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Stat. A piece performing the office of a brace, to prevent the swerving of the piece to
wliich it is applied. The term is general, and applies to all materials.
Steel. (Sax. Seal.) Iron which possessed the properties of hardening and tempering,
those properties depending essentially on the presence of carbon with the iron. Steel
now, however, generally includes many varieties of materials, which can be no more
tempered or hardened than many qualities of wrought iron. The only difference
between cast iron and steel was the proportion of carbon
pure iron contained no
carbon. The steel generally used for girder-work and plates contained perhaps
cent, of carbon, and directly it got to 1 and
per cent, it became cast iron. It is also
cheaply made, for great masses, by abstracting carbon from cast iron. The process
for converting iron into steel was known to the ancients.
Steenino. The brickwork laid dry (that is, without mortar), for forming the cylin-
drical shaft of a well or cesspool, to prevent the irruption of the surrounding soil.
Steeple. (Sax. Stepel.) A lofty erection attached to a church, chiefly intended to con-
tain its bells. The word is a general term, and applies to every appendage of this
nature, wliether tower or spire, or a combination of the two.
SrEP. A block of any material, and of such a height as is within a moderate lift of a
person's foot, say, seven inches at most. A series of steps form stairs.
Stereobata. See Pedestal.
Sereooraphic Projection. That projection of the sphere wherein the eye is supposed
ta be placed on tlie surface.
Stereography. (Gr. ^repeos, solid, and Tpacpai, I describe.) That branch of solid geo-
metry which demonstrates the properties and shows the construction of all regularly
defined solids ; it explains the methods for constructing the surfaces on planes, so as to
form the entire body itself, or to cover its surface; or, when the solid is bounded by
plane surfaces, the inclination of the planes.
Stereotomy. The scic-nce of catting solids to suit the conditions required for their forms.
Sticking. The operation of forming mouldings by a plane, in contradistinction to form-
ing them by hand. When done they are said to be stuck.
Stile. (Sax.) The vertical part of a piece of framing into which, in joinery, the ends of
the rails are fixed by mortises and tenons.
Stilliciuicm. Dripping eaves to Doric buildings; but in the propylaeum at Eleusis, the
sima or upper moulding of the pediment cornice, is continued along tlie flanks, and a
channel hollowed in it to collect the rain falling on to the roof.
Still Room. A room in a large mansion, wherein the housekeeper and her assistant
prepare tea and coffee for the family and visitors, and make preserves, cakes, and
biscuits, and so on. It was formerly the work-room of the lady of the house wlien
engaged in making household cordials. In a smaller class of residence, this room
frequently relieves the kitchen of all the lesser cooking, and of pastry making. It
should adjoin the store and housekeeper's rooms.
Stilt. See Stabling.
Stilted Arch. One in which the spring of the arch begins not immediately from the
imposts, but from a vertical piece of masonry or brick-
work resting on them, so as to give to the arch an
appearance of being on stilts (/(/. 1441). In describing
the cave temples at I^lephanta, Freeman, History of
/ \\\
chitecture, p. 56, notes, "the stilt or cle above the capital
of the piers, and the manner in which it spreads into
the roof; this would seem to be the rudest and most
primitive form of the bracket capita,!, though it has less
projection, and extends only in two directions." And in
the Addenda, he says "fir this very expressive word stiJt
I am under an obligation to a paper by Professor
Orlebar. It expresses a portion of niasonry above the
part of the pier, but
in^'the direction assumes the form either of a portion of
{ \
f \.
adistinctmember." The first confirmed use
of the stilt occurs in the Arabian buildings at Cairo.
t' o-o i
where it may have been suggested by the de of the anterior
Egyptian style. In
1,1 !>e
further says,
stilted arches cannot be always avoided where openings of different breaUtli
are required to be of the same height."
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Stoa. (Gr.) In Grecian architecture, a term corresponding
with the Latin porticus, and
the Italian wrh'co.
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Stock. The part of a tool for boring wood with a crank whose end rests agn inst the
brea'it of the workman, wliilewith one hand he holds the boring end steady, and w.tli
the other turns the crank ; the steel borers arc called bits, and the whole
instrument is
called a stock and hit.