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IC NUMBER: 970831-14-5436

I would like to express my heart felt gratitude especially to my IT teacher Mr.Shahrul
Hisham,Mrs.Mazni and Mrs.Nurul for the chance and guidance on this assignment.I also
would like to thank to my friend Siti,Dhineswary,Aina and Ammarah for their help.

Multi-user is a term that defines an operating system or application software that allows
access by multiple users of a computer.Time-sharing systems are multi-user systems.
Most batch processing systems for mainframe computers may also be considered "multi-
user", to avoid leaving the CPU idle while it waits for I/O operations to complete. However,
the term "multitasking" is more common in this context.
An example is a Unix server where multiple remote users have access (such as via Secure
Shell) to the Unix shell prompt at the same time. Another example uses multiple X
Window sessions spread across multiple terminals powered by a single machine - this is an
example of the use of thin client. Similar functions were also available
under MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS and FlexOS.
Some multi-user operating systems such as Windows versions from the Windows NT family
support simultaneous access by multiple users (for example, via Remote Desktop
Connection) as well as the ability for a user to disconnect from a local session while leaving
processes running (doing work on their behalf) while another user logs into and uses the
system. The operating system provides isolation of each user's processes from other users,
while enabling them to execute concurrently.
The complementary term, single-user, is most commonly used when talking about an
operating system being usable only by one person at a time, or in reference to a single-
user software license agreement. Multi-user operating systems such as Unix sometimes
have a single user mode or runlevel available for emergency maintenance.
In general, "media" refers to various means of communication. For example, television,
radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used as a
collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies. In the computer world, "media" is
also used as a collective noun, but refers to different types of data storage options.
Computer media can be hard drives, removable drives (such as Zip disks), CD-ROM or CD-
R discs, DVDs, flash memory, USB drives, and yes, floppy disks. For example, if you want to
bring your pictures from your digital camera into a photo processing store, they might ask
you what kind of media your pictures are stored on. Are they on the flash memory card
inside your camera or are they on a CD or USB drive? For this and many other reasons, it is
helpful to have a basic understanding of what the different types of media are.
As the name implies, multimedia is the integration of multiple forms of media. This includes
text, graphics, audio, video, etc. For example, a presentation involving audio and video clips
would be considered a "multimedia presentation." Educational software that involves
animations, sound, and text is called "multimedia software." CDs and DVDs are often
considered to be "multimedia formats" since they can store a lot of data and most forms of
multimedia require a lot of disk space.
Due to the advancements in computer speeds and storage space, multimedia is
commonplace today. Therefore, the term doesn't produce the same excitement is once did.
This also means it is not as overused as it was back in the late '90s.
A multimedia application may require the use of speech, music and sound effects. These are
called audio or the sound element. There are two basic types of audio or sound: analog and
digital audio.
A waveform is an image that represents an audio signal or recording. It shows the changes
in amplitude over a certain amount of time. The amplitude of the signal is measured on the
y-axis (vertically), while time is measured on the x-axis (horizontally).
Most audio recording programs show waveforms to give the user a visual idea of what has
been recorded. If the waveform is very low and not pronounced, the recording was probably
very soft. It the waveform almost fills the entire image, the recording may have been too
"hot" or recorded with the levels set too high. Changes in a waveform are also good
indicators as too when certain parts of a recording take place. For example, the waveform
may be small when there is just a vocalist singing, but may become much larger when the
drums and guitar come in. This visual representation enables audio producers to locate
certain parts of a song without even listening to the recording.
AAC is short for Advanced Audio Coding and is a lossy audio compression format. Audio
files that have been encoded with AAC are generally smaller in size and deliver a higher
quality of sound than MP3. Incidentally, it has been touted as the successor to the aging
MP3 format. The most well known usage of AAC is with Apple's iTunes Store although other
companies use it such as Sony for their PlayStation 3.
The file extensions: m4a , .mp4, .m4p , .3gp

Stands for "MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3." MP3 is popular compressed audio file format that
helped popularize digital music downloads beginning in the late 1990s. MP3 files are
typically about one tenth the size of uncompressed WAVE or AIFF files, but maintain nearly
the same CD-quality sound. Because of their small size and good fidelity, MP3 files have
become a popular way to store music files on both computers and portable devices like
the iPod.
To listen to MP3s on your computer, you'll need an MP3 player like Nullsoft Winamp (for
Windows) or Apple iTunes (for Mac and Windows). Most MP3 players also allow you to
create MP3 files from CD audio tracks or other from other audio file types. Once you have
converted your favorite songs to MP3 files, you can transfer them to a portable music player,
like the Apple iPod, Microsoft Zune, or a music-enabled cell phone. You can also burn the
MP3 files to a CD, which can be played in MP3-compatible CD players.
Extensions: .MP3

Stands for "Audio Interchange File Format." AIFF is afile format designed to store audio
data. It was developed by Apple Computer, but is based on Electronic Arts' IFF (Interchange
File Format), a container format originally used on Amiga systems.
A standard AIFF file contains 2 channels of uncompressed stereo audio with a sample size
of 16bits, recorded at a sampling rate of 44.1 kilohertz. This is also known as "CD-quality
audio," since CDs use the same audio specifications. AIFF audio takes up just over 10MB
per minute of audio, which means a 4 minute song saved as an AIFF will require just over
40MB of disk space. This is nearly identical to a.WAV file (which uses the same sample size
and sampling rate as an AIFF file. However, it is about ten times the size of a
similar MP3 file recorded at 128 kbps, or five times the size of an MP3 file recorded at 256
Since compressed and uncompressed audio files sound nearly the same, most digital audio
distributed over the Internet is saved in a compressed format, such as an .MP3 or .M4A file.
This makes downloading audio from websites or the iTunes Store much faster and more
efficient. However, AIFF files are still commonly used for audio recording, since it is
important to save the original audio data in an uncompressed format. By working AIFF files,
audio engineers can ensure that the sound quality is maintained throughout the mixing and
mastering process. Once the final version of a song or other audio project is saved, it can
then be exported in a compressed format.
File extansions: .AIF, .AIFF , .AIFC
Files with the extension. Cda is a representation of an audio CD track. File format. Cda to
run directly from CD-ROM, while the file itself does not have any information modulation
code up if stored in a disk, the file can be in-play.
File extansions: cda
Short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, MIDI is a standard for digitally representing
and transmitting sounds that was first developed in the 1980s. The MIDI sound is played
back through the hardware device or computer either through a synthesized audio sound or
a waveform stored on the hardware device or computer. The quality of how MIDI sounds
when played back by the hardware device or computer depends upon that device's
Many older computer sound cards will have a MIDI port, as shown in the top right picture.
This port allows musical instrument devices to be connected to the computer, such as a
MIDI keyboard or a synthesizer. Before connecting any of these devices to the computer,
you will need to purchase a separate cable, which takes the MIDI/Game port connection into
the standard 5-pin DIN midi connector or a USB to MIDI converter. If you do not have a MIDI
port, the most common way today to connect a MIDI device to a computer is to use a USB to
MIDI port cable.
Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed
by Microsoft. The name can be used to refer to its audio file format or its audio codecs. It is
a proprietary technology that forms part of the Windows Media framework. WMA consists of
four distinct codecs. The original WMA codec, known simply as WMA, was conceived as a
competitor to the popular MP3 and RealAudio codecs.WMA Pro, a newer and more
advanced codec, supports multichannel and high resolution audio.A lossless codec,WMA
Lossless, compresses audio data without loss of audio fidelity (the regular WMA format is
lossy).WMA Voice, targeted at voice content, applies compression using a range of lowbit
Ogg is the umbrella for a group of several related multimedia and signal processing projects
that are open source and royalty free. Development of these projects is controlled by
Xiph.org. View OGG MP3 Converter.
First and best-known project of these is called Ogg Vorbis, a royalty-free audio compression
Musepack or MPC is an open source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized
for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160180 (manual set allows
bitrates up to 320) kbit/s. It was formerly known as MPEGplus, MPEG+ or MP+.
Development of MPC was initiated in 1997 by Andree Buschmann and later assumed by
Frank Klemm, and as of 2011 is maintained by the Musepack Development Team (MDT)
with assistance from Buschmann and Klemm. Encoders and decoders are available
for Microsoft Windows,Linux and Mac OS X, and plugins for several third-party media
players available from the Musepack website, licensed under the GNU Lesser General
Public License (LGPL) or BSD licenses, and an extensive list of programs supporting the


Opus is a lossy audio compression format developed by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) that is particularly suitable for interactive real-time applications over the
Internet.As an open format standardized through RFC 6716, a reference implementation is
provided under the 3-clause BSD license. All known software patents which cover Opus are
licensed under royalty-free terms.
Opus incorporates technology from two codecs: the speech-oriented SILK and the low-
latency CELT.Opus can be adjusted seamlessly between high and low bitrates, and
internally, it transitions between a linear prediction codec at lower bitrates and a transform
codec at higher bitrates (as well as a hybrid for a short overlap). Opus has a very low
algorithmic delay (22.5 ms by default), which is a necessity for use as part of a low audio
latency communication link, which can permit natural conversation, networked music
performances, or lip sync at live events. Opus permits trading-off quality or bitrate to achieve
an even smaller algorithmic delay, down to 5 ms. Its delay is very low compared to well over
100 ms for popular music formats such as MP3, Ogg Vorbis and HE-AAC; yet Opus
performs very competitively with these codecs in terms of quality per bitrate.Unlike Ogg
Vorbis, Opus does not require the definition of large codebooks for each individual file,
making it preferable to Vorbis for short clips of audio.
Video provides a powerful impact in a multimedia program. In multimedia applications, the
digital video is gaining popularity because of the following reasons:
Video clips can be edited easily.The digital video files can be stored like any other files in the
computer and the quality of the video can still be maintained.The video files can be
transferred within a computer network it allows non-linear editing in any part of the video.
However, these digital video files are large in size. Transferring these files can take a long
time especially when using the Internet.
3ivx Technologies Pty Ltd, is an Australian based provider of Audio and Video codecs and
Streaming and Transcoding software components for H.264, MPEG-4, HE-AAC and HLS on
Windows, Mac OS X, iOS, Android and Unix/Linux.
3ivx has over 12 years experience providing video compatibility solutions for some of the
largest telecommunications and consumer technology companies in the world. 3ivx's clients
and partners include Verizon, Intel, Cisco Systems, Panasonic, Samsung, Sony, Canon, and
ASF ( Advanced Streaming Format / Advanced System Format )
Advanced Systems Format (formerly Advanced Streaming Format, Active Streaming
Format) is Microsofts proprietary digital audio/digital video container format, especially
meant for streaming media. ASF is part of the Windows Media framework.
Audio Video Interleaved (also Audio Video Interleave), known by its initials AVI, is a
multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video
for Windows technology. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container
that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. Like the DVD video format, AVI files
support multiple streaming audio and video, although these features are seldom used. Most
AVI files also use the file format extensions developed by the Matrox OpenDML group in
February 1996. These files are supported by Microsoft, and are unofficially called "AVI 2.0".
DivX is a brand name of products created by DivX, Inc. (formerly DivXNetworks, Inc., later
purchased by Sonic Solutions and currently part of theRovi Corporation formerly known
as Macrovision), including the DivX Codec which became popular due to its ability
to compress lengthy video segments into small sizes while maintaining relatively high visual
There are two DivX codecs; the regular MPEG-4 Part 2 DivX codec and the H.264/MPEG-4
AVC DivX Plus HD codec. It is one of several codecs commonly associated with "ripping",
whereby audio and video multimedia are transferred to a hard disk and transcoded.
Rovi Corporation has announced that the support for DivX 8.x for Windows, DivX 7.x for
Mac, DivX Author and MPEG-2/DVD Plug-in ends on December 28, 2012, albeit its DivX 9
software remains in development (beta stage).
MJPEG ( Motion JPEG)
In multimedia, Motion JPEG (M-JPEG or MJPEG) is a video format in which each video
frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is compressed separately as
a JPEG image. Originally developed for multimedia PC applications, M-JPEG is now used
by video-capture devices such as digital cameras, IP cameras, and webcams; and by non-
linear video editing systems. It continues to enjoy native support by the QuickTime Player,
the PlayStation console, and browsers such as Safari, Google Chrome, and Mozilla Firefox.
(OGM), meaning Ogg Media File, is a container format (for video, audio and subtitle
streams). It was developed by Tobias Waldvogel and can do a few things the common AVI
format cannot.
OGG Media is a video file format with OGG container. It is not as popular as Matroska.
This is a multimedia technology developed by our friends at Apple Computer. It is a popular
format for creating and storing sound, graphics, and movie (.mov) files. Though it is an Apple
technology, QuickTime software is available for both the Mac and the PC. If you don't have
QuickTime on your computer, or if you want to see if you have the latest version.
Short for Windows Media Video, WMV is a type of video compression format developed
by Microsoft to be used with several video codecs for Internet streaming of video. It was first
released in 1999 as WMV, to be a competitor of the RealVideo format used by the
RealPlayer application. The .WMV file extension is used by video files that use the WMV
video codec. The video quality of the WMV 7 format is comparable with the MPEG-4 ASP
The latest version, WMV 9, is gaining popularity as a format for Blu-ray Discs and is
comparable with the H.264 format, capable of high definition video playback. Besides .WMV
files using the WMV video codec, AVI and Matroska video files can also use this codec. The
Windows Media Player application is capable of playing .WMV video files. The RealPlayer
and VLC Media Player applications are also able to play these files.

An open source multimedia container format that holds multiple audio, video, photo and
subtitle tracks. Software players for Windows, Mac, Linux and smartphones are available to
play Matroska files. Named after the Russian "matroshka" nested dolls, Matroska files are
often called "MKV files" because the .MKV extension is used for movies. Audio-only and
subtitle-only files use the .MKA and .MKS extensions.
Derived from the open source Multimedia Container Format (MCF) in 2002, Matroska uses a
binary XML format known as Extended Binary Meta Language (EBML) rather than the binary
format in MCF.
3GP (3GPP file format) is a multimedia container format defined by the Third Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) for 3G UMTS multimedia services. It is used on 3G mobile
phones but can also be played on some 2G and 4G phones.
VOB (Video Object) is the container format in DVD-Video media. VOB can contain digital
video, digital audio, subtitles, DVD menus and navigation contents multiplexed together into
a stream form. Files in VOB format may be encrypted.
Graphics make the multimedia application attractive. They help to illustrate ideas through still
There are two types of graphics used: bitmaps (paint graphics) and vector (draw graphics).
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is a lossy compression method; JPEG-
compressed images are usually stored in the JFIF (JPEG File Interchange Format) file
format. The JPEG/JFIFfilename extension is JPG or JPEG. Nearly every digital camera can
save images in the JPEG/JFIF format, which supports 8-bit grayscale images and 24-bit
color images (8 bits each for red, green, and blue). JPEG applies lossy compression to
images, which can result in a significant reduction of the file size. The amount of
compression can be specified, and the amount of compression affects the visual quality of
the result. When not too great, the compression does not noticeably detract from the image's
quality, but JPEG files suffer generational degradation when repeatedly edited and saved.
(JPEG also provides lossless image storage, but the lossless version is not widely
JPEG 2000
JPEG 2000 is a compression standard enabling both lossless and lossy storage. The
compression methods used are different from the ones in standard JFIF/JPEG; they improve
quality and compression ratios, but also require more computational power to process.
JPEG 2000 also adds features that are missing in JPEG. It is not nearly as common as
JPEG, but it is used currently in professional movie editing and distribution (some digital
cinemas, for example, use JPEG 2000 for individual movie frames).

The Exif (Exchangeable image file format) format is a file standard similar to the JFIF format
with TIFF extensions; it is incorporated in the JPEG-writing software used in most cameras.
Its purpose is to record and to standardize the exchange of images with image metadata
between digital cameras and editing and viewing software. The metadata are recorded for
individual images and include such things as camera settings, time and date, shutter speed,
exposure, image size, compression, name of camera, color information. When images are
viewed or edited by image editing software, all of this image information can be displayed.
The actual Exif metadata as such may be carried within different host formats, e.g. TIFF,
JFIF (JPEG) or PNG. IFF-META is another example.
The TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) format is a flexible format that normally saves 8 bits or
16 bits per color (red, green, blue) for 24-bit and 48-bit totals, respectively, usually using
either theTIFF or TIF filename extension. TIFF's flexibility can be both an advantage and
disadvantage, since a reader that reads every type of TIFF file does not exist.TIFFs can be
lossy and lossless; some offer relatively good lossless compression for bi-level (black&white)
images. Some digital cameras can save in TIFF format, using the LZW compression
algorithm for lossless storage. TIFF image format is not widely supported by web browsers.
TIFF remains widely accepted as a photograph file standard in the printing business. TIFF
can handle device-specific color spaces, such as the CMYK defined by a particular set of
printing press inks. OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software packages commonly
generate some (often monochromatic) form of TIFF image for scanned text pages.
RAW refers to raw image formats that are available on some digital cameras, rather than to
a specific format. These formats usually use a lossless or nearly lossless compression, and
produce file sizes smaller than the TIFF formats. Although there is a standard raw image
format, (ISO 12234-2, TIFF/EP), the raw formats used by most cameras are not
standardized or documented, and differ among camera manufacturers.
Most camera manufacturers have their own software for decoding or developing their raw file
format, but there are also many third-party raw file converter applications available that
accept raw files from most digital cameras. Some graphic programs and image editors may
not accept some or all raw file formats, and some older ones have been effectively orphaned
Adobe's Digital Negative (DNG) specification is an attempt at standardizing a raw image
format to be used by cameras, or for archival storage of image data converted from
undocumented raw image formats, and is used by several niche and minority camera
manufacturers including Pentax, Leica, and Samsung. The raw image formats of more than
230 camera models, including those from manufacturers with the largest market shares such
as Canon, Nikon, Phase One, Sony, and Olympus, can be converted to DNG.DNG was
based on ISO 12234-2, TIFF/EP, andISO's revision of TIFF/EP is reported to be adding
Adobe's modifications and developments made for DNG into profile 2 of the new version of
the standard.
As far as videocameras are concerned, ARRI's Arriflex D-20 and D-21 cameras provide raw
3K-resolution sensor data with Bayer pattern as still images (one per frame) in a proprietary
format (.ari file extension). Red Digital Cinema Camera Company, with its Mysterium sensor
family of still and video cameras, uses its proprietary raw format
called REDCODE (.R3D extension), which stores still as well as audio+video information in
one lossy-compressed file.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is limited to an 8-bit palette, or 256 colors. This makes
the GIF format suitable for storing graphics with relatively few colors such as simple
diagrams, shapes, logos and cartoon style images. The GIF format supports animation and
is still widely used to provide image animation effects. It also uses a lossless compression
that is more effective when large areas have a single color, and ineffective for detailed
images or dithered images.
The BMP file format (Windows bitmap) handles graphics files within the Microsoft Windows
OS. Typically, BMP files are uncompressed, hence they are large; the advantage is their
simplicity and wide acceptance in Windows programs.
The PNG (Portable Network Graphics) file format was created as the free, open-source
successor to GIF. The PNG file format supports 8 bit paletted images (with optional
transparency for all palette colors) and 24 bit truecolor (16 million colors) or 48 bit truecolor
with and without alpha channel - while GIF supports only 256 colors and a single transparent
color. Compared to JPEG, PNG excels when the image has large, uniformly colored areas.
Thus lossless PNG format is best suited for pictures still under edition - and the lossy
formats, like JPEG, are best for the final distribution of photographic images, because in this
case JPG files are usually smaller than PNG files. The Adam7-interlacing allows an early
preview, even when only a small percentage of the image data has been transmitted.
PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF and can also replace many common uses
of TIFF. Indexed-color, grayscale, and truecolor images are supported, plus an optional
alpha channel. PNG is designed to work well in online viewing applications like web
browsers so it is fully streamable with a progressive display option. PNG is robust, providing
both full file integrity checking and simple detection of common transmission errors. Also,
PNG can store gamma and chromaticity data for improved color matching on heterogeneous
Some programs do not handle PNG gamma correctly, which can cause the images to be
saved or displayed darker than they should be.
Animated formats derived from PNG are MNG and APNG. The latter is supported by Mozilla
Firefox and Opera and is backwards compatible with PNG
Netpbm format is a family including the portable pixmap file format (PPM), the portable
graymap file format (PGM) and the portable bitmap file format (PBM). These are either
pure ASCII files or raw binary files with an ASCII header that provide very basic functionality
and serve as a lowest common denominator for converting pixmap, graymap, or bitmap files
between different platforms. Several applications refer to them collectively as PNM or PAM
format (Portable Any Map). PFM was invented later in order to carry floating-point-based
pixel information (as used inHDR).
A late addition to the PNM family is the PAM format (Portable Arbitrary Format).
9.0 TEXT
Text is the basic element of multimedia. It involves the use of text types, sizes, colours and
background colour. In a multimedia application, other media or screen can be linked through
the use of text. This is what you call Hypertext. To produce an effective multimedia program
there are three things that need to be considered. They are:

The position of the text on the screen.
Length of the message
And legibility of the text.

GIF87a was the original web graphic file format. The current version, GIF89a, supports 1-bit
transparency and simple animation. GIF is the best web option for images with flat, solid
colors - the sort of images you normally create in Vector drawing programs like Illustrator.
GIF is rarely a good choice for non-Web use and one of the worst for high quality print. GIF
is a "lossless" format meaning that even after the file has been compressed no quality is lost
from the image quality.
File extansions: Bitmap
Developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEGS are perhaps the most well-
known of the graphics family, being used in many areas of digital life, including websites,
digital cameras, mobile phones, and a variety of other media. JPEGS allow full colour
photographic quality images to be saved in relatively good detail with lossy compression
applied. The greater the level of compression, the more quality is lost from the image. It is
possible to create a very large high quality JPEG with no compression to achieve
outstanding quality in printed reproduction, as well as very small compressed files for
websites, which makes JPEGS a very versatile option for a plethora of uses.
File extansions: Bitmap
Recent substitute for GIFs (and some JPEGs) online. Many technical advantages over GIFs
- for example, multi-bit transparency map, metadata for color management (gamma and
profile) - but also larger file sizes. There is very uneven browser support so far, so it hasn't
really caught on.
File extansions: Bitmap
This Adobe-sponsored standard for placing true Vector graphics online has failed to catch-
on in any significant way. Although approved by the W3C (the body which governs Internet
standards) there is poor browser support and very little interest in this file type.
File extansions: Vector
TIFF remains a popular format in press and sign studios. It is strictly a Bitmap-only format,
which cannot support any type of Vector data, and can have levels of compression applied.
TIFF supports a very wide range of colour models and resolutions and is known for its
versatility and reliability, although it does produce very large files when used with high quality
Type extansions: Bitmap
A PS (PostScript) file is a simple text file, and there are basically three things you can do
with it: dump it to a printer; convert it to PDF via Acrobat Distiller; or - if you're a PostScript
programmer - edit it directly in a text editor. An EPS file is an extended version of the PS
format. Basically, it is a PS file together with some other files stuffed into an "envelope". The
other files included in an EPS may consist of a low-resolution preview image, font data,
clipping path data, Vector and Raster information, and so on. These days EPS is a widely-
used standard in many graphic studios because of its versatility and convenience.
File extansions: Supports Bitmap and vector

Adobe Illustrator format is widely-used by many graphic studios because it is easy to work
with and can be saved as PDF or EPS with minimal fuss for portability. As well as designing
Vector-based graphics, AI can embed Bitmap images.
File extansions: Vector

Animation is a process of making a static image look like it is moving. In multimedia, digital animation is
used. Digital animation can be categorised into two broad area: 2D (2 Dimension) and 3D (3 Dimension)