Você está na página 1de 18

2

C
H
A
P
T
E
R

2
Syllabus outcome
5.4.1 Analyses the effects of past, current and emerging
information and software technologies on the individual
and society.
Overview
This chapter provides an overview of past, current and emerging
technologies. It explores the impact of these technologies on
individuals and society. You will also learn about the effect of these
technologies on the environment.
Past, current
and emerging
technologies
Past, current
and emerging
technologies
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 27
28 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
2.1 Past technologies
The computer we know today has existed for about sixty years.
However, this remarkable machine is built on centuries of
intellectual effort. It developed from our need to count and
perform calculations.
Early computing devices
Blaise Pascal is credited as the person who built the rst mechanical
calculator. In 1642, at only 19, he invented a machine made of gears,
wheels and cylinders that could be used to add and subtract. He
called it the Pascaline. There were only fty Pascalines built because
accountants feared the machines might do away with their jobs.
Joseph-Marie Jacquard sought to automate the repetitive work
on looms by weavers. In 1805 he perfected an automatic looming
machine that used a stiff card with a series of holes, called a punch
card. The Jacquard loom met with opposition from workers who
feared losing their jobs. A group of people called the Luddites
smashed new textile machinery in 1812.
Charles Babbage is considered to be the father of the modern
computer. He was born in 1791. During the 1820s he designed a
machine called the Difference Engine to calculate mathematical
tables to twenty decimal places. In 1834 he designed the rst digital
computer called the Analytical Engine (see Figure 2.1). It consisted
of a storage unit that could hold 1000 gures of fty digits each,
and an arithmetic calculator. It was controlled by punched cards, an
idea he took from the
Jacquard loom.
Charles Babbage
thought of almost
everything that was ever
needed for a computer
input data, process and
store data, and produce
output. Unfortunately it
was too advanced for the
engineers of the end of
the nineteenth century
and only part of this
machine was ever
completed. It was not
Figure 2.1 Charles Babbages Analytical Engine
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 28
Ada Augusta
Byron was the
only legitimate
daughter of the
poet Lord Byron.
Her relationship
with Charles
Babbage was
regarded as
controversial.
29 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
until his writings were rediscovered in 1937 that his great genius
was appreciated.
Ada Augusta Byron (or Countess Lovelace) was one of the great
women of computing. She helped Babbage to adjust and correct
some of the problems in his work and her notes on Babbages
works were accepted for publication in the book Taylors Scientic
Memoirs. Ada Augusta Byron is dubbed the worlds rst
programmer because she developed the idea to repeat a set of
instructions over and over again, in what is now called a loop.
Herman Hollerith worked for the United States census bureau.
In 1886 Hollerith developed a tabulating device based on Charles
Babbages punch card system. It collected and tabulated data using
80-column punched cards and was rst used in the 1890 census.
Hollerith continued to develop tabulating machines and his
Tabulating Machine Company became a division of the company
later re-named IBM.
Howard Aiken worked with IBM. In 1939 he constructed a fully
automatic calculator called the Mark I. It was 17 metres by 2.5
metres and contained three million electrical connections and 805
kilometres of wire. The Mark I was an electromechanical machine
and could perform four basic operations. Input was entered on
punched cards and output recorded on an electric typewriter. It
could perform three calculations per second and could store up to
seventy-two numbers.
Early electronic computers
The rst electronic digital computer was the Colossus. It was built in
England by a team of mathematicians headed by Alan Turing.
Colossus was operational
in 1943 and successfully
broke German military
codes. It contained 1500
vacuum tubes. A vacuum
tube is a glass tube that
surrounds an empty space
or vacuum with an
electric current owing
through it.
ENIAC (Electronic
Numerical Integrator and
Calculator) was completed
in 1946 by John Presper Figure 2.2 ENIAC was completed in 1946
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 29
Computers in the
future may weigh
no more than
1.5 tons. A science
magazine
predicting the
rapid developments
in technology
in 1949.
30 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
Eckert and John William Mauchly (see Figure 2.2). It was 30 metres
long, 3 metres high and contained 18 000 vacuum tubes. ENIAC
was a great success for its time and was used by the military for
calculations relating to rockets. It was able to perform over 5000
operations per second. However, the vacuum tubes created very
large amounts of heat. This resulted in a malfunction every 15
minutes.
Another great pioneer of computing was John von Neumann
who, in 1946, led the development of EDVAC (Electronic Discrete
Variable Automatic Computer). It could store both instructions and
data in its memory. Von Neumann then went on to nd new
applications for computers and he helped scientists such as Robert
Oppenheimer and Edward Teller at Los Alamos apply them to
atomic bomb research.
In 1951, UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) was
designed by Eckert and Mauchly and delivered to the United States
of America Bureau of Census. It was the rst commercially
available electronic computer. It could process both numerical and
alphabetical calculations with ease.
Grace Hopper developed the rst compiler in 1952. She also
conceived the idea of a programming language based on English
that led to the development of COBOL. Grace Hopper is regarded
as one of the great pioneers of programming.
Jim Backus of IBM developed a high-level language called
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) in 1954. It resembles the
symbolism used in mathematics and has undergone continued
development.
William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain from Bell
Laboratories developed the rst transistor in 1947. In 1958 the
transistor was used in a computer, and greatly increased the
computers processing speed to 10 000 operations per second, as
well as reducing the size of the computer.
BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a
high-level programming language designed by John Kemeny and
Thomas Kurtz in 1964. It is a useful language to teach
programming concepts.
The integrated circuit consists of hundreds of electronic
components such as transistors, resistors and capacitors packed on
a small piece of silicon wafer. Computers made after 1966 that used
this technology were smaller, more reliable, cheaper and able to
work at high speed (100 million calculations per second).
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 30
31 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
The programming language called C was created at Bell
Laboratories in the United States by Dennis Ritchie in 1972. It was
designed for structured programming and use with the UNIX
operating system.
In 1975 the rst popular personal computer called the Altair
was advertised in Popular Electronics for $395. The machine had no
memory, no keyboard, no display, and no printer. Input was via a
bank of switches on the front panel and output was via a row of
light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
The rst personal computer to grab the publics imagination
was the Apple. It was put together by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs
in a garage to show to members of their computer club (see Figure
2.3). The Apple was made at home, but unlike any other personal
computer at that time it contained everything in the one package.
In 1977 the Apple II was produced and it is described as the rst
personal computer that almost anyone could use. It contained the
6502 8-bit microprocessor, with 4 kilobytes of RAM and a cassette
recorder for secondary storage. In 1983, the Apple IIe was released
offering 128 kilobytes of RAM.
In 1981 IBM released the rst high-powered personal computer.
It was called the IBM PC and had an open architecture, which
meant that others could copy its method of operation. It offered 16
kilobytes of RAM expandable to 64 kilobytes
and was based on the Intel 8088
microprocessor. Microsoft was
commissioned to design the operating
system that became known as MS-DOS. In
1984, IBM introduced the AT based on the
Intel 80286 microprocessor and a 16-bit
data bus. In 1986, Intel introduced the
80386 microprocessor with a 32-bit data bus
and the ability to address 4 gigabytes of
RAM. In 1989, Intel produced the 80486
microprocessor with over a million
transistors.
The Macintosh computer was rst released
by Apple in 1984. It was one of the rst
personal computers to feature a graphical user
interface (GUI) and use a mouse. The rst
Macintosh model used a Motorola 68000 32-
bit microprocessor and 128 kilobytes of RAM.
Figure 2.3 Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs
built the rst Apple computer
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 31
32 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
More successful models were the Macintosh 512, Macintosh SE,
featuring a hard disk, and the Macintosh II, which offered open
architecture.
Exercise 2.1
1 What am I?
a First mechanical calculator.
b First electronic digital computer.
c First commercially available
electronic computer.
d First popular personal computer.
2 Copy and complete the following
sentences:
a Joseph-Marie Jacquard
invented the _______.
b _______ developed a tabulating
device that was used in the
1890 census.
c EDVAC could store both _______
and data in its memory.
d Microsoft designed an operating system
called _______ for the IBM PC.
3 What person invented these computers?
a Analytical Engine
b Mark I
c ENIAC
d Apple II
4 a What contribution did Ada Augusta Byron make to the
development of computers?
b Describe the effect on computers that the invention of the
integrated circuit had.
c Describe the specications of the IBM PC released in 1981.
d Describe the difference between the 80286 and 80386 processors.
e What is the importance of the Macintosh computer in the
history of computers?
Development
5 Charles Babbage is regarded as the father of the modern computer.
Do research to nd more information about Charles Babbage.
Write a report that describes Charles Babbages contribution to the
modern computer.
6 Construct a table that summarises the history of the computer. The
table should consist of two columns. One column for the year of
the invention and another column describing the invention. Sort
the table chronologically on year.
ICT 2.1
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 32
33 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
2.2 Current technologies
Current technology is an essential tool in todays information
society. It is a digital revolution. All types of information, such as
text, graphics, audio, video or animation, are represented in the
form of digits or numbers. This data is converted to binary digits
and transmitted using different technological devices over global
networks. Advances in compression techniques have allowed
computers to nd, store and transmit massive amounts of
information. Broadband and the use of optical bres have vastly
increased the speed and volume of information transmission.
The digital revolution has resulted in a merging of technologies.
Computer and communication technology have joined together.
Most people purchase a computer with the intention of connecting
to the Internet. Mobile phones may connect to the Internet and
perform many of the functions of a computer (see Figure 2.4).
Radio, television and the Internet are converging.
There are an increasing number of websites on the
Internet that provide radio and video broadcasts.
Digital television merges communication, television
and computer technologies.
We are also experiencing a network revolution. A
network is a number of computers and their
peripheral devices connected together in some way.
Networks are classied as local area networks or wide
area networks:
Local area networks (LANs) connect computers
within a building or group of buildings on one
site. LANs are in a small geographical area and
the computers are linked together by coaxial
cable, bre optic cable or a wireless hub. They
improve communication and allow the sharing of
hardware and software.
Wide area networks (WANs) connect computers
over hundreds or thousands of kilometres. The
Internet is a WAN that links computers all over
the world. The World Wide Web (www) and
email are services provided by the Internet that
have massively changed to our lives. These
changes are so wide-ranging that it is difcult to
imagine our society without the Internet.
Figure 2.4 Some mobile phones
can now be used to connect to the
Internet
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 33
34 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
Impact of information technology
Information technology is having a fundamental impact on our
society. There can be little doubt that it has made our society more
efcient and raised the standard of living of most people.
Organisations have used information technology to save time,
reduce effort, increase output, develop new products and,
ultimately, save money. Individuals have beneted in many different
ways. For example, technology has provided better goods and
services, improved the range and quality of health care and
expanded the types of recreational activities. Information
technology has impacted in a wide range of areas and jobs, such as
those briey described below:
Banking has been enhanced by the means of plastic cards,
automatic teller machines (ATMs) and electronic funds transfer at
point of sale (EFTPOS). Internet banking allows customers to view
their account balances and transaction histories, transfer money
between accounts and pay bills using BPAY (see Figure 2.5).
Shops use a point of sale (POS) system to efciently process
transactions. A bar code reader is used to enter data. Product
description and price is displayed on the cash register and
receipt. The system also maintains a stock inventory.
Electronic commerce (e-commerce) allows commercial
transactions to be carried out electronically using a credit or
debit card. Internet shopping allows organisations to sell their
goods and services on a global scale.
Ofces use a range of software applications such as word
processors, spreadsheets and databases. People are expected to
be procient with these software tools.
Printing and publishing industries are dependent on desktop
publishing programs. Technology has revolutionised the way
documents are published.
Figure 2.5 The Internet has revolutionised banking for many people
Tutorial
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 34
Electronic newspapers can email subscribers a page of news
headlines on the areas they nominate. Each item of text is
linked to the full story on a website.
Education has made widespread use of information technology.
Teachers and students have access to current information from
the Internet and a range of software to improve learning.
Governments store and analyse huge amounts of information
using information technology. It allows them to provide services
to the community and plan for the future.
Communication involves the widespread use of voice mail,
facsimile, mobile phones, pagers, email and videoconferencing.
Information is accessed from the Internet.
Scientists use information technology to automatically collect
experimental data and develop possible solutions to
environmental problems.
Designers use computer aided design (CAD) software to
produce drawings of products. It allows them to visualise the
product in many different ways.
Electrical engineers use sophisticated programs to quickly
design circuits for appliances and for integrated circuits.
Technology not only helps them draw the circuits but also
calculates the currents and voltages at key points in the circuit.
Pilots use ight control systems to guide
aircraft to their destinations (see Figure
2.6). Sensors are used to monitor the
aircrafts position, speed and other
information needed by the pilot.
Managers are dependent on
information technology to provide
data about purchasing materials,
stock inventory, sales, payroll, orders,
or budgets.
Travel agents use travel booking
software to check availability and to
book holidays for customers.
Doctors use expert systems to help diagnose a patients illness
and recommend possible treatment. Robotic devices are used in
surgery and three-dimensional computer images target specic
parts in the body.
Farmers use stock management systems to keep detailed records
of animals. They often make use of portable computers to
collect data in the eld.
35 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
Figure 2.6 Pilots use ight control systems to
provide vital information
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 35
36 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
Issues
When new information technology is introduced the impact is not
always positive. There are often benets for some people and negative
effects for others. For example, ATMs are a convenient technology for
many people, however, there are some groupssuch as the elderly
who may have difculty with the technology. Some people do not
enjoy using the technology and prefer a more personal service. ATMs
have also changed the way bank employees work.
Information technology benets society but it may be a
disadvantage for an individual. For example, if the new information
technology increases productivity it often leads to staff redundancies.
It has forced people to learn new skills. Individuals need access to
information and to be procient in the latest technologies. If people are
incapable or not given access to information they will be disadvantaged.
We need to ensure all parts of society, including Aboriginal and
indigenous people, have the same access to information technology
as other Australians. Satellite technology has enabled some
Aboriginals in remote communities to communicate with each
other. However, many Aboriginal and indigenous people have not
had the opportunity to learn or use information technology.
Information technology has heightened a range of ethical issues
for people directly or indirectly involved with the technology. These
issues include copyright, piracy, privacy, security, accuracy of data,
changing nature of work, appropriate information use, equity and
health concerns. These issues present society with huge challenges
and will be discussed throughout this book.
Project: Efragrance
Efragrance is a new business that sells perfume on the Internet. It
currently has eighty brands and a database of 1000 potential
customers. The owner of Efragrance requires an advertising campaign
to promote the business. Jackson Hughes is a consultant who has been
contracted to solve the problem. The problem was solved using the
four stages in project development.
Dene and analyse the problem: Jackson discussed advertising
ideas for Efragrance with the owner. He investigated all current
methods of selling perfume. Customers were surveyed on the
current level of service. A project plan was written and submitted
to the owner.
Design possible solutions: Jackson wrote a feasibility report that
recommended increased advertising on the Web, newsletters with
discounts for regular customers and a warehouse to process the
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 36
37 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
increased number of perfume brands. A recommendation to
use banner advertisement was approved by the owner.
Produce the solution: An advertising banner was created
and published on Yahoo! and ninemsm. A warehouse
was leased to store the perfume, package it and
send orders to customers. Additional brands were
added to the database. Customers were targeted
each month with offers relevant to their
preferred perfume using email, free delivery and
discounts.
Evaluate the solution: Efragrance has grown
to over 20 000 customers and a turnover in
excess of a million dollars. It now sells 350
different brands including many perfumes
that are not available in department stores
or are yet to be released in Australia.
Perfumes are kept to a minimum by
maintaining an accurate inventory.
Tasks
1 Design a banner advertisement that would be appropriate for this
project.
2 Create a prototype of a newsletter that could be used by Efragrance.
Exercise 2.2
1 True or false?
a Broadband and the use of optical bres have decreased the
speed and volume of information transmission.
b Computer and communication technology have joined
together.
c Internet banking allows customers to view their account
balances and transaction histories.
d The impact of information is always positive.
2 Copy and complete the following by replacing the letter in brackets
with a suitable term:
Shops use a (a) system to efciently process transactions. Printing
and publishing industries are dependent on (b). Designers use (c)
software to produce drawings of products. Doctors use (d) to help
diagnose a patients illness and recommend a possible treatment.
3 Unjumble these words:
a ildtaig
b gimnerg
c twnrkeo
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 37
38 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
Research is
underway to
develop plastic
chips that are
stronger and more
energy efcient
than silicon chips.
4 a Describe some of the ways computer and communication
technologies are merging.
b Explain the difference between a LAN and a WAN.
c What is electronic commerce?
d How do scientists use information technology?
e What is a ight control system?
f How can information technology be a disadvantage for an
individual?
Development
5 Information technology and the use of the Internet will produce
the paperless ofce. Do research into the paperless ofce. Describe
the concept of the paperless ofce. Do you agree with this
statement? Give reasons for your answer.
6 Collect ten news articles in the next two weeks on the impact of
information technology. Categorise the articles as positive or
negative. Briey summarise one positive and one negative article.
2.3 Emerging technologies
Emerging technologies consist of ideas that have just started to
appear. Embedded intelligence is an emerging technology that will
be further developed in the next few years. It has already been
included in most consumer devices such as cameras, DVD players,
microwaves and motor vehicles. Embedded intelligence effectively
puts a computer into a device. The device performs its specialised
function but hides the technology from the user. Researchers are
designing new products with improved embedded intelligence. For
example, an articial passenger is being developed for a motor
vehicle. It carries on conversations and watches for signs of fatigue.
If it senses tiredness the passenger changes the music, opens a
window or sprays the driver with cold water.
Researchers are including computers everywhere. People will be
equipped with intelligent devices. These devices could be part of
your clothing. Wearable computers will have a central processing
unit (CPU) and keyboard stitched into the garment and an
eyeglass-monitor for display. In addition to current tasks, wearable
computers will be able to open doors, have rooms greet people by
their name, automatically forward telephone calls and provide
continuous access to the Internet.
Nanotechnology is an emerging technology that has resulted
from the ongoing trend in miniaturisation. Miniaturisation is the
process of making a product smaller. For example, improvements
ICT 2.2
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 38
39 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
in integrated circuits are the
result of increasing the
number of smaller
components.
Nanotechnology takes
miniaturisation to another
level. It is able to build
machines that are only a few
billionths of a metre (see
Figure 2.7). Nanomachines
are constructed atom by
atom using processes drawn
from molecular biology. If
successful, computers built
using nanotechnology would
be billions of times faster
than todays computers.
Environmental considerations
It is argued by many people that we need to look after our
environment if we are going to survive in the next century.
Information technology is having an impact on the environment by
increasing the consumption of fossil fuels, building mountains of
waste and producing toxic chemicals in the manufacture of
integrated circuits. We have limited natural resources and must take
steps to preserve our environment for the next generation.
Recycling
Consumers have demanded that manufacturers build computers
that are energy efcient and recyclable. They want a green PC that
is quiet, made of recycled plastics and can operate on less power
than a light bulb. The green PC should be designed with the aim
of reducing waste and chemical emissions. Some ways of making
the green PC include:
packaging it from recycled cardboard that is CFC
(chlorouorocarbon) free
ensuring that the plastic casing is easily removable so that it can
be recycled into roof tiles or new PCs
providing instruction manuals made from the minimum
amount of recycled paper or using onscreen manuals
developing the PC using products that are water-based and CFC
free
Figure 2.7 Nanotechnology will mean much faster computers in
the future
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 39
40 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
using recyclable paper and
cartridges for printers
using recyclable batteries.
Personal computers are green
if they use power schemes (see
Figure 2.8). Standby mode is a
state in which the computer
consumes less power when it
is idle, but remains available
for immediate use. It shuts
down the devices that use the
most power, such as the
monitor and the disk drive.
Standby mode starts
automatically at a
predetermined time interval
or is selected using the
Standby command.
Portable computers are the
ideal green machine. They are
engineered to use as little
energy as possible so that battery time is maximised. Portable
computers also use LCD screens. LCD screens use far less power
and are much cleaner to manufacture than CRT screens commonly
used in personal computers.
The introduction of computers has yet to produce the paperless
ofce. Paper consumption from printers is destroying forests and
increasing consumption of fossil fuels. We need to reduce our
dependence on paper and, where appropriate, only use the
electronic version of a document. Many people predicted that the
use of email and the Internet would reduce paper consumption.
Unfortunately this has not been the reality.
In addition to building green PCs, consumers are demanding
that their software be environmentally friendly. Software companies
can use recycled paper for their packaging, documentation,
manuals, disk labels, brochures and envelopes. Furthermore, there
is no need for software packages to come in huge boxes containing
padding and cardboard. Online help has replaced the need for large
printed manuals.
Figure 2.8 Power schemes
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 40
41 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
Exercise 2.3
1 True or false?
a Most consumer devices have embedded intelligence.
b Information technology is decreasing the consumption of fossil
fuels.
c Portable computers are the ideal green machine.
d Computers have resulted in the paperless ofce.
2 What am I?
a Emerging technology that puts a computer into a device.
b The process of making a product smaller.
c Machines that are constructed atom by atom using the
processes drawn from molecular biology.
d The state in which the computer consumes less power when it is
idle.
3 Copy and complete the following sentences:
a _______ computers will have a CPU and keyboard stitched into
the garment.
b Consumers are demanding computers that are more energy
efcient and _______.
c LCD screens use far less power than _______ screens.
d Paper consumption from _______ is destroying our forests.
4 a Describe some of the tasks performed by wearable computers.
b Compare the speed of todays computer with a computer built
with nanotechnology.
c Describe the effect of information technology on the
environment.
d List some of the ways of making the green PC.
e How can software be environmentally friendly?
Development
5 New technology is constantly
emerging. Do research to nd
two recent technological
developments. Outline these
developments. Predict the
impact of this technology
on our society.
6 Information technology is
a major environmental
problem. Do research to nd
any recent improvements or
concerns regarding the
impact of information
technology on the environment.
Write a summary of your research.
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 41
42 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
Part A: Multiple choice questions
Select the alternative (a), (b), (c) or (d)
that best answers the question.
1 Who built the rst mechanical
calculator?
a Howard Aiken
b Blaise Pascal
c Joseph Jacquard
d Herman Hollerith
2 Who was responsible for developing
a loop?
a Charles Babbage
b John von Neumann
c Ada Augusta Byron
d William Shockley
3 Which of the following is a major
development that used a small piece
of silicon wafer?
a Integrated circuit
b Transistor
c Vacuum tubes
d Electronic integrator
4 Which of these alternatives is
described as the rst personal
computer that almost anyone could
use?
a IBM PC
b Altair
c MS-DOS
d Apple II
5 Which of the following allows
organisations to sell their goods and
services on a global scale?
a Internet banking
b Internet shopping
c Website
d Web browser
6 Which of the following statements is
incorrect?
a Information technology has had a
negative impact for some people
b Governments store and analyse
huge amounts of information
c Farmers often make use of
portable computers to collect data
in the eld
d EFTPOS is used by pilots to guide
aircraft to their destination
7 Which of the following is an ethical
issue that has not been heightened
by information technology?
a Piracy
b Security
c Copyright
d Digital
8 Which of the following is software
that has revolutionised the way
documents are published?
a Desktop publishing
b Database
c CAD software
d Electronic newspapers
9 Which of the following does not
have a positive impact on the
environment?
a Using CRT screens
b Using recyclable plastic casing
c Using LCD screens
d Using onscreen manuals
10 Reducing paper consumption would
do which of the following?
a Increase our consumption of fossil
fuels
b Preserve our forests
c Have minimal impact on the
environment
d Build a mountain of waste
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 42
43 2 Past, cur r ent and emer gi ng technol ogi es
Part B: Matching the term
For each of the following statements (1 to 10), select from the list of terms (a to j)
the one that most closely ts the statement.
Statements
1 First commercially available electronic
computer
2 First electronic digital computer
3 First popular personal computer
4 One of the rst personal computers
to feature a GUI
5 Computers that are connected within
a building or group of buildings on
one site
6 Computers connected over hundreds
or thousands of kilometres
7 Current technology used by banks
8 Current technology used by shops
9 Emerging technology that uses
processes developed from molecular
biology
10 Emerging technology that effectively
puts a computer into a device
Terms
a Altair
b ATM
c Colossus
d Embedded technology
e LAN
f Macintosh
g Nanotechnology
h POS
i UNIVAC
j WAN
Part C: Extended response questions
Write at least one paragraph for each of the following.
1 ENIAC was an important
development in the history of
computers. Describe the appearance
of ENIAC. What was one of the major
problems with this computer?
2 Outline the contribution made by
Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs to the
history of computers.
3 Our society is involved in a digital
revolution. What is the digital
revolution? Give some examples to
explain your answer.
4 Describe some of the recent changes
in banking that have resulted from
information technology.
5 Embedded intelligence is an
emerging technology. What is
embedded technology? Describe
some of the new products
researchers are designing that use
embedded technology.
6 How can information technology be
made more environmentally friendly?
e Tester
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 43
44 HI Tech: I nf or mati on and Sof twar e Technol ogy
Project: Computer history
Create a display on a prominent person in computing history or an important
computer development. The display should contain:
a brief description of the contribution of the particular person or development
in computing
reasons for the particular invention
any limitations it may have.
Students are expected to research their topic from a number of different sources
and summarise their results. The display can take a variety of forms, such as a word
document, poster or Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. However, it must be
developed using appropriate software and should contain relevant graphics.
313 ISTech Chapt 02.3pp 23/9/04 11:24 AM Page 44