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B.N.Sunil Dayakar M.Sc., HOD of Biology, Sadvidya College ,Mysore. Mob - 9886332957

Angiosperms or flowering plants are seed bearing plants wherein the seeds are covered over by
General features of angiosperms :
1. They are seed bearing and flower producing plants.
2. The Plant body is a sporophyte with root system and shoot system and may be an
annual, biennial or perennial.
3. They are tracheophytes with xylem having both tracheids and vessels and phloem
having sieve tubes and companion cells.
4. Flowers are the reproductive structures borne on the stem.
5. Flower contains stamens which are the male reproductive units which possess anthers
that encloses pollen grains.
6. Carpels are the female reproductive units which contain ovules.
7. Pollen grains represents male gametophyte which produces male gametes.
8. Embryo sac of ovule represents female gametophytes which bears female gamete or
9. The pollen grains are transferred to the stigma of a carpel through pollination.
10. Pollination is followed by fertilization which gives rise to zygote (Double fertilization
and triple fusion).
11. After fertilization the fertilized egg develops into embryo, ovule develops into seed and
ovary develops into fruit.
12. Life cycle shows alternation of generation between sporophytic phase and gametophytic
Angiosperms are classified into two groups namely Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons based
on the number of cotyledons .
Structure of a dicot plant : Eg- Brassica juncea (Mustard)
The plant body is a sporophyte which consists of a root system and a shoot system. Root
system consists of a primary root and its branches. Root is the underground part of the plant body
which develops from the radicle part of the embryo. It is positively geotropic and negatively
phototropic. The main root or primary root gives rise to secondary and tertiary roots. The system of
root containing a primary root and its branches is called as tap root system. The root system carries
out the function of anchorage (fixation) and absorption of water and mineral salts.
The shoot system consists of stem, its branches, leaves, fruits, flowers etc. Stem is the central
axis which develops from plumule and is positively phototropic and negatively geotropic. Stem


bears nodes and internodes. Leaves are lateral and dorsiventrally flattened appendages borne on the
nodal region. The leaf blade or lamina is broad and shows reticulate venation. Flowers are the
reproductive structures which help in sexual reproduction. After fertilization flower develops into
fruit enclosing seeds.

Structure of a monocot plant : Eg- Grass
The plant body is a sporophyte which consists of a root system and a shoot system. Root
develops from the base of the stem and not from the radicle and is known as adventitious roots. In
Grass, it is fibrous in nature. The stem is hollow and consists of nodes and internodes. Leaves are
narrow, long, with sheathing leaf base. The leaf blade shows parallel venation. Flowers are the
reproductive structures which help in sexual reproduction. After fertilization flower develops into
fruit enclosing seeds.

Differences between dicots and monocots
Character Dicots Monocots
Cotyledon number Embryo shows two cotyledons Embryo shows single cotyledon
Root Tap root system Adventitious root system
Leaf base Absence of sheathing leaf base Presence of sheathing leaf base
Lamina Broad Narrow
Venation Reticulate Parallel
Nature of flower Tetramerous or Pentamerous Trimerous
Vascular bundles in
Vascular bundles arranged in a ring
Vascular bundles are scattered
Secondary growth in
Present Absent

A flower is a condensed shoot modified for the purpose of sexual reproduction. A flower arises
in the axil of a small leaf like structure called bract. The stalk of the flower is known as pedicel
which terminates with an expanded region called receptacle or thalamus or torus. The whorls of a
flower are borne on the torus. The four whorls of a flower are calyx, corolla, androecium and
gynoecium. Calyx and corolla do not participate directly in the sexual reproduction, hence they are
called as accessory whorls. Androecium and Gynoecium are directly involved in sexual
reproduction and are called essential whorls.


Concept of Perianth : Perianth is the term used when the calyx and corolla cannot be
distinguished. The units of perianth are called as tepals. If the tepals are fused it is known as
gamophyllous and if the tepals are free it is known as polyphyllous. The tepals are protective in
CALYX: It is the outermost whorl in a flower with units called sepals. The sepals are generally
green in colour and are photosynthetic and protective in function. If the sepals are fused together
the calyx is gamosepalous. Eg. Hibiscus. If the sepals are free it is known as polysepalous.
COROLLA: It is the second whorl of the flower consisting of petals. Petals are brightly coloured
and attractive and attract pollinating agents. When the petals are fused the corolla is said to be
gamopetalous. Eg. Datura. When the petals are free the corolla is said to be polypetalous. Eg.
AESTIVATION: The arrangement of sepals and petals in the flower bud is known as aestivation.
It is of various types:
1. Valvate: When the petals or sepals arranged in a whorl just touch each other without any
overlapping, the arrangement is said to be valvate. Eg. Mimosa
2. Twisted or Contorted: In this type, one margin of a sepal or petal is overlapped by the
other in one direction. Eg. Corolla of Hibiscus
3. Imbricate aestivation: It is of two types
a) Ascendingly imbricate: When one of the sepals or petals is internal, one is external
and the remaining overlapping each other, the condition is called as ascendingly
imbricate. Eg. Caesalpinia.
b) Descendingly imbricate: It shows the arrangement of five petals. Of the five petals
the largest petal is called standard petal which covers the two lateral wing petals
which in turn covers two smaller keel petals. Keel petals fuse together to form a boat
shaped structure. The aestivation is also called vexillary. Eg. Crotalaria.

ANDROECIUM : It is the male reproductive whorl consisting of stamens. Each stamen is made
up of an anther, connective and a filament. The filament is the stalk of a stamen which holds the
anther with the help of a connective. Each anther encloses pollen sacs filled with pollen grains.
Cohesion of stamens: Fusion of stamens is called cohesion of stamens.
Adelphy : It is a condition of stamens where filaments are fused but anthers remain free.
a. Monadelphous : Filaments are united to form a single bundle. Eg. Hibiscus
b. Diadelphous : Filaments are united to form two bundles. Eg. Crotalaria
c. Polyadelphous : Filaments are united to from many bundles. Eg. Bombax


Syngeny : It is a condition where anthers get fused but filaments remain free. Eg. Sunflower
Synandry : Stamens are united throughout i.e., both by filaments and anthers. Eg. Cucurbita sps
Adhesion of stamens : Union of stamens with other members like petals, gynoecium etc.
Epipetalous : Stamens are found attached to the petals. Eg. Datura

Anther lobes : If an anther is composed of two lobes, it is called dithecous anther. Eg. Datura. If
an anther consists of a single lobe it is called monothecous anther . Eg. Hibiscus

GYNOECIUM : It is the female reproductive whorl also called pistil. It consists of units called
carpels. Each carpel is made up of stigma, style and ovary. Stigma is the receptive part of the carpel
to which pollen grains adhere. It secretes sugary solution which is sticky known as stigmatic fluid.
Style is the tube like structure connecting ovary with stigma. It helps in movement of pollen tube
during fertilization. Ovary is the basal portion of the carpel enclosing chambers called locules.
Locules encloses the ovules which are attached to it with the help of placenta, a nutritive tissue.
After fertilization, ovary develops into fruit and ovules into seeds.
Types of gynoecium :
a. A gynoecium in which the carpels are free is termed as apocarpous gynoecium- Eg.
Michaelia. A gynoecium in which the carpels are fused is called as syncarpous gynoecium.
Eg. Hibiscus.
b. Based on the number of carpels present ;
1. A gynoecium with single carpel Monocarpellary Eg. Pea
2. A gynoecium with two carpels - Bicarpellary Eg. Datura
3. A gynoecium with three carpels Tricarpellary Eg. Coconut
4. A gynoecium with many carpels Polycarpellary Eg. Michaelia
c. Based on the number of locules present ;
Single locule Unilocular Eg. Pea
2 locules Bilocular Eg. Tomato
3 locules Trilocular Eg. Phyllanthus
Many locules Multilocular Eg. Citrus

The arrangement of ovules on placenta inside the locule of an ovary is called placentation .
1. Marginal placentation : Placenta with ovules occurring along the ventral suture. Eg. Pea
2. Axile plancentation : Placenta with ovules present around the central axis of the ovary .
Eg. Hibiscus


3. Parietal placentation : Placenta with ovules developed on the inner wall of the ovary along
the sutures. Eg. Cucumber
4. Basal placentation : A single ovule along the placenta arises from the base of the ovary.
Eg. Sunflower

An anther is the fertile part of a stamen which is tetrasporangiate (four locules). In a mature
anther, each locule has numerous pollen grains or microspores. The anther lobes are connected by a
tissue called connective. A T.S. of an anther shows an outermost layer called epidermis which is
followed by a layer of larger cells called endothecium. Endothecium helps in dehiscence of pollen
grains. It is followed by two or three middle layers. The inner most layer is tapetum. It provides
nutrition to the developing spores. The anther encloses anther lobes with pollen sacs containing
pollen grains. The pollen grains develop from diploid microspore mother cells by reduction
division. Each pollen grain or microspore is a haploid cell which represent male gametophyte. A
pollen grain is surrounded by two layers- an outer exine and an inner intine. The exine is
sculptured and helps in adhering to the pollinating agents. The wall possess minute openings called
germ pores through which pollen tube develops. The pollen grain is two celled with a large tube
cell or vegetative cell and a small generative cell. The generative cell divides to form two male
The sculpturing of pollen grains plays a prominent role in identifying the plant species. Hence
pollen grains are called Botanical fingerprints. (Study of pollen grains Palynology)

An anatropous ovule is an inverted ovule where the ovule is completely bent with micropyle near
the funicle. An ovule is an integumented megasporangium located in the ovary. It has a stalk called
as Funicle which attaches the ovule to the ovary wall. The extension of the funicle is called as
Raphe. Hilum is the point of attachment of the ovules body to the funicle. The ovule encloses a
central mass of nutritive tissue called nucellus which is covered by outer coverings called
integuments. The integuments cover the nucellus leaving a small opening called micropyle.
Opposite to micropyle, there is chalaza which is the base of the ovule from which the integuments
The nucellus cells gives rise to an embryo sac or female gametophyte which encloses an egg
apparatus consisting of an egg(haploid) and two synergids (haploid) towards the micropylar end,
three antipodals (haploid) towards the chalazal end and a diploid secondary nucleus at the centre .


Technical terms :
1. Bracteate : A flower with a bract . Eg. Bougainvillea
2. Ebracteate : A flower without a bract Eg. Cocos nucifera
3. Bracteolate : A flower with a bracteole Eg. Hibiscus
4. Ebracteolate : A flower without bracteoles Eg. Mimosa pudica
5. Pedicellate : A flower with a pedicle Eg. Hibiscus
6. Sessile : A flower without a pedicel Eg. Achyranthes
7. Bisexual : A flower possessing both androecium and gynoecium Eg. Hibiscus
8. Unisexual : A flower with only one essential whorl i.e., androecium or gynoecium. If a
flower possess only androecium it is called as staminate flower Eg. Castor. If a flower
possess only gynoecium it is called as pistillate flower Eg. Cucubita
9. Monoecious : A plant having both staminate and pistillate flowers Eg. Coconut
10. Dioecious : A plant having either pistillate or staminate flowers . Eg Date palm
11. Polygamous : A plant having both unisexual and bisexual flowers . Eg Mango
12. Complete : A flower having all the four whorls . Eg Hibiscus
13. Incomplete : A flower in which one or more whorls are absent. Eg. Cocos nucifera
14. Actinomorphic : A flower that can be cut into two equal halves through the axis along any
vertical plane Eg. Hibiscus
15. Zygomorphic : A flower that can be cut into two equal halves along one vertical plane Eg.
Crotalaria, Leucas
16. Asymmetrical : A flower that cannot be cut into two equal halves in any vertical plane .Eg.
17. Homochlamydeous : A flower in which the accessory whorls cannot be differentiated . Eg.
18. Heterochlamydeous : A flower in which the accessory whorls are clearly distinguishable
Eg. Hibiscus
19. Achamydeous : If the accessory whorls are absent, a flower is said to be achlamydeous Eg.
20. Hypogynous : A flower in which the floral parts (calyx, corolla and androecium) arise
below the level of the ovary (Ovary superior ) Eg. Hibiscus
21. Epigynous : A flower in which the floral parts(calyx, corolla and androecium) arise above
the level of the ovary (Ovary inferior ) Eg Musa
22. Perigynous : A flower in which floral parts(calyx, corolla and androecium) arise from the
rim of the thalamus cup (Ovary half inferior ) Eg Rose


The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of a flower is called pollination. It is of
two types namely-
Self pollination or Autogamy : The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the
same flower . It is possible only in bisexual flowers. To achieve self pollination there will be
adaptations like -
a. Homogamy : The anther and stigma of a flower mature at the same time Eg. Mirabilis
b. Cleistogamy : The flowers which do not open are called cleistogamous flowers and the
pollination in such flowers is called cleistogamy. Eg. Commelina, Arachis
Cross pollination or Allogamy : The transfer of pollen grains from an anther of a flower to the
stigma of another flower .
a. Geitonogamy : Pollination occurring between two flowers borne on same plant.
b. Xenogamy : Pollination occurring between two flowers borne on two different plants
belonging to the same species.
Pollinating agents : The agents like wind, water and animals which help in the process of
pollination are called pollinating agents.
Anemophily : Pollination by means of wind Eg. Maize
Hydrophily : Pollination by means of water Eg. Vallisneria
Zoophily : Pollination by animals.
a. Entamophily Insects
b. Ornithophily Birds
c. Chiropterophily Bats
d. Malacophily Snails
Lever mechanism a special type of pollination mechanism in Salvia

Fertilization or syngamy is the fusion of the male gamete with the female gamete resulting in a
zygote. It was discovered by Strasburger.
Steps involved :
1. Germination of pollen grain : The pollen grain germinates on the stigma before it enters
into the ovule. The pollen grain which is in two celled stage produces a pollen tube from the


tube cell through the germ pore. The tube nucleus leads the pollen tube while the generative
cell divides and results in two male gametes.
2. Entry of pollen tube into the ovule : The pollen tube enters the ovule in any of the three
ways -
Porogamy : Pollen tube enters the ovule through micropyle.
Chalazogamy : Pollen tube enters through chalaza.
Mesogamy : Pollen tube enters through the integuments.
3. Entry of pollen tube into the embryo sac : After entering the ovule, the pollen tube
pierces the nucellus and reaches the embryo sac. The synergids may get destroyed while the
pollen tube enters. The pollen tube on reaching the embryosac discharges the male gametes
by the dissolution of the tip of pollen tube .
4. Fusion of gametes : One of the male gametes fuses with the egg resulting in a diploid
zygote. It is the actual fertilization also called as syngamy. The other male gamete fuses
with the secondary nucleus to form a triploid cell called Primary Endosperm Nucleus
(PEN) . The fusion of secondary nucleus and male gamete is called triple fusion since
secondary nucleus is already a product of two polar nuclei. The process is also called as
double fertilization because the male gametes participate in two fusion process. This was
discovered by Nawaschin.
Post fertilization changes :
1. The zygote develops into a multicellular embryo.
2. PEN develops into endosperm which nourishes the embryo.
3. Ovary develops into fruit and ovules into seeds.
4. The integuments form the seed coats .
5. The antipodals gets degenerated.
6. The synergids may get degenerated before, during or after fertilization.