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# FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

## Faculty of Civil Engineering

Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 1

DESIGN OF COLUMN

INTRODUCTION

Columns in a structure carry the loads from beams and slabs down to the
foundations. Columns primarily carry axial loads, but most columns are subjected to
moment as well as axial load.

The column section is generally square or rectangular, but circular and polygonal
columns are used in special case. When the section carries mainly axial load it is
symmetrically reinforced with four, six, eight or more bars held in a cage by links.

General requirements for design of columns are treated in BS 8110: Part 1, section
3.8.1. The provisions apply to columns where the greater cross-sectional dimension
does not exceed four times the smaller dimension.

COLUMN CLASSIFICATION

A column is classified as short if both
h
l
ex
and
b
l
ey
are less than 15 for a braced
column or less than 10 for an unbraced column (BS 8110: Part 1: 1997: Clause
3.8.1.3). The effective heights l
ex
and l
ey
are relative to the XX and YY axis, h is the
overall depth of the section in the plane of bending about the XX axis, which is h is
the dimension perpendicular to the XX axis.

The effective heights (BS 8110: Part 1: 1997: Clause 3.8.1.6) are specified as
o e
l l =
where
l
o
is the clear distance between the column end restraints
is a coefficient which depends on the degree of end restraints

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 2

X
b
h
b
h
X
Y
Y
l
ox

l
oy

X
Y
X
Y
b
l
oy

Plane X - Z
M
y

h
l
ox

Plane Y - Z
M
x

H
beam
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 3

METHOD GIVEN IN BS8110

Clause 3.8.4.5 gives the following recommendation for symmetrically reinforced
rectangular columns. If the column is subjected to (N, Mx, My), then it can be
designed either for (N, M
x
) or for (N, M
y
) depending on which of the following two
conditions is valid;
a) ,
' ' b
M
h
M
y
x
then
y x x
M
b
h
M M
'
'
' + = .equation 40
b) ,
' ' b
M
h
M
y
x
< then
x y y
M
h
b
M M
'
'
' + = .equation 41

Slender Columns

All columns are designed as either braced or unbraced. For braced slender column
(the ends of columns are fixed in position; but not in direction)
h
l
ex
and
b
l
ey
> 15.
Unbraced slender column (the ends are not fixed in either position or direction),
h
l
ex
and
b
l
ey
> 10. Generally, the clear distance, l
o
, between end restraints should not
exceed 60 times the minimum thickness of a column (l
o
60b). If, in any given
plane, one end of an unbraced column is unrestrained its clear height, l
o
, should
satisfy the following:
b l
o
60 or
h
b
2
100
; whichever the lesser.
In slender columns, we need to design for an ultimate axial load (N) plus an
increased moment given by;
M
t
= M
i
+ M
= M
i
+ Na
u

Where
M
i
is the initial moment in the column
M
is the moment caused by the deflection in column
a
u
is the deflection of the column
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 4

Na M = , induced by the deflections in both types of
columns (Clause 3.8.3). The deflection of a rectangular or circular column under
ultimate load conditions is taken as:
Kh a
a u
= where

a
= table 3.21 or from eqn 34,
2
)
'
(
2000
1
b
l
e
a
= eqn 34
K = reduction factor = 1

bal uz
uz
N N
N N
(usually K = 1).eqn 33

sc y c cu uz
A f . A f . N 95 0 45 0 + =
bd f . N
cu bal
25 0 =

Note: b' is generally the smaller dimension of the column (but see 3.8.3.6 for biaxial bending).

Braced Slender Columns

For braced column bent about single axis, the distribution of moments must be
assumed over a height of a typical column (Clause 3.8.3.2 and Fig 3.20). The initial
moment, M
i
, is taken as;
M
i
= 0.4 M
1
+ 0.6 M
2
0.4 M
2
(whichever is the greater) .. eqn 36
Where
M
1
= smaller initial moment (assumed ve if column is bent in double
curvature

M
2
= larger initial moment (assumed +ve)

Design Moments for Braced Slender Column

The maximum design moments will be the greatest of {clause 3.8.3.2. (a) (d)}
a) M
2

b) M
i
+ M

c) M
1
+
2
M

d) e
min
N (e
min
= 0.05 x overall dimension of column; 20 mm)
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 5

There are few cases of slender columns which are dealt specifically in the code with
regards to bending direction (Clause 3.8.3.3 to 3.8..3.6).

Clause 3.8.3.3; Slender Columns Bending about a single axis (major or minor)

For h < 3b and 20 <
h
l
e
, the additional moment can be calculated using equation 32
to 35 and added to the appropriate initial moments, M
i
, to obtain the total design
moment.

Clause 3.8.3.4; Columns where 20 >
h
l
e
, bent about their major axis

In these cases the section should be designed as biaxially bent with zero initial
moment about the minor axis (M
iy
= 0).

Clause 3.8.3.5; Columns bent about their major axis

For h > 3b, the section should be designed as biaxially bent with zero initial moment
iy
= 0).

Clause 3.8.3.6; Slender columns bent about both axes (Biaxial Bending)

Where the bending is significant about both axes, additional moments are calculated
from equations 32 to 35 for both directions of bending. For each direction, b in Table
3.21 should be taken as h, the dimension of the column in the plane of bending
considered. These additional moments are then combined with the appropriate
initial moments, M
i
, to obtain total design moments in the two directions. The critical
section is then designed to withstand the design ultimate axial load, N, plus the total
design moments in the two directions.
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 6

Unbraced Slender Columns (Clause 3.8.3.7)

The distribution of moments of unbraced column is indicated in Figure 3.21 of BS
8110: Part 1. All columns at a particular level will be assumed that they will deflect
sideways by the same amount.

Clause 3.8.3.8; Deflection of unbraced columns

At any given level or storey all unbraced columns subject to lateral load are usually
constrained to deflect sideways by the same amount. In such cases, an average
ultimate deflection may be applied to all the columns. This deflection can be
assessed from the following equation:

n
a
a
u
uav

=
.. (eqn. 37)
Where

uav
a
is average deflection of the column

u
a
is the deflection of the column
n is the number of column

After the calculation of
uav
a
any values of
u
a
more than twice
uav
a
should be ignored
and the average recalculated; in this case n in equation 37 should be reduced
appropriately.

Design Moment, M
t
= M
i
+ M
(at level considered)

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 7

Example No. 1

A braced Column of 300x450 cross-section resists at the ultimate limit state an axial load of
1700 kN and end moments of 70 kNm and 10 kNm causing double curvature about the minor
axis XX as shown in figure below. The columns effective heights are l
ex
= 6.75 m and l
ey
=
8.0 m and the characteristics material strengths f
cu
= 30 N/mm
2
and f
y
= 460 N/mm
2
.

M
2
= 70 kNm
M
1
= 10 kNm
N = 1700 kN
450 mm
y
y
x x
M
x

300 mm
d = 240 mm
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 8

Reference: Calculation Remarks
1. Calculate the slenderness ratio

15 5 . 22
3 . 0
75 . 6
> = =
h
l
ex

15 8 . 17
45 . 0
0 . 8
> = =
b
l
ey

Therefore the column is slender.

2. Calculate Mi = 0.4 M1 + 0.6 M2

0.4 M2

Therefore
M
i
= 0.4 (-10) + 0.6 (70)
M
i
= 38 kNm
#

0.4 M
2
= 0.4 (70) = 28 kNm

Take the greatest value, M
i
= 38 kNm

,
(Assume K = 1.0)

Na M = = (N) ) ( Kh
a

M
= (N) ) )
'
(
2000
1
(
2
b
l
e
(K)(h)
= ) 3 . 0 )( 0 . 1 )( )
3 . 0
750 . 6
)(
2000
1
)( 1700 (
2

= 129 kNm
#

M
i
= 38 kNm

M
= 129 kNm

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 9

Reference: Calculation Remarks

4. For the first iteration (K=1), the total
moment, M
t
is;

a) M
2
= 70 kNm
b) M
i
+ M
= 38 + 129 = 167 kNm
c) M
1
+
2
M
= 10 + 64.5 = 74.5 kNm
d) e
min
N = (0.05 x 0.3)(1700) = 25.5 kNm

M
t
= 167 kNm.

5. Calculate
bh
N
and
2
bh
M
;

bh
N
=
) 300 )( 450 (
10 1700
3
x
= 12.6 N/mm
2

2
bh
M
=
2
6
) 300 )( 450 (
10 167x
= 4.12 N/mm
2

Since;
8 . 0
300
240
= =
h
d
; f
cu
= 30 N/mm
2
; f
y
= 460 N/mm
2

Refer to Chart 27 of BS8110: Part 3,

2 . 3
100
=
bh
A
sc
and k = 0.67

M
t
= 167 kNm.

bh
N
= 12.6

2
bh
M
= 4.12

2 . 3
100
=
bh
A
sc

k = 0.67

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 10

Reference: Calculation Remarks

The value of K (base on design chart) is used
to recalculate M
until the value of K is
almost the same between value of K in
calculation of M
and value of K in design
chart.

Therefore;

,
where K = 0.67

Na M = = (N) ) ( Kh
a

M
= (N) ) )
'
(
2000
1
(
2
b
l
e
(K)(h)
= (1700) ) )
3 . 0
750 . 6
)(
2000
1
(
2
(0.67)(0.3)
= 86 kNm
#

M
t
= M
i
+ M
= 38 + 86 = 124 kNm
#

Therefore
2
bh
M
=
2
6
) 300 )( 450 (
10 124x
= 3.06 N/mm
2

2 . 2
100
=
bh
A
sc
;
100
) 300 )( 450 )( 2 . 2 (
=
sc
A =2970 mm
2

K = 0.60

M
= 86 kNm

M
t
= 124 kNm

A
sc
= 2970 mm
2

K = 0.6

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 11

Reference: Calculation Remarks

7. Check on the value of K that
interpolated from the design chart
using equation 33 of BS8110

1

=
bal uz
uz
N N
N N
K

K =
bal uz
uz
N N
N N

where

N
uz
= 0.45f
cu
bh + 0.95f
y
A
sc

= (0.45)(30)(450)(300) + (0.95)(460)(2970)
= 3120 x 10
3
N = 3120 kN
#

N
bal
= 0.25f
cu
bd
= (0.25)(30)(450)(240)
= 810 x 10
3
N = 810 kN
#

K =
810 3120
1700 3120

= 0.61
#

This confirms the value of K from the
second iteration.

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 12

Example No. 2

Figure below shows a cross section of a braced column. Assuming K =1, design the column
to carry the ultimate load and moments shown, and calculate the new K.

Given lex = 5.0 m
ley = 5.0 m
cu = 30 N/mm
2

y = 460 N/mm
2

N = 2000 kN
Cover = 30 mm
Longitudinal bar = 40 mm

M
x

400 mm
x
x
y y
M
y

300 mm
M
x
= 100 kNm
M
x
= 50 kNm
M
y
= 80 kNm
M
y
= 40 kNm
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Tel:(+603) 5543 6153 Fax: (+603) 5543 5275

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN (ECS478)-
Column Design
Page 13

Example No. 3

In figure below, design the biaxially-bent column of dimension 200 mm X 350 mm in cross
section, this forms part of a braced frame to resist the given forces at ultimate.
Assume K =1

Given
Floor to floor height = 6.8 m
cu = 30 N/mm
2

y = 460 N/mm
2

N = 1200 kN
Cover = 30 mm
Longitudinal bar = 20 mm

M
x
= 80 kNm
M
x
= 60 kNm
M
y
= 50 kNm
M
y
= 30 kNm
X
X
Y
Y
350
200
300
300
200
150
175 350