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Energy and electricity become one of primary needs that has to be fulfilled. According
to International Energy Agency (IEA) data total world energy consumption grew from 1973 to
2011. Total world energy consumption in 1973 is 4,674 Mtoe (54,349 TWh), while this
consumption increased almost to times in 2011 to 8,918 Mtoe (103,698 TWh).
This consumption mostly increased in line with the development in some regions such as Asia,
Middle East, Africa and South America. While some regions such as US, EU, Canada and
Australia (OECD Countries) decreased at the level of total world energy consumption.

By 2030, production from fossil fuel will fall around 40-60 percent while the energy demands
keep increasing
. To meet this world demands, we have to develop the amount of clean energy
conversion but also affordable. Lots of kind renewable energy has been researched and produced
such as wind turbine, tidal energy, geothermal etc., one of renewable energy which is has been
developed for a long time is hydropower. Hydropower is relatively low cost, making it a
competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant
larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.
Hydro is also a flexible source
of electricity since plants can be ramped up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy
People have been capturing the energy in moving water for thousands of years and its still a
powerful resources that can generate clean, renewable and affordable electricity. Hydroelectricity
power is a term referring to electricity generated from kinetic energy of flowing water. One of
the methods used to generate electricity from hydropower is by run-of-river hydroelectric.
Run-of-river (ROR) hydroelectricity is ideal for streams or rivers with a minimum dry weather
flow or those regulated by a much larger dam and reservoir upstream. It has similarities to
traditional hydropower plant. Both harness the energy in flowing water to generate electricity. A
dam, smaller than that used for traditional hydro, is required to ensure that there is enough water
to enter the penstock pipes that lead to the lower-elevation turbines. In Indonesia, small hydro is
classified into micro hydro referring to developments with an installed capacity of less than 100
kW, mini hydro between 100 kW-1MW, and small hydro is used to describe projects of between
1 and 50 MW.

IEA Key Energy Statistics 2013 total final consumption p. 30
World Wide Foundation The Energy Report 2011. 100% Renewable Energy By 2050
Worldwatch Institute (June 2014). Use and Capacity of Global Hydropower Increases

Indonesia has a potential of 75.67 GW of electrical generation, and in 2011 only 4.2 GW (5.6%)
that has been utilized. On a large scale from 2005 to 2011, Indonesia only have an increased its
capacity in renewable energy by 17 percent while China taken the first place in development of
the capacity by 153 percent.

Development of hydropower can be maximized because Indonesia has the potential to increase
its capacity. Create ROR hydroelectric is one of the best solution in Indonesia to generate and
distribute electricity to remote areas. The energy output of small hydro facilities is so low that
even the small damage inflicted upon the environment by run-of-river construction may
outweigh the environmental benefits it has over large hydroelectric dams.

The only way for small
hydro to make a large contribution to the energy sector is for a lot of facilities to be constructed.
Hydropower is an essential, reliable and renewable source of clean energy with a rich history and
it is meet with substantial energy demands today. Now, with vast development of technology, it
will become even more efficient and will be have greater production capacity. ROR helps us to
develop cheap energy with less impact on the environment. Using this method, Indonesia can
generate and distribute electricity for the national development, powering people nationwide.

US Energy Information Administration (EIA), Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia