completed windingsfor a
757MVA, 3600RPM,
60Hz synchronous
generator (Courfesy of
General ~ l e c fric)
m
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
T h e method of symmetrical components, first developed by C. L. Fortescue
in 1918, is a powerful technique for analyzing unbalanced threephase sys
tems. Fortescue defined a linear transformation from phase components to a
new set of components called syrnnretricul comnponelzts. The advantage of this
transformation is that for balanced threephase networks the equivalent cir
cuits obtained for the symmetrical components, called sequence rzet~vorks, are
separated into three uncoupled networks. Furthermore, for unbalanced three
phase systems, the three sequence networks are connected only at points of
unbalance. As a result, sequence networks for many cases of unbalanced
threephase systems are relatively easy to analyze.
The symmetrical component method is basically a modeling technique
that permits systematic analysis and design of threephase systems. Decou
pling a detailed threephase network into three simpler sequence networks
reveals complicated phenomena in more simplistic terms. Sequence network
SECTION 8.1 DEFINITION OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
results can then be superposed to obtain threephase network results. As an
example, the application of symmetrical components to unsymmetrical short
circuit studies (see Chapter 9) is indispensable.
The objective of this chapter is to introduce the concept of symmetrical
components in order to lay a foundation and provide a framework for later
chapters covering both equipment models as well as power system analysis
and design methods. In Section 8.1, we define symmetrical components. In
Sections 8.28.7, we present sequence networks of loads, series impedances,
transmission lines, rotating machines, and transformers. We discuss complex
power in sequence networks in Section 8.8. Although Fortescue's original
work is valid for polyphase systems with n phases, we will consider only
threephase systems here.
DEFINITION OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
Assume that a set of threephase voltages designated V,, Vb, and I.I is given.
In accordance with Fortescue, these phase voltages are resolved into the fol
lowing three sets of sequence components:
1. Zerosequence components, consisting of three phasors with equal
magnitudes and with zero phase displacement, as shown in Figure
8.1 (a)
2. Positiveseqtience components, consisting of three phasors with equal
magnitudes, +120 phase displacement, and positive sequence, as in
Figure 8.1 (b)
Resolving phase voltages
into three sets of f f f
sequence components
(a) Zercsequence
components
Phase a
(b) Positivesequence (c) Negativesequence
components components
Phase b Phase c
358 CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
TABLE 8.1
Common identities
involving a = I/ 120"
3. Neyutiocseyzrence components, consisting of three phasors with
equal magnitudes, *120 phase displacement, and negative sequence,
as in Figure 8.1 (c)
In this text we will work only with the zero, positive, and negative
sequence components of phase a, which are Go, &, and G2, respectively.
For simplicity, we drop the subscript a and denote these sequence compo
nents as Vo, fi , and V2. Thcy are defined by the following transformation:
where
Writing (8.1.1) as three separate equations:
In (8.1.2), a is a complex number with unit magnitude and a 120" phase
angle. When any phasor is multiplied by a, that phasor rotates by 120" (coun
terclockwise). Similarly, when any phasor is multiplied by a2 = (1/120).
(1/120) = 1/240, the phasor rotates by 240". Table 8.1 lists some common
identities involving a.
The complex number a is similar to the wellknown complex number
j = a = 1/90". Thus the only difference between j and a is that the angle
of j is 90") and that of a is 120".
Equation (8.1.1) can be rewritten more compactly using matrix nota
tion. We define the following vectors V, and V,, and matrix A:
SECTION 8.1 DEFINITION OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
V, is the column vector of phase voltages, V, is the column vector of sequence
voltages, and A is a 3 x 3 transformation matrix. Using these definitions,
(8.1.1) becomes
I $ =AK (8.1.9)
The inverse of the A matrix is
Equation (8.1.10) can be verified by showing that the product AA' is the
unit matrix. Also, premultiplying (8.1.9) by A' gives
v , = A  ~ v ~
Using (8.1.6), (8.1.7), and (8.1.10), then (8.1.11) becomes
Writing (8.1.12) as three separate equations,
vo = +(Va + Vb + K,)
f i = $( G + avb + a ' ~ , )
~2 = $ ( Va + n 2 v s + o ~ )
Equation (8.1.13) shows that there is no zerosequence voltage in a balanced
threephase system because the sum of three balanced phasors is zero.
In an unbalanced threephase system, linetoneutral voltages may have a
zerosequence component. However, linetoline voltages never have a zero
sequence component, since by KVL their sum is always zero.
The symmetrical component transformation can also be applied to cur
rents, as follows. Let
where Zp is a vector of phase currents,
ZP = [ f ]
and I, is a vector of sequence currents,
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
Also,
I~ = A'I, (8.1.19)
Equations (8.1.16) and (8.1.19) can be written as separate equations as fol
lows. The phase currents are
I, = I 0 + I1 + I 2
Ib = IO + a211 + u12
I, = lo + uI, + u212
and the sequence currents are
I 0 = 3(4 + I b + Ic)
Il = $(I, + aIb + a21,)
I2 = $(I, + a21r, + ul,.)
In a threephase Yconnected system, the neutral current I,, is the sum of the
line currents:
4, = 1, + Ib + IC
(8.1.26)
Comparing (8.1.26) and (8.1.23),
In = 310 (8.1.27)
The neutral current equals three times the zerosequence current. In a bal
anced Yconnected system, line currents have no zero sequence component,
since the neutral current is zero. Also, in any threephase system with no neu
tral path, such as a Aconnected system or a threewire Yconnected system
with an ungrounded neutral, line currents have no zerosequence component.
The following three examples further illustrate symmetrical compo
nents.
EXAMPLE 8.1 Sequence components: balanced linetoneutral voltages
Calculate the sequence components of the following balanced linetoneutral
voltages with abc sequence:
'.nl = [ 2 7 7 D 1
6 = Vbrr 277/  120" volts
SOLUTION Using (8.1.13)(8.1.15):
Vo = $[277/0" + 2771  1 20" + 277/ + 120] = 0
= f [277/0" + 2771 ( 120" + 120") + 277/ (120" + 240)]
= 2 7 7 m volts = V,,,
SECTION 8.1 DEFINITION OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
This example illustrates the fact that balanced threephase systems
with abc sequence (or positive sequence) have no zerosequence or negative
sequence components. For this example, the positivesequence voltage Vl
equals V,,, and the zerosequence and negativesequence voltages are both
zero. H
EXAMPLE 8.2 Seauence com~onents: balanced acb currents
A Yconnected load has balanced currents with acb sequence given by
Calculate the sequence currents.
SOLUTION Using (8.1 23)(8.1.25):
This example illustrates the fact that balanced threephase systems with acb
sequence (or negative sequence) have no zerosequence or positivesequence
components. For this example the negativesequence current I2 equals I,, and
the zerosequence and positivesequence currents are both zero.
EXAMPLE 8.3 Sequence components: unbalanced currents
A threephase line feeding a balancedY load has one of its phases (phase b)
open. The load neutral is grounded, and the unbalanced line currents are
I,) = Ib = 0
[ : I [Z,] A
Calculate the sequence currents and the neutral current.
SOLUTION The circuit is shown in Figure 8.2. Using (8.1.23)(8.1.25):
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.2  I, = I O@
a
Circuit for Example 8.3
 1, = 1ofl20"
c 1
Using (8.1.26) the neutral current is
I,, = (low + 0 + lO/ 120)
= lo@ A = 310
This example illustrates the fact that unbalarzced threephase systems may
have nonzero values for all sequence components. Also, the neutral current
equals three times the zerosequence current, as given by (8.1.27). 1
SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF IMPEDANCE LOADS
Figure 8.3 shows a balancedY impedance load. The impedance of each
phase is designated Zy, and a neutral impedance Z,, is connected between the
load neutral and ground. Note from Figure 8.3 that the linetoground volt
age V,, is
v,, = ZY I, + I,,
= ZyIa + Zn(Ia + Ib + I,)
= (zy + Zn) Ia + 211I6 + Z11k
Similar equations can be written for V6, and V,:
SECTION 8.2 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF IMPEDANCE LOADS 363
FIGURE 8.3 a
+
BalancedY impedance
load

9
 
Equations (8.2.1)(8.2.3) can be rewritten in matrix format:
Equation (8.2.4) is written more con~pactly as
where 5 is the vector of linetoground voltages (or phase voltages), Zp is the
vector of line currents (or phase currents), and Z, is the 3 x 3 phase imped
ance matrix shown in (8.2.4). Equations (8.1.9) and (8.1.16) can now be used
in (8.2.5) to determine the relationship between the sequence voltages and
currents, as follows:
AV, = Z,AI,
Premultiplying both sides of (8.2.6) of A' gives
V, = ( A ~z , >A) I ,
where
The impeclance matrix 2, defined by (8.2.9) is called the scqsrence
iinpelicrilce matrix. Using the definition of A, its inverse A I , and 2, given
by (8.1.8), (8.1.10), and (8.2.4), the sequence impedance matrix 2, for the
364 CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS 5
balancedY load is
Performing the indicated matrix xnultiplications in (8.2.10), and using the
identity (1 + a + a2) = 0,
As shown in (8.2.1 I ) , the sequence impedance matrix 2, for the balancedY
load of Figure 8.3 is a diagonal matrix. Since ZT is diagonal, (8.2.8) can be
written as three uncoupled equations. Using (8.1.7), (8.1.18), and (8.2.1 1) in
(8.2.8),
Rewriting (8.2.12) as three separate equations,
As shown in (8.2.13), the zerosequence voltage Vo depends only on the
zerosequence current I. and the impedance (Zy + 32,). This impedance is
called the zerosequence ir?~pedance and is designated Zo. Also, the positive
sequence voltage Vl depends only on the positivesequence current I I and an
impedance 21 = Zy called the positivesequence impedance. Similarly, V2 de
pends only on 12 and the negativesequence itnpedunce Z2 = Zy.
Equations (8.2.13)(8.2.15) can be represented by the three networks
shown in Figure 8.4. These networks are called the zerosequence, positive
sequence, and negativesequerzce networks. As shown, each sequence network
SECTION 8.2 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF IMPEDANCE LOADS
FIGURE 8.4 ;  lo
Sequence networks of a ZY
balancedY load
3Zn
 Zerosequence network
 Positivesequence network 2
 Negativesequence network
is separate, uncoupled from the other two. The separation of these sequence
networks is a consequence of the fact that Z, is a diagonal matrix for a
balancedY load. This separation underlies the advantage of symmetrical
components.
Note that the neutral impedance does not appear in the positive and
negativesequence networks of Figure 8.4. This illustrates the fact that
positive and negativesequence currents do not flow in neutral impedances.
However, the neutral impedance is multiplied by 3 and placed in the zero
sequence network of the figure. The voltage I o( 3Zn) across the impedance
3 2 , is the voltage drop (I,Z,) across the neutral impedance 2, in Figure 8.3,
since I, = 3 10.
When the neutral of the Y load in Figure 8.3 has no return path, then
the neutral impedance 2, is infinite and the term 3 2 , in the zerosequence
network of Figure 8.4 becomes an open circuit. Under this condition of an
open neutral, no zerosequence current exists. However, when the neutral of
the Y load is solidly grounded with a zeroohm conductor, then the neutral
impedance is zero and the term 3 2 , in the zerosequence network becomes
a short circuit. Under this condition of a solidly grounded neutral, zero
sequence current lo can exist when there is a zerosequence voltage caused by
unbalanced voltages applied to the load.
Figure 2.15 shows a balancedA load and its equivalent balancedY
load. Since the A load has no neutral connection, the equivalent Y load in
Figure 2,15 has an open neutral, The sequence networks of the equivalent Y
load corresponding to a balancedA load are shown in Figure 8.5. As shown,
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.5
+  I , , =O
Sequence networks for
an equivalent Y
representation of a
vo
balancedA load
 Zerosequence network .
 Positivesequence network
a
 Negativesequence network
the equivalent Y impedance Zy = ZA/3 appears in each of the sequence net
works. Also, the zerosequence network has an open circuit, since 2, = oo
corresponds to an open neutral. No zerosequence current occurs in the equiv
alent Y load.
The sequence networks of Figure 8.5 represent the balancedA load as
viewed from its terminals, but they do not represent the internal load charac
teristics. The currents Io, I, , and I2 in Figure 8.5 are the sequence compo
nents of the line currents feeding the A load, not the load currents within the
A. The A load currents, which are related to the line currents by (2.5.14), are
not shown in Figure 8.5.
EXAMPLE 8.4 Sequence networks: balancedY and balancedA loads
A balancedY load is in parallel with a balancedAconnected capacitor bank.
The Y load has an impedance Zy = (3 + j4) !2 per phase, and its neutral is
grounded through an inductive reactance X, = 2 Q. The capacitor bank has
a reactance X, = 30 S1 per phase. Draw the sequence networks for this load
and calculate the loadsequence impedances.
SOLUTION The sequence networks are shown in Figure 8.6. As shown, the
Yload impedance in the zerosequence network is in series with three times
the neutral impedance. Also, the Aload branch in the zerosequence network
is open, since no zerosequence current flows into the A load. In the positive
SECTION 8.2 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF IMPEDANCE LOADS
' I  1 . 3 0
1 7 0 Z, = (3 + j4)ll(j10)
= 7.454/26.57" fl
 Positivesequence network
v2
Z, = Z, = 7.454126.57" R
 Negativesequence network
and negativesequence circuits, the Aload impedance is divided by 3 and
placed in parallel with the Yload impedance. The equivalent sequence im
pedances are
Zo =Zy +3 Zn =3 +j 4 +3 ( j 2 ) =3 +j 1 0 LR
Figure 8.7 shows a general threephase linear impedance load. The load
could represent a balanced load such as the balancedY or balancedA load,
or an unbalanced impedance load. The general relationship between the line
toground voltages and line currents for this load can be written as
368 CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.7 4 
General threephase
Threephase
bilateral network, ~mpedance
nonrotating equipment)
where V, is the vector of linetoneutral (or phase) voltages, I, is the vector
of line (or phase) currents, and ZIJ is a 3 x 3 phase impedance matrix. It is
assumed here that the load is nonrotating, and that Z, is a symmetric matrix,
which corresponds to a bilateral network.
Since (8.2.17) has the same form as (8.2.5), the relationship between the
sequence voltages and currents for the general threephase load of Figure 8.6
is the same as that of (8.2.8) and (8.2.9), which are rewritten here:
The sequence impedance matrix ZS given by (8.2.19) is a 3 x 3 matrix with
nine sequence impedances, defined as follows:
The diagonal impedances Zo, ZI, and Z2 in this matrix are the self
impedances of the zero, positive, and negativesequence networks. The off
diagonal impedances are the mutual impedances between sequence networks.
Using the definitions of A, A ' , Z,, and Zr, (8.2.19) is
Performing the indicated multiplications in (8.2.21), and using the identity
(1 +a + a2) = 0, the following separate equations can be obtained (see Prob
lem 8.14):
SECTION 8.2 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF IMPEDANCE LOADS
Diagonal sequence impedances
Offdiagonal sequence impedances
A syn~rnetrical load is defined as a load whose sequence impedance
matrix is diagonal; that is, all the mutual impedances in (8.2.24)(8.2.27) are
zero. Equating these mutual impedances to zero and solving, the following
conditions for a syn~metrical load are determined. When both
and
then
Z," = Zbb = Zc,
conditions for a
symmetrical load
Z n b = Znc = Zbc
The conditions for a symmetrical load are that the diagonal phase
impedances be equal and that the offdiagonal phase impedances be equal.
These conditions can be verified by using (8.2.28) and (8.2.29) with the iden
tity (1 + a +a" = 0 in (8.2.24)(8.2.27) to show that all the mutual sequence
impedances are zero. Note that the positive and negativesequence im
pedances are equal for a symmetrical load, as shown by (8.2.32), and for a
nonsymmetrical load, as shown by (8.2.23). This is always true for linear,
symmetric impedances that represent nonrotating equipment such as trans
formers and transmission lines. However, the positive and negativesequence
impedances of rotating equipment such as generators and motors are gener
ally not equal. Note also that the zerosequence impedance Zo is not equal to
the positive and negativesequence impedances of a symmetrical load unless
the mutual phase impedances Zflh = Z,, = Zbc are zero.
The sequence networks of a symmetrical impedance load are shown
in Figure 8.8. Since the sequence impedance matrix 2, is diagonal for a sym
metrical load, the sequence networks are separate or uncoupled.
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.8 ;
b I
Sequence networks of a
threephase symmetrical
Zo = Z,, + 2Za,
impedance load (linear,
bilateral network,
nonrotating equipment)
 Positivesequence network
t
Negativesequence network
A
SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF SERIES IMPEDANCES 1
i
i
Figure 8.9 shows series impedances connected between two threephase buses i
denoted ubc and a'b'c'. Selfimpedances of each phase are denoted Zoo, 2bb,
and Z,,. In general, the series network may also have mutual impedances be
tween phases. The voltage drops across the seriesphase impedances are given (
FIGURE 8.9
 la + Vaa.

Threephase series a
a'
impcr lances (linear, +
zaa
+
bi la teral network, A 1, + Vcc. 
nonrota ti ng equipment) Van c c' Va,,
+ zcc +
SECTION 8.3 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF SERIES IMPEDANCES
Both selfimpedances and mutual impedances are included in (8.3.1). It
is assumed that the impedance matrix is symmetric, which corresponds to a
bilateral network. It is also assumed that these impedances represent non
rotating equipment. Typical examples are series impedances of transmission
lines and of transfo~mers. Equation (8.3.1) has the following form:
where 5 is the vector of linetoneutral voltages at bus abc, 61 is the vector
of linetoneutral voltages at bus a'b'c', Ip is the vector of line currents, and
Zp is the 3 x 3 phase impedance matrix for the series network. Equation
(8.3.2) is now transformed to the sequence domain in the same manner that
the loadphase impedances were transformed in Section 8.2. Thus,
where
From the results of Section 8.2, this sequence impedance Z, matrix is diago
nal under the following conditions:
and
Z~lu = Z b b = Z c c
) conditions for
) symmetrical
series impedances
z& = zoc = zhc J
When the phase impedance matrix Zp of (8.3.1) has both equal self
impedances and equal mutual impedances, then (8.3.4) becomes
where
and
and (8.3.3) becomes three uncoupled equations, written as follows:
V"  V"1 = zero
V,  V, I = Z, l]
v2  IJ2/ = Z112
Equations (8.3.9)(8.3.11) are represented by the three uncoupled
sequence networks shown in Figure 8.10. From the figure it is apparent
that for symn~etrical series impedances, positivesequence currents produce
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.10  I. Zo = Z,, + 2Z,,
Sequence networks of + +
threephase symmetrical  "0
Zerosequence network
vo.

series impedances
network, nonrotating  1,
equipment)
+ +
Vl
 Positivesequence network
VI

v2
 Negativesequence network
v2.

only positivesequence voltage drops. Similarly, negativesequence currents
produce only negativesequence voltage drops, and zerosequence currents
produce only zerosequence voltage drops. However, if the series impedances
are not symmetrical, then Z, is not diagonal, the sequence networks are
coupled, and the voltage drop across any one sequence network depends on
all three sequence currents.
SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF THREEPHASE LINES
Section 4.7 develops equations suitable for computer calculation of the series
phase impedances, including resistances and inductive reactances, of three
phase overhead transmission lines. The series phase impedance matrix Z p for
an untransposed line is given by Equation (4.7.19), and 2 p for a completely
transposed line is given by (4.7.21)(4.7.23). Equation (4.7.19) can be trans
formed to the sequence domain to obtain
Zs is the 3 x 3 series sequence impedance matrix whose elements are
In general Zs is not diagonal. However, if the line is completely trans
posed,
SECTION 8.4 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF THREEPHASE LINES 373
where, from (8.3.7) and (8.3.8))
A circuit representation of the series sequence impedances of a completely
transposed threephase line is shown in Figure 8.1 1.
Section 4.11 develops equations suitable for computer calculation of
the shunt phase admittances of threephase overhead transmission lines. The
shunt admittance matrix Yp for an untransposed line is given by Equation
(4.1 1.16)) and for a completely transposed threephase line is given by
(4.1 1.17).
Equation (4.1 1.16) can be transformed to the sequence domain to
obtain
where
In general, Cs is not diagonal. However, for the completely transposed line,
FIGURE 8.1 1
' 0
2 3
Circuit representation of +  +
the series sequence
impedances of a
Eo
zero sequence
Ew

completely transposed  O
threephase line
'1 21
+(' 
El
positive sequence
El *
 
2
negative sequence
2.
 
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.12
Cab
Circuit representations
of the c;tpacitances of a
completely transposed
threephase line
a c
(a) Phase domain
where
C, = C, , k 2Cob F/m
c = c = C ,  ,
F/m
(b) Sequence domain
Since c a b is negative, the zerosequence capacitance eo is usually much less
than the positive or negativesequence capacitance.
Circuit representations of the phase and sequence capacitances of a
completely transposed threephase line are shown in Figure 8.12.
SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF ROTATING MACHINES
A Yconnected synchronous generator grounded through a neutral impedance
2, is shown in Figure 8.13. The internal generator voltages are designated E,,
Eb, and E,, and the generator line currents are designated I,, Ib, and I,.
FIGURE 8.13 c
Yconnected
synchronous generator
r
1, 
a
SECTION 8.5 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF ROTATING MACHINES
The sequence networks of the generator are shown in Figure 8.14. Since
a threephase synchronous generator is designed to produce balanced internal
phase voltages E,, Eb, E, with only a positivesequence component, a source
voltage EgI is included only in the positivesequence network. The sequence
components of the linetoground voltages at the generator terminals are de
noted Vo, Vl , and V2 in Figure 8.14.
The voltage drop in the generator neutral impedance is Z,,G, which
can be written as (3ZlI)Io, since, from (8.1.27), the neutral current is three
times the zerosequence current. Since this voltage drop is due only to zero
sequence current, an impedance ( 32, ) is placed in the zerosequence network
of Figure 8.14 in series with the generator zerosequence impedance Z4.
The sequence impedances of rotating machines are generally not equal.
A detailed analysis of machinesequence impedances is given in machine
theory texts. We give only a brief explanation here.
When a synchronous generator stator has balanced threephase positive
sequence currents under steadystate conditions, the net mrnf produced by
these positivesequence currents rotates at the synchronous rotor speed in the
same direction as that of the rotor. Under this condition, a high value of mag
netic flux penetrates the rotor, and the positivesequence impedance Zq1 has a
high value. Under steadystate conditions, the positivesequence generator
impedance is called the .sy~~~.hronozu i~npedunce.
When a syncl~ronous generator stator has balanced threephase negative
sequence currents, the net mmf produced by these currents rotates at syn
chronous speed in the direction opposite to that of the rotor. With respect to
t f r emr cq m c n i Ti i s iS TGotstationTrybutrota t G a t t~%e<~<chronous
speed. Under this condition, currents are induced in the rotor windings that
prevent the magnetic flux from penetrating the rotor. As such, the negative
sequence impedance Zq2 is less than the positivesequence synchronous im
pedance.
When a synchronous generator has only zerosequence currents, which
are line (or phase) currents with equal magnitude and phase, then the net
mmf produced by these currents is theoretically zero. The generator zero
sequence impedance Zqo is the smallest sequence impedance and is due to
leakage flux, end turns, and harmonic flux from windings that do not pro
duce a perfectly sinusoidal mmf.
\
Zerosequence network
I
Pos~t~vesequence network
L
Negativesequence network
FIGURE 8.1 4 Sequence networks of a Yconnected synchronous generator
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
Typical values of machinesequcocc impcdanccs arc listccl in Tnblc A.l
in the Appendix. The positivesequence machine impedance is synchronous,
transient, or subtransient. Synchrono~~s impedances are used for steadystate
conditions, such as in powcrflow studies, which are described in Chapter 6.
Trunsient impedances are used for stability studies, which are described in
Chapter 13, and .subtransierzt impedances are used for shortcircuit studies,
which are described in Chapters 7 and 9. Unlike the positivesequence im
pedances, a machine has only one negativesequence impedance and only one
zerosequence impedance.
The sequence networks for threephase synchronous motors and for
threephase induction motors are shown in Figure 8.15. Synchronous motors
have the same sequence networks as synchronous generators, except that the
sequence currents for synchronous motors are referenced iizto rather than out
of the sequence networks. Also, induction motors have the same sequence
networks as synchronous motors, except that the positivesequence voltage
FIGURE 8.15  1
Sequence networks of +   J
threeuhase motors
1
Zerosequence network
Q Em,
I
Positivesequence network
Zerosequence network
Positivesequence network
Negat~vesequence network
(a) Synchronous motor
Negativesequence network
(b) Induction motor
SECTION 8.5 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF ROTATING MACHINES 377
source El,,1 is removed. Induction motors do not have a dc source of mag
netic flux in their rotor circuits, and therefore Em, is zero (or a short circuit).
The sequence networks shown in Figures 8.14 and 8.15 are simplified
networks for rotating machines. The networks do not take into account such
phenomena as machine saliency, saturation effects, and more complicated
transient effects. These simplified networks, however, are in many cases accu
rate enough for power system studies.
EXAMPLE 8.5 Currents in sequence networks
Draw the sequence networks for the circuit of Example 2.5 and calculate the
sequence components of the line current. Assume that the generator neutral
is grounded through an impedance Z,, = j10 R, and that the generator se
quence impedances are Zgo = j 1 R, Zgl = j15 R, and Zg2 = j 3 R.
SOLUTION The sequence networks are shown in Figure 8.16. They are ob
tained by interconnecting the sequence networks for a balancedA load, for
FIGURE 8.16

Sequence networks for
 V'A 
Example 8.5
Z, = j l a
* = loma
32, = j 30 n
d .

Zerosequence network
 

T..
m
+
480
Vl =   /  3 0 ~ ~ l t ~
z
d3
2 = 10/40"n


Positivesequence network
Negativesequence network
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
seriesline impedances, and for a synchronous generator, which are given i n
Figures 8.5, 8.10, and 8.14.
It is clear from Figure 8.16 that I. = I2 = 0 since there are no sources
in the zero and negativesequence networks. Also, the positivesequence gen
erator terminal voltage Vl equals the generator linetoneutral terminal volt
age. Therefore, from the positivesequence network shown in the figure and
from the results of Example 2.5,
Note that from (8.1.20), I , equals the line current I,, since lo = I2 = 0.
The following example illustrates the superiority of using symmetrical com
ponents for analyzing unbalanced systems.
EXAMPLE 8.6 Solving unbalanced threephase networks using sequence components 
A Yconnected voltage source with the following unbalanced voltage is ap
plied to the balanced line and load of Example 2.5.
The source neutral is solidly grounded. Using the method of symrnet
rical components, calculate the source currents I,, Ib, and I,.
SOLUTION Using (8.1.13)(8.1.15), the sequence components of the source
voltages are:
Vo = i ( 277N + 260/ 120" + 295/115")
= 7.4425 + j14.065 = 15.912662.1 l o volts
6 = i(227LOq + 260/  120" + 120" + 2951 1 15" + 240" )
= i ( 2 7 7 N + 2 6 0 m + 2 9 5 m )
= 276.96  j8.5703 = 277. I /  1.772" volts
V2 = f (277/00 + 260/  120" + 240" + 295/ 1 15" + 120" )
= 4(277/0" + 2601 120" + 295/235")
= 7.4017  j5.4944 = 9.218/216.59" volts
These sequence voltages are applied to the sequence networks of the
line and load, as shown in Figure 8.17. The sequence networks of this figure
SECTION 8.5 SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF ROTATING MACHINES
FIGURE 8.17
Sequence networks for
Example 8.6
I,, = 0 1/85"R
+ +
l o w n
 V, = 15.91/62.11 
L 

Zerosequence network
1 = 

Positivesequence network
Negativesequence network
are uncoupled, and the sequence components of the source currents are easily
calculated as follows:
lo = 0
Using (8.1.20)(8.1.22), the source currents are:
I, = (0 + 25.82/45.55' + 0.8591/172.81)
= 17.23  j18.32 = 25.15/4676" A
Ib = (0 + 25.82145.55' + 240" + 0.8591/172.81 + 120")
= (25.82/ 194.45" + 0.8591/292.8 1")
= 24.67  j7.235 = 25.71/196.34" A
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
You should calculate the line currents for this example without using
symmetrical con~ponents, in order to verify this result and to compare the
two solution methods (see Problem 8.27). Without symmetrical components,
coupled KVL equations must be solved. With symmetrical components, the
conversion from phase to sequence components decouples the networks as
well as the resulting KVL equations, as shown above.
PERUNIT SEQUENCE MODELS OF THREEPHASE
TWO WI NDI NG TRANSFORMERS
Figure 8.18(a) is a schematic representation of an ideal YY transformer
grounded through neutral impedances ZN and 2,. Figures 8.18(bd) show
the perunit sequence networks of this ideal transformer.
When balanced positivesequence currents or balanced negative
sequence currents are applied to the transformer, the neutral currents are zero
and there are no voltage drops across the neutral impedances. Therefore, the
perunit positive and negativesequence networks of the ideal YY trans
former, Figures 8.18(b) and (c), are the same as the perunit singlephase
ideal transformer, Figure 3.9(a).
Zerosequence currents have equal magnitudes and equal phase angles.
When perunit sequence currents IAO = IBO = ICO = IO are applied to the high
voltage windings of an ideal YY transformer, the neutral current IN = 310
flows through the neutral impedance ZN, with a voltage drop (3ZN)Io. Also,
perunit zerosequence current I. flows in each lowvoltage winding [from
(3.3.9)], and therefore 310 flows through neutral impedance Z,, with a voltage
drop (310)Zn. The perunit zerosequence network, which includes the im
pedances (3zN) and (32,), is shown in Figure 8.18(b).
Note that if either one of the neutrals of an ideal transformer is un
grounded, then no zero sequence can flow in either the high or lowvoltage
windings. For example, if the highvoltage winding has an open neutral, then i
IN = 310 = 0, which in turn forces I. = 0 on the lowvoltage side. This can be
shown in the zerosequence network of Figure 8.18(b) by making ZN = co, 1
I
which corresponds to an open circuit.
The perunit sequence networks of a practical YY transformer are
shown in Figure 8.19(a). These networks are obtained by adding external im
pedances to the sequence networks of the ideal transformer, as follows. The
leakage impedances of the highvoltage windings are series impedances like
FIGURE 8.1 8
deal YY transformer
SECTION 8.6 THREEPHASE TWOWINDING TRANSFORMERS 38 1
(a) Schematic representation
(b) Perunit zerosequence network
(c) Perun~t positivesequence network

(d) Perunit negativesequence network
:i
the series impedandes shown in Figure 8.9, with no coupling between phases
(Znb = 0). If the phase a, 6, and c windings have equal leakage impedances
ZH = RH + jXH, then the series impedances are symmetrical with sequence
networks, as shown in Figure 8.10, where ZHO = ZHI = ZH2 = ZH. Similarly,
the leakage impedances of the lowvoltage windings are symmetrical series
impedances with Zxo = Zxl = 2x2 = ZX. These series leakage impedances
are shown in perunit in the sequence networks of Figure 8.19(a).
The shunt branches of the practical YY transformer, which represent
exciting current, are equivalent to the Y load of Figure 8.3. Each phase in
Figure 8.3 represents a core loss resistor in parallel with a magnetizing induc
tance. Assuming these are the same for each phase, then the Y load is sym
n~etrical, and the sequence networks are shown in Figure 8.4. These shunt
382 CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
(a) YY (b) YA (c) AA
FIGURE 8.1 9 Perunit sequence networks of practical YY, YA, and AA transformers
Singleline diagram
Schematic
perunit
zerosequence
network
Perunit
positivesequence
network
Perunit
negativesequence
network
branches are also shown in Figure 8.19(a). Note that ( 3 2 ~ ) and (32,) have
already been included in the zerosequence network.
The perunit positive and negativesequence transformer. impedances of
the practical YY transformer in Figure 8.19(a) are identical, which is always
true for nonrotating equipment. The perunit zerosequence network, how
ever, depends on the neutral impedances ZN and Z,,.
+E
f ' i ,
*)fk;keJ?!J
H2

X2

 
?To
VHo
 
V,,
;T;
 
V,,
:T;  
+E
r "
X2
H 2
 
!T vi



elw : 1
 
61 : 1
+
n A
*A x:f4
H2 HI
!OjTjl !o

 
."rf$')(".F;  
SECTION 8.6 THREEPHASE TWOWINDING TRANSFORMERS 383
The perunit sequence networks of the YA transformer, shown in Fig
ure 8.19(b), have the following features:
1. The perunit impedances do not depend on the winding connections.
That is, the perunit impedances of a transformer that is connected
YY, YA, AY, or AA are the same. However, the base voltages
do depend on the winding connections.
2. A phase shift is included in the perunit positive and negative
sequence networks. For the American standard, the positivesequence
voltages and currents on the highvoltage side of the YA trans
former lead the corresponding quantities on the lowvoltage side by
30". For negative sequence, the highvoltage quantities lag by 30".
3. Zerosequence currents can flow in the Y winding if there is a neutral
connection, and corresponding zerosequence currents flow within
the A winding. However, no zerosequence current enters or leaves
the A winding.
The phase shifts in the positive and negativesequence networks of
Figure 8.19(b) are represented by the phaseshifting transformer of Figure
3.4. Also, the zerosequence network of Figure 8.19(b) provides a path on the
Y side for zerosequence current to flow, but no zerosequence current can
enter or leave the A side.
The perunit sequence networks of the AA transformer, shown in Fig
ure 8.19(c), have the following features:
1. The positive and negativesequence networks, which are identical,
are the same as those for the YY transformer. It is assumed that the
windings are labeled so there is no phase shift. Also, the perunit im
pedances do not depend on the winding connections, but the base
voltages do.
2. Zerosequence currents connot enter or leave either A winding, al
though they can circulate within the A windings.
EXAMPLE 8.7 Solving unbalanced threephase networks with transformers
using perunit sequence components
A 75kVA, 480volt A/208volt Y transformer with a solidly grounded neutral
is connected between the source and line of Example 8.6. The transformer
leakage reactance is X,, = 0.10 per unit; winding resistances and exciting
current are neglected. Using the transformer ratings as base quantities, draw
the perunit sequence networks and calculate the phase a source current I,.
SOLUTION The base quantities are Sbaselb = 75/3 = 25 kVA, VbaseHLN =
480/ fi = 277.1 volts, VhaxXLN = 208/ J 3 = 120.1 volts, and ZbaSeX =
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
(120.1)2/25,000 = 0.5770 52. The sequence components of the actual source
voltages are given in Figure 8.17. In perunit, these voltages arc
Vo = 15'91m = 0.05742/62.1 l o per unit
277.1
V2 = 9'218w = 0.03327/216.59" per unit
277.1
The perunit line and load impedances, which are located on the lowvoltage
side of the transformer, are
l/sso
ZLO = ZLI = Z L ~ =  = 1 . 7 3 3 m per unit
0.577
z~  l o w
Zloadl = Zload2 =
3(0.577)  0.577
= 17.33/40" per unit
The perunit sequence networks are shown in Figure 8.20. Note that the per
unit line and load impedances, when referred to the highvoltage side of the
phaseshifting transformer, do not change (see (3.1.26)). Therefore, from Fig
ure 8.20, the sequence components of the source currents are
I2 =
v2 

0.03327/216.59'
jXeq + Z L ~ + Zload2
18.67/44.0
= 0.001782/ 172.59' per unit
The phase a source current is then, using (8.1.20).
I, = I0 + I1 + I2
= 0 + 0.05356/.45.77' + 0.001782/172.59'
= 0.0351 1  j0.03764 = 0.05216/46.19' per unit
SECTION 8.7 THREEPHASE THREEWINDING TRANSFORMERS
FIGURE 8.20
Perunit sequence
networks for Example
8.7
(a) Perunit zerosequence network
(b) Perunit positivesequence network
(c) Perunit negativesequence network
PERUNIT SEQUENCE MODELS OF THREEPHASE
THREE WI NDI NG TRANSFORMERS
Three identical singlephase threewinding transformers can be connected
to form a threephase bank. Figure 8.21 shows the general perunit sequence
networks of a threephase threewinding transformer. Instead of labeling the
windings 1, 2, and 3, as was done for the singlephase transformer, the letters
H, M, and X are used to denote the high, medium, and lowvoltage wind
ings, respectively. By convention, a common Sbase is selected for the H, M,
and X terminals, and voltage bases VbaseH, VbaseM, and IfbaseX are selected in
proportion to the rated linetoline voltages of the transformer.
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.21
Perunit sequence Itlo 4.4  
H H' ZH
networks of a three 7
+
phase threewinding +
transformer
VHO

(a) Perunit zerosequence network
(b) Perunit positive or negativesequence network
(phase shift not shown)
For the general zerosequence network, Figure 8.21(a), the connection
between terminals H and H' depends on how the highvoltage windings are
connected, as follows:
1. Solidly grounded YShort H to H'.
2. Grounded Y through ZNConnect ( 3ZN) from H to HI.
3. Ungrounded YLeave HH' open as shown.
4. AShort HI to the reference bus.
Terminals XX' and MM' are connected in a similar manner.
The impedances of the perunit negativesequence network are the same
as those of the perunit positivesequence network, which is always true for
nonrotating equipment. Phaseshifting transformers, not shown in Figure
8.21(b), can be included to model phase shift between A and Y windings.
EXAMPLE 8.8 Threewinding threephase transformer: perunit sequence networks
Three transformers, each identical to that described in Example 3.9, are
connected as a threephase bank in order to feed power from a 900MVA,
13.8kV generator to a 345kV transmission line and to a 34.5kV distribu
SECTION 8.7 THREEPHASE THREEWINDING TRANSFORMERS
tion line. The transformer windings are connected as follows:
13.8kV windings (X): A, to generator
199.2kV windings (H): solidly grounded Y, to 345kV line
19.92kV windings (M): grounded Y through 2, = jO.10 0,
to 34.5kV line
The positivesequence voltages and currents of the high and mediumvoltage
Y windings lead the corresponding quantities of the lowvoltage A winding
by 30". Draw the perunit sequence networks, using a threephase base of
900 MVA and 13.8 kV for terminal X.
SOLUTION The perunit sequence networks are shown in Figure 8.22. Since
VbaseX = 13.8 kV is the rated linetoline voltage of terminal X, VbaseM =
FIGURE 8.22
10.01
H' H
Perunit sequence
8.8
networks for Example +
vxo
(a) Zero sequence
(b) Positive sequence
' J
10.1 1
+
10.85
VHZ
Vx z
+
 v ~ 2 
Q
e*130. : 1
(c) Negative sequence
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
fi(19.92) = 34.5 kV, which is the rated linetoline voltage of terminal M. 1
The base impedancc of the mcdiumvoltage terminal is then
Therefore, the perunit neutral impedance is
jO.10
2, == j0.07561 per unit
1.3225
and (32,) = j0.2268 is connected from terminal M to M' in the perunit zero
sequence network. Since the highvoltage windings have a solidly grounded
neutral, H to H' is shorted in the zerosequence network. Also, phaseshifting
transformers are included in the positive and negativesequence networks.
. ':
POWER IN SEQUENCE NETWORKS
The power delivered to a threephase network can be determined from the :
power delivered to the sequence networks. Let Sp denote the total complex f
I
power delivered to the threephase load of Figure 8.7, which can be calcu ,+
lated from !
Equation (8.8.1) is also valid for the total complex power delivered by
the threephase generator of Figure 8.13, or for the complex power delivered
to any threephase bus. Rewriting (8.8.1) in matrix format,
where T denotes transpose and * denotes complex conjugate. Now, using
(8.1.9) and (8.1.16),
Using the definition of A, which is (8.1.8), to calculate the term within the
brackets of (8.8.3), and noting that a and a* are conjugates,
SECTION 8.8 POWER I N SEQUENCE NETWORKS 389
Equation (8.8.4) can now be used in (8.8.3) to obtain
s, = 3 cT I,*
Thus, the total complex power Sp delivered to a threephase network equals
three times the total complex power S, delivered to the sequence networks.
The factor of 3 occurs in (8.8.6) because A ~ A * = 3U, as shown by
(8.8.4). It is possible to eliminate this factor of 3 by defining a new transfor
mation matrix A, = ( 1 1 6 ) ~ such that ATA; = U, which means that A1 is a
tlilirary matrix. Using Al instead of A, the total complex power delivered to
threephase networks would equal the total complex power delivered to the
sequence networks. However, standard industry practice for symmetrical
components is to use A, defined by (8.1.8).
EXAMPLE 8.9 Power in sequence networks
Calculate Sp and Ss delivered by the threephase source in Example 8.6.
Verify that S, = 3Ss.
SOLUTION Using (8.5. I),
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
In the sequence domain,
s, = v,I; + 61; + V2I;
= 0 + (277.1/1.77")(25.82/45.55")
+ (9.218/216.59)(0.8591/172.810)
= 7155/43.78" + 7.919/43.78"
= 5172 + j4958 = 7163143.78" V A
Also ,
3S, = 3(7163/43.78") = 21,490/43.78" = S,
P R O B L E M S
SECTION 8.1
8.1 Using the operator a = 1/120", evaluate the following in polar form: (a) (a + 1)/
(1 + a  a2), (b) (a2 f a + j ) / ( j a  a2), (c) (1  a)(l + a2), (d) (a + a2)(a2 + 1).
8.2 Using a = 1/ 120, evaluate the following in rectangular form:
a. aI0
b. (j a)"
c. (1  a) 3
Hint for (d): e("+i)') = e"ejY = eSD, where y is in radians.
8.3
Determine the symmetrical components of the following line currents: (a) I, = lo&,
I b = 10/340, Ic = 10/200 A; (b) I, = 100, Ib = j100, I, = O A.
8.4 Find the phase voltages V,,, Vbn, and V, whose sequence components are:
Vo = 2 0 m , Vj = l oOD, V2 = 301 180' V.
8.5 One line of a threephase generator is open circuited, while the other two are
shortcircuited to ground. The line currents are I, = 0, Ib = 1500&, and I, =
1500/3W A. Find the symmetrical components of these currents. Also find the
current into the ground.
8.6 Given the linetoground voltages Kg = 280/, bg = 2901  13W, and V, = 260/110"
volts, calculate (a) the sequence components of the linetoground voltages, denoted
VL~O, VLgl, and VLg2; (b) linetoline voltages T/ab, Vbc, and K,; and (c) sequence com
ponents of the linetoline voltages VLLO, VLLI, and VLL2. Also, verify the following
general relation: VLLo = 0, VLLl = f i ~ ~ ~ ~ / + 3 0 ~ , and VLL2 = \/5vLg2/300 volts.
8.7 A balanced Aconnected load is fed by a threephase supply for which phase C is open
and phase A is carrying a current of 10/0" A. Find the symmetrical components of
the line currents. (Note that zerosequence currents are not present for any threewire ,
system.) i
8.8 A Yconnected load bank with a threephase rating of 500 kVA and 2300 V consists
of three identical resistors of 10.58 Q. The load bank has the following applied
PROBLEMS
voltages: Vab = 1860/82.8O, Vbc = 2760/41.4', and V, = 23006 180' V. Determine
the symmetrical components of (a) the linetoline voltages VabO, Vabl, and (b) the
linetoneutral voltages Vane, Vanl, and Van2; (c) and the line currents I,o, I a l , and Za2.
(Note that the absence of a neutral connection means that zerosequence currents are
not present.)
SECTION 8.2
8.9 The currents in a A load are IOb = l o , &' , Ib, = 201 9P, and I, = 1 5 f l A. Calcu
late (a) the sequence components of the Aload currents, denoted IAO, I*,, IM; (b) the
line currents I,, Ib, and I,, which feed the A load; and (c) sequence components of the
line currents ILO, IL), and IL2. Also, verify the following general relation: IJJ = 0,
1 ~ 1 = fi1~1/300, and IL2 = fi 1~~/ +300 A.
8.10 The voltages given in Problem 8.6 are applied to a balancedY load consisting of
(6 + j8) ohms per phase. The load neutral is solidly grounded. Draw the sequence
networks and calculate lo, 11, and 12, the sequence components of the line currents.
Then calculate the line currents I,, Zb, and I,.
8.1 I Repeat Problem 8.10 with the load neutral open.
8.12 Repeat Problem 8.10 for a balancedA load consisting of (12 + j16) ohms per phase.
8.13 Repeat Problem 8.10 for the load shown in Example 8.4 (Figure 8.6).
8.14 Perform the indicated matrix multiplications in (8.2.21) and verify the sequence im
pedances given by (8.2.22)(8.2.27).
8.15 The following unbalanced linetoground voltages are applied to the balancedY load
shown in Figure 3.3: Kg = loo&, Vbg = 75/1800, and V, = 5 0 m volts. The Y
load has Zy = 3 + j 4 R per phase with neutral impedance Z, = jl R. (a) Calculate
the line currents I,, Ib, and I, without using symmetrical components. (b) Calculate
the line currents I,, Ib, and I, using symmetrical components. Which method is easier?
8.16 The threephase impedance load shown in Figure 8.7 has the following phase imped
ance matrix:
Determine the sequence impedance matrix 2, for this load. Is the load symmetrical?
8.17 The threephase impedance load shown in Figure 8.7 has the following sequence im
pedance matrix:
Determine the phase impedance matrix Zp for this load. Is the load symmetrical?
8.18 Consider a threephase balanced Yconnected load with self and mutual impedances
as shown in Figure 8.23. Let the load neutral be grounded through an impedance 2,.
Using Kirchhoff's laws, develop the equations for linetoneutral voltages, and then
determine the elements of the phase impedance matrix. Also find the elements of the
corresponding sequence impedance matrix.
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.23
L
0
Problem 8.18 +
0 L 'Z"
+
va * Z m
L *'
vb :
8.19 A threephase balanced voltage source is applied to a balanced Yconnected load with
ungrounded neutral. The Yconnected load consists of three mutually coupled re
actances, where the reactance of each phase is j12 R and the mutual coupling between
any two phases is j 4 R. The linetoline source voltage is 100 fi V. Determine the
line currents (a) by mesh analysis without using symmetrical components, and (b)
using symmetrical components.
8.20 A threephase balanced Yconnected load with series impedances of (8 + j24) i2
per phase and mutual impedance between any two phases of j 4 R is supplied by
a threephase unbalanced source with linetoneutral voltages of Van = 2 0 0 m ,
Vbn = 100/ 155O, V,, = 801 100 V. The load and source neutrals are both solidly
grounded. Determine: (a) the load sequence impedance matrix, (b) the symmetrical
components of thc linetoneutral voltages, (c) the symmetrical components of the
load currents, and (d) the load currents.
SECTION 8.3
8.2 1 Repeat Problem 8.10 but include balanced threephase line impedances of (3 + j4)
ohms per phase between the source and load.
8.22 Consider the flow of unbalanced currents in the syrnrnetrical threephase line sec
tion with neutral conductor as shown in Figure 8.24. (a) Express the voltage drops
across the line conductors given by Vaaj, Vbbf, and V,, in terms of line currents, self
impedances defined by Z, = Zaa + Znn  2Zan, and mutual impedances defined by
2, = z a b + Z n n  2Zan (b) Show that the sequence components of the voltage drops
between the ends of the line section can be written as Vaalo = ZOlaO, Vaarl = ZIIal ,
and Vaa~2 = Z21a2, where Zo = 2, + 2Zn, = Zaa + 2zab + 3Znn  6Zan and ZI = Z2 =
2 s  =Zaa  Zab.
FIGURE 8.24
Problcrn 8.22
PROBLEMS 393
8.23
Let the terminal voltages at the two ends of the line section shown in Figure 8.24 be
given by:
Van = (1 82 + j70) kV Van# = (154 + j28) kV
Vbn=(72.24j32.62)kV Vbnf=(44.24+j74.62)kV
V,, = (170.24 + j88.62) kV V,,! = (198.24 + j46.62) kV
The line impedances are given by:
Zaa = j60 Q Zab = j20 Q Znn = j80 !2 Zan = 0
(a) Con~pute the line currents using symnletrical components. (Hint: See Problem
8.22.) (b) Compute the line currents without using symmetrical components.
SECTION 8.5
8.24 As shown in Figure 8.25, a balanced threephase, positivesequence source with
VAB = 4 8 0 w volts is applied to an unbalanced A load. Note that one leg of the A is
open. Determine: (a) the load currents IAB and IBC; (b) the line currents IA, IB, and Zc,
which feed the A load; and (c) the zero, positive, and negativesequence components
of the line currents.
FIGURE 8.25
Problem 8.24
8.25 A balanced Yconnected generator with terminal voltage Vb, = 4 8 0 m volts is con
nected to a balancedA load whose impedance is 2 0 E ohms per phase. The line im
pedance between the source and load is 0.5/80" ohm for each phase. The generator
neutral is grounded through an impedance of j 5 ohms. The generator sequence im
pedances are given by Z4 = j7, ZgI = j15, and Zg2 = j10 ohms. Draw the sequence
networks for this system and determine the sequence components of the line currents.
8.26 I11 a threephase system, a synchronous generator supplies power to a 208volt syn
chronous motor through a line having an impedance of 0.5/80" ohm per phase. The
motor draws 10 kW at 0.8 p.f. leading and at rated voltage. The neutrals of both the
generator and motor are grounded through impedances of j 5 ohms. The sequence
impedances of both machines are Zo = 15, ZI = j15, and Z2 = j10 ohms. Draw the
sequence networks for this system and find the linetoline voltage at the generator
terminals. Assume balanced threephase operation.
8.27 Calculatt: the source currents in Example 8.6 without i~sing symmetrical components.
Compare your solution method with that of Example 8.6. Which method is easier?
CHAPTER 8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
8.28 A Yconnected synchronous generator rated 20 MVA at 13.8 kV has a positive
sequence reactance of j2.38 R, negativesequence reactance of j3.33 Q, and zero
sequence reactance of j0.95 R. The generator neutral is solidly grounded. With the
generator operating unloaded at rated voltage, a socalled single linetoground Fault
occurs at the machine terminals. During this fault, the linetoground voltages at the
generator terminals are Va, = 0, Vbg = 8.071/102.25, and V,, = 8.0711 102.25" kV.
Determine the sequence components of the generator fault currents and the generator
fault currents. Draw a phasor diagram of the prefault and postfault generator termi
nal voltages. (Note: For this fault, the sequence components of the generator fault
currents are all equal to each other.)
SECTI ON 8.6
8.29 Three singlephase, twowinding transformers, each rated 450 MVA, 20 kV1288.7 kV,
with leakage reactance X, = 0.12 per unit, are connected to form a threephase bank.
The highvoltage windings are connected in Y with a solidly grounded neutral. Draw
the perunit zero, positive, and negativesequence networks if the lowvoltage wind
ings are connected: (a) in A with American standard phase shift, (b) in Y with an open
neutral. Use the transformer ratings as base quantities. Winding resistances and excit
ing current are neglected.
8.30 The leakage reactance of a threephase, 500MVA, 345 Y/23 AkV transformer is 0.09
per unit based on its own ratings. The Y winding has a solidly grounded neutral.
Draw the sequence networks. Neglect the exciting admittance and assume American
standard phase shift.
8.3 I Choosing system bases to be 360124 kV and 100 MVA, redraw the sequence networks
for Problem 8.30.
8.32 Draw the zerosequence reactance diagram for the power system shown in Figure
3.33. The zerosequence reactance of each generator and of the synchronous motor is
0.05 per unit based on equipment ratings. Generator 2 is grounded through a neutral
reactor of 0.06 per unit on a 100MVA, 18kV base. The zerosequence reactance of
each transmission line is assumed to be three times its positivesequence reactance.
Use the same base as in Problem 3.29.
SECTI ON 8.7
8.33 Draw the positive, negative, and zerosequence circuits for the transformers shown
in Figure 3.31. Include ideal phaseshifting transformers showing phase shifts deter
mined in Problem 3.20. Assume that all windings have the same kVA rating and that
the equivalent leakage reactance of any two windings with the third winding open is
0.10 per unit. Neglect the exciting admittance.
8.34 A singlephase threewinding transformer has the following parameters: ZI = Z2 =
Z3 = 0 + j0.05, Gc = 0, and B,, = 0.2 per unit. Three identical transformers, as de
scribed, are connected with their primaries in Y (solidly grounded neutral) and with
their secondaries and tertiaries in A. Draw the perunit sequence networks of this
transformer bank.
SECTI ON 8.8
8.35 For Problem 8.10, calculate the real and reactive power delivered to the threephase
load.
REFERENCES
8.36 A threephase impedance load consists of a balancedA load in parallel with a
balancedY load. The impedance of each leg of the A load is ZA = 6 + j 6 a, and
the impedance of each leg of the Y load is Zy = 2 + j 2 Q. The Y load is grounded
through a neutral impedance Z,, = j l R. Unbalanced linetoground source volt
ages Vag, Vb,, and V,, with sequence components Vo = 1 0 E , VI = l o o m, and
V2 = 15/200 volts are applied to the load. (a) Draw the zero, positive, and negative
sequence networks. (b) Determine the complex power delivered to each sequence
network. (c) Determine the total complex power delivered to the threephase load.
8.37 For Problem 8.8, compute the power absorbed by the load using syrnnletrical compo
nents. Then verify the answer by computing directly without using symmetrical com
ponents.
8.38 For Problem 8.20, determine the complex power delivered to the load in terms of
symmetrical components. Verify the answer by adding up the complex power of each
of the three phases.
REFERENCES
I. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Applied Protective Relaying (Newark, NJ: West
inghouse, 1976).
2. P. M. Anderson, Analysis of Faulted Pocver Sysfenzs (Ames, IA: Iowa State University
Press, 1973).
3. W. D. Stevenson, Jr., Elements of Poiver System Analysis, 4th ed. (New York:
McGrawHill, 1982).