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j' The Matn of Ajeroomiah .

By the Most Learned Scholar" "'"

Abi Abdullah Mohammad bin Mohammad bin Ajeroom

Translated by Hamza Yusuf ) ~"" ) I:J'

C, "C~c~t" ?t_p>

41... "

L

" .

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. ;'.:::' ,"

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Speech .•••...•..•..•...••..•.........•.•.•• , .••••••..••. 1

Chapter 2: Inflection and its Parts ............•.•............ 2 Chapter 3: Knowledge of the signs of inflection •.....• 3

Chapter 4: Inflected Words ...•••..••.............••...••.•••..• 6

Chapter 5: Verbs ...................•....•..............•....•••..••• 8

Chapter 6: Nouns in Raf'a ..........••••........•.•.•......••.•.• 9 Chapter 7: Subject-Doer .............•....................•••.• 10 Chapter 8: Object whose Subject is not Named ..•• 11 Chapter 9: The Subject and its Predicate ...•.........• 12 Chapter 10: Goveming Agents that Exercise Influence on the Subject and the Predicate ......••..• 13

Chapter 11: Adjectives ......•.....••...•..•........••.....••••.. 15

Chapter 12: Conjunctions ............•..............•.....•.••. 16 Chapter 13: The Corroborative ........•...........•...•...• 17

Chapter 14: The Permutative ...........................••... 18

Chapter 15: Parts of Speech in Nasb 19

Chapter 16: The Direct Object .•............•......•........ 20 Chapter 17: The Infinitive or Absolute Object ...••••• 21 Chapter 18: The Time and Space: Qualifiers •...•...• 22 Chapter 19: The Circumstantial Qualifier ..••.•...•.••.. 23

Chapter 20: The Specifying Element.. ....•.••.•.•.•.•... 24 Chapter 21: Exception .•..........................•••.•• : •.•••.• 25 Chapter 22: Absolute Negation with /a ........•.•.•.••.. 26

Chapter 23: The Vocative 27

Chapter 24: The Object of Reason •...........•..•...•••.• 28 Chapter 25: The object of Accompaniment .....•••..• 29 Chapter 26: The Nouns in khafd .........•.......•......... 30

, , ; \

··L .. , JI·· ~ ..

...a :3'~...ua

..

~ \ ! .

~

1

11 1

..

,

. ..

1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~~I ..,,4

.

.. r. .. • ~-

2 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~1.au..i1, ~1J-'~I'-:I'4

.. --_.. ~,,-

3 .••.............................•• ~IJo'~1 ~Iok ~~-:I~

... .. J '" _

6 •• •• •• •• • • • • • •• • • • • • • •• •• • •• • • • • ••• • ••• • • • •• • •• ~ L., .",a.oJ I ~ 4

. . . 8 ••••••••••• a_a •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• J 1.a.i!l1 ~ L..

.. ot -!~ ....... -

9 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• s:1om!l1 ~1£:.~)O--:,y

.. - .# ..

10 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~~~1 ~~

.I~-~_~o",::; 1 .. 1 ..

11 •••••••••••••••••••••••• ~UI ~~ ~~1 ~~J-:I~

... .. ~ _ 0 .# '" I ..

12 ••••••••..••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~I ! I~l ~~ \

13 ~ J-!i.1f~F1!~n~~I~JI~I~I~4

0;: .# •

15 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••..... ~l -I-'-f;

. .

16 ••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••.••••••••• ~I~~

, . 17 •••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~~I-:!-~

- . 18 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• J~I ~4

_.. ~ .-

19 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,lom!£1 ~4~ ~~

. .

20 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ..., J .. -- d. - 11 ~ L.,

.... ~ ..

- - .

21 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• J~I ~L.,

22 •••••••••••••••••••• ~ •••••• \J~I ~~ ,. \J~jJl ~~ ~L.,

.... .# ..

23 .•••...••..•.••...•.•.••••.•••••....••.•••.•..... JWI..aL

:; " .. 24 ......••••...••..•.••••.•.•....•••............ J-!.!~1..,.4

- .

25 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••• .:. l..i.:l.:i..lll ~ Y

- , 26 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.......... ll ~4

. .

27 ~.1lioll ~t..,

. . . 28 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~I ~ ~,.a.ioJ1 ~~

. . 29 ••••••.••••.•.••••••••••••••••••••••••••• .lAo J,.a.ioJ I ~ Y

" -! I

30 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• -=~JlI ::il.:a~-:l4

ii

, ~,

~~1~~

~ } J:;' )1" ,.

~).I);, ,III ~ i~ts:J1

J

~, ' ii J ~}': ~l _~\.I

-#.. ",t".,. .,.

j ~ J ~ J ;'--1 4.,'")~

, ,,~ ~,

J ~)'I H~ .... .<1 ---': ..... : ~

J , ...

. J~~U<..I.,_\ Jd~ ':i



Chapter 1 : Speech

Speech must have utterance; it must be compounded and it must be meaningful in its syntactical sequence', It consists of only three parts: the

. ~ ..

noun ( ~\ ), the verb, (.~ ) and the particle ( 0 ?) which has

signification. The noun is known by khafd, by tanuin and by the addition of the article of definition. The particles of khafd are as follows:

J i

,

y.

Jl·

."'" .

'-'

Y.J·

J~

i)'J\ •

Add to those the particles of adjuration (~I 0 ~? ):

J, ,

~\.:.l\ •

The verb is known by (jj J J.r" J ~\ ) and the quiescent (~) of the feminine gender.

The particle ( J)-I ) is that which neither the sings for the noun nor (he verb applies.

1 Bilwada' also means that speech must be made up of words that are used by the arabs for their respective meanings. The first meaning is the one chosen by Murabit al-Haj] in Dalil At-Tulaab; the second is preferred by Kafrawi in his commentary on the ajruroiyya.

1

"", , ., 0 .... · ... .,. '" 't

i~ J~ J ,,-._aa.J1 J

o ... J ...

. ~ ~ ':} J i ):-\

Chapter 2: Inflection and its Parts

Inflection ( yl~)'1 ) is the change of the last syllableof words based on the various agents o~ inflection that govern them either explic!tly or implicitly. The parts of inflection are only four raf", nash, khafd, and jazm. Of these, the first three belong to nouns without any jazrn. Raf". nasb and jazm are peculiar to verbs (which have no khafd.)

2

J

~,._-:.....,;. J ~: ct\ r- ~I

.... J. , .,

I,--~ ---,~Jl\ ~ J ~I

J "

t.!' ';"11 HI J ~L.J\

II C " , t;:

~ ~~~ J,a=; ~ C$.ill.

,. ~'" J .... '''' ,t'

.!J~ J.!.l~ J .!J~I J

J t ,_ r.. "

1...-0 ~1'1 GI J Jt__.. J~ J

~

, -= ." J ,,""

,~~~G~0~

"'C '" -= ". ,..

GIJ~~~~~I~

, ,

'" ~ ., J. J,.,,,

~~~~ 0~ iJjlf

, J

I~~ t.!' 'all ~I ~

~~--,:~:.p~ Ji ~ A;" ~

" ",J', ,

~___.,Qa ... ...J..J.I! J ~WI ~ ~;Jl.l

,

, , ,

J ~I ~G~ ~H .. ,:.

"

,,, ".I .". J'

J'~WI J ;;~I J ~~I

Chapter 3: .Knowledge of the signs of inflection

( • Raf' has four signs: Y c r :5J

1. damman ~::.
~
~ ,
2. waw JIJ
3. alif Jj!
. I
"
4. nun 0} • Damman is the sign of raf' in four instances:

1. ' ., s
The singular noun ~_;ll ~)r\
2. .~ ,.,
The broken plural -\~
J- , I...-
3. The sound feminine plural ~U\ -.:J'ul ;.:_;,.
, , , oJ I...-
J , , ,
4. The verb in the imperfect free of agents t)-·all ~\
and having nothing at its termination
[such as the feminine nun or the nun of
confirmation] • As for the waw, it is a sign of the rafin two instances only:

, ,
1. In the sound masculine plural ? J, r
~ ~\r-'>\
2. In the five names ~1~t...""~'1 • As for the alif, it is a sign of raf" only in the dual.

Th .C:t . t rar s the i _r.LJ suteeeJJ

• e~s a Sign 0 r~ m e Impellec~if it is~ed by

pronoun of the dual, or the pronoun of the plural or the pronoun of the

second person feminine: I

'/OU~v t .... t»

;1"«-' ~/ ( .... )

o ,. C',JI .. b , •

0) l;t~iJ~J

~''''''<...

hid"_)

3 '. ~1

/'

.,. 1

C;

~ .• ,~'".~:.. :-.: : :- ": .r. •

. ~7:~i:#:~~;,,:._v .. ,,~~.~,._.:

, I" , ~1 ~ •• ~I \ ~Y'~~~> ..,' ..

J

~ J ~~I C ~)'I <J

t.~1 ',atl HI J ~I · I ~t__i ~ , I'::_~ I~I r- J ." ,,- ~ ~

,

~i J ~ Ojf-~ Hi

,

, , #I t

u~ I'.~;. ~I\ Jw)ll

.,~.J~

... ... . '

J , ... 0 0 J

0;). 7 va ;;'~ J J.r--'JI

, ,

, .J" ...

J ~W\ J o~\ uG~

"

J .J" J "",-t" .J

J~ 0:,--_· s:JI (:I.! ~I

, ,

:,t ~ ~ J 0 ...

l_..\ J r!L...:J1 ~_;ll ~

• The nasb has five signs:

1. fatha

2. alif

3. kasrah

.. _

;_S

.J

4. ya

5. The omission of the nun at the end of the word

• Fathah is a sign of nasb in three instances:

1. The singular noun

2. The broken plural

3. The verb in the imperfect that is governed by an agent of nasb and having nothing termination



I ,...~~ •. I • ~\S W ~ r.J ,_ _-,

, ,

.. .

c. _;. ~ .,:.;.I.J ~ ,-:' ~

• Alifis a sign of nasb in the five nouns for example

JG G 0G J :L..j ~ J !Jt.:.;. J !JG:.i ) !JI.J\ ~\)

"

• As for kasrah, it is a sign of the nasb in the sound feminine plural

~CJ\ ~jil~)

• As for ya it is the sign of nasb in the dual and the plural

0" 0 .....

(~\ J (~":ll)

• As for the omission of the nun, it is a sign of nasb in verbs whose raf' is determined by the nun.

• As for khafd, it has three signs:

,
1. kasrah ;;_s
_
2. ya .;ti
, ,
3. [athah "
~ 4

o ~ "J J ,

~~~~'>~J_,q

- ,

~I t./~_.:;;'a~: \\ j--iJ1

#" ~t _

...,J ....... I _....:;.L I t, _ __..I • ____:>. 'YI

.1.1 ,

,

0': "J'"

~ ~~ ~'>\? J_,q

- ,

~ ".J 0 , ..

JI-~-.LA..~I t.::" a:JI HI

.~

J\,__----:1C:. ~I l.,5-----'! J ~)11

, J '" -

.:;L.. 1-:':..;. -\1 ~I

.. ~.J~,

• Kasrab is the sign of lehafd in three instances:

.. '
The singular noun that is fully declinable - J \ J t
1. ~...:....,_,\ ,......,. ~\
, J \ _
_ .
. , ::".,
J .-:::..:...J \
-'
,
2. The broken plural that is fully declinable ~\ ...:;,.
, - - '"'-
. , 01 0
J~\
..I ,
- , ,
3. Sound feminine plural noun ~U\ .._:j'u\ ~
, , ,..1 ~ • Ya is the sign of khafd in three instances also:

J , J ,
1. In the five nouns L:3-1 '" t:.:.., 'YI
, .,
2. In the dual ~ - _,.:'\\
,
3. In the plural J , "
~\
I.... • As for thefathah, it is a sign of khafd in a noun that is not fully declinable.

• J azm has two signs it is known by:

1. sukun j~
" .
2. Omission _ ,
J.J..>. • As for suisun, it is a sign ofjazm in theimperfecr verbs whose ending is regular. Omission is a sign of the fazm in verbs whose endings are irregular and in the five names whose sign of raf" is determined by the nun.

..

5

M2321

,

~ J ~: Q\I ;'-;11 ~'yf

'---.__.J~jl ~ J ~I

~ ~ ~ ,

ti ",,\.1 ~I J ~L:JI

,

" ~ ..

ur--_G r:_~ J 9 ~~

.J ' £,." , ,

c!'-_"oo..:>;" ~\ ~~ .. I L..;~ ~~

"Q ,

~ LJI ~ .. ~I 0" • s:Jl" !..?" r-"" J ".r-- :

, ,,~

~l,,~' • J.J" ,

J" -.~ ~

1. J. ~ , ..

J ::.~I ti "l\ ~\

- •. " .. ", J -

~rl~~r~~~1

; ~ ~ ~ .

J Jr~ y~ !..?;LJI J

, ,

~ , ~ ::01 ~ AJ.""t

~ J 4 _· .... 1 t.1""_;1 ~}

~ ,," r • "J.

~I a " .. ~I J ~L....:JI ~.i\J

Chapter 4: Inflected Words

Inflected words are of two types: those that are inflected with vowel markings and those inflected with letters .

• As for those words that are inflected with vowel markings. they are of four

types:

J. o.J ,..
1. The singular noun ' I J 'I
~?1r:"1
~ J.,
2- The broken plural I~
, '--
3~ The sound feminine plural ~UI ~ '\1' J. ,
o...-J I ~
, .J '--
:;, J j J
4. The verb in the imperfect whose ending is !..?fJ1 tl:dl ,-,~I
sound and nothing is attached to its .,. . ,
~~~~~~t
ending - ... ; ". All of these signified in the raj by damrnah, the nasb by fathan the khafd by kasrah and the jazrn by suieun. To these there are three

exceptions:

1. the sound feminine plural, which in nasb has kasrah
2- the noun that is not declined, which in khafd has fathan
3. the verb in the imperfect, irregular in the last syllable, which is
jazmated by the omission of the final syllable • As for the words that are inflected with letters, they are four:

1 •. The dual

2. The sound masculine plural

3. The five nouns

J , J ,

L:J-I ~ La..::.. \; I

4. The five verb forms

.- ... ",. 0

, 0~ , .j~ , .j')~

6

, ,

,,; r; , , ,."

~t-.:.J\ ~.ill ~ G\

,! \' II J ~. J ~

J '-I • __ "",a~·· J ~ y: t: _r---J

~i J ~\ .... __ ~:I~ ~

, ,

J~' ,,J "" 'E

e r-~ -~. ~,--_:~:L\ ~ l-._:,,,~'1

J

'E ,J ,J

J ~'Y~ t. 'a'~ J J\}~

, "

J ",{ 0 .-

JGi~1 L____";\ J ~t;}~ ~

, ,



• As for the dual it takes raf with ali]. It takes the nasb and the kl/(~/d withya.

• As for the five nouns, they are in raf" with wall', 1Ul.:W with ali] and khafd withya. As for the five verbs, they are in raf" with 111111 and in nasb and.Jzhafi{ with the omission of 11l111.

j",z~

7

Jwin~4

~ "'1' ., .J t

J ~L-.:. 4 ~ J~:JI

• J

Y ---~. I J Y .... a""'!!!. J

,

~ A ~ 0'"

I~I ~'11 C~ ~\1\.j

"A-~ ~ t

J IJ !I \ Jj S; __,_....'jl J

:it ' , J J

~J\ ~ 0l_S' c. t/·..:d.\

~.J ~\ } !1~jJl <s~1

~ J." J A... ...: ."J., ,

..r--J> J ~I ~y ~~

~~ ~ i~ t_,_J;

". ,

i /-_;,. } ~t___; ~

£ ". ". , •• ' J (~11.j

01 ~ J ~.J,...--· ...... c ~ r

J, ... 0.... ,.,

i:J J ~ <) J 0~~ J 0--J J

J, ,

~J~~I\:JJ~

, J ".

J JIJ.-JI J ,-l._.ij~ ylJ.-J-1 J

". ".".

J ",,' J , 0 t

J ~ ~~ ,jI}:-1 J JI

". ,

0iJrJiJ~Jrs~

... ....., J ... J,

'1 J ,-\ c.:u\ J ~'.11 ,'1 J

,

J 01 J ,-w:U1 J <,.>6 ~II ~

". , ,

o ....... ....

J G~~ J ~ J ~ J t:.

J~i J 0W J ~J~f

... ", ;., , "0., ~I

JI '- -- • ....,;.~) J I 01..>- J ~

; ~ ,,~ ':. .. ~ 'I . j \~I

.r-:, t..;J... ~

, "

Chapter 5: Verbs

There are only three verb tenses:

,
1. Perfect . \11
<.5:f'
,.
J J
2- Imperfect t/-~I
3. Imperative "'~~I
J ,

\ '

The perfect always has sfathab on the last syllable (unless it has the uauof plurality or a pronoun of raf' that has a vowel mark). The imperative is always withjazm. The imperfect verb is one that always commences with

J .'

one of four letters that are contained in the technical word ( ~I). Moreover. ,

it is always in raf" unless an agent of nasb or jazm precedes if. The agents of nasb are ten. They are contained in these lines:

.... o/. 0)0£ .... '

;klll ~'---__';-!.J JI ~ i}' J

The particles that governjazm are eighteen in number and they are contained in the following lines:

"'. J

'-- A .1; I 0 ~ ,\ \ ~\ <L_...a".>.- •

f- J, -'.J

• J

'1 { :11..0 _ __..c..ul J -:-'1\ i'J -'

'r

, 0 ,

C • j\ •

.... . ....

J

\ ~I ,.. .. _ ___,~ I • I

2Also called the FA AS-sababiyya .For full treatment of this agent see APPENDIX I. 8

t J J .J..... ... J

, ~ II 1 ... 1:'" ~

) 1 .... 1 __ - ..... ' J ~~ _-JJ-_~~ ~

, •• ~I\ :, A f ~ ~ ~. f ~ ~

) ,-, -_ ..... WoN ... ,-. _~ __ ':.I ~) Y' J

~ .

.J~I

.~.

Chapter 6: Nouns in Raf'a

The marfu 'at are only seven in number and they are as follows:

) ~C ,
1. The subject-doer ~W\
.... '
, , J
2. The object whose subject-doer is not ~W\ ---J\5
'-" . ,
named
/'1 A(
3. The subject of a sentence which \ - \
begins with a noun
4. The predicate of a subject of a noun J ':, \
.r":
sentence
5. The subject of the verb kana and its ti-J\~~f • Jt5-
~ ~
analogous verbs
! '"
6. The predicate of inna and its ti-JI' "j • . \
_y> ..I .J,
,
analogous particles
, .
7. The word in apposition to a raf'ated t_.~~ ~~
..I , 1.._:
~ ,
noun, which are four:
1. Adjectives .(~) .
2. Conjuctives (~)
3. Corroboratives ( .J$ .i)
4. Permutatives ( J..yl) 9

-.<~:~~~:.< ", -- .

. 4 •• ... U~;jjbj,j~ •..

,

) ~l_____1 . 0: ' .. ; , I~

.J:, u- ,,~

~ ,

, J" J

2_.U0 .:» 0, t1J1j 0 .

',~~~ ~

"

",,, "J." ~"" ,

iW ) ~j r ~ ) o.4j it;

J JIG)I r ~ ) JI~)!

, ,

.J. J.., ...

i J ;; ) J )' _jJl il_j

.... J. 016' "'J;:;:;

) J~) rl_j J J)~j.ll

" ." J .- J.J

~ ~L..j ) JG.:.) r ~

,; . : ' ~ 0" ~~ ,

pL__;) \ .;- r~ J

... ....0 0 J .. " 0 0

)01"s IIr~)9\yl

.. .. ... J 0 ",.

i J'__--"-~ ) ~1:4-J\ pl_j

,; J. 0 .,. , " 0

J ~;i-JI ~l_j ) ~Iyl

., c : "",,,oJ,,,

) ,!j~1 iL_j) ·~HI i?

,J...... .. .. JJ."

~~ rLj) ,!j~1 i~

t ' ,

~ :';.IG)~~r~)

,,~, ,

)1 '- --.~-!~ ) ,,_,--~.r )

"... , ~ J ... , 0 Jo, "6

Y~)~~)~r

t_:;~ ) L_;~ ) ~~ )

Chapter 7: Subject-Doer

The subject-doer is a noun in the raf'a whose action is previously mentioned.

. .

It is of two types:

• ~\1.
1 . When the subject-doer is explicit.
J_
o _ • J
2. When the subject-doer is implicit and contained in ~
the verb itself. The explicit subject is expressed for example in the following statements:

, J J.

.,. -'

o.4j i r: •

~j rlj ·

jl:1.:':;·1\ i- ~ •

-..1"

_ J J

JI..u:--)1 i ~ •

J 0 J. J. J. 0 ,

~(41 i_;;· ~(I ~~I pL! •

J .JI 0 J. .J." J JJ 0 ,

~H' i~· ~HI ~L!.

o J. J

JI41 i~.

, ,

There are ooly twelve implicit subjects, expressed in the following statements:

r

I;~.

,. »<>,

o ", ...

~~. Y~·

,:;'J.

(Dual) c?

~~ .

L:!~ •

I ~ 0'" ~ 0""" ......

.L_.; . ...L...-J . .

-.JY~J -.J'-="r

r I

i

Chapter 8: Object whose Subject is not Named

This is a noun that is in raf'a but whose subject is not mentioned with it. When the verb is in the perfect. then the first letter takes a damrnalt and the penultimate takes a kasrah. On the other hand, if the verb is imperfect. then the first letter takes a dammah but the penultimate takes sfathah. This passive subject is of two types:

1. Explicit ,< ~lb
.J,
2. Implicit which is contained in the verb " , 0 J
~ The explicit is in such statements as,

~ 0 ...... 0 I

J~ ifi'l •

,

""0'" .. ... 0 J

~j '-="..1-4.: •

, 0

)~i~·

Where the implicit contained in the verb is twelve as in the following examples:

I~ '. W~ • . ..1

,

_ 0 J

, ,

'y...r-" •

J

'--' ~ . • ..I

~ Jo ..

.;:., ~ .

U'J~

_ J

~_?

, . ,

,J!..r-".

o ,J

:::"

(Dual) ~

11

'. :,I~ ~~_"Jt'. ",_0 oJ'. • O(L-__._ ...L- A_~:...' '-!:::;V;_' _/I'_' :o.:..j~

- - - ~ ~ j l: - 4. A subject with itS predicate • .r: L

12

" ." 0,. .J

L' ~.Lrj ~. .:. 4.3\ ~\

-.J .,..T ~ ,-.

J ~I'_ _4.J"!~ ~1L.:j.n J ~U

I", ,..J "'.J "'''.J ,.

I .... J __ -~.\\ J cJ~\_j cJJ~)\

~ ".J ~ , "

Jr----"".......,:;;c,""'. J ~~ cJI ..... .____.,!

,

'" 0 ',,-" ,. cD ,

J c~ ~ r:l.._i l___. ~\1Jtj

"'£ .. 0 ~

UI~J~81~1

"" .J :; .-ot. ~t , .lot

J~J~IJ~IJt.:....:.;1

,. ." • " J ..

~J~JL....J.J~

..

... • J J ."

,.. ~~ ~ ~)lU ~~

pr

Chapter 9: The Subject and its Predicate

The subject is the noun in raja, free of any expressed agents acting upon it. The predicate is the noun in raja which is semantically connected to the subject. For example the following expressions:

cJ~ti cJ1J.:jJl •

, ,

The subject is of two types:

1. Explicit

" - .

2. Jmplicit

It is explicit as in the above-mentioned examples. Whereas the implicit is twelve only:

~i •

.

\.;1 •

~.

~i •

:::...;, .

w.

~i •

.

..:_..j\ •

, ~ : J 0 _ ,,0:,£

For example your statements ( cJ J~~ ~ J ~Ii l.il) and similar such

expressions .

• As for the predicate, it is of two types:

1. Simple

2. Compound

It is simple in such statements as (cJ~li cJlJ.:jJl J ~li ~j

,. "'''.J :; ""

cJ ~li ,cJ J~j.ll J) and it is compound in four cases:

~~

( 1. A preposition and its object

. ( 2. Adverbial expression

_ J

{ 3. A verb with its subject .J.&:.t! - - ~I

--- c: "'" -



Chapter 10: Governing Agents that Exercise Influence on the Subject and the Predicate

S1. ~1~11 ~1~1 ~L, ~19r$il~1

- . _.

, "".,. t J. ""

JJLS~~\~~~)

\8 1(";:.i) jl ) 4-J\y.:.i There are three things that influence simple sentences:

,t' , t, ::'

L-.::\j ~\y.:.1 ) c .. \:, )

t--i ) ~~ 4-J1~i ) 0t5--

J.J. il : ,a~; ) ~)'I

~i J ~ :r J 0t5-- ~

, .., t

J J uL! J J.--1 J ~, )

., ". , ,

La J Jlj L___;. ) ~ ) )~

: c~GJ~\...)~\ ~ J.) ~ a; ~ ) r\~ L. )

; ~ 1 I ~ t " I r" , t

J U ...... _ __.~I ) ~:, ~,

I...--_,,,,,,a~'f \ e ;~ 4-J1y.:.\

,

~ ) ;._j..\ ~; s ~)'I

" "

~~I~~)~tj

, 41 t •

~-~_fP!01 )01 ~ J

1. Kana and its analogous verbs 4-J1~i .) jt5--
Inna and its corresponding , , "., £ :;.
2. ~I~I • jl
J _, ,
Thanna and its analogous verbs ' ~,,! ~I
3. ~I.,=>-I J :_.;b • As for kana and its analogous verbs. they always place the noun in raf'a and the predicate in nasab. They are the following words:

, ,
1. Kana j\.5'
Amsa ' 0'
2. ~I
Asbaha ' A i
3. ~I
\._'
Idha ' 0 c
4. ' 1
~
:> -
5. Dhalla l1.
'""
,
6. bata ...:,_,L'
,
7. sara )~
8. laysa -.-:J
'"' -
, ,
9. ma zala Jlj Co
10 rna infahka ~IC
, ,
11 ma fati'a t_2C
,
12 rna bariha 't_:
[_f.
,0,
13 ma dama ib L. This includes of the various conjugations of these words such as,

• • t

<::::1.

, . ,

, A t

~I.

~.

13

~ ( .

.r: __ _;;:L 1 J IJ ~: II ,-I __ O-.J·;

J

J ,- .

J (' J ' J

J c--: I) J ,'--_ ............ c j J ~

J,

, J

J ~..41 .::> ..... J J '-I - __ ...... '""l~c

oJ,." ~

J I" . . ::'"\

J ,-, - uo->--""'. J ~ .... I_-,.......,

~ ,. . J 0 <# I_,,__ ....... ~c. ,-I - __ .... 1""'.,;.. J \

• As for inna and its corresponding particles, they place the subject in the nasab case and the predicate in the raf'a case. They are the following particles: .

:;,
1. inna - c rv-: 17 \.CY-l ') .)1
', ,/' :;, ,
2. anna \-.~~ . \ .)1
f- <;C{_ \ , J,__
~ l..-c-J-c.
3. lakinna ;.~
. ,
....
;. ,
4. ha'anna .)l5'
5. layta '- '1
--=-
;. ,
6. l'alla ~
.... The first two inna and anna are used to give force to the statement by means of corroboration; lakinna is used to correct a previous statement: ka'anna is used for comparison; layta is used to express an impossible wish; and l'alla is used either for hope or expectation. They are contained in the following lines:

• Dhanantu and its analogous verbs, place the subject and its predicate in the nasab case, because they are both objects of the verb. The verbs of this kind are as follows:

; - ~:-i:, ,
1. dhanantu
hasibtu J • ,
2. , - :>-

khiltu J •
3. ~
J ,
.x'amtu ,
4. ~j ;
J e:
5. ra'aytu ..:....:1)
'.
6. 'alimtu ~
J ,
7. wajadtu ~J._~ J
J , , \.
8. ittakhadhtu ~~I
• \
9. j'altu ~
10 sam'itu J • , t)
~JJ Thus you say.

/ .'

"-'__b

U

14



~

I

. J ~~ J I~ ~ ; '6~: il

-

~ c$;LJ\ ~)l1 :~J-._.;.

p)~~WIJ~~1

,

- _ .1 .. " ..

~1'_;' _),l l_... J i jWl J

..

o ..

J G;J)!I o~ ~.~ ...1.>-IJ

*' # ... ~ , '1-"

..

o Q J' ""

..~ I 1(" 0'C":"1\

~y r--v ~

~ , ~ A" ~r 0

~IJ ~ J' _~:t ~

to

Chapter 11: Adjectives

..

The n 'at ( ~I ) follows the case of what it is describing whether that word

be in Raj(~ J ) in nasb ( ~ ) or in khafd ( '-~ ) . whether it be definite ( ~ jV) or indefinite ( o~ ). Thus you say:

..

..

~WI -f!.j! C> Jf •

.. -

IJ~W\ :l:j ("\j •

Definite ( a.; jV ) nouns are five things only:

,

1. Personal pronouns ~\ ~':1\ such as, :.:.J' • 151 _.STIZ I)
J I'\J
f7A..N I<,
;.wI ~':11 ,;. " 01=
2. Proper names such as, ~ .) ~j r;:cc.~~,\f..
"t.S.f
3. Demonstrative pronouns /~I ~':1\ such as, I~ ) ~~.p. I~ -p J_,...a.>,o \'

r-

.3.:.... '_<:' <-.,-,.-{.. p.c,,"~'5

~ c,?~1 ;"-)11

.. ~... , -;.

i y\J1. J ~':1\

4. Nouns with the article of

( - \

\definition J

~ \

SJ) ~', \._._., ......

such as,

\

5. Anyth!r9 wh~Ch is placed in conjunction with anyone of the above four

-c,Lo..d'\ A- ~ \.£ = 'aT ~

~, '.

15

, ~

4h .. JJ ... L

, . .

.J. .".... 0... J. ,J J

J C~ ~ 6.11 uJ..r J

... J J 4'" J 0

J ~ J '" l._ill J JI.J--.JI ~

_,..

,,0 .".... o£ o£

J ':1 J ~ J Gl J rl J JI

va ~;~~~~

... ." J ,

Ji ; - ~&.) ~~:; ~

~

, . _. I~'I-

rJ~~J ,-

0 ......

a Q=--

...... ... J J

J ~j rl_j J~ ~:;,.

~ 0",1 0'£" ~ 0 ...

J I .......... _---:!_j ~I.) J J~

, . ~

0.... ." "" , 0 ,

J ~ -J. U.)~ J ~

-

., ,J ..."

t--J J ~ ~.~j J J_;';'

* •

:I~:!

Chapter 12: Conjunctions

The particles of conjunction are ten and they are summed up in this verse:

Thus if you connect a word with another by means of one of these ten the latter follows the former in its case. So if by means of one of the ten you unite a word to a word in raf'a then it is also marf'u and if it is in nasb then it is also mansub and if it is khafd then it is also rnalehfud: likewise if it is jazm then it is also majzum. Thus you would say,

.. -

• ~ • ..lJ; ~\j •

-I.r- .J -..,,/, '

, -

J~ J -}-:.j! 0.J/ J •

~

0'_ o~ I'"

~1 .~i..lJ; ••

- r .J I" - -J ."

-



16

I r

r

j;11...-~;14 ~ ~ ) ~.r5

" J

) u,.-._~:JI ~ ) }---t _,1-

, , £ ~\ ~ ~ 0::.\

) Co: c?-I ) u--- ) ~I

)P~)~i(:ly

- ,

,,. "', ~ £ .. t

~j iL__j J."z ~I ) ~\

~ r:,_j51 ~C ) ~ .

,. • £' .."

. ~\ r~~ C-l.Jf)

-- ,

-' ,

, ,

Chapter 13: The Corroborative

The corroborative ( .J.$' _,:JI ) is a word that follows a corroborated word

.. ,

( ..1.5'JlI ) in its cases either raf'a or nasb or khafd and its definiteness

also. It occurs with only certain known words and they are the following:

J _,

..-:..:....\ .1

'-

~~i '1

.._.- .-

,C J

.. 0 ... ,

~\.~ I....

And the appositive/ of the fourth corroborative and they are

;Si.1

I....

J _ •

- \ .,

c: ._

J _ •

~\ 1 l_ .. _

Thus you.say:

J J. ..

~ -4j rlj •

• J.

'·~ • .;...I i .~IL 0.) .....

v~· .r-.... -'

3 Apposition in grammar is when a word is placed with another as an explanatory equivalent

17

'~~I~~

~ , I ~

~ r---' J~1 b! J--Wl

J..,. <1-,.

~~~~J\r-'\

... ~ t:

~) J ~ J ~1.rl ~ L}

".J. .'"

r:..r---: ~~, J~ rL-.:..!1

, ~

,J ~ .. '" 0 "".

t.f.J .. II JJ iii 0' ~~)

~ ,: "" "." "'''' .

. ~ I~j ~~\j ,- k!~

Chapter 14: The Permutative

~

The pennutative (J~' ) occurs when one ism or onejil is exchanged with

another. Moreover it follows what it is exchanged for in all of its inflections.

There are four types of permutative:

;
1. The complete change of one thing ~~I.:._,.,.~?IJ...l.J
for another
... ~ ;
2. The change of a part for a whole j5J1 .,.,. ·~I J...l.J
'-' '-' .
}
3. The change of the content for the J~~IJ~
, .
,
containing
}
4. The change for a mistake :;h1J1 Ji, Thus you say

1. Zaid came (I mean) your brother. '" '
.!J ~I ...l.Jj ~b
J -
... JJ ... CI
2. 1 ate the loaf of bread (I mean) E. ~.I:". ':JI ~i
4.:.L ~ -
third of it.
,
3. Zaid (I mean) his erudition .J J..... ~ .....
~-4j~
- ,
benefited me.
, ~
" ~.'
4. I saw Zaid, (I mean) the horse. t.f:,.J1 l-4j ~ 1 J
In the last case you intended to say the horse but mistakenly said Zaid instead.

18

, , ~

) .J~- .... '~ ..... c ~ u~_,..dl

~ ~ J

) .J,,",,-J --""'0 ..... \1 ) ~ J ~I r./'

, J ,

J .Jr--""~ J 0L....)l1 J _r--1

,

, , J

) ;; t'f'--_ .... I J L5Qo"'~ _ __.... ...... 1.1

, "" ~ ",."

J')L___.S" p--->- J c.S ~L.J..I

J J ' I-

vr--_· J~I J ~\y>-\

,,£, ~ ',,:11

".._: ----IIt.?!_) I .r=" J ~ J+--""'- 4:_ 4.1,_

'"

J ....J",II' t

J ,-,iJ-4 _J:;l.k:lf..;JI J <..._-_ ....... JI ,:.~I

J'~I ~,:II . J - r

Chapter 15: Parts of Speech in Nasb

The pans of speech that are governed by the nash are fifteen in number:

,

J' {

4J ~\

• J'

1. The direct object
2. The verbal noun or the absolute object
3. The time-qualifier
4. The space-qualifier
5. The circumstantial qualifier
6. The specifying element
7. The excepted element
8. The noun negated by la
9. The vocative ~ '"

JIj..\

~, ~ \ lr--

10. The object of reason

11. The object of accompaniment

}

" J)-{

~ o.Jt..U.l

.J

12. The predicate of kana and its related verbs

13. Subject-noun of inna and it related verbs

14. The two subjects of zanantu 4 and its related verbs

15. Something in apposition to a noun which is in the nash case

This last mansub falls into four categories:

Adjective ~
1. I
2. Conjunction ~\
3. Corroborative ~jl
:, .J
}
4. Perrnutative J~I 4 Many of the manuscripts of the Ajrumiyya do not contain this 14th part of speech that is mansub, and thus many printed editions do not contain it either and it seems to be an oversight on certain scriveners' part that out of trust was not transmitted in the actual text but added in the commentaries; and Allah knows best.

19

.. -~,- ..

, ,

LP..~4_"':>; ~ ~ J u~1

,

J ~~ J ~-t~ 2..L!;

.- "
JI s:.;" , I ,
.. _rc 41 Io!.. !_rc
• ..I
:; " "
<suo s:.;' r ,
Ju .rJ" ·r ".,. ." .~ ,,'"

J uS !_rc J f9"r ".6 --!!_rc J

"

~~~IJ 'aQ~t\

.

~GI LJ~I "GI~:

-. J -. J c.} -. ,,~

~ '" .,. J., '"

~~1 J L.-S""4"! J ~~1 J

Chapter 16: The Direct Object

This is a word that is a direct object of a verb's action such as:

~
I struck Zayd ~
I~j ~.?
J rode the horse ' .: I :.::s-'
1,.."" ~I - ., .J There are two types of direct objects:

explicit "lJ:,
~
implicit ~ ~
~ The explicit was already mentioned in the above examples. As for the implicit. . there are two types:

" , ~
connected ~
~,
"
unconnected ~
~, The connected has twelve forms:

\:&~~ .10

"
~.? .1
,
G~ .2
. -'
~ , .3
i . .? The unconnected also has twelve forms:

~~I ' " ,. .!.iG\ ~~!
.10 ;)5'~1 .7 .4 .1
-. -.
,
"~I " , , ~ , 15~\
.11 oLI .8 \.....S'G'I .5 .2
~-.J -. -. -.
~.1 ~ \J.GI _, , ~~I
c.J"~1J .12 .9 ~t;! .6 .3
-oJ -. \

20

J ~

'11 J ~ ~ "tl

__ ~ .r: __ ~ .) ...... 1 ..... _

'" "J. Q ',.

~\,; '"~ ~j__\1 y _raJ.1

J

~,--~:: ~I ~~ cJ

~ ~

J , J

\_, .:a ~ ..---_;.,~! t...-J. '.:a ~ j

'.J~ • .J ..r-.T

~

, ~ J

~ ..... ~-...I9~· iLJQ! JJ~ ~ ~.~ ~

• JJ J ' ~

b ~ '-I -----'I~;_ y.s C$;':'

~

~ J J J

~~J~J

Chapter 17: The Infinitive or Absolute Object

J

The masdar ( ).:L.a1\ )is the noun in nasb that 'occupies the third place in

~ J ~

the conjugation of the verb; for example, ( ~_;;:, y ~ y~ ) . It is of two

kinds:

1. Homonymous ~~~\
- -
2. Synonomous ,~~
'"::""'J
- When its derivation isthe same as its verb then it is homonymous ( ~; \ )

~, ~

such as (")I.:; ~.±; ) , should it only agree in meaning by not derivation then it

~ "J ~ J J

is synonomous ( C$ ~ ) such as ( b;'; : - I;" ~ t.! __,..! J ~ ) and the like.

21

- ~ - .JI

~ ~!Ojll~_,Ja ~4

~~L~.,Ja

.. "" J J ,

.- __ 1 .r+" 0G:J1 J ~

~ ..

. ~ ~a·tI0G)1

<J.;-!.~ -. Y J""_-'"

"" ." .

~ _, J. , :J" "J.

o-'~ -' ~I -'.r~\ ~

~ ,,~ ~:il

-' I~ -,1;-"':" -' o~-,

~

"" J." """ t

-' ~II-'~I'___~; _,;:_ .... _;, _l;;' -' ~GI

~

-'~\~J~'A~J~

_, £ ' " ,,"" "J. ' " ,

:; ~';,I~-'?J~-'~~

Chapter 18: The Time and Space Qualifiers

A qualifier of time is a part of speech denoting time. placed' in the nash case with the same meaning as if it were preceded by the particle ( ..J ) . such as:

" ~ " ~~ " J
I~. \ ~ ~ • ~ _;II
.?-" • o .• ;-'~ • •
" " £ " ~ " "
~. I~I. I..~I • ,-G • G-.G •
-, 4L\JI •

4:.,;. •

And the like ( ~~ ~ r L.. -' ) .

A qualifier of space is a part of speech that denotes locality. also in the nasb case, with the same meaning as if it were preceded by the ( ..J ) . such-as:

~ , ~ • ~ ~ J •
:: J_,! • ~I)-, ~I:l.; ~ . ,~
~ • ~ • • • ~ •
~ , ~ .
... . ~~ ~I~ ~\jl
r-' • • • • And the like (~~ ~i L.. J).

- - ~ -

JbJl~~

Chapter 19: The Circumstantial Qualifier

, ; ;

y J ' <:~11 ':'_:")'I '~ JLJ_I.,

, - .r+; The circumstantial qualifier is a part of speech in the nasb case which

, ' ~

..' ;, ~I I ,oJ

4Ill1 .... J_~c. ._, ~-~.""3 J ~ ~

I

.

explains something that is uncertain as regards external circumstances: such

as:

> • -
Zayd came riding t.21_) ~j :k
<' _0 , - _) J ("-
I rode the horse, saddled b,.~ ,_}'" • I ~.J
~
I met Abudullah [who was] riding tSl- ~I D. J_ :\
._ .J . ._
- And the like (~~ ~ i L. J ) .

The word used for circumstance is always indefinite (C~ ). always comes at

-

the end of a complete sentence, and always describes the circumstances of one

who has the definite article.

23

. ~ .. "

j ,,~L.,l&

....... ..

,

... "

.. ' ':"\ L...:J ~'_:;u..1I

u ,~ ,.J

, ,~

"____~,""af ~_; ~ CI\)jJl

~::J * ,

~ ~ ) Li'_;. ~j

? ...",,?

~~yLk)~

~

J~~. ~~)

.. ,,"' .. , .. c. .. '

J--..r.1 ) L...:I ~ i _?, ~j

, , ~

0) ~:;)~J~

Chapter20; The Specifying Element

The specifying element is a word that is in the nash case which explains something that is uncertain as regards the essence of that thing; as for instance:

~
Zayd poured forth sweat \.i_r -4j ~

Bakrun was bursting with fat ~~L
To
~ -
I bought twenty servants l,..)~ J-?- ~Pl

Muha_mmad was content in spirit I L....:_j ...L.......s!- -:» lb

I possessed ninety ewes ~ J~ :' ..s:J_4
.. &. :;::; Co ,;. oj
Zayd is nobler than you as to ..=..L. Jr.1 • 1..,1 »~r.5'1 _u 0
.J 0 '-- 0 ..I ,.1
father and more handsome than •
I_p,-)
you in countenance The specifying element is always indefinite; moreover it always comes at the end of a complete statement.

24

~. .I

I····· .11 L

e 1 , 1,.'. ~ .

~ J

~t..C ~\..... .'il J J.r->" J

, ~

-' r.S~ J ~ J 'i1 ~ J

, -

". . ... -.-."~ .• -= , ,

'JIt---<Sc::- .... _ ...... H~ l__;;, le- J I~

} ~

fY~1 JLS 1~1:. a'l

} ~I \_j ,. G.,. } ~t;

r.., ~ ~ .. y

:;... ., ~ ~ ~

'JI1 VLJI C~ -' \..L....:j )'1

} , .,

r~:A-_5'j\ JL...S' J1 -' I~

J ,. ~ *

-' J..L...:JI ~ jL>.. Gt; ~

~~\ ..... "'iI~~1

:; ,~ a;.J , ,.

'JIlJ1 ~j )'! ..1.....->1 rl_j t,

J .,

(>\ (II JLS J1 -' l..L....:j

.,

'---.;:J">- ~ JL5' L..,a.;'G

~ G

G -' I~j )'! ~~ t... -'

to }

~i -'of ...... ----,,!lY. )'! U.J~

, ,

J I~ -' '::L>: t.S.... \I ~

* , ~ ,.

JI~j~ r~1 rti~

., ,

J~ J I~ I~ -' -f:j

.,

.,

,

• o.4~I_....,!.<!j -' l-4j L!.6- -'

Chapter 21: Exception

The particles of exception are eight:

:-
1. ilia ,)'\
ghair J
2. r
siuian ~
3. ,::.~
'-'..; ,
~ J
4. suwan . .:. c..-'
'-'..;
..
5. sauiai'un ~I-~
J
6. lehala )G.:.
7. 'adaa \:0:-
8. Haasha GG- ..

The exception by means of ilia ( )'1 ) is in the nasb, when the sentence is

~ J J. ~ :;.- J. ...

affirmative and complete ( y,. y ~)\5:J1 ) . Thus ( I..l.;j ')'1 i ~I it; ) . the

people stood up except Zayd. But when the sentence is negative and complete, it may be considered a pennutative of what is excepted from or take the nasb case, according to the rules of exception. Thus

~ tp.J, <I~"""

( l-4j 'i! r _,All rti \.,. ) or ( -4j 'i1 i _,.i\1 rti \.... ) .

If the sentence is incomplete without the exception, then the thing excepted is governed by the agents acting upon it and not by the particle of exception. For

.. to ,

instance, (-4j 'i! rti \.,. ) , none stood up except Zayd. Also,

G J . ., to J

(~y. 'i! o.Jf \.... ) and ( I..l.;j )'1 c-'!_,.p \....)

. .,

• As for tile word excepted by ghair (y), siuian (r.5 Y:" ),

~, . ~" .. J

suwan (c..S .r" ) , and satoa'un (~Ir ) , they are all majrur (.JJ./:).

• As for words excepted by khaIa ( ~ ) , ada ( I~ ) • or haasha

( L!.6-), then it is permissible to use the nasb case or thejarr case. For example:

. ~.... ~,,"',; ".. ., ,.

_f.;. J I_,s:; W-b- -' J.r>- J I~ I~ J -f:j -' '--4j ;f.>. r _,.ill it;

., ~

25

.. '" t •

~ ,.:;lau .. j 'i 01 _, __ -,,->,1 cl

~ (~

.. .~

!'-------~ .. )~

'----":.. -' J (r-~pl J)

Chapter 22~ Absolute Negation with la

..

Know that the negation places indefinite words into the nasb case without

tanunn ( ,:;..Y; ) , when it immediately precedes an indefinite word. and the!

.. ~ ..

negation is not repeated such as (J.DI ~ vb...J 'i ) .. There is no man in the

house.

When it does not immediately precede the word negated. then the raj' a case is necessary and the negation must be repeated if another word is negated

.. .. ..

thereafter such as (oi..,...1 'i J ~.J )ilt J 'i) ..

When it is repeated. it is permitted to either exercise its influence or simply negate without influence on the case of that which is being negated. Thus one may say either, (~i..,...1 'i J )~I LJ ~.J 'i) or

~

~. ;:;; ~ ,

(01..,...1 'i J )jJl ~~.J 'i)

26

J ), )

~ ~I ~I~i ~ ~~l:.ll

J... J J ~ J

J C~J a=lI c~1 J (--WI

J ) . ;;

J O~ J a ;\1 p--i:- Q ~\

, J

JL...d~; ~ ~ 1.1 J JL..d1

J ..' )..). ),.

o~, J r-w' ~~, Ct;

L-: ~ ~~ ~ if ~I

~ " "

J . '" J J )

L_, ")ld\ J ~.J L-: J ~j

0# J

.~')}~~~WI

Chapter 23: .The Vocative

The vocative has five kinds:

1. A Simple proper name ~I .t.
~ ..:..;.1
J
2. An intended indefinite :~) ,..:tI ;}:JI
3. An unintended indefinite C ~ ~I .r--'=- ; _?:.JI
J
4. That which is annexed to JL.al1
J ,J
5. That which is similar to something jLd~ ;~'~ \1
in annexation • As for the simple proper name and the intended indefinite, they are both always formed with a damma without tanuiin. For example:

J J ' J

. _}-.J ~ , .J.:j ~

• As for the other three kinds, they can only be in the nasb case and no other.

Examples of each are as follows:

1. An unintentional indefinite would be for ; ~ ..I-.aill .r--'=- ; _?:.JI
instance a blind man calling someone for
help such as:
0. ) ~
C$..l..:!. J.>. ';)..;,.,..J ~
J
2. That is which is annexed to for example: jl';...i\
~I ~~ I.; J 11 ~ I.;
J J
3. That which is similar to something JW~ 4~-~t\
,
annexation for example:
0# IP ~ ~
Y.J~ .G fi ':1 CI)I L.>l ~ ~\.k I.; •
, , 27

, ~: .. ~~::..: ...... ~

.,>.miiic~: . ......;..;:.,;; .. _~_ .

~i~~~1JI~4 ~

~

y .r: __ .p.a ..... ·\1 ;--)'1 ~ J

Chapter 24: The Object of Reason

This is a noun in the nasb case which is mentioned in order to clarify the reason why the action has occurred such as:

"

~_.-JI Gy' ~ -4 C$.LJI

iL.j ~ !~ ~ ~I ~_;J

Zayd stood out of respect for 'Amr

"

J J "J 'l1')L___".1 LJ'

.J ~ -

~

I have come to you out of desire for your favor

~J~4ol1~y

'-:-'J a·\.I~)'I~J

,J •

~ ~ 0L-.:) ~~ ($jJl

,

,. " ,J • .J ,

~L.,. ~..I~ ~ juJl AA.,o

(5J- ,I J ~I J ~':YI

~ ~ ~

01 r--"I J ~Iyl J 0L..5"

'~

i I iij _I ji~ ~Iy-:-i J

J ,

-' u\,-_~c. y)1 ~ ~.?~

,

~J.z -,--_iiii.=>! ~IJlI ~£

Chapter 25: 'The object of Accompaniment

This is a noun the in the nasb case which is mentioned in order to clarifv

with whom the action was done. For example, your statements:

The Emir came with his army , \ J"
~I • y":l'I-k
..... -' ..I - ...'
" , , J
The water became level with the .<",::LI • ~tll is ~\
..I .,/
wood J

As for the predicate ( p>- ) of a kana and its related verbs. and also the

subject-noun of inna and its related particles, they have already been covered in the section on the parts of speech that are in the raf'a case. Furthermore the words in apposition to a word which is mansub have also been dealt with there.

29

__ -,, __ .

~

uP .r: __ Il.>o';:;:" J J )-'\-_~

0. ___c a ~~ \... ' J. J r ~ cr=: U',..:z....__a:>- ~ .r: .

J L) J ~,.-_~I c J ~ J Ji J

" ~

J J~I J :'\- _-:-,)1 J Y J

"

J -c _ _......;;II ~ J.r->: J (>UI

J • " J

J.l.._:.... J ~ J (Y.J JI~

, ,

,J ., ~ ~.

L-..j~'i~ a ;~ \_. L..:.I

, •. cJ

..L...J . J ~ 2...L-J ~ '~

J" .J i ,..T .r -

"

J~ L__. 0' ........ "-.--.;;; ~ ~

,

J J. "

~ J ~j i~ ~ r)\.l~

J J

J ~~ (t___;,:- J ~ \..... Y~

. ~~~i\...



Chapter 26: The Nouns in khafd

The nouns which are in khafd are of three classes only:

1. mahhfud because of a preposition

2. mahhfud because of annexation

3. A word in apposition to a makhftut 5

• As for the a word in khafd due to a particle, this takes place after the following particles:

~ .

c?

. .....

Jl •

~.

And also the particles of adjuration which are, (u , Y , J ) and then

" J J '. oj 0. ,

uiato rubba ( Y.J JIJ ), also mudn and rnurtdhtt ( ..L,... J ,..L. ) .

,

• As for what is in khafd due to annexation ( ~G 'i~ ) , an example of

that is (~j i ~) The servant of Zayd. This however is of two types: it is either equivalent to the relation expressed by the particle {am ( J ) . as in the servant of Zayd, or it is equivalent to that expressed by the particle min ( ~ ) as in:

A door made of teak

A garment made of silk

A ring made of iron

5 All three kinds are found in the sacred formula Bismillahi ir-Rahman ir-Rahim. The ism after the particle ba is makhfud due to a preposition, the name Allah is makhfud due to annexation to the word ism and ar-Rahman ar-Rahim are both makhfud due to being in apposition to a makhfud which is Allah i.e. they are both adjective describing Allah which is makhfud therefore they are makhfud. .

30

The translation of this text was completed with the help of Allah at the hands of the poor slave of his Lord, harnza yusuf asking forgiveness for mistakes explicit and implicit seeking the gift of His ism firmly imprinted in his heart, asking to follow the fil of His Messenger peace and blessings be upon him, and to be far from those who worship Allah on a harf, Asking for raf'un in the akhiraa and that death be in his foremost thoughts always (nasba 'aynayhii and that Allah place his soul in a state of khafdun before Him. That Iman be firm (jazmun) in his heart and Allah givefathun to anyone who reads this text, copies it or studies any part of it; and that it helps him break (yaksir) the bad habits of his tongue and that he include (yaddurnuy the one who struggled to. make its meanings clear in the original and in the translation in his calling upon (nida) Allah in the appropriate times and places of invocation ifi dhurufin munasiba makaanan uia zamaanan lidhalika). Our final prayer is praise be to Allah the Lord of all

beings .

.

,

31

._::'.'

'# 'i " ~;~~;'~:~ .

.r .; >~ .~~-. :-:!~::.{ .:

:"!::-.-"; ,,~

o~
~
I-
;, o~
....__ o'~
,. 1.,
'3
oj-
~ l~
.:J ~
..3 • • • .. • • • • • • •
"
., ) ,7' ,., =; ] -\ 1 .~ j 1 :.:l 3 "3 1 1 ~ ~.
""l, 1 ~ ~ 'l .;:1.J ~J
.. 'l , . ~ .":5' ,J l' J
'l -)' -1.. J .:1 " j l 7"
J' -J' '1' .. ~ 1 ~ 1. :.l ,. :.l
I. )j :.., :.l ~j
~ "\ Jj \. ~ .~ '-. Jj JJ
-'j ~ .... .~' 4'
~ ''', \ } . .,_ -1.. .~ ~ "" '1:. ,'1' J
... "'- ,.J J .. J ~ -" "" ~
I.. "3~ \, J,
~J J j. ~ '~J . .,_ 'J J' -._
~ -J' .-iJ '..:I .. .J 'j.J :·S
~ ...._ ~ ~. J .._ ,,_
:3 ._", . -J. 'j~ 1,
-"~ -J 3. "J' .~ L
J :7" ~ -J. ~.
~ "0' J 1 '1. '-1 .. J
'to .~
...._ '-.._ "0' ~ ~' '- ...
... J ,) ~
I· ~ .- .... J ...._
~j T \. ..._ q "
q ':) .... 1 j
'j '- 1 1"-
~ -- 4 ':-
J. ~ 4'
J 0,
J. J
~ s:
0 J
~ ':'!'J J ~
• • • • ... • • • •
.!J .,
., 1 5· i ,7' \ l t t '-.._
1. .. 1 1 ~
'-)' , . ':!l ~-=j' J J "
... ,') ., ~
" '-J' - ~. ~
.":). 1- -J' ~ ~ ..
=t 5- -1..
J I, ~ J
'" .~
" Jj ., 1
... I. ~, .,
Jj .::i) .J ~
"j :3 _i _ 1
:1 .J '..:I J ')
J "" J ~ 1, 4' )-
L J ...._ -)
,
l' "0' ~ .j
...._ '-.._ J
~ ~. .~
.") -- 1
-- .... '~ 'jj
J
~. ~ l' ·4'
'j J. ~ "'"
.~ ,
)- .3 ~
-\ '1 ~')
.1).
I~ -
l J:_- - '{
) ?- "
'\
). '-",
-{ J;
")
'"
J ~
J
~
{ , :j.. ~
.. • .. • - • • •
",' L.- -'{ I-- ..3 .,
,. .) 1 J '5. 1 7'" ~' j '3
1. ~ .. J 1; ~j
...._ ~ 'j
'3 '0 '-J' .. ;~ 7"
'-j' '-j' "\ .-_)o 'j "'5: 1.
~ ~ 1 ~ "It,
-- , 1 -.
" I.. ,,J '"
'" jj \) T
~ I.. :1 1
- jj 1.
~ i "" =5
~ 1 1
J -t
... ...._ "'" J
.... "
'jj .:7' ":l ,1) -7j
,
~ ~ '=:> l'
:3 J ....
'1
., • • • • • • • •
t t 1 ~ ~ -:i 1 '3
'J " ~j
J J J 'j 7'.
1 ..
,7' 3 j. .. 1 -L 1..
~ . 1
1 1 ~ ·4' ... 1' ·4' ·i
1 .... "'- '"
1 t 1 "'- )-
·4' ~. ~. "]; ..
'" , '} l 'J 1
} .~ '-;' =i..,
"]. ·4'· .~ :;,
· .. r -;,
') '" "'- \) ~
r J, J- '-;' '-;' .~ 1
~. .... J
'" ;)
OJ '3 ;l
'" '" ",
. .,_ -", l) .;:1.J ~ 3 J -7J,
.. .J :\ ~ .... J " :~ l'
1 ... 1 ., J
.J :~J .) , J '1
1 J J
~ J ~. 1
7" - ... ~ J
~
~ ~ .... ~ .
~ . .,_
.~ ,oJ 'J'
] ~ {
J ;-
7:
{
~
! ,....
"
0
r- {
~
'3
~
j
..........
-

.{
~ ,....--
':",
.
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l.,
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! ~
L-.. ]
,. ...,
...J
~
~
--
~
'J:, ..
'-:l
1
,.
~..,
. ~
'-:l '--
"'i1.
~. ~

.J.

J'

I "

I>. _~

:,...

" "}

'~ .

:J'

'l~ "'_.:l'

-.., ..

~ j 1 ,~ .~ :l

-:; ~
.. • • •
i; .:I
- , .""!- -;; ~ ~' ., .~ .7- -s; ~ I I I .~ 5- ,.... -- -....
] ); ...,. ); :3 -- ~ ~
~ ...,. .~ 7j J '- " '- '-:l '1 ~ 5· '- ~
'j ~" ;t .~ ~ -", .. ~ -:l
~ .J- .. 7- .. -.. -.. "" j ~ ~
"K._ .~~ J """- 'j -. ""- 'j
'l. '- ~ -.... .......
'- 5- '- ') J ~ s- \. -- --
- -;; }_ ~ ,') , " -..., .. '"1. ~ ~
1 ;; " :~ .. ...J
":3' ~. ~ 'j ..., ..., .')
'" .~' "-'
...,. 7- .. . -: j . ~ :3'" ...,.
'- ~ _. ~
.. '3 .. ~ , '-:l ." ~
41. j. ~; J L ::5 .. '-:l
:-~ ~ -.-~---.- -~ .::.. _.. _ ... " -- ..

J 1= 1

~:

Known By:
(Genitive) ~ •
(NunatiOn) J.~ • •
(PrefIX alif taaml) JI •
(Particles of Genitive) ~I .j ).r •
(In) <J -
(Perhaps) '"".) - t-- fOoUIl t----
NounlName"
(baa'(with),kaa/{like).laam (for)) r)\·JI) .j\5JI) ~L,JI -
.. 1:.11 ) ,1.,)1 ) _,I,,JI : r--"ll .j J? -
(Letters of Oath: u/aaur, baa', faa)
(From):J' -
(To) .J! -
(About) .:.r -
(On)~- >

KnQwnBy:
(Prefix qaas Jj • .__
(Prefix seen) .r • I-- JA1 to~1
(Prefixsau/a) ._j s-: • VertJlAction Speech
r+-
(Sound feminine taa) 45WI ..:....,;81 ~I,; •
(
Known By: . .s~
'- r---
The absence of tile proofsottlle noun and verb ParticleA...etter -

(The singular noun) ~ _,.J.I (,"""),1 • --' .9) _9_» :Y
[J
, (Broken plural) ~I ~ • I
~oQ \IE R SSS. 9
(Sound Feminine Plural) t WI .:...; _;11 ~ • ~ damma ~!ir--
• ..r • .r~ "La:.; r <$.i.ll t..Jull ~I •
"Ii . V
(Tho present'Future ve ro." ",,""., l! wad"' ""IG:
-'oJ NLJ
-
(Sound Masculine Plural) t WI _? ...ill ~ • ~_,)1 <,
(TheSNouns) (jv J; ( :Ji (:J_r (.:l_",.i (:Jfi) ~I .~)rl • - u
~"fF Raf

(Dual Nouns) .. ~~I ~ • a/if r,\ :;..c(
0
:(The presentIFuture Vertl) "! J-a'i <$.i.ll t..J1Al1 ~I • 0_pl t- y
) noon ~
(Dual Pronoun) ~ ~ - ~o;;Oc" 0"-,) .-.lGO""
(Plural Pronoun) c:::- ~ -
(2'" person Feminine Pronoun) ~W\ .:...; _;11 ~ -
(The singular Noun) ~ _,.J.I (,""")II •
(Broken plural) ~I c!=" • ~fatha ~it--
• ..r • ..f"'~ ~ r )..,.....,ti J>~ G! VWI ..,L-..<JI •
(The 5 Nouns) (JI. \; , :\Ii , :1\1' , .:l~i , .:)4i) ;"'_'_;:"I .~'sl • alit ~~I~
-
.~1 ~l~~l.:;lok

(Sound Feminine Plural) r WI .:...; _;11 c:::- • kasra .~II
'~ITr Nasb ,-- Signs of inflection
-
(Sound Mascutine Plural) t WI f.ill c:-- • Hyaa' r::l
(Dual Nouns) .. ~':il ~ •
~
(s Verbs) <r ( \_,l..&; , I';"" , ~, ~) ~I Jl...t~1 • ~~ 0_p1 J.i.>- t--
..l ... Zl:~ \..!~ r-..1OO,._j
(The fully conjugated singular Noun) ,j _,...d.1 ~ Pi r-)l1 •
(The fully conjugated Broken plura~ J _,...d.1 ~I c!=" • r\
(Sound Feminine Plural) t WI .:...; _;ll c!=" •
1 kasra ;~Ii_
(SNauns) (J .... .;;,.!l.,i, ~,.!l,.-i, .:.:.,i) ~I .. ~)r\ •

(Dual NOIJIlS) .. ~\'\ ~ • Hyaa' .U\ I ~1
~11J
(Sound Mascutine PluraQ t WI f.ill ~ • Khafd

fatha r\
(The Noun which is not conjugated) ,j .r=:-:. )I <,f.iJ1 r-)l1 •

(TheS_) (J .... I;,:\Ii,.:I\I', .:l~i, .:lit;) ~I .. ~~I • sukoon ':'..f-JI_h__ , ,,;;11

.f1O • f---
( _____ , .r~, J>OI l>w.l.1 ",",, - w..~ oa d,~;.,\...._ L~ r _"""'.Cas<

. OmissIOn of .J _rl' ""'.J.>. 0 \
(The5V_l <r' I_,I...;;, I';"'" ':)I...;;.~) ~I JLJ~' • 71. noon ": -I 5~: y ----.._

I )

)

·,

TIle Fa in Arabic presents us with an array of possibilities. Its first position is that of a conjunction

that benefits the idea of succession. For example, So and so came and so and so.

Bu the Fa of "sababiya" or causation isparticularly difficult for the beginner. Careful attention should be raid when looking at a sentence. that has this type of Fa.

The general rule is thus: Any sentence that involves a negation or a request and is followed. due to causation. by a phrase that hegins with Fa. then the following verb will be in the subjunctive.

I' J_: .. ·I~ _.~J~ y~~~

As for negation. it is in such statements as:

..(Y

As for the request. it has eight categories dilincated in the following line of poetry:

The following list describes the eight categories of request:

~ ) :.fl~ I ~ :fl~

(- TIlis is the command of one who is over another like [he parent to the child.

'_\.J • J q ,_.~ \0 o-r-k cJ ~ 03J..v:r -~I T.·~.t: :~I. ~ III

~ J- ...r- t.? - r-r-

TIlis is a request from one under to one over and is used for Allah in supplication.

, I

I

~ :..- «c- _ t_t_..:...._

.J ... , .... /' , .:::

:.0£i - . -. ~ '1 :~r

~------------------~---- '-'--~This is simply a prohibition.

~ ~(. ~li ~UJI ~ Y.

This is in interogative when we ask a uestion and use the Fa.

~ _;>, y:;-

. ,- - - ,..-----

"/'. J} _ 10,

rr ~ .r~ t; »» '11 :J:7 _rJ'

\--------------~------~-----------

This is a suggestion with gentleness.

IG ~Q

J 1-( -.1- ;"., .; ~.. ~ ~ -1-. ' .:: /'

l.:.J1 !oJ ::-.....:....;' I.' .~I )v:> ,"_ '---'f

?f ,J" .r. . . -' "--: .._ ~

~-------------------------------------------'---

This is a suggestion with firmness.

This is wishing the impossible or highly improbable \', '. '. l

-:. "UpL A" c._'_ ~, ' f\.-G ~ '---<-'

"\ l A. III i..<:' J'J)'(; loS_· .t"_; ~I ~I:I

e-. (,c;J ~ ~ OV"\v .... r ,~.A.u......:: - r.r-'

This is wishing the possible or probable.

Glossary of Arabic Grammatical Terms Necessarv for the A;rumivva

Ka/aam - This is speech that conveys a meaning in which additional infonnation is not needed. It has three elements: articulation through the tongue, compoundedness, and benefit in its syntactical order.

Ism. - This is any word that has meaning in and of itself without recourse to other words and is not linked to time.

Fi'ilun - This is any word that has meaning in and of itself and it is linked to time.

Harf - This is any word that links other words. It does not have an independent meaning but becomes meaningful within the context of other words. Many of this type are called prepositions in English.

Isma pl. of Ism have three cases: Raf'un, Nasbun; and Jarrun (also called Khafdun). A word in the respective cases is calledMarfu'u, Mansub, and Majrur (Makhfud).

Raf'un - This is termed by orientalists as the Nominative case. But for students of Western grammar this is misleading and it is much wiser to see this as the Rafu 'un case. Its signs are four: Damma, Wow, AJifand Nun (see text).

Nasbun - This is called the Accusative by orientalistsand again is misleading. Nasbun is the most difficult of the noun cases although the verb mood that is called Nasbun also is rather straightforward. Its signs are five: Fatha, Alif, Kasra; fa and omission of the final nun (see text).

Jarrun (Khafdun) - This is the easiest of the three cases and is particular to nouns.

There are only three possible ways a noun can be Majrur. object of a preposition, Idafa (see below) and conjuncted to a noun which is Majrur.

There are many types of ism the primary ones being:

f I

Ism - any noun that indicates a person, place, thing or concept

Ism dhahir - a noun which is not a pronoun.

Ism al-fa 'il - the subject of a verb

Ism na 'ib al-fa 'i! - the passive subject of a sentence

Ism maf'ul - the object of a verb

Ism munsarif - a fully declined word

. "

, I

Ism ghair munsarif - parially declined word

Ism mawsul - a relative pronoun; a relative pronoun refers to people and things i.e. who, which, that, whose, what etc.

Ism ishara - demonstrative pronoun that points to a noun i.e. this, that, those, these etc.

Mudaf - the first part of a construct phrase usually indicating possession

1

- ...._, ...

....................... --------

I {i~~fff:/:::i:~~v_:_: --' -r

,

.'

Mudaf i/ayhi - the second part of the construct phrase

Mufrad - singular

I

.,,1

~

Muthanna - dual

Mudhakkar - masculine

Mu'annath - feminine

Damir bariz - a pronoun that is articulated

Damir mustatir - a pronoun that is "hidden" or implied. This is necessary in four instances:

Damir gha 'ib - a pronoun of absence such as huwa

Damir hadir - a pronoun of presence which has two types l) Mutakallim - the speaker such as ana

2) Mukhattab - the one spoken to such as anta

Jam 'un - plural; it has two types salim or sound and taksir or broken. The sound retains the singular form and simply adds a suffix to indicate plurality. The broken "breaks" the original structure of the word.

Maf'ul fihi - an accusative noun denoting time or place i.e, laylan, sabahan. An adverb of time or place in English.

I

.,

Maf'ul mutlaq - an absolute object of a verb, not a true object it is used for emphasis.

Maf'u! m 'ahu - an accusative noun following a waw conveying a sense of "along" or "with"

M'atuf - a wordjoined to a preceding one by a conjuction and taking the same case as the preceding word.

Mubtada 'a - a noun that opens a sentence

Mustathna - a noun, often accusative, excepted by the particles of exception (see text).

Mustathna minhu - that of which there is an exception.

Hal - the state or condition of a noun, always in the accusative. Considered an adverb in

English. .

Tamyiz - an accusative noun that removes some vagueness in a preceding noun or statement,

Sifa or N' at - an adjective.

Badl - permutative which is a word that the speaker uses to denote what he means by a preceding word. There are four types: complete, partial, inclusive and corrective (see text).

Tabi'i - a word that follows another with one often conjuctions between them and thus has the same case as the previous word.

Munada - the vocative.

Mamdud - a noun ending in a long vowel alif followed by a hamza,

2

-

'A 'id - a noun. mentioned or assumed to which a pronouns refers; an antecedent.

Maqsur - a noun ending in a long vowel alii.

Masdar - infinitive or verbal noun

Articles or Definition and Indefiniteness (alatu at-t'arifand tankir},

AI is used as the article of definition for both masculine and feminine words.

Proper names sometimes omit the article but retain the signification.

T anween - This is the act of articulating a nun at the end of an indefinite lsmun or a proper name that has tanween. It is written with a doubling of the Fatha; Kasra or Damma i.e.

M'arifa - a definite noun

Nakira - an indefinite noun

Verbs (ACaal)

Moods

A mood is a verb form to indicate the manner in which the action or state expressed by a verb is viewed concerning functions such as factuality, possiblity or command. The indicative (raf'a) declares a fact or asks a question; the subjuncitive (nasb) generally used to express a wish. desire, condition or something contrary to fact. occurs only in subordinate clauses in Arabic; the jussive (jaztn) is connected with the imperative both in form and signification. - implies an order with the exception of using lam and lamma which have the form of the jussive (jazm) but not the signification; the energetic mood uses a lam letter and nun of taw kid to add emphasis, finally the imperative (amr) which expressed command.

Af'aal in Arabic have three basic moods only: Raf'un, Nasbun and Jazmun. This only applies to the present and future tenses and not the Madi. Any verb in these moods is called respectively, Mudar 'i alMarfu 'u, al-Mansub and al-Majzum (see above).

Raf'un - This is the primary mood and is known as the indicative in Western grammar.

A verb must have and agent of change to remove a verb from this mood.

Nasbun - Known as the subjunctive. This mood needs one of the agents of Nasb to precede the verb that is consideredMudar'i al-Mansub.

Jazmun - This mood is called Iussive by orientalists and involves two types (see text).

Tense

Tense indicates the time of the action or whether it is completed or still in process or yet to be begun. One has to be careful in Arabic becomes it is a non-linear language and thus has unusual uses of tense that do not indicate sequential time as tenses do in English.

There are only two tenses in Arabic: perfect (maddi) and imperfect (mudar'i). The future tense is including in the imperfect and simply expressed by a prefix or particle (see harftanfis).

Voice

Voice indicates whether the subject is the agent of the action or the recipient.

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F'il khumasi - a five-letter verb

There are two voices in Arabic: active (m 'alum) and passive (majhul).

Terms associated with verbs.

F'il pl. af'aal= verbs

F'il mujarrad - a verb consisting of only its integral radicals.

F'iI mazid ~ a verb that has added letters to its root to change its meaning.

F'il thulathi - a triliteral verb

F'il ruba 'i - a four-letter verb

F'il sudasi - a six-letter verb

F'il sahih - verb ending in a consonant

F'il m 'utall= a verb in which the final letter is a weak vowel

F'il mithal= a verb that begins with a weak radical

F'il ajwaf - a verb that has a weak radical as its 'ain letter

F'il naqis - a verb that has a weak radical at the end.

F'illazim - an intransitive verb; does not take an object.

F'il muta 'addi - a transitive verb; takes an object.

F'il mudar'i - a verb in the imperfect tense can be marfu 'u, mansub, or majzum.

F'il maddi - a verb in the perfect tense, is mabni i.e. does not take inflections.

Particles: prepositions (Buruf al-khafd or jarr) and conjunctions (huruO.

A preposition is a word that relates a noun (ism) or a pronoun (ism ishara) to another word, usually in regard to position, direction, space, cause or time. In Arabic particles of oath also go under this category. Conjuctions join words, phrases and clauses together. Arabic has other types used for nuancing meanings.

Huruf al-Khafd - These are parts of speech that govern the noun that follows them by putting it in the Jarrun or Khafd case. They are min, ila. 'an, 'ala, rubba, ba; kaf, lam and letters of oath and they are three: wow, ba; and ta.

Harfa at-Tanfis - Sin and saufa which are used before Mudar 'i verbs to give a future tense.

Ta'u tanith as-sakina - quiescent feminine ta used at the end ofaMudar'i verb to give the meaning she.

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Fatha - this is a short vowel written over a letter and having the sound a as in attention.

Inflections ('Iraabl

lraab -Tnflection. This means the changing of the ends of words through vowel marks as a result of agents impacting the words and changing their syntactical significance. The change occurs either explicitly as in a noticable change of the vowelling or implicitly due to some inunutable quality in the word itslelf. In implicit changes, the change occurs and is understood by understanding the concepts behind the change i.e. the effects different agents have on words.

Major signs of'lraab

Damma - A short vowel written over a letter and having the sound u.

Kasra - a short vowel which is written over the letter and has the sound 1.

Al-Asma 'u al-Khamsa - The five nouns which have letter changes not vowel changes with their case changes. Abuka, Hamuka, Akhuka, Fuka and Dhu Malin

Mu 'rabat - Inflected words as oppossed to Mabani (see below). There are two types of inflected words: those inflected with vowel markings and those inflected with letters.

Agents of and types of inflection

Nawasib - agents that force the verb they precede to be Mansub. They are ten in number (see

text).

Jawazim - agents that force the verb to be Majzum and they are 18 in number.

Marfu 'at - These are theAsma 'u that are in the primary case and are only seven in number (see

text).

Mansubat - These areAsma 'u that have been acted upon by agents of Nasb and they are fifteen in number.

Majrurat - These are Asma 'u that have been acted upon by agents of Jarr and there are only three ways this occurs (see text).

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