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The reality therapy approach to

counseling and problem-solving focuses
on the here-and-now actions of the
client and the ability to create and
choose a better future.
Typically, clients seek to discover what
they really want and how they are
currently choosing to behave in order
to achieve these goals.
Basic Needs of the Patients
Power (which includes
achievement and feeling
worthwhile as well as winning).
Love & Belonging (this includes
groups as well as families or
loved ones).
Freedom (includes
independence, autonomy, your
own 'space').
Fun (includes pleasure and
Survival (includes nourishment,
shelter, sex).
it is assumed that the unconscious parts
of our personality contain knowledge
above and beyond what we know and
understand consciously.
Founded by Carl Gustav Jung
Components of Psyche
Ego - it is concerned with thinking,
feeling, remembering, and
Personal Unconscious consists of
materials that were once conscious
but later repressed or forgotten.
Collective Unconscious the
collective experiences of humans in
their revolutionary past or the
accumulation of ancestral
Persona mask or ones public
o Anima female component
of the male psyche
o Animus masculine
component of the female
o Shadow the darkest and
deepest part of the psyche.
o Self the component that
attempts to harmonize all
the other components
- to help the client move toward greater
- is not simply the relief of symptoms
but rather to offer a deep and long
lasting change that comes from
discovering the uniqueness of who we
really are
The Counselling Process
recounting of ones history
ELUCIDATION - the therapist attempts
to connect the patient's transference to
its origins in childhood.
EDUCATION - The therapist encourages
patient to develop an active and health-
promoting role in everyday life
TRANSFORMATION - period of self-

Who Can Benefit the Therapy
people who have a genuine desire to
explore themselves.
People who suffer from emotional
People who are undergoing a
developmental or life-changing crisis
People who seek growth and deeper
meaning in life

Role of the Therapist
Assist the patient in uncovering his/her
unconscious mind.
Interpreting his/her unconscious mind.
Understanding his/her unconscious
-a school of psychology, developed in Germany,
which affirms that all experience consists of
gestalten, and that the response of an organism
to a situation is a complete and unanalyzable
whole rather than a sum of the responses to
specific elements in the situation.
- Gestalt literally means "configuration" or
"figure" and is used to refer to any general
pattern which manifests characteristics
different than are inherent in its parts.
Gestalt major Psychologists
Max Wertheimer
Wolfgang Khler
Kurt Koffka
Gestalt theory
Gestalt psychology is based on the
observation that we often experience
things that are not a part of our simple
Wetheimer explained that you are
seeing an effect of the whole event,
not contained in the sum of the parts.
Gestalt theory is well known for its
concept of insight learning:

*productive thinking
* Isomorphism
Gestalt laws
law of closure-says that, if something is missing
in an otherwise complete figure we will tend to
add it.
law of similarity -says that we will tend to
group similar items together to see them as
forming a gestalt, within a larger form.
law of proximity-Things that are close together
as seen as belonging together.
law of symmetry-When we perceive objects
we tend to perceive them as symmetrical
shapes that form around their center
law of continuity-When something is
introduced as a series the brain tends to
perpetuate the series
Figure-ground -is another Gestalt psychology
principle. It was first introduced by the Danish
phenomenologist Edgar Rubin (1886-1951).
Gestalt therapy
Frederick (fritz) Perls was the first
person to formulate application of
Gestalt psychology in the area of
has developed into a form of therapy
that emphasizes medium to large
groups, although many Gestalt
techniques can be used in one-on-one
probably has a great range of format
than any other therapy techniques. It is
practiced in individual, couples, and
family therapies, as well as in therapy
with children.
focuses more on process (what is
happening) than content (what is being
discussed). The emphasis is on what is
being done, though and felt at the
moment rather than on what was,
might be, could be or should be.

Gestalt Therapy is a humanistic therapy
technique that focuses on gaining an
awareness of emotions and behaviors
in the present rather than in the past.

Aims of gestalt psychology
Present-Centered Awareness
Profound Respect
Emphasis on Experience
Creative Experiment and Discovery
Social Responsibility

Alfred Adlers Theory
He believed that a persons lifestyle was
set early in life of early family influences
such as family constellation and birth
order as determinants of personality.
He believed that human behavior is
goal-oriented and that human can best
be understood in terms of how they go
about trying to achieve their goals.
Adlerian Theory of Personality
Family Constellation and Atmosphere
Social Interest
Superiority Complex
Inferiority complex
Early recollections
Personality Types
Ruling: Is dominant in relationships.
Getting: Is expectant and dependent.
Avoiding: Shies away from problems.
Socially Useful: Very Outgoing & Very

Adlerian Therapy
Adlerian therapy focuses on the goal-
oriented nature of humans and the
belief that humans are born feeling
The role of the therapist is to
encourage an optimistic mentality to
encourage change.
The goal of Adlerian therapy is for the
patient to realize his or her mistaken
views about self.
The role of the therapist
It is important that the patient trusts
and respects the therapist and vice
It is very important for the therapist to
be optimistic throughout the process.
The therapist will encourage ideas that
humans are constantly changing beings
who strive for perfection.

Therapeutic Technique
The Client-Counseling Relationship