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# 2/8/11

1
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATIONS
Rectangular/cartesian coordinates:
Rate of heat Input + rate of Generation = rate of heat Output + rate of heat Accumulation
Net transfer of thermal energy into the
control volume (inflow-outflow)
Thermal energy
generation
Change in thermal
energy storage
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATIONS
Cylindrical coordinates:
2/8/11
2
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATIONS
Spherical coordinates:
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
"T
"x
=
k
#c
p
"
2
T
"x
2
+
q
#c
p
= \$
"
2
T
"x
2
+
q
#c
p
conduction in one direction in a solid
!
"T
"x
= #
"
2
T
"x
2
+
"
2
T
"y
2
+
"
2
T
"z
2
\$
%
&
'
(
)
+
q
*c
p
conduction in 3 dimensions:
HEAT TRANSFER DIFFUSION EQUATION
2/8/11
3
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
Cartesian coordinates :
!
1
r
"
"r
r
"T
"r
#
\$
%
&
'
( +
1
r
2
"
2
T
")
2
+
"
2
T
"z
2
+
q
k
=
1
*
"T
"t
!
1
r
2
"
"r
r
2
"T
"r
#
\$
%
&
'
( +
1
r
2
sin)
"
")
sin)
"T
")
*
+
,
-
.
/
+
1
r
2
sin
2
)
"
2
T
"0
2
+
q
k
=
1
1
"T
"t
k = a +bT
Cylindrical coordinates:
Spherical coordinates :
HEAT TRANSFER DIFFUSION EQUATION
= thermal diffusivity
!
"
#
2
T
#x
2
+
#
2
T
#y
2
+
#
2
T
#z
2
\$
%
&
'
(
)
+
q
*c
p
=
#T
#t
!
"
#
2
T
#x
2
+
#
2
T
#y
2
+
#
2
T
#z
2
\$
%
&
'
(
)
+
q
*c
p
=
#T
#t
CCnuuC1lCn: LAnL WALL
Assumption: Uniform cross section area
8oundary Condluon
x = 0 T = T
1
x = L T = T
2
Cne dlmenslonal, sLeady sLaLe & no heaL generauon (Lhermal conducuvlLy = consLanL):
0 0
0
0
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
2/8/11
4
CCnuuC1lCn : LAnL WALL
!
dT
dx
= C
1
1st integration
2nd integration
!
T
x
= C
1
x + C
2
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
CCnuuC1lCn: LAnL WALL
!
T
1
= C
1
(0) + C
2
!
T
2
= C
1
(L) + T1
!
C
1
=
T
2
" T
1
L
8oundary Condluon
x = 0 T = T
1
x = L T = T
2
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
C
2
= T
1
!
T
x
=
T
2
" T
1
L
x + T
1
2/8/11
5
CCnuuC1lCn: LAnL WALL
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
Fouriers law:
CCnuuC1lCn: Work Lxample case 1
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
Consider a large plane wall of thickness L = 0.2 m, thermal conductivity k = 1.2
W/m C, and surface area A = 15 m
2
. The two sides of the wall are maintained
at constant temperatures of T
1
= 120C and T
2
= 50C. Determine
(a) the variation of temperature within the wall and the value of temperature at x
= 0.1 m and
(b) the rate of heat conduction through the wall under steady conditions.
2/8/11
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CCnuuC1lCn: LAnL WALL Wl1P PLA1 CLnL8A1lCn
Cne dlmenslonal-x, sLeady sLaLe wlLh heaL generauon
Assumpuon: unlform cross secuon area, A
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
"
#
2
T
#x
2
+
#
2
T
#y
2
+
#
2
T
#z
2
\$
%
&
'
(
)
+
q
*c
p
=
#T
#t
0
!
" =
k
#c
p
0
0
!
k
"c
p
#
2
T
#x
2
\$
%
&
'
(
)
+
q
"c
p
= 0
!
"
2
T
"x
2
+
q
k
= 0
!
d
2
T
dx
2
+
q
k
= 0
CCnuuC1lCn: LAnL WALL Wl1P PLA1 CLnL8A1lCn
8oundary condluon
8C1.
8C2.
1st integration:
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
d
2
T
dx
2
= "
q
k
!
d
dT
dx
"
#
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
( = )
q
k
( dx
!
d
2
T
dx
2
+
q
k
= 0
!
dT
dx
= "
q
k
x + C1
!
0 = "
q
k
0
( )
+ C1
!
C1 = 0
2/8/11
7
CCnuuC1lCn: LAnL WALL Wl1P PLA1 CLnL8A1lCn
!
dT " = #
q
k
x + C1
\$
%
&
'
(
)
" dx
!
T
x
= "
q
2k
x
2
+ C1 x + C
2
2nd integration
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
T
1
= "
q
2k
L
2
+ 0
( )
L + C
2
!
C
2
=
q
2k
L
2
+ T
1
Temp. Profile:
!
T
x
=
q
2k
L
2
" x
2
( )
+ T
1
!
C1 = 0
8oundary condluon
8C1.
8C2.
CCnuuC1lCn: PCLLCW C?LlnuL8
Lnergy balance equauon:
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
SysLem: Cne dlmenslonal - r, no heaL generauon, sLeady sLaLe
!
1
r
"
"r
r
"T
"r
#
\$
%
&
'
( +
1
r
2
"
2
T
")
2
+
"
2
T
"z
2
+
q
k
=
1
*
"T
"t
!
1
r
"
"r
r
"T
"r
#
\$
%
&
'
( +
1
r
2
"
2
T
")
2
+
"
2
T
"z
2
+
q
k
=
1
*
"T
"t
0 0
0
0
2/8/11
8
CCnuuC1lCn : PCLLCW C?LlnuL8
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
llrsL lnLegrauon:
!
r
dT
dr
= C
1
Second lnLegrauon:
!
T
r
= C
1
ln r + C
2
!
d r
dT
dr
"
#
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
( = 0 ( dr
!
dT " =
C
1
r
" dr
CCnuuC1lCn: PCLLCW C?LlnuL8
Solvlng slmulLaneously glves:
!
C
1
=
T
2
" T
1
ln
r
2
r
1
!
C
2
= T
1
"
T
2
" T
1
ln
r
2
r
1
ln r
1
!
T
r
=
T
2
" T
1
( )
ln
r
2
r
1
(ln r " ln r
1
) + T
1
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
8oundary condluon:
8C1 r = r
1
1 = 1
1

8C2 r = r
2
1 = 1
2

!
T
r
= C
1
ln r + C
2
!
T1 = C
1
ln r1 + C
2
!
T2 = C
1
ln r 2 + C
2
Temp. Profile:
2/8/11
9
CCnuuC1lCn: PCLLCW C?LlnuL8
8aLe of heaL Lransfer across Lhe cyllnder:
rearrange
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
CCnuuC1lCn : Work Lxample 3
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
Consider a steam pipe of length L = 20 m, inner radius r
1
= 6 cm, outer radius r
2
= 8
cm, and thermal conductivity k = 20 W/m ! C. The inner and outer surfaces of the
pipe are maintained at average temperatures of T
1
=150C and T
2
= 60C,
respectively. Obtain a general relation for the temperature distribution inside the
pipe under steady conditions, and determine the rate of heat loss from the steam
through the pipe.
2/8/11
10
CCnuuC1lCn : PCLLCW SPL8L
Lnergy balance for spherlcal sysLem
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
1
r
2
"
"r
r
2
"T
"r
#
\$
%
&
'
( +
1
r
2
sin )
"
")
sin )
"T
")
*
+
,
-
.
/
+
1
r
2
sin
2
)
"
2
T
"0
2
+
q
k
=
1
1
"T
"t
CCnuuC1lCn : PCLLCW SPL8L
0
0
0 0
SysLem: one dlmenslonal - r, no heaL generaLed, sLeady sLaLe
condluon
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
1
r
2
"
"r
r
2
"T
"r
#
\$
%
&
'
( +
1
r
2
sin )
"
")
sin )
"T
")
*
+
,
-
.
/
+
1
r
2
sin
2
)
"
2
T
"0
2
+
q
k
=
1
1
"T
"t
2/8/11
11
CCnuuC1lCn: PCLLCW SPL8L
8oundary condluon:
8C1 r = r
1
1 = 1
1

8C2 r = r
2
1 = 1
2

FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
d r
2
dT
dr
"
#
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
( = 0 ( dr
llrsL lnLegrauon:
!
r
2 dT
dr
= C
1
Second lnLegrauon:
!
dT " =
C
1
r
2
" dr
!
T
r
= "
C
1
r
+ C
2
CCnuuC1lCn: PCLLCW SPL8L
8oundary condluon:
8C1 r = r
1
1 = 1
1

8C2 r = r
2
1 = 1
2

FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
!
T
r
= "
C
1
r
+ C
2
!
T
1
= "
C
1
r1
+ C
2
!
T
2
= "
C
1
r 2
+ C
2
Solvlng slmulLaneously glves:
!
C
1
= "
r
1
r
2
r
2
" r
1
( )
T
1
" T
2
( )
!
C
2
=
r
2
T
2
" r
1
T
1
r
2
" r
1
!
T
r
=
r
1
r
2
r r
2
" r
1
( )
T
1
" T
2
( ) +
r
2
T
2
" r
1
T
1
r
2
" r
1
Temp. Profile:
2/8/11
12
CCnuuC1lCn: PCLLCW SPL8L
!
q
r
= 4"k
T
1
# T
2
1
r
2
#
1
r
1
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
lourler's law
!
A = 4"r
2
!
dT
dr
= "
r
1
r
2
r
2
r
2
" r
1
( )
T
1
" T
2
( )
!
q
r
= 4"r
2
k
r
1
r
2
r
2
r
2
# r
1
( )
T
1
# T
2
( )
CCnuuC1lCn : Work Lxample 4
FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept
Consider a spherical container of inner radius r
1
= 8 cm, outer radius r
2
= 10 cm,
and thermal conductivity k = 45 W/m ! C. The inner and outer surfaces of the
container are maintained at constant temperatures of T
1
= 200C and T
2
= 80C,
respectively, as a result of some chemical reactions occurring inside. Obtain a
general relation for the temperature distribution inside the shell under steady
conditions, and determine the rate of heat loss from the container.