry.
Narket traders se many derent woodcrats, ncudng kaat carvngs.
hewng stcks
Ghanaan case by Domnc Bay, Jr.
Garcna koa Hecke

Tradtona tooth care: hewng

stcks n Ghana
Beautu smes come naturay to the peope o vest Arca, where tradtona
toothbrushes teray grow on trees. long beore the advent o pastc brushes and
toothpaste, vest Arcans, especay n Ghana, were chewng on green, spt stems to keep
ther teeth heathy and whte. Even today, there s hardy a Ghanaan househod o any
cass wthout chewng stcks.
The practce s one o the man reasons vest Arcans have such good denta heath.
Nedca studes have shown that the stcks are as ecent as synthetc toothbrushes n
removng paque rom teeth. Ths s due to the combned eects o mechanca ceanng,
enhanced savaton and the stcks' natura ant-mcroba propertes, aong wth reguar
use every mornng and ater meas.
About ;o speces o woody pants are used n Ghana as chewng stcks, but the best quaty
stcks come rom 'tweapea' (Garcna koa) and 'nsokar' (Garcna epunctata) trees. These
two speces grow wd n south-west Ghana, partcuary n wet evergreen and sem-
decduous orests.
Garcna epunctata s a medum-szed, evergreen tree, wth a
ta but ary reguar and dense crown. lt owers prousey
durng the dry season and produces eshy, edbe ruts the
sze o oranges n the wet season. These ruts are eaten by
anmas, whch then dsperse the seeds.
Garcna koa s a medum-szed, shade-toerant tree, wth
a cyndrca trunk that s sghty buttressed to the
ground. These trees have a dense crown, whch s compact
but not spreadng. Ther eshy, red-orange cooured ruts
usuay a to the ground, where both sma and arge
anmas (ke eephants) eed on them and dsperse the
seeds. The Garcna koa seeds are aso extracted rom the
rut and eaten by peope n Ngera and ameroon as
'btter coa' nuts. These nuts are eaten resh or dred as a
popuar snack, or are ground up and used n tradtona
hewng Garcna stcks hep to mantan
good denta heath.

Trees on the edge

vood or chewng stcks s harvested rom tweapea and
nsokor trees n government-owned orest reserves or n
orests over whch ames and/or cans have tenure.
Despte ther economc mportance, there have been ew
studes about how to encourage the regeneraton o
these speces, and there are ew contros over harvestng
n the wd. Harvesters say the trees coppce (or shoot
new stems rom ther base) but these shoots de ater a
ew years.
The lorestry ommsson requres a harvesters to buy
permts but t does not set quotas nor montor the
amount o wood beng taken. There s vrtuay no
management o the resource and tte normaton s
avaabe about the rate o harvestng. The ength o tme t takes Garcna spp. to mature
s aso unknown. The ony deterrents to harvestng are hgh transport costs and a dske o
sma ogs among oca harvesters. Nost harvesters come rom outsde the areas they
operate n. As they rarey return to the same orest, they have tte ncentve to et trees
mature so that harvestng can be more sustanabe.
Garcna spp. are now serousy threatened wth extncton n Ghana due to over-
expotaton. To meet the demand n the Ashant and Kumas regon, each month an
estmated ( ;oo trees are harvested and + ooo-+, ooo
stems per month are turned nto chewng stcks or the
Ashant regon aone, n three processng centres.
Smar quanttes are beng processed n other
Ghanaan regons ke Accra and Takorad.
Harvestng and processng
Harvesters cut the stems or 'ogs' wth machetes or
cutasses. Some use chansaws or thcker stems,
whch can be more than o cm n dameter at breast
heght. Branches are never used because they cost too
much to transport and are usuay too sma or
spttng. Harvestng generay takes pace between
October and Narch to avod the wet season, when
most orest roads are mpassabe.
Nen and women work n sma groups but they are pad
ndvduay, accordng to the number o ogs cut or
chewng stcks spt.
uttng the stems down to sze n the producton o
chewng stcks.
Harvesters make use o other orest products n ther day ves but ony earn money rom
Garcna spp. ln some regons, about 8o per cent o househod ncome comes rom
harvestng wood or chewng stcks. The harvesters usuay work n sma groups o - men
and carry ther ogs to nearby roads. These are pcked up and transported to towns and
ctes n trucks oaded wth about oo ogs each.
The stems are taken to processng centres and turned nto chewng stcks by hand - rom
start to nsh. Ths s a two-step process takng +-( hours. ln the rst stage, men workng
n teams o two remove the bark and cut the ogs nto sma sectons
about + cm ong. ln the second phase, women spt the
sectons nto - cm chewng stcks usng knves and
maets. The stcks are then ted nto bundes contanng
o-o peces. Each og yeds an average o ;o
vomen earn much ess than men or ther processng
roe. Annuay men earn about US; oo-8oo or
cuttng the stems nto sectons, whe women earn US;
oo-oo or spttng the wood nto chewng stcks.
vorkers are pad accordng to the number o ogs they
cut or chewng stcks that they spt, so they preer not
to share the abour.
Over-expotaton has serousy depeted the number o Garcna trees growng n Ghana. lt
now takes more than a week to nd enough trees n the orest to harvest one truckoad o
about oo stems. Ths oca scarcty s ncreasng harvestng rates n nearby lbera and te
d'lvore, and s aectng the vehoods o harvesters who cannot aord to trave outsde
Ghana. Scarcty s aso drvng up the market prce o chewng stcks, and some traders are
seng poorer quaty aternatve speces. About ;o other speces are now beng used as
substtutes or G. koa and G. epunctata.
There s an urgent need or approprate poces, ncudng the montorng o harvestng
rates and the management o Garcna spp. vth a sustanabe suppy, the product has
potenta to be exported to neghbourng countres, as we as to Ghanaans n Europe and
the Unted States. ln spte o the scarcty ssues reatng to the two preerred tree speces,
ncome rom producng chewng stcks contnues to support many ames and to
contrbute to oca and regona economes.
Bundes o o-o chewng stcks are sod n oca markets
and urban centres.
ameroonan case by Tata Preca ljang
Acaca seya Dee

luewood n ameroon: An energy

source rom the orest
ln the Naroua area o the lar North Provnce o ameroon, many orest products are
gathered rom both pant and anma sources. The range o products ncudes ruts, nuts,
os, medcna pants, Arabc gum, bush meat, bark and wood. luewood s one o the key
harvested products - an essenta source o energy, gathered or both subsstence needs and
commerca trade. ln many rura areas, ke Naroua, partcuary where gas and eectrcty
are uncommon and househod ncomes are ow, wood represents the man source o ue.
Ths s the case not ony n ameroon but aso n many other neghborng countres n the
regon. lor centures uewood has remaned an aordabe and reabe source o domestc
energy or the rura popuatons o deveopng countres around the word.
ln Naroua, where there are ew wage
abour oppotuntes, the extracton o
wood or ue has contrbuted to ncome
generaton, n addton to meetng
househod energy needs - but t has aso
contrbuted to envronmenta
degradaton. ln ths part o the word,
wood harvestng s the thrd most
mportant economc actvty ater
agrcuture and the rearng o anmas. lt s
an area charactersed by a hgh popuaton
densty and harsh, dry cmatc condtons.
lt experences hgh temperatures,
sometmes reachng (o
, a ong dry
season, short rany season and annua
rana rates between ;o-+ooo mm. The
pant cover o mxed trees, shrubs and
savanna s qute sparse and many o the
pant speces have deveoped specased
structures to enabe them to survve n
these harsh condtons - ncudng deep
root systems, ew and sma eaves, thorns
and thck bark.
luewood s transported as ndvdua headoads, or by anma, bcyce or
push cart. The mobe urban retaers use push carts and cars, whe the
urban transporters use sx or ten tonne pck-up trucks.
luewood harvestng and consumpton
ln ameroon, uewood consttutes around
o per cent o the tota energy consumed n
a sectors and 8 per cent o the energy
consumed n househods. Naroua reects
ths hgh consumpton rate, wth two thrds
o the tota energy consumed by urban
househods and +oo per cent o vage
househod energy beng derved rom
uewood. Vage usage averages 8 kg per
person each year, at a cost o around US;
o.o per kg. lormery, wood harvestng n
ths regon was many undertaken by
women, who gathered ony dry branches
and sma trunks or home consumpton.
Today however, oowng the ncrease n
demand and the expanson o the
commerca trade, a massve amount o
eng s takng pace, drawng on both dry
and resh branches and trunks. The resut
has been a drastc reducton n tree cover.
Now men do the man woodcuttng, eary n the mornng beore t gets too hot, wth
uewood saes takng pace n the aternoons. The harvesters keep some wood or home
use and se the rest, many to whoesaers, athough some retaers and consumers buy
drecty rom the vage harvesters as we. lt s the whoesaers however, who are the man
nk between the vagers and the urban popuaton. These whoesaers rese to retaers n
towns, who empoy workers to spt, te and se the wood to urban consumers. Bascay,
the marketng chan or uewood stretches rom the orests to the vagers' oca roadsde
markets and nay, to the town markets, where the man consumers are the urban poor -
or whom uewood s ther ony source o domestc energy. Some o the arger stems are
aso sod n urban centres as poes or the constructon and repar o houses.
Acaca seya - The man source o wood
Nost o the uewood s harvested rom Acaca seya, whch grows to a heght o around +;
m and ortunatey, has a ary rapd rate o regeneraton. The seeds germnate and wth
tte or no assstance, grow qute easy uness they are dsturbed by browsng catte or
To ncrease vaue and maxmse prots, successve traders spt
the wood nto smaer and smaer peces aong the trade chan.
logs and bg branches are spt nto arge haves, medum haves
and sma haves (whch consumers preer the most). Durng
processng, the quantty o wood sod per US doar s reduced,
enabng traders to make a sma prot.
bushres. lu growth s attaned ater about +o years, and n areas that have not been
competey depeted o stocks, t s qute common to nd around o trees per square
kometre. luewood rom Acaca has a hgh quaty, reatng to ts good capacty to burn
and produce charcoa, and the act that t creates ess wood ash and smoke than many
other speces. These trees can aso be used or tmber, orage, ood, medcne and mprovng
so quaty. However Acaca and other tree speces are beng cut down ndscrmnatey
wthout much consderaton or the age or sze o the trees.
Addressng the ssue
o decnng suppes
The most notceabe change attrbuted to
the ntense harvestng o wood s the
dsappearance o the ndgenous tree
cover, eavng behnd a wde, empty
andscape covered wth tree stumps and a
ew scattered young trees, whch oten do
not reach maturty due to heavy browsng.
The trade and demand or uewood s
ncreasng, athough suppes reman
nconsstent, especay durng the rany
season. The man reasons or ths ncude
the ncreasng scarcty o oca suppes and
the need or onger dstances to be traveed
to reach new coecton stes, bad roads and
the hgh cost o hrng vehces.
Snce the coecton o uewood represents a major source o ncome or many househods,
t has been dcut to acheve a reducton n ths actvty, despte the negatve
envronmenta mpacts. However, the current eve o over-harvestng s not sustanabe.
lmprovements n management and harvestng technques are requred, aong wth the
more eectve use o ths product. ln a bd to address these ssues, there has been an
ncrease n State attenton and n the number o non-government organsatons and
envronmenta protecton programmes operatng n the area n recent years. Harvesters
have beneted rom these deveopments through educaton and tranng, and the resutng
mprovements to ther vng condtons, ncome generaton and empoyment prospects.
Some oca peope have even become motvated to mantan trees on ther own pots or
pant exotc, ast growng uewood speces n the area to hep compensate or the
dsappearance o the natura savanna.
The commerca sae o uewood generates vauabe cash ncome or
poor rura harvesters and urban traders.
entra Arcan case by Terry Sunderand
ameroonan case by lous Deo and Ghanaan case by hares Adu-Annng
laccosperma secundorum (P. Beauv.) Kuntze
Rattan: Poor man's urnture turned
Rattan was once regarded as 'poor man's urnture', made by vagers who coud not aord
anythng ese, but the rustc charm o rattan chars and tabes now has a much broader
appea n many derent parts o the word.
The word 'rattan' comes rom the Naay 'rotang', teray meanng 'cmbng pam'. The
nner part o the exbe stem s used as 'cane' or makng urnture and weavng baskets.
The arger dameter canes, rom laccosperma secundorum and l. robustum, are used to
orm rames, whe the smaer dameter ones, rom Eremospatha macrocarpa, are oten
spt and used or weavng around the ramework. Rattan canes are exbe, ong astng
and sutabe or makng many tems: ke urnture, sh traps, crossbow strngs and
hammock brdges.
Rattan products are common n rura Arca, but cane urnture has recenty become
ashonabe n towns and ctes, and n Europe as we. A thrvng harvestng and
manuacturng base has deveoped over the ast -+o years to suppy the growng oca and
nternatona trade.
A bg amy
Rattans grow n owand tropca orests and
are wdespread n orests throughout centra
Arca. There are about oo derent speces
growng n Asa, but ony n Arca. Some
speces grow we n dense orest, whe
others preer more open areas, or exampe,
where trees a and ght breaks through the
The rattans that provde good quaty cane n
Arca produce many stems rom a snge
ndvdua. As the rattan cump gets oder t
produces more and more cmbng stems and
becomes wder n dameter. A reay od
ndvdua can be up to m across, wth up to
o-+oo stems n one cump!
Hstorcay, short engths o cane have been used to
dscpne schoo chdren and n many Arcan schoos they
are st n use today. Poor chdren!
As cmbng pants, rattans rey on trees or
support. Ther ast growng stems wnd ther
way upwards towards the ght, pung
themseves up nto the canopy usng 'whps'
that extend rom the ends o ther eaves. These
are armed wth bg hooks, whch anchor the
pam to the surroundng trees.
Nost rattans are aso very spny, dscouragng
wde rom eatng ther growng tps or ruts.
However, many anmas (ncudng eephants,
chmpanzees and goras) and brds (such as
hornbs) ove the jucy, sweet ruts and seek
them out, spreadng the seeds ar rom the
mother pant as they trave through the orest.
Even though the seeds are deposted n ther
own tte pe o compost, they can take up to a
year to germnate. vde s very mportant n
rattan regeneraton and seedngs are hard to
nd n orests where huntng has made anmas
A tough customer
Both the harvestng and processng o rattan s amost excusvey a job or young men aged
under . Ths work s usuay secondary to armng actvtes. Nen work n the eds a
mornng, perhaps harvestng a tte cane or sendng ther sons nto the orest. They then
gather n vage squares or the aternoon, workng on rattan and dscussng communty
vhenever you ask a rattan harvester about hs job, he w aways compan about the
many ant btes he gets every tme he s n the orest! The raw canes are peeed and dred
n the sun beore beng turned nto urnture, baskets, shtraps and other tems. Some
tems may be sod or cash at the roadsdes to passng trade, or exchanged or bushmeat or
tradtona medcnes.
Nost o the cane however, s sod to mddemen, who take t to specased rattan markets
n towns and ctes, where t s sod to urban artsans. The canes are ashoned nto varous
products and are sometmes varnshed pror to sae to gve them an attractve, shny
appearance and to ward o termtes and other nsects.
Rattan stems are cut rom the base o the pant usng
cutasses. The spny skn s then pued away, and the stems
are ceaned and ted nto bundes or ros. lt s a tough job and
whe some harvesters use thck goves or protecton, others
just use ther bare hands.
Rattan s not we managed throughout Arca. Anybody can harvest the cane they pay
the nearest vage a sma ee or gve a gt to the che and hs counc. The deveopment
o a wde network o oggng roads has aso opened up prevousy naccessbe orest areas.
Ths open access has ed to unsustanabe practces. Harvesters ndscrmnatey cut
everythng rom the rattan's base cump, even the young stems, just to get at the mature
cane. But ths doesn't aow the cump to regrow and produce new stems or uture
harvests. oectors then take ther destructve practces to new stes and as they move
through the orest, the rattans are ether ked or take a very ong tme to recover. Some
harvesters now compan they have to trave urther nto the orest each tme they want
to gather cane. The added transport and abour costs are sowy pushng up the prce o raw
cane n the urban markets.
Because o the ong tme t takes or rattan seeds to germnate and the act that rattan s
st ound n the orest, armers do not cutvate the pams on ther and. However, once
rattan s estabshed, t can grow up to ; m n ength per year, whch means there s
potenta to grow t on arms usng rut trees or exampe, or support.
ane products have become ashonabe n Europe
and among urban dweers n many Arcan ctes.
As the quaty o the nshed products has
ncreased, the percepton that they are
tradtonay 'poor man's urnture' has aded. The
rsng cost o tmber has aso boosted demand or
cane as a ess expensve aternatve.
However, ths growng market s promotng
uncontroed harvestng. Athough rattan pams
are generay common, harvesters are beng
orced to trave urther and urther nto the
orest. The ntroducton o sma-scae cutvaton
couped wth a more reguated wd harvest
regme coud sgncanty hep to oster the ong-
term sustanabty o the rattan resource n
ln rura communtes, oca peope are oten harvesters as
we as artsans, makng products or sae. However, most
o the harvest s bought by traders and s destned or
cane markets and nay, the hands o urban artsans.
Rattan n ameroon
As n other Arcan countres, oca popuatons n ameroon have used rattan canes or
centures, many or ne weavng, basketry, housng constructon and makng urnture.
Durng the perod o European coonsaton, tradtona producton started to change and
a new stye o rattan processng was ntroduced. The 'modern' rattan cottage ndustry,
whch produces new desgns o baskets, sheves, beds, tabes, chars and many other tems,
has wtnessed the progressve deveopment o a commerca dmenson n both rura and
urban areas.
Harvestng and Processng
Rattans are wdespread throughout the humd orest zone o ameroon. ln the Yaounde
regon or exampe, ths orest product s o economc, soca and cutura mportance,
rankng second ony ater agrcuture n vage producton systems. The two man
commerca speces are laccosperma secundorum and Eremospatha
macrocarpa, ocay known as 'eke' (maraca rattan) and 'nong'
(et rattan) respectvey. These rattans are gathered
competey rom wd stocks, many by men, who aternate
rattan harvestng wth other ncome-producng actvtes.
Ater beng harvested wth cutasses, the rattan canes are
bunded together and carred back to oca vages, where they
are ater processed or made nto tems or sae. Aternatvey, they
may be carred drecty to roadsdes and transported by car or truck
to the urban rattan market n Yaounde. Here, the harvesters se ther
cane drecty to processors, recevng around US; o. per metre or
nong and US; o.o or eke.
Vagers and armers manuacture rattan products as a sdene actvty,
but n the urban areas rattan artsans work u tme, n sma roadsde
workshops. The ndvdua cratsmen undertake amost a the
manuacturng stages themseves - ncudng scrapng, dryng,
spttng and bendng the canes, constructng the ramework
or varous tems, weavng and varnshng. They use smpe,
manua toos ke knves, hammers and hand saws, aong wth
gas bowtorches to assst wth bendng the matera nto the
desred shape.
Rattan baskets are mportant tems n the day
ves o rura peope.
Narketng the nshed products
The rattan cratsmen generay se ther products drecty to
consumers - to other vagers or passers by n rura areas, or to
cty dweers n the urban markets. As a resut, mddemen
are qute scarce. The market prces range rom around
US; o. (or a sma basket) to US; 8o (or a hgher
end dnng settng). Neary a o the products are
sod on the domestc market, wth ony a very
sma quantty gong or export. The export
market remans argey unexpored but has a ot
o potenta gven the nternatona demand or
rattan products. One o the ssues to be
addressed though s that the quaty o the
Arcan end products s not as good as those
produced n South-East Asa.
ln the Yaounde regon o ameroon, many
ames depend on rattan as a source o money,
and n producers' househods t represents about
( per cent o overa cash ncome. Harvesters
can earn around US; 88 per year, whe rura
cratsmen can earn around US; ;. The rattan
sector has potenta to grow and contnue
provdng a vauabe source o revenue, however
t s acng a number o dcutes - ncudng
unsustanabe harvestng, a resource shortage
around some vages due to over-harvestng and
agrcutura expanson, a ack o approprate
pocy and reguatory rameworks, a ack o
approprate equpment, and poor processng
technques. These actors are a exertng
pressure on the rattan resource. Such ssues w
need to be addressed rattan producton s to be
put on a more sustanabe ootng and ts true
deveopment potenta n ameroon reased.
Rattan processng s done many by young men, many o
whom became rattan basket makers ater the country went
nto recesson and unempoyment eves rose.
Some cratsmen showcase ther rattan products near busy,
major roads, makng the most o the exposure ths oers.
Rattan n Ghana
ln Ghana, as n ameroon, the two most mportant rattan speces are laccosperma
secundorum and Eremospatha macrocarpa, but n ths part o the word they are known
as 'eyee' and 'ma' respectvey. Rattan canes are coected predomnanty rom the south
western part o the country, wth the processng ndustres mosty ocated n and around
Kumas n the Ashant regon. About o per cent o the vages have road access between
the rattan harvestng stes and the marketng centres. However, the remanng (o per cent
do not, and the harvesters have to carry ther heavy rattan bundes to the nearest roads,
whch can be 8-+o km rom the producton stes.
Rattans were once ound throughout the hgh orest zones o Ghana but orest
degradaton and over-expotaton o the speces have snce mted commerca quanttes
to the wet and most evergreen orests o the south west. Orgnay, rattans were ony
used on a subsstence eve to produce the kes o rattan mats and ropes, but around o
years ago, commerca rattan products ke urnture began to be manuactured. The
coecton, processng and tradng o rattan and rattan products now nvoves many
thousands o rura and urban peope throughout southern Ghana. Today, rura processors
tend to produce many storage and carryng baskets, and sh traps or the oca markets,
whe the urban processors produce tems ke urnture, book sheves, baskets, trays and
varous arteacts.
lrom raw matera to nshed products
Ater cuttng the rattan canes, the harvesters generay cean away the sheaths and spnes
beore arrangng the stems nto bundes o about o-8o peces (dependng on the speces).
Gven the strenuous nature o the work, and the weght o the - m ong bundes, at
around o- kg each, t s hardy surprsng that the harvesters are predomnanty young
maes. Nany o the rura harvesters return to ther vages wth ther suppes, ater makng
rattan products or sae. Other harvesters se ther cane to mddemen at the "orest gate",
or poo ther coecton wth severa other harvesters, and se to marketng centres.
Sometmes urban processors drecty hre harvesters to bypass the mddemen, reducng
ther costs and guaranteeng ther suppes n the process. Beore the processors can utse
the cane though, t needs to be dred n the sun or n kns to reduce the mosture content
(and to ward o nsect attack and unga dsease).
Thousands o mnor and major payers earn vauabe ncome rom harvestng, processng or
tradng rattan. The major rura rattan coectors generay carry out ther harvestng around
other armng actvtes, earnng up to US; o per year. The major urban rattan processors
tend to be nvoved on more o a u tme bass, and good operators can potentay earn
more than US; 8oo per year. The quantty o rattan products sod n markets and roadsde
stas argey depends on the tme o the year, wth the busest perods beng hrstmas,
Easter and durng the dry season.
A combnaton o deorestaton, excessve tmber oggng, and over-expotaton has
greaty reduced rattan popuatons. As a resut, many sma scae rattan ndustres have
been orced to cose. Other consequences ncude consderabe ncreases n the trave tme
or coecton and the cost o raw matera. Rattans are even beng mported now rom
lbera and te d'lvore. The survva o the ndustry n Ghana w depend on strct
adherence to reduced mpact oggng (Rll) technques n areas where the concentraton
o rattan speces s greatest, and aso, the estabshment o rattan pantatons n od Hevea
brasenss and Theobroma cacao (rubber tree and cocoa) pantatons.
urrenty ess than o per cent o rattan producers beong to rattan assocatons. The
strengthenng o these assocatons coud assst wth osterng unty and good reatons
among members, controng raw matera prces, reguatng
and encouragng sustanabe harvestng practces to protect
exstng wd stocks, and promotng rattan cutvaton and
pantatons. l the necessary attenton s gven to the ndustry,
t has the potenta to contnue contrbutng economcay both
regonay and natonay, and aso, mprovng the vehoods o
those nvoved n coectng, processng and tradng rattan.
Rura and urban buyers
purchase derent types o
products, wth the cty markets
tendng to stock ancer tems.
Pam baskets
Zmbabwean case by Phosso Soa
Hyphaene petersana Nart.
veavng aa: Pam eaves n
communa areas o Zmbabwe
Have you ever notced how many baskets o derent shapes and szes there are n most
handcrat shops' ln many Arcan countres, the basketry ndustry has been experencng
growth, and n paces ke Botswana, Namba and South Arca, basketry has become very
mportant or peope's vehoods - provdng both househod tems and a means o makng
a vng. ln the Sengwe communa area o South Zmbabwe, shangaan peope have been
utsng the pam Hyphaene petersana or crat work and sap tappng or centures. The
young eaves are used or basket makng, the dry petoes (pam rond staks) or doors and
chars, and the resh rachs (the rond stak extensons, rom whch the eaets arse) or
mats. vomen aso use the an eaves as thatchng matera and or weavng tabemats.
rat producton depends on ea suppes, whch n turn, depend upon pam denstes and
ea producton rates. ln one o the Sengwe communa areas, an estmated oo eaves are
harvested per hectare each year. Such a gure may sound hgh but ortunatey under the
oca crcumstances, ths rate s sustanabe wthout eadng to over-harvestng. Hyphaene
petersana, ocay known as 'aa', s a communay owned resource that grows naturay n
arge custers, scattered across woodand areas. ln Zmbabwe, and n the communa areas
s State-owned, wth tradtona eadershp and oca government as resource custodans. ln
Sengwe, the oca shangaan peope have access rghts to tappng ther oca pam stands or
sap, wth these rghts beng passed down rom ather to son. Anyone n the communty
however, s abe to harvest the pam eaves or cratwork.
Pate-shaped baskets are cooured wth natura dye. The bark o Becherma trees s coected and ground (and
sometmes mxed wth charcoa to deepen the coour), beore beng added to pam eaves n bong water.
Each vage has ts own desgnated areas where
tappng eds and aso ea harvestng areas are
ocated. The vage che has overa contro o pam
utsaton, workng through a head man, and to
date, they have managed to stop the transportaton
and sae o unprocessed pam eaves. Tradtona
rues have heped to conserve the pams, even wth
everyone n the desgnated area havng access to
pam ea harvestng.
lea processng and weavng
lamy members carry out both ea processng and
weavng. Unopened eaves, consstng o many
eaets, are cut and opened or dryng. The eaets
are spt usng a bg neede, the mdrb s removed
and the outer edges are dscarded. Ndrbs are used
as wet threads and weavng matera or
wnnowng baskets, and as ng or shoppng and
rut baskets. The bg crat peces (wnnowng,
harvest and washng baskets) are made rom pam
eaves o about +oo cm n ength, whe the smaer
weavngs, such as wa hangngs, rut baskets and
sugar basns, are made rom shorter eaves.
Neary two thrds o the tems produced are sod or cash - ether traded ocay or coected
by producer groups, graded and sod to the Sengwe Vanan rat Assocaton (SEVAA).
Ths crat-tradng organsaton was estabshed n +,,; wth nanca assstance rom a
German NGO caed Terre des Hommes (TDH). About o per cent o commerca basket
producers beong to ths assocaton. Beore ts estabshment, basket quaty was poor, the
range was sma, and producton and ncome eves were ow. Basketry was an actvty that
took pace outsde the man agrcutura season, wth most o the products beng ped up
n houses n case potenta buyers passed by. Budng the capacty o oca peope and
nkng the Sengwe communty to outsde markets has ed to an ncrease n crat
producton and ncome eves. ln +,,8, crat producers earned an average US; +(.8o per
year, and the basketry ndustry accounted or about o. per cent o the annua ncome o
Sengwe househods. A oo+ survey reveaed that the average basketry earnngs had
ncreased to US; +.o;. However, t s key to have snce decned agan due to the
country's current economc probems.
Harvesters coect matera rom emae pants, whch have
dark green, pabe eaves that are we suted or crat
makng. Nae pants on the other hand, have whtsh-green
eaves that are more brtte and thereore ess suted to crat
vne tappng
Pam sap tappng s the man compettve use o H. petersana pams.
The optma season or tappng s between August and Narch, as
stpuated by oca rues and tradtona technca knowedge (whch
ndcates tappng n the cod season resuts n reduced output and
retarded regeneraton). lt can take around three months or
experenced tappers, many edery men, to tap a ramet (pam
stem). Each day, ony a sma amount o tssue s scraped o
rom the top (a maxmum o + cm, wth an average thckness o
o. cm). Ths s why tappng takes so ong. A recovery perod o
three years s then requred beore the ramet can be tapped
agan. Ths perod s shorter than or pams n other regons, as
the Sengwe ood pans actate a aster recovery.
Tappng the sap prevents pam stems reachng owerng
maturty. Apart rom ea matera whch s cut when the pam
stems are prepared or tappng, ea producton ceases whe the
stems are beng tapped. Ths reduces the avaabty o matera
to the basketry ndustry n the short term, but the repeated
tappng actuay mantans sutabe sma pams or basketry, and
aso ncreases the number o resproutng stems per cump.
Trends and ssues
H. petersana pams are not beng over-harvested but there are other possbe threats to
the basketry ndustry, ncudng popuaton growth and and converson. The Sengwe area
used to have more pam ved but much o t has been ost to agrcutura eds. Human
popuaton growth aso remans a key actor nuencng the avaabty o pam resources,
as t contrbutes drecty to the rate o and use converson, settement and crop
The basketry ndustry that began as chance-saes by a ew househods has grown to
encompass about o per cent o the Sengwe communty. SEVAA, the ocay based tradng
assocaton, has actated the expanson o markets, whch n turn, has ncreased
communty and househod ncome eves. Ths demonstrates that wth we drected
support, communty based ndustres can be vabe.
ln Sengwe, most communty members have
partcpated at one tme or another n pam
reated actvtes. The overa proporton o cash
ncome generated rom saes s around 8 per cent
or men and o per cent or women.
The cases wthn ths voume demonstrate a great dea o varabty, as we as some strkng
smartes. As such, they are vauabe or what they teach us both ndvduay and coectvey. By
comparng and contrastng derent cases we can gan a greater understandng about the
characterstcs o sma scae natura resource management, the broader soco-economc context
and aso, poces and nterventons that may ead to successu outcomes or aures. Ths na
chapter dscusses some o the key ssues and essons earned about the vaue o orest resources,
ther sourcng and management, demand and suppy, and ar and sustanabe trade.
The vaue o orest resources or rura ames
Rura vehoods, especay n deveopng countres, are charactersed by dversty. Househods rey
on the drect use o agrcutura and orest goods as we as many derent sources o cash ncome,
generated rom the sae o produce or wage abour. Three categores o househods nvoved wth
non-tmber orest products (NTlPs) can be dented accordng to the degree o househod ncome
earned n cash and the proporton generated by the trade o NTlPs.
Househods prmary reyng on subsstence sources (drect use) o orest goods
Househods n whch the commerca NTlP provdes a suppementary source o ncome
Househods that earn most o ther ncome n cash, rom the sae o a orest product
oncusons: The essons earned
By Bran Becher and ta lopez
The atter group tends to dea wth products that have arge and oten nternatona markets.
ommerca vaue however, s not the ony reason ames conserve and manage orest resources.
Nany trees n Arca are rch sources o ood, budng materas and medcnes. Partcuar trees may
aso gve rse to derent end products, whch are used both commercay and n many other ways
by oca peope, or nstance n rtuas or n terms o medcna or domestc appcatons. long-ved
trees such as marua, whch grows n southern Arca, can be a source o ood, uewood, medcne,
and ncome - n ths case, when the ruts are processed nto beer. Shea trees, the source o shea
butter, have mutpe uses too, as do bush pum trees, and Azea quanzenss, whch s used n Kenya
and Zmbabwe or woodcarvng. Sometmes commercay mportant trees, ke btter coa, retan
sgncant cutura vaues as we. vhen a baby s born a btter coa tree s oten panted and eong
ownershp s bestowed upon the nant. Bush pum trees can be a sgn o ether hosptaty or
hostty to vstors, whe trees used or woodcarvng n Zmbabwe (ncudng Azea quanzenss)
can ndcate mportant rtua stes.
lrom where do our orest products come'
lorest resources not ony come rom orested ands, as we observe n a number o the cases, they
are aso ound n home gardens, on agrcutura ands and even n pantatons. Around the word
researchers have dented derent approaches to orest resource management, rangng aong a
contnuum rom ow to hgh ntensty. At the hgh ntensty end o the scae, there s a greater eve
o nvestment n terms o tme and money, human abour, the use o agrochemcas and speca
toos, etc. Aong the management spectrum vauabe speces may be:
lorest products are used both to meet subsstence needs and to generate ncome
Subsstence uses
(ood, medcne,
raw materas or
domestc and
utenss, budng
materas, etc)
ommerca uses (exotc
ood, medcnas, raw
matera or handcrats,
components o ndustra
products, etc)
oected rom wd popuatons, wth no management
Encouraged, protected and otherwse managed n natura orests
Nanaged aong wth other useu orest speces
Toerated (aowed to grow naturay and not weeded out) on agrcutura ands
utvated on agrcutura ands n combnaton wth other cutvars
Nanaged n sma pantatons
Grown n arge monocuture pantatons
As the varous cases ustrate, many Arcan orest products are coected rom the wd, and n
contrast to Asa, there are ar ewer exampes o ntensvey managed orest speces. vood or
chewng stcks n Ghana, UmNemez cosmetc bark n South Arca, and ood products ke edbe
weev arvae n ameroon and bush meat n Ghana, are a hunted or coected drecty rom orests
and traded n oca markets. Products destned or the nternatona marketpace, such as dev's caw
root, and bark rom varburga and Prunus arcana trees (whch are a used or pharmaceutca
purposes), are aso coected rom the wd.
ln a ew o the cases n ths voume, we observe that resources that were orgnay ound n the orest
are now beng cutvated. ln such cases armers have patenty expermented, pantng vauabe speces
cose to ther settements, on arms, n agroorestry systems or n ther home gardens. Shea trees are
retaned where they are ound naturay growng n agrcutura eds and near houses and
regeneraton s encouraged to boost natura stocks. Recenty, due to market pressures and resource
scarcty, armers and researchers have begun expermentng wth the pantng o Prunus arcana and
lrom ow to hgh ntensty resource management
varburga seedngs wthn agroorestry systems. Some other speces, such as bush pum (Dacryodes
edus), have aready been domestcated and can be ound growng n garden pots and on arms.
To satsy consumer tastes and suppy arger quanttes o products or burgeonng markets, armers
have, over tme, moded the characterstcs o certan speces, ke those o the bush pum. lor
exampe, by seectng or breedng to change the sze, avour or coour o the product, mprove
consstency or sht the rutng perod.
Harvestng, transportng and tradng orest resources
Severa cases n ths voume show that harvesters may receve ow eves o revenue, yet coectng
orest goods can represent ther most mportant source o cash ncome. lor exampe, the harvestng
o wood or chewng stcks n Ghana, pam eaves or basket weavng n Zmbabwe, and Prunus
arcana bark or medcna purposes n ameroon, provdes the man orm o ncome or many rura
ames. A number o the cases ndcate that harvestng orest resources s oten a seasona actvty
whch ts n around other work demands and argey depends upon the seasona harvestng perod,
especay n reaton to ruts.
ln most cases t s the men who carry out the harvestng, athough women and chdren are
responsbe or the coecton o some orest products, such as marua, njansang and wd mango
ruts. ln South Arca, t s the women who coect UmNemez bark to make cosmetc powder, an
actvty whch oten consttutes ther man source o ncome. lor rura ames, the ncome
generated rom the sae o raw or manuactured orest products s used to meet day subsstence
needs or to cover mportant expendtures such as schoo ees or medca treatment. Some orest
products provde vauabe suppementary ncome n addton to agrcutura or other ncome
Ater harvestng, the resources need to be transported to ther pont o sae or processng. As wth
the od rea estate motto, ocaton s everythng! The dstance to markets, the avaabty o roads
and the means o transport a nuence whether and how producers market ther produce. The
harvesters' ames or other oca processors mmedatey process some orest products - especay
those that are prone to spong and buky or heavy products wth a ow vaue. Processng ncreases
ther durabty and concentrates vaue. ln severa Arcan cases, the harvesters undertake the
processng themseves, especay when the requrements are qute smpe and ony ca or the use
o basc technoogy or toos. Products ke UmNemez bark, bush pums, njansang and wd mango
ruts are processed nto derent products and sod drecty to consumers n markets. A great
number o women are nvoved n these processng phases, obtanng mportant ncome or ther
vhen products requre a hgher eve o transormaton, the raw matera s devered to artsans or
other workers, most o whom ve n ctes or near roadsdes. The producton o chewng stcks n
Ghana provdes a good exampe o ths type o setup, as do woodcarvng n Kenya and Zmbabwe,
and the manuacture o rattan products n Ghana and ameroon.
vhen t comes to seng orest goods, the products are moved to market ndvduay on producers'
backs, atop bcyces or motorcyces, or usng avaabe pubc transport. Sometmes orest products
go drecty rom harvester to consumer, whch can work we the buyers want sma voumes. lor
exampe, arge amounts o bush meat and weev arvae brochettes are sod n ths way aong busy
roadsdes. However, or many products ths approach can dsadvantage the seers, who may be
orced to accept ow prces on a "take t or eave t" bass, partcuary they are ar rom home.
lnstead, marketng s oten organsed by ntermedares, who purchase the products rom harvesters
and transport them to markets, arger traders or processng centres. Athough such 'mddemen' are
oten seen as rura robbers, these traders requenty provde mportant servces that are otherwse
unavaabe - ke transport and marketng, oans aganst uture producton, and the provson o
essenta goods and normaton to remote vagers. Traders can aso be mportant repostores o
detaed knowedge regardng specc orest products. They oten work hard to earn a modest prot
whe carryng a consderabe share o the rsk - prces may a by the tme the product reaches
market, a proporton o the shpment may spo or the whoe ot may be conscated by orest guards.
vhat happens when demand and suppy change'
Over tme, the demand or orest products has expanded wthn Arca and aso n other parts o the
word, especay n Europe, North Amerca and Japan - argey due to companes tappng nto the
organc goods market n search o ngredents or the kes o beauty and pharmaceutca products.
A number o the cases document an ncreased demand or products, partcuary where an
nternatona market has deveoped or expanded. Some products, such as Prunus arcana,
varburga and dev's caw, are argey traded outsde ther producton areas. The trade n bush
pum, shea butter and btter coa has aso extended beyond oca and country borders. The ndvdua
cases show that when demand ncreases, changes take pace n terms o harvestng, processng and
marketng practces.
A rse n demand stmuates producers to pursue varous strateges to ncrease producton. vth wd
resources, harvesters rst ntensy ther coecton practces. Especay when there s "open access"
to orest (.e. the unrestrcted use o resources, wth no eectve property rghts) and derent
harvesters compete to obtan the same orest products, there s a tendency or harvestng methods to
become ever more destructve. Ths has been observed n reaton to the eng o trees n paces ke
Zmbabwe, where wood s coected or carvng, n Ghana where chewng stcks are produced, and n
South Arca, where kaat wood s obtaned or makng handcrats. ln the cases o Prunus arcana and
varburga trees, ther respectve barks, whch are vaued as pharmaceutca ngredents, are beng
over-harvested, and n the case o dev's caw root, another source o medcna components, entre
pants are beng uprooted. However, n a such cases, these practces mt the speces' abty to
regenerate and reproduce, eadng to a reducton o uture suppes. Smary, due to competton or
scarcty, mmature specmens may be gathered, even when they do not attan the best market prces.
vhen resources become extremey depeted n a gven area, harvesters may then begn traveng ong
dstances to more remote ocatons n search o new suppes.
Tradtona rues have oten provded gudance over access rghts and have heped to protect
resources. However, n stuatons o conctng cams (e.g. between the State and communtes) or
as demand and prces or orest products ncrease, tradtona rues can break down. To address the
ssue o over-expotaton and ensure a contnued suppy, armers may ntensy the management o
vauabe speces. Together, a number o actors avour the process o domestcaton: sgncant
demand, hgh market prces, secure tenure and approprate ecoogca condtons.
lncreased demand oten eads to the specasaton o tasks. Sometmes ths nvoves the
abandonment o tradtona manuacturng methods n order to produce arger quanttes - and ths
can resut n ower quaty end products and ower market prces (as n the case o woodcarvng n
Kenya and Zmbabwe). ln some cases, the processng takes pace outsde the orgna country where
the orest product s coected. Ths s the case or orest goods that are processed nto
pharmaceutcas n Europe and the Unted States o Amerca, and or commodtes ke shea butter,
whch s manuactured rom shea kernes and used n skn care products.
ontrary to what most consumers woud magne, growng demand or orest goods does not aways
resut n mproved ncomes or rura coectors, processors or traders. ln act, sometmes condtons
or the rura poor may even worsen. lncreasng demand and more protabe commercasaton can:
vhen demand or a orest product ncreases, many changes can occur n
reaton to harvestng, processng and marketng
hanges n processng technoogy
Dvson o work
Ouaty and quantty o producton
Transportng and marketng
Pressure over resources
Harvestng technques
Resource management
Dmnsh the suppy o and access to orest products or ames who depend on orest goods
or ther own use or or sae
Resut n dmnshed resource access or sma armers who ack contro or ownershp over and
and/or resources, shtng access to more poweru ndvduas or groups who have and rghts
and capta to nvest
lavour domestcaton eorts whch nvove not the orgna orest-based producers but a new
set o producers wth greater access to agrcutura and and pantng technooges
lar and sustanabe trade o orest goods
Due to the compexty and potentay negatve mpacts or sma producers, pans to enhance
commercasaton or ntensy the producton o orest goods need to bear n mnd the wde range
o potenta mpacts. lorest products are oten sourced unsustanaby, or ther vaue s nequtaby
shared among the many peope nvoved n ther coecton, processng and trade. vorkng to
promote ecoogca sustanabty and ar trade, nternatona and natona organsatons have
estabshed severa ntatves over the ast two decades - ncudng certcaton and the ormuaton
o orest conservaton poces.
ertcaton s a procedure whereby a wrtten assurance s gven that a product, process or servce
conorms to certan standards. lor nstance, severa non-tmber orest products, such as Braz nuts
and pam hearts, have been certed n Braz and Nexco. However, very ew harvesters overa
have access to the nanca resources or organsatona ramework necessary to pursue certcaton.
Programmes or certcaton have many been deveoped or tmber and agrcutura products but
our man categores are reevant to orest products as we, and consumers may encounter these
knds o abes when makng purchases:
Envronmenta - e.g. the lorest Stewardshp ounc (lS) promotes ecoogca sustanabty
as we as socay responsbe orestry
Heath - e.g. the lnternatona lederaton o Organc Agrcuture (llOAN) ocuses on the
avodance o exposure to, and contamnaton by, chemca pestcdes and ertsers
Soca - e.g. the lartrade labeng Organsatons lnternatona (llO) ams to ensure that
there s a ar and equtabe dstrbuton o benets to producers
Ouaty - e.g. the lnternatona Organzaton or Standarzaton (lSO) and Good
Nanuacturng Practces (GNP) ormuate nternatona product standards and encourage
quaty assurance
ln addton to eorts by non-governmenta organsatons such as those outned above, many
countres have ormuated natona poces or the conservaton o boogca dversty, ncudng
orest resources. The Unted Natons onventon on Boogca Dversty (BD), adopted n +,,,
arms that States have soveregn rghts over ther own boogca resources, and provdes a broad
ega ramework to structure access and benet-sharng agreements. Snce the management and use
o many commerca orest products s based on ndgenous knowedge, such agreements have been
partcuary reevant or the conservaton o genetc orest resources and the protecton o
nteectua property rghts.
Budng the knowedge base
As the varous case studes ustrate, t s crtca that orest goods are recognsed and vaued not
ony or ther short term economc benets, but aso or ther cutura rchness and the sustenance
that they oer to tens o mons o rura and urban ames wordwde. lor centures, non-tmber
orest products have payed vta subsstence roes and ths contnues to be the case n deveopng
countres. A range o products wth commerca potenta, as we have seen, aso provde mportant
sources o amy ncome - or those wth ew other choces, as we as or those wth access to capta
or and and the ntatve to urther market or commercase a partcuar product. The abty o a
gven resource to contnue meetng both subsstence and commerca needs however, argey
depends upon sustanabe harvestng and management practces. Access to normaton to assst
wth thngs ke resource management, equtabe access, ncome sharng, product deveopment and
marketng can be an mportant part o ths process - and can hep to ensure a onger term uture or
both the orest products and the peope who depend upon ncome generated rom ther coecton,
processng and trade.
Research, such as that carred out n the course o compng ths voume, heps us to better
understand and apprecate the mportance and roes o orest products, and some o the actors that
ead to postve or negatve outcomes or resources and orest peope. lt s hoped that the essons
earned w add to the growng knowedge base about orest products and that ths normaton can
contrbute to government and deveopment poces, a genera rasng o awareness amongst
consumers and aso mportanty, that t can ter back to the communtes nvoved n the
commercasaton o orest products, enhancng the tradtona knowedge and sk base. Such
normaton can better equp communtes to mprove ther vehoods n an envronmentay
sustanabe manner - tappng nto the rches o the orest n ways that can meet both short term and
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Obunga, R. +,, Sustanabe deveopment o the wood crat ndustry n Kenya. Technca Progress
Report, Natona Nuseums o Kenya, Narob.
Shacketon, .N. oo Growth patterns o Pterocarpus angoenss n savannas o the South Arcan
owved. lorest Ecoogy and Nanagement +: 8-,;.
Shacketon, S.E. +,, The woodcrat ndustry n the Bushbuckrdge dstrct o the Npumaanga owved,
South Arca. ln: ampbe, B. (ed.) The Nombo n transton: voodands and weare n Arca, Box ..
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research (llOR), Bogor.
Shacketon, S.E. and Shacketon, .N. (orthcomng) The Pterocarpus angoenss D. based woodcrat
ndustry n the Bushbuckrdge dstrct, South Arca. ln: Sunderand, T. and Ndoye, O. (eds.) lorthcomng
oo(. lorest products, vehoods and conservaton: ase-studes o NTlP systems. Voume - Arca.
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research, Bogor, lndonesa.
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Npumaanga owved. ln: laws, N., Heay, H., Shacketon, .N. and Geach, B. (eds.) lndgenous orest
and woodand n South Arca: Pocy, peope and practce. Unversty o Nata Press, Durban.
Standa-Gunda, v. and Braedt, O. (orthcomng) Tradng orest products n South-Eastern Zmbabwe:
Ecoogy, economcs and potcs o woodcarvng. ln: Sunderand, T. and Ndoye, O. (eds.) lorthcomng
oo(. lorest Products, lvehoods and onservaton: ase-studes o NTlP Systems. Voume - Arca.
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research, Bogor, lndonesa.
Steenkamp, . +,,, South Arca's woodcarvng ndustry. TRAlll Buetn +8(+): ++-o.
Tata, P.l. +,,, Determnants o uewood seng prces n the rura and urban centers o the lar North
Provnce. Student research report (lngeneur Agronome Dpoma). lacuty o Agronomy and
Agrcutura Scences, Unversty o Dschang, ameroon.
Tata, P.l. (orthcomng) luewood n the Naroua area o the lar North Provnce o ameroon. ln:
Sunderand, T. and Ndoye, O. (eds.) lorthcomng oo(. lorest products, vehoods and conservaton:
ase-studes o NTlP systems. Voume - Arca. enter or lnternatona lorestry Research, Bogor,
The Namban +,,, Namba's woodcarvers - A growng ndustry.
vu, D.., Darout, l.A. and Skaug, N. oo+ hewng stcks: Tmeess natura toothbrushes or ora
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Adu-Annng, . (orthcomng) The rattan ndustry n the Ashant and western regons o Ghana. ln:
Sunderand, T. and Ndoye, O. (eds.) lorthcomng oo(. lorest products, vehoods and conservaton:
ase-studes o NTlP systems. Voume - Arca. enter or lnternatona lorestry Research, Bogor,
unnngham, A.B. +,8; ommerca cratwork: Baancng out human needs and resources. South Arcan
Journa o Botany ((): -,.
unnngham, A.B. +,,oa lncome, sap yed and eects o pam wne tappng on pams n south-eastern
Arca. South Arcan Journa o Botany (): +;-+((.
unnngham, A.B. +,,ob The regona dstrbuton, marketng and economc vaue o the pam wne
trade n the lngwavuma dstrct, Nata, South Arca. South Arcan Journa o Botany (): +,+-+,8.
Deo, l. +,,, Rattan or porcupne: Benets and mtatons o a hgh vaue NvlP or conservaton n the
Yaounde regon o ameroon. ln: Sunderand, T..H., ark, l.E. and Vantomme, P. (eds.) Non-wood
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systems. Voume - Arca. enter or lnternatona lorestry Research, Bogor, lndonesa.
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lnsttute, Unted Kngdom. ( p.
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on mutpe uses o orests. lAO lorestry Topcs Report No. (. lAO, Rome.
lnternatona Tropca Tmber Organsaton +,,; Bamboo and Rattan: Resources or the +st entury'
Tropca lorest Update ;(() (Onne: http://www.tto.or.jp/newsetter/v;n(/ndex.htm)
Johnson, D.V. +,,; Non-wood orest products: Tropca pams. lood and Agrcuture Organzaton o the
Unted Natons (lAO), Rome.
Konstant, T.l., Suvan, S. and unnngham, A.B. +,, The eects o utsaton by peope and vestock
on H. petersana (Arecaceae) basketry resources n the pam savanna o North entra Namba.
Economc Botany (,((): (-.
Nabaauta vorkng Group ooo The ecoogy, contro and economcs o aa pam n Sengwe ommuna
Area, Zmbabwe. lnsttute or Envronmenta Studes (lES) vorkng Paper No. +.
Neredth, .. +,(8 Vegetabe vory pam. Notes on the coecton o sap o the vegetabe vory pam (H.
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Ndoye, O. +,,( New empoyment opportuntes or armers n the humd orest zone o ameroon: The
case o pam wne and rattan. Rockeeer leow Neetng. lnternatona lvestock entre or Arca
(llA), +(-+8 November +,,(, Adds-Abada.
Oteng-Amoako, A.A. and Obr-Darko, B. oo+ Rattan processng and marketng n Arca: Technoogy
needs or a sustanabe ndustry. Unasyva o (): (-.
Soa, P. (orthcomng) Pam utsaton or basketry n Xn vard, Sengwe communa areas, Zmbabwe.
ln: Sunderand, T. and Ndoye, O. (eds.) lorthcomng oo(. lorest products, vehoods and
conservaton: ase-studes o NTlP systems. Voume - Arca. enter or lnternatona lorestry
Research, Bogor, lndonesa.
Sunderand, T..H. +,,8 The rattans o Ro Nun, Equatora Gunea: Utsaton, boogy and dstrbuton.
Report to the Proyecto onservacon y Utzacon Recona de os Ecosstemas lorestaes (UREl) -
londo Europeo de Desarroo, Proyecto No. - AP-EG oo.
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Equatora Gunea. ln: Sunderand, T..H., ark, l.E. and Vantomme, P. (eds.) The non-wood orest
products o entra Arca: urrent research ssues and prospects or conservaton and deveopment.
lood and Agrcuture Organzaton o the Unted Natons (lAO), Rome.
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vehoods and conservaton: ase-studes o NTlP systems. Voume - Arca. enter or lnternatona
lorestry Research, Bogor, lndonesa.
Tab-Gyansah, E. oo+ Anayss o the spata dstrbuton o NTlPs n the tropca orest o Ghana.
European Tropca lorest Research Network (ETlRN) News : +-.
Townson, l.N. +,, lncomes rom non-tmber orest products: Patterns o enterprse actvty n the
orest zone o southern Ghana: Summary Report. Oxord lorestry lnsttute, Unted Kngdom. (op.
The use o scentc names
At the start o each case n ths voume you w have notced the scentc names o the derent
orest pants (and anmas) that are proed. Boogca casscaton heps us to understand the
natura word and structure our knowedge. lt enabes peope to denty and record speces,
provdng a unversa anguage o communcaton and servng as an mportant too n nature
Each derent speces has a scentc name, whch s a latn bnoma (or two-part name). Ths
conssts o a genus, oowed by a speces name and the name or ntas o the person (or peope)
that pubshed the rst scentc descrpton o that speces (e.g. Garcna koa Hecke). vhen t
comes to namng pants, the system o 'botanca nomencature' s used to dstngush and denty
derent types o pants. There are a number o reasons or ths:
+. Unversa Recognton
A pant can be dented n any country around the word usng ts botanca name - overcomng the
barrer o derent anguages.
. Reatonshps
Pant reatonshps can easy be determned by examnng the botanca casscaton.
. ldentcaton
ommon names are probematc and vary between dstrcts. lor nstance, the name 'acaca' (watte)
coud reer to any o the +oo or so speces o Acaca. A botanca name on the other hand ponts to
one specc type o pant.
(. Orgns
The orgns o the pant can be estabshed by ookng at the name. lor exampe, ndcatng t s a
hybrd (.e. the osprng o two derent pant speces or varetes).
Genus names are aways wrtten n tacs and begn wth a capta etter (e.g. Acaca). They may be
derved rom the name o a amous botanst or rom cassca latn names reatng to the reevant
pant. Aternatvey, they may be latnsed orms o more common names, drawng on anguages
ke lrench or Engsh.
Ths eve conssts o a genera epthet or genus name and a specc epthet or speces name (e.g.
Scerocarya brrea). The speces name dstngushes exacty whch pant s beng reerred to wthn a
gven genus. Speces names are aways wrtten n tacs, usng ower case etters, and are usuay
descrptve. lor exampe, they may provde cues to a pant's orgns (e.g. Pterocarpus angoenss =
rom Angoa). They may descrbe the pant or anma (e.g. Trageaphus scrptus: Tragos (Greek) = a
he-goat, eaphos (Greek) = a deer. ln combnaton, the term reers to a type o anteope. Scrptum
(latn) = "somethng wrtten", reerrng to the whte coat markngs). Or they may sgny that a
partcuar pant or anma s named ater someone ( the speces name has the sux - or -. e.g.
asspourea anagan s named ater Henry George lanagan, a nneteenth century South Arcan
pant coector).
Sometmes wthn a speces there s sgncant varaton but not enough to assgn another speces.
ln ths nstance, the casscaton 'subspeces' s used. Subspeces names are aways wrtten n tacs,
usng ower case etters, and ke speces names, are oten descrptve (e.g. Harpagophytum
procumbens ssp. procumbens).
Varetas (Varety)
Sometmes wthn a speces (or subspeces) there s moderate varaton, requrng the more subte
casscaton o 'varetas' or 'varety'. Varetas names are aways wrtten entrey n ower case tacs
and agan, are oten descrptve (e.g. Prunus amercana var. anata).
Agrochemcas - Agrcutura chemcas, ncudng ertsers, pestcdes, etc.
Agroorestry - Dverse armng systems whereby trees are ntegrated wth crops to ncrease producton
and aso, the soca and envronmenta benets.
Agro-ndustra - A combnaton o agrcutura and ndustra eements, as n o-pam pantatons.
Agro-pastora Actvtes - Agrcutura and pastora actvtes, ncudng the growng o crops and the
rasng o vestock.
Amno Acds - A group o organc compounds contanng an amno group and a carboxy group. Twenty
derent amno acds are consdered as the budng bocks rom whch protens are ormed.
Ant-mcroba - A substance whch nhbts the growth o, or even destroys, mcrobes (mcro-
organsms, some o whch are dsease causng). Such substances are used n the treatment o mcroba
Aparthed - Raca segregaton (a term partcuary reated to past practces n South Arca).
Arabc Gum - A atex ud that s extracted rom the stems o Acaca speces or varous appcatons
(ncudng ndustra use and export). lt can be used resh as a bndng matera and when dry, as a
chewng gum.
Bodversty - Boogca dversty. The varety o e n a ts orms, eves and combnatons - ncudng
ecosystem dversty, speces dversty, and genetc dversty.
Bushbucks - large mammas (Trageaphus scrptus) whch beong to the Anteope amy, and are
popuar n the bush meat trade.
Buttressed/Buttress Roots - lattened extensons o tree trunk and above ground roots, whch grow out
rom the man trunk to support and stabse a tree. lound n certan (oten shaow rooted) trees,
especay n ranorest areas.
aabash - A contaner or vesse made rom dred gourd shes.
anes - The ong, hoow or pthy, jonted stems o certan pants, ke rattan, bamboo and sugar cane.
hew Stcks - The green, spt stems o certan woody pant speces, whch are chewed to mantan good
denta heath (especay n vest Arca).
lTES - The onventon on lnternatona Trade n Endangered Speces o vd launa and lora. Ths
nternatona agreement between Governments ams to ensure that nternatona trade n wd anmas
and pants does not threaten ther survva. lTES works by subjectng nternatona trade n specmens
o seected speces to certan contros. Authorsaton through a censng system s requred or speces
covered by the onventon. These speces are sted n three Appendces accordng to the degree o
protecton needed.
oppce - The sproutng o shoots arsng rom woody stumps or the underground roots o parent
rown - The uppermost ayer o oage on a tree or n a orest, through whch tered ght reaches the
understorey trees and pants beow.
utasses - Short, heavy, sghty curved swords, whch are sometmes used n the harvestng o pants
or pant products.
Dspersa o Seeds/Dsperse - The dstrbuton o seeds rom the parent pant by carrers such as the
wnd, water, brds or anmas, or by other means.
Domestcated - The process by whch ormery wd pants or anmas are retaned or ntegrated nto
armand systems or home gardens, sometmes nvovng seectve breedng over many generatons to
mprove desrabe characterstcs or human benet.
Drought Resstant - Hardy pants or trees that can wthstand a shortage o water and dcut
envronmenta condtons or a perod o tme durng dry and drought perods, usuay as a resut o
speca adaptatons.
Dukers - Sma anteopes (Syvcapra spp. and ephaophus spp.) whch nhabt orest or dense
bushand and are one o the most hghy avoured bush meat speces, or both subsstence needs and
the commerca trade.
Ecoogcay Sustanabe - The gatherng o pants or pant products n a way that does not jeopardse
the reproductve capacty or regeneratve potenta o a partcuar speces wthn a gven area (and
whch does not have a detrmenta mpact on the surroundng ecosystem o vng organsms and ther
Ecoogy - The study o the nteractons o organsms wth ther physca envronment and wth one
Ecosystem - A communty o vng organsms nteractng wth each other and the physca
envronment n whch they ve.
Ecotones -The boundary o a transtona zone between adjacent communtes or bomes (major,
regona ecoogca communtes charactersed by dstnctve e orms and prncpa pant or anma
Evergreen - Trees and shrubs that retan vng eaves throughout the year. The eaves o the past
season are not shed unt the new oage has been competey ormed. Ths contrasts wth decduous
pants, whch ose ther eaves durng a certan season.
Exotc - Speces o pants or anmas that are not ndgenous or natve to a partcuar area. That s, they
have been ntroduced rom oregn ocatons or countres. (See aso 'lntroduced speces')
Extnct - vthout a vng representatve, as n 'speces extncton'. 'locay extnct' reates to the oss o
a speces wthn a partcuar area.
Grass-cutters - A type o rodent known as a 'cane rat' (Thryonomys spp.). These sma mammas are
popuar n the bush meat trade, partcuary n vest and entra Arca. Ther meat has a hgher proten
but ower at content than domestcated arm meat and s apprecated or ts tenderness and taste.
Habtat - The envronment o an organsm or speces, the pace where t s usuay ound vng.
Habtat-specc - A speces that requres or preers a partcuar knd o habtat or envronment n whch
to ve, breed or obtan certan types o ood.
Hardwood - voody tree speces beongng to the 'dcot' cass o angosperms (or owerng pants) -
charactersed by havng two seed eaves, net vened eaves and ower parts usuay n mutpes o ours
or ves. Hardwoods oten, but not aways, have hard wood.
Headoads - Goods, ke rewood or ruts, whch are carred, oten n baskets, upon the head.
Host-pant - A pant rom whch a paraste (or other organsm, ke a ungus or nsect) obtans nutrton
and/or ves on. Or, a pant or tree whch another pant uses or structura support (e.g. as n the case
o rattan).
lndgenous - Orgnatng n or charactersng a partcuar regon or country, natve to an area.
lntroduced Speces - The ntroducton o pants, anmas or other vng organsms rom oregn
ocatons or countres, nto a regon where they were not ormery ound naturay vng or growng,
speces that are not ndgenous or natve to a partcuar area. (See aso 'Exotc speces')
Ndrb - The centra or mdde ven o a ea.
Nonocuture - The use o and or growng ony one type o crop.
Nontane lorest - The ower secton o vegetaton n mountanous regons, whch extends to the tree
ne (the natura border or pont at whch tree growth becomes ess common). Ths coo, most upand
habtat s domnated by evergreen trees.
Non-pastora Areas - Areas where pastora actvtes (ke tendng vestock) do not take pace, or
reasons such as extreme ardty, remoteness, or urban/sem-urban deveopment.
Pangons - Nocturna mammas (Nans spp.) that are smar to anteaters, but are covered n armour-
pated scaes. These anmas have a specased det o ants and termtes and are a popuar speces n the
bush meat trade.
Parastc Nstetoe - A type o pant (beongng to the loranthaceae lamy) whch ves on, and obtans
nutrents rom, a host tree.
Phytosantary - Reatng to the condtons aectng the heath o pants, especay n terms o
ceanness and the exercsng o precautons to reduce the ncdence o dsease.
Propagate - The process o breedng or assstng pants, anmas, etc to naturay reproduce rom parent
stock. Or the process o growng new pants rom seed, cuttngs or even tssue sampes.
Protozoa - Reatng to organsms, oten very sma or mcroscopc, beongng to the phyum Protozoa
- whch s comprsed o anmas consstng o one ce, or coones o smar ces.
Reduced lmpact loggng (Rll) - A set o practces whch seeks to essen the mpact o oggng and
ncudes actors such as: reducng oggng ntensty, practcng drectona eng, seectng trees or
harvestng n a dscernng manner, careuy pannng skd tras, roads and og andngs to cause
mnma dsturbance, and wnchng ogs on to tras.
Rngbarkng - uttng away the bark n a rng around a tree trunk or branch - a practce whch can k
the aected area or even the entre tree.
Rooted uttngs - uttngs, usuay sma sectons o stem, whch have been taken rom a pant or tree
and propagated - grown n a souton or so, unt new shoots and roots appear. Once estabshed, such
cuttngs can be transpanted.
Savanna/Savanna Grassand - A grassand regon wth scattered trees, gradng nto ether open pans
or woodands, usuay n subtropca or tropca areas.
Secondary lorest - lorest regrowth oowng sgncant dsturbance o the orgna vegetaton. The
new growth oten ders n orest structure and speces composton compared to prmary orest (.e.
mature, od growth orest).
Sem-decduous - Pants that shed some o ther eaves n a partcuar season (oten durng dry or cod
perods) or at a certan stage o growth.
Sem-domestcated - Nether wd nor uy domestcated. A parta state o domestcaton - the process
whereby pants or anmas become ntegrated nto armng systems or home gardens, oten nvovng
seectve breedng to mprove desrabe characterstcs.
Shade-toerant - A pant or tree that can ve and grow n the shade o taer pants and trees, or beneath
other structures whch reduce the eve o ght they receve.
Stoon - A sender shoot, usuay n the orm o a horzonta stem or runner, whch can take root and
eventuay deveop nto a new pant.
Sustanabe/Sustanaby - see 'Ecoogcay Sustanabe'
Sustanabe Extracton/Harvestng - The gatherng o pants or pant products n a way that does not
jeopardse the reproductve capacty or regeneratve potenta o a partcuar speces wthn a gven
Sustanabe Nanagement - The mpementaton o management or harvestng gudenes to oster the
regeneraton o a speces n a gven area. Neasures are put n pace to ensure that the extracton o a
partcuar type o pant or anma product does not adversey aect the abty o the remanng stocks
to recover.
Sustanabe Suppes - Suppes that are obtaned n a manner whch does not jeopardse the
regeneratve potenta o the resource that they are drawn rom. That s, harvestng s n baance wth
the productve capacty and hence over-expotaton does not occur.
Tuber - An enarged, eshy underground stem (such as that o the potato), usuay an obong or
rounded thckenng or outgrowth.
Understorey - Pants growng under the canopy o taer pants or trees.
Ved - Thny orested or open country, bearng grass, bushes or shrubs, characterstc o parts o
southern Arca.
vater-storng Secondary Roots - Roots that branch rom arger, oder roots or the prmary root, n
whch water s stored (oten as an adaptaton to actate survva n ard condtons).
voodand - An area o vegetaton domnated by a more or ess cosed stand o short trees, an
ntermedary area between grassand and orest.
lTES The onventon on lnternatona Trade n Endangered Speces o vd launa and
lora. (See the gossary or a urther expanaton)
DllD Department or lnternatona Deveopment (UK)
lUN vord onservaton Unon (ormery the lnternatona Unon or the onservaton o
NGO Non-Government Organsaton
NTlPs Non-tmber orest products
SAllRE Southern Aance or lndgenous Resources
SEVAA Sengwe Vanan rat Assocaton (a crat tradng organsaton operatng n
TDH Terre des Hommes (a German NGO operatng n Zmbabwe)
UNESO Unted Natons Educatona, Scentc and utura Organzaton
vvl vord vde lund or Nature (ormery the vord vde lund)
Anthony unnngham
vvl/UNESO/Kew Botanca Gardens
Peope and Pants lntatve
8( vatkns St, vhte Gum Vaey
lremante +, Austraa
Atade Akanmu Adebs
entre or Envronment and Renewabe Natura Resources
Nanagement Research and Deveopment (ENRAD)
P.N.B. o, Aknoa Naja Street
Jercho Hs, lbadan, Ngera
Authors contact detas
Bran Becher
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research
Jaan llOR, Stu Gede, Sndang Barang
Bogor Barat +8o - lndonesa
arone Suvan
vater Pocy and Nanagement
entre or Ecoogy and Hydroogy
vangord, UK
hares Adu-Annng
Department o Agroorestry
lnsttute o Renewabe Natura Resources
Kwame Nkrumah Unversty o Scence and Technoogy
Kumas, Ghana
hare N. Shacketon
Department o Envronmenta Scence
Rhodes Unversty
Grahamstown +(o, South Arca
ta lopez
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research
Jaan llOR, Stu Gede, Sndang Barang
Bogor Barat +8o - lndonesa
Danee lema Ngono
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research (llOR)
Regona Oce n ameroon
c/o llTA Humd lorest Ecoregona enter
PO Box oo8 messa
Yaounde, ameroon
Domnc Bay Jr.
lorestry Research lnsttute o Ghana
Unversty Box
Kumas, Ghana
Edmond Dounas
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research (llOR)
PO Box , JKPvB
Jakarta +oo, lndonesa
Hassan G. Adewus
Department o lorest Resources Nanagement
Unversty o lbadan, Ngera
lous Deo
Unversty o Yaounde
Yaounde, ameroon
Kathrn Schreckenberg
lorest Pocy and Envronmenta Group
Overseas Deveopment lnsttute (ODl)
+++ vestmnster Brdge Road
london SE+ ;JD, UK
Nchee ocks
lnsttute o Soca and Economc Research
Rhodes Unversty
PO Box ,(
Grahamstown +(o, South Arca
Nouhou Ndam
lmbe Botanc Garden
PO Box (;, lmbe
Sv Provce, ameroon
Ousseynou Ndoye
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research
Regona Oce n ameroon
c/o llTA Humd lorest Ecoregona enter
PO Box oo8 messa
Yaounde, ameroon
Patrca Shaney
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research
Jaan llOR, Stu Gede, Sndang Barang
Bogor Barat +8o - lndonesa
Phosso Soa
Southern Aance or lndgenous Resources (SAllRE)
+o lawson Ave, Nton Park
Box BE Beverdere
Harare, Zmbabwe
Rache vynberg
Graduate Schoo o Envronmenta Studes
Unversty o Strathcyde
PO Box 8
Kak Bay ;,,o, South Arca
Smon K. hoge
Kenya lorestry Research lnsttute (KElRl)
PO Box o(+ oooo
Narob, Kenya
Sheona E. Shacketon
Department o Envronmenta Scence
Rhodes Unversty
Grahamstown +(o, South Arca
Tata Preca ljang
lnsttute o Agrcutura Research or Deveopment (lRAD)
Dschang - ameroon
c/o PO Box
Dschang, ameroon
Terry Sunderand
Arcan Rattan Research Programme
c/o lmbe Botanc Garden
PO Box (;, lmbe
Sv Provnce, ameroon
Tony Dod
Semar Schonand Herbarum
PO Box ,(
Rhodes Unversty Botany Department
Grahamstown +(o, South Arca
vave Standa-Gunda
enter or lnternatona lorestry Research
Regona Oce or Eastern and Southern Arca
; Harare Drve, Nt. Peasant
Harare, Zmbabwe
Source matera used or the ustratons
lront cover Pterocarpus angoenss, based on photos by Pet Van vyk, pubshed n Van vyk, B.
and Van vyk, P. (+,,;) led gude to trees o southern Arca. Struk, ape Town.
Arcan woman, based on a photo by Kathrn Schreckenberg, Overseas Deveopment
lnsttute (ODl), london
v Based on a photo by Edmond Dounas
v Based on a photo by Atade Akanmu Adebs
x Based on a photo by Terry Sunderand
Page + Based on a photo by Anthony unnngham
Page Based on a photo by Anthony unnngham
Page ; Based on a photo by Edmond Dounas
Page , Rhynchophorus phoencs, based on photos by Edmond Dounas and Nathde Duay
Page +o Based on a photo by Serge Bahuchet, Avenr des Peupes des lorts Tropcaes
Page ++ Based on a photo by Stephane arrere (APlT)
Page + Based on a photo by Edmond Dounas
Page + Scerocarya brrea, based on photos by Pet Van vyk, pubshed n Van vyk, B. and
Van vyk, P. (+,,;) led gude to trees o southern Arca. Struk, ape Town.
Page +( Based on a photo by Sheona E. Shacketon
Page + Based on a photo by Sheona E. Shacketon
Page + Top: Based on photos by Anthony unnngham
Bottom: Based on photos by Anthony unnngham and Sheona E. Shacketon
Page +; Garcna koa, based on a photo by Pau latham, rom "Photos o lowers and Pants
rom Bas-ongo". (http://cub.euronet.be/uc.pauwes/GarcKoa.JPG)
Page +, Based on a photo by Atade Akanmu Adebs
Page o Based on sketches by Atade Akanmu Adebs
Page + Rcnodendrum heudeott, drawn rom a botanca specmen, Bogor Herbarum
Page Based on a photo by Danee lema Ngono
Page Based on sketches by Danee lema Ngono
Page ( Based on a photo by Ncoas esard
Page Dacryodes edus, drawn rom a botanca specmen, Bogor Herbarum
Page Based on photos by Hassan Adewus
Page ; Based on photos by Hassan Adewus
Page 8 Based on photos by Ncoas esard
Page , Vteara paradoxa, redrawn rom a botanca ustraton by Nargaret Stone,
pubshed n Beentje, H. (ed.) lora o tropca east Arca. Roya Botanc Gardens,
Page o Based on a photo by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
Page + Rght: Based on a photo by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
let: Based on a photo by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
Page Rght: Based on a photo by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
let: Based on photos by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
Page Prunus arcana, redrawn rom a botanca ustraton by Nargaret Stone, pubshed
n Beentje, H. (ed.) lora o tropca east Arca. Roya Botanc Gardens, Kew.
Page Based on a photo by Anthony unnngham
Page Based on a photo by Anthony unnngham
Page ; asspourea anagan, redrawn rom a botanca ustraton by Tony Dod, Semar
Schonand Herbarum
Page 8 Based on a photo pubshed n Broster, J. (+,8+) Amagqrha: Regon, magc and
medcne n Transke. Va Arka lmted.
Page , Based on a photo by Tony Dod
Page (+ varburga sautars, redrawn rom a botanca ustraton by lay Anderson,
pubshed n Geand, N., Nav, S., Drummond, R.B., and Ndemera, B. (+,8) The
tradtona medca practtoner n Zmbabwe. Nambo Press, Harare.
Page ( Based on a photo by Anthony unnngham
Page ( Harpagophytum procumbens, based on photos by Rache vynberg
Page ( Based on a photo by Rache vynberg
Page (; Based on a photo by Rache vynberg
Page (8 Based on a photo by Rache vynberg
Page (, Azadrachta ndca, drawn rom a botanca specmen, Bogor Herbarum
Page + Based on photos by Smon K. hoge
Page Based on photos by Smon K. hoge
Page Azea quanzenss, based on a photo by Pet Van vyk, pubshed n Van vyk, B. and
Van vyk, P. (+,,;) led gude to trees o southern Arca. Struk, ape Town.
Page ( Based on a photo by Anthony unnngham
Page Based on photos by vave Standa-Gunda
Page ; Pterocarpus angoenss, based on photos by Pet Van vyk, pubshed n Van vyk, B.
and Van vyk, P. (+,,;) led gude to trees o southern Arca. Struk, ape Town.
Page 8 Based on a photo by Sheona E. Shacketon
Page , Based on a photo by Sheona E. Shacketon
Page + Garcna koa, based on a photo by Pau latham, rom "Photos o lowers and Pants
rom Bas-ongo". (http://cub.euronet.be/uc.pauwes/GarcKoa.JPG)
Page Based on vdeo ootage med by Anthony unnngham
Page Rght: Based on photos by Anthony unnngham
let: Based on a photo by Domnc Bay
Page ( Based on a photo by Domnc Bay
Page Acaca seya, based on a photo by Ken ook, rom "Pant reatons lnc".
Page Based on a photo by Tata Preca ljang
Page ; Based on photos by Tata Preca ljang
Page 8 Based on a photo by Theodore Treon, APlT
Page , laccosperma secundorum, drawn rom a botanca specmen
Page ;o Based on a photo by Terry Sunderand
Page ;+ Based on a photo by Terry Sunderand
Page ; Based on a photo by Terry Sunderand
Page ; Based on a photo by lous Deo
Page ;( Rght: Based on photos by lous Deo
let: Based on a photo by lous Deo
Page ; Rght: Based on a photo by hares Adu-Annng
let: Based on a photo by Terry Sunderand
Page ;; Hyphaene petersana, based on photos by Phosso Soa
Page ;, Based on a photo by Anne hshawa
Page 8+ Based on a photo by Stephane arrere, APlT
Page 8 Rhynchophorus phoencs, based on photos by Edmond Dounas and Nathde Duay
Based on photos by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
Based on a photo by Sheona E. Shacketon
Page 8 Based on photos by hrstan ossater
Based on a photo by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
Based on photos by Hassan Adewus
Page 8 Based on a photo by Anthony unnngham
Based on vdeo ootage med by Anthony unnngham
Page +oo Based on photos by Kathrn Schreckenberg, ODl london
Page +o; Based on photos by Anthony unnngham
Page +o8 Based on a photo by Ncoas esard
Throughout Africa nontimber forest products (NTFPs) such as plants and bush meat are in
daily use providing crucial resources for local livelihoods Despite research that has focused
on NTFPs there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the importance of these forest
products The research that has been conducted has been targeted and communicated
to a very narrow audience This book is a rare and valuable exception It brings to life
the people and products behind the research communicating in a very readable way
the importance of green social security

Anthony Cunningham
WWF/UNESCO/Kew Botanical Gardens
People and Plants Initiative