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UNCORRELATED NOISE: EXTERNAL

ARTIFICIAL NOISE
Caused by human activity:
electric machines(electromechanical motors or
generators)
electrical switches
power lines
discharges in gases(fluorescent lamps),etc
Artificial Noise
Artificial Noise
This type of noise can be reduced either in the
source that produces, or receiver, by including
filters
Can not be estimated easily and is included in
calculating its effect using curves developed
based on extensive measurements in different
environments: urban, suburban and clear
Artificial Noise
COSMIC NOISE
Cosmic Noise
Generated in space outside the Earth's atmosphere
The main sources are the Sun, the Milky Way and other
discrete cosmic sources, designated as a radio star, among
which includes a particularly intense source in the
constellation Cassiopeia
suffering the effects of reflection and ionospheric
absorption, so its effect is small at frequencies
below about 20 MHz
while molecular absorption processes occurring in
the atmosphere, limiting the reception of cosmic
noise above 10 GHz
Cosmic Noise
These aspects are of importance in satellite
communications(spacecraft above about 1000
km above the earth's surface)
The cosmos is permeated with electromagnetic
radiation coming from all directions, designated
as background radiation and which acts as a
noise source equivalent to a temperature of about
4 K.
INTERFERENCE
Interference
The limitations of bandwidth on the transmitter,
receiver and / or channel can cause Pulse Overlap
time.
Typically, most digital communication systems
assignments have very limited bandwidth, therefore
the digital pulses must be carefully formed to avoid
this situation.
As the filter bandwidth becomes narrower and the cutoff
sharper, the pulses tend to spread in time, causing them to
overlap. This is called intersymbol interference (ISI) and can
seriously degrade performance.
Interference
If multiple carriers are transmitted from the same
transmitter, the nonlinearities can cause intermodulation
products, which can be seen as additional noise
A similar effect occurs if there is a strong adjacent channel
signal overloading the receiver and causing nonlinear
operation
Another source of interference is external interference from
other transmitters. If the noise is at the same frequency as
the signal of interest, is called co-channel interference. The
co-channel interference can be caused by harmonics of a
different type of system, unintentional emitters, or signals
from a similar system that are some distance (frequency
sharing)
Interference
The interference that is near the frequency of the signal is
called and adjacent channel interference can be a problem
depending on the spectral properties of the receiver filter. If the
filter skirts are not sufficiently attenuated interference that may
cause undesired operation
UNCORRELATED NOISE: INTERNAL
TERMIC NOISE
Termic Noise
Also called Johnson noise(John Johnson, 1928), is present on all
devices and is the most significant of all noise sources.
It is produced by the heat generated by the random motion of
electrons in a conductor, this movement results in lower
currents in all directions and directions within the material,
causing resistive current flow.
This resistive current results in a random voltage that is
theoretically called white noise and is present at all
frequencies, only when the temperature is absolute zero (0 K), if
it were possible, the random motion goes to sleep.
RUIDO BLANCO Termic Noise
White noise is characterized by its spectral density remain
constant noise voltage or noise current. The criterion used to
measure the distribution of values in the white noise is through
the Gaussian random variable to be a Gaussian distribution,
and to measure its intensity the most appropriate technique is
the mean square value (which can be voltage, power ,
running, etc).
To calculate the mean square value of the effective noise
voltage

where

is a Gaussian random variable, the


probability that it takes a certain value at a given time is given
by:
(

) =
1
2
2

2
2
]
con

como el valor medio y la varianza.


Termic Noise

= lim

,
2
= lim

2
=

=
2
The rms value of the voltage is a non-zero value, but its average
value is zero.
Optimizing to calculate the above formula, the spectral power
density, power per unit frequency, is regarded as valid approach
zero to infinity constant. In turn, this is dependent on the
temperature using the formula:
= 4
with k = 1.38e-23 J / K, Boltzmann constant, and T the temperature
in Kelvin (K).
Termic Noise
Additionally the power in a resistance is given by:
=

,
2

=
,
2

Then the spectral density of the square of the voltage or current of


effective noise are represented by the expressions:

= 4

=
4

Therefore, the square of the effective noise voltage for a system


bandwidth =
2

1
is:
Termic Noise

,
2
=
1
2

= 4
Figura. Densidad espectral del valor cuadrtico medio de la tensin del
ruido.
Additionally, the power generated by a source to a bandwidth of one Hertz
is the noise power density, it is represented by the equation
=

=
N is the noise power in Watts, No noise spectral density in Joules (J), K is the
Boltzmann constant, T the absolute temperature in Kelvin (K) and B the
bandwidth of the noise power in Hertz.
Termic Noise
Additionally the power in a resistance is given by:
=

,
2

=
,
2

Then the spectral density of the square of the voltage or current of


effective noise are represented by the expressions:

= 4

=
4

Therefore, the square of the effective noise voltage for a system


bandwidth =
2

1
is:
SHOT NOISE
Shot Noise
Also known as noise transistor, occurs commonly in the
electronics and mainly refers to the number of particles
(photons and electrons) that are carrying energy, it manifests in
small fluctuations are noted at the time of a measurement.
this noise is very common to find the presence or origin of this in
the current base of transistors, wherein at general
characteristics of the transistors the phenomenon of having to
cross barriers and consequences of this action there is the
generation of this noise is given that is white type.
in addition to calculating its intensity by the following formula is
given deduced

2
= 2
q is the electron load value, 1.62 10
19
and I is the average
intensity
Shot Noise
Apart from that we can calculate the rms noise for a
bandwidth BW as the following relationship:


= 2
TRANSIT TIME NOISE
Transit Time Noise
The transit time noise occurs when current alterations in
bearers. Carriers are a means by which semiconductor devices
are able to transmit electrical current, two kinds of carriers:
electrons and holes, the former having a load -1.602E-19 C,
while the holes have a charge + 1.602E-19 C.
Upon passage of current from the input to the output of any
device some differentiation occurs. This type of phenomenon is
characteristic of semiconductors, in which as diodes and
transistors.
Transit Time Noise
Within noise transistor transit time is determined by:
The carrier mobility
The noise is noticeable when the time it takes a carrier to enter and exit the
device is significant with respect to cycle time signal. Carriers in transistors
can have several types of delay, as issuer time (time it takes to go from
emitter to collector), basic delays transit time, time delays recombination
and propagation.
Polarization
The bipolar transistor is a device which has 3 layers of semiconductors
called collector, base and emitter. The polarization comes from the echo of
internally within the device there is a double power flow concerning
electron and hole carriers. The correct bias for the transistor to function
properly is as follows: The coupling BASE - ISSUER must have a forward bias,
while the coupling COLLECTOR-BASE must be polarized in reverse