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(Electronics and Communication Department)

Minor Project Report


On
RFID based power management system
2013-2014
Gided !y" #bmitted to "
Dr$ %a&ita '(are Pro)$ #angeeta *a'(ate

Under the guidance of
Dr. Kavita Khare
Certificate
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the B.Tech.
Minor Project Report entitled RFID BASED POWER
MANAGEMENT, in partial fulfillent of the re!uireents for the
award of the Bachelr ! Technl"# in Electrnic$ % &''(nicatin
En"ineerin" and subitted to the "epartent of #lectronics $
Counication #ngineering of Maulana %&ad 'ational Institute of
Technology is an authentic record of our own work carried out under the
super(ision of Dr. KA)ITA K*ARE, Electrnic$ an+ &''(nicatin
De,art'ent. and by )asha *aushal +,,,,,-,-,./ ayushi choudhary
+,,,,,-012./ aditya patel +,,,,,-034./ atul pardhi +,,,,,-0,1.
It is certified that all corrections 5 suggestions indicated for internal
assessent for Internal assessent ha(e been incorporated in the report. It
has been appro(ed as it satisfies the acadeic re!uireents in respect of
project work prescribed for the said degree.
Mr$ San"eeta Na-hate Dr. KA)ITA K*ARE
+Professor. +Professor.
#C# "epartent #C# "epartent
Ac-n.le+"e'ent
3
It gi(es us an iense pleasure to e6press our deepest sense of gratitude
and sincere thanks to our highly respected and esteeed guide Dr. Kavita
Khare /E&E +e,art'ent0 MANIT Bhopal/ for her (aluable guidance/
encourageent and help for copleting this work. 7er useful suggestions
for this whole work and co8operati(e beha(ior is sincerely
acknowledged.
9e would like to e6press our sincere thanks to Mr$ San"eeta Na-hate
/E&E De,art'ent0 MANIT / Bhopal for gi(ing us this opportunity to
undertake this project. 9e would also like to thank "r. :.R.'iga/
principal for whole hearted support.
9e also wish to e6press our indebtedness to our parents as well as our
faily eber whose blessings and support always helped us to face the
challenges ahead.
%t the end we would like to e6press our sincere thanks to all our friends
and others who helped us directly or indirectly during this project work.
Place 1 Bh,al Pr2ect A$$ciate$
Date1 3453657386 9a$ha Ka($hal 888886868
A+it#a ,atel 88888638:
At(l ,ar+hi 88888637;
A#($hi ch(+har# 8888863:4
TAB<E OF &ONTENTS
;
&*APTER 8 INTROD=&TION
,., 97%T I: R<I"=
,.3 7>9 IT 9>R*:
,.; T)P#: >< R<I"
,.- R<I" <R#?U#'CI#:
,.@ PR#:#'T %PPAIC%TTI>':
,.1 R<I" (5s B%RC>"#:
&*APTER 7 &OMPONENTS E>P<AINATION
-., MICR>C>'TR>AA#R %TM#B% C%
-.3 R#A%)
-.; #M,C R<I" C%R" R#%"#R
-.- R<I" T%B
-.@ P>A)#:T#R C%P%CIT>R:
-.1 TR%':I:T>R BC@-2
-.2 P>9#R R#:I:T>R
&*APTER 7 BASI& B<O&K DIAGRAM
&*APTER ? &IR&=IT REPRESENTATION AND WORKING OF PRO@E&T
@., CIRCUIT "I%BR%M
@.3 9>R*I'B >< M>"#A
&*APTER : A<GORIT*M AND F<OW &*ART DIAGRAM
1., <A>9 C7%RT <>R R<I" :):T#M
&*APTER 4 &ON&<=SION
&*APTER A F=T=RE EN*AN&EMENT
&*APTER ; REFEREN&ES
AB$tract
-
The primary objective of any project in any undergraduate course is to implement
the concepts that we have studied in our curriculum. Apart from that it is the sole
responsibility of every student to mae a project which could serve the society or
at least his ! her almighty institute" with these points in our mind we started to
build a #$%D &A'ED ()*E# +A,A-E+E,T '.'TE+. %n the project we have
designed and implemented a #$%D/based power access control. %t grants
0()*E# ACCE''1 only to the persons intended lie 0TE,A,T1 or renter via a
uni2ue identification card in order to avoid power thefts and burglary/ which is
most common in today3s scenario of semi developed areas. The secured power
distribution can be e4tended from a single room to an entire hostel or home area.
$rom the hardware we are only showing the basic switching that illustrates the
woring principle.
A very uni2ue implementation can be done when interfaced with the (Cs in the
offices "clubs or highly secured areas. ,o e4ternal user can even turn on the
power supply until a valid card is swapped against the reader.
'imilarly entire room can be made secured by completely limiting all the power
driven appliances being accessed by the user only.
Even if a few number of socets are to be made access controlled5 that can also
be done by attaching the relay only to the particular pins rather than affecting the
entire power supply .
(ower burglary can easily be deterrent by such a system. The relay will not allow
the power supply to get in directly even if connected until the card is used. 6ence
the security to the electricity supplies is made.
+(is basic circitry is &ery economica, and can be c,ean,y inter)ered wit(
any o) t(e present,y wor'ing de&ices t(at need to get P-./R 011/##
1-*+R-22/D rat(er t(an password contro,,ed w(ic( can easi,y be
(ac'ed$
@
&*APTER 8
INTROD=&TION
RFID BASED POWER MANAGEMENT
1
8. INTROD=&TION
,., 97%T I: R<I"
RFID is a tracking technology used to identify and authenticate tags that are applied to
any product/ indi(idual or anial. Ra+i !reC(enc# I+enti!icatin an+ Detectin is a
general ter used for technologies that ake use of radio wa(es in order to identify
objects and people.
ABO=T RFID
Purpose of Radio fre!uency Identification and "etection syste is to facilitate data
transission through the portable de(ice known as tag that is read with the help of RFID
readerD and process it as per the needs of an application. Inforation transitted with the
help of tag offers location or identification along with other specifics of product tagged E
purchase date/ color/ and price. Typical RFID tag includes icrochip with radio antenna/
ounted on substrate.
The R<I" tags are configured to respond and recei(e signals fro an R<I" transcei(er.
This allows tags to be read fro a distance/ unlike other fors of authentication
technology. The R<I" syste has gained wide acceptance in businesses/ and is gradually
replacing the barcode syste.

2
8.7 *OW RFID WORKS
Basic R<I" consists of an antenna/ transcei(er and transponder. To understand the
working of a typical R<I" syste/ check the following aniation.
%ntenna eits the radio signals to acti(ate tag and to read as well as write inforation to
it. Reader eits the radio wa(es/ ranging fro one to ,00 inches/ on the basis of used
radio fre!uency and power output. 9hile passing through electronic agnetic &one/
R<I" tag detects acti(ation signals of readers.
Powered by its internal battery or by the reader signals/ the tag sends radio wa(es back to
the reader. Reader recei(es these wa(es and identifies the fre!uency to generate a uni!ue
I". Reader then decodes data encoded in integrated circuit of tags and transits it to the
coputers for use.
C
Powered by its internal battery or by the reader signals/ the tag sends radio wa(es back to
the reader. Reader recei(es these wa(es and identifies the fre!uency to generate a uni!ue
I". Reader then decodes data encoded in integrated circuit of tags and transits it to the
coputers for use.
Powered by its internal battery or by the reader signals/ the tag sends radio wa(es back to
the reader. Reader recei(es these wa(es and identifies the fre!uency to generate a uni!ue
I". Reader then decodes data encoded in integrated circuit of tags and transits it to the
coputers for use.
8.D T9PES OF RFID

%cti(e and passi(e R<I" are different technologies but are usually e(aluated together.
#(en though both of the use the radio fre!uency for counication between tag and
reader/ eans of pro(iding power to tags is different. %cti(e R<I" akes use of battery
4
within tag for pro(iding continuous power to tag and radio fre!uency power circuitry.
Passi(e R<I" on the other hand/ relies on energy of radio fre!uency transferred fro
reader to tag for powering it.

Passi(e R<I" needs strong signals fro reader but signal strength bounced fro tag is at
low le(els. %cti(e R<I" recei(es low le(el signals by tag but it can create higher le(el
signals to readers. This type of R<I" is constantly powered/ whether in or out of the
readerFs field. %cti(e tags consist of e6ternal sensors for checking huidity/ teperature/
otion as well as other conditions.

8.6 RFID FREE=EN&IES
Gust like you can tune a radio in (arious fre!uencies for listening to different channels/
R<I" readers and tags need to be tuned in to a sae fre!uency for counication. R<I"
,0
syste uses (arious fre!uencies but ost coon and popularly used fre!uency is low/
high and ultra high fre!uency. Aow fre!uency is around ,3@ *7&/ high is around ,;.@1
M7& and ultra high (aries between C108410 M7&. :oe applications also ake use of
icrowa(e fre!uency of 3.-@ B7&. It is iperati(e to choose right fre!uency for an
application as radio wa(es work different at (arious fre!uencies.
8.? RFID APP<I&ATIONS

The role of R<I" is not just confined to %ircraft identification anyoreD it is also lending
a hand in (arious coercial uses. %sset tracking is one of the ost popular uses of
R<I". Copanies are using R<I" tags on the products that ight get stolen or
isplaced. %lost each type of Radio fre!uency Identification and "etection syste can
be used for the purpose of asset anageent.

,,
Manufacturing plants ha(e also been using R<I" fro a long tie now. These systes
are used for tracking parts and working in process for reduction of defects/ anaging
production of (arious (ersions and increasing output. The technology has also been
useful in the closed looped supply chains for years. More and ore copanies are
turning to this technology for tracking shipents aong the supply chain allies. 'ot just
anufacturers but retailers also are using this R<I" technology for proper placeent of
their products and ipro(eents in the supply chain.

R<I" also plays an iportant role in the access and security control. The newly
introduced ,;.@1 M7& R<I" systes pro(ide long range readings to the users. The best
part is that R<I" is con(enient to handle and re!uires low aintenance at the sae tie.
8.: RFID v5$ Bar &+e$
,3
R<I" definitely has an edge o(er con(entional technology of bar codes. R<I" reader
easily pulls data fro tag at greater distances as copared to barcodes. Range
in case of R<I" is around ;00 feet as against ,@ feet of barcodes. :o R<I" tags can be
read uch faster as copared to barcodes. 9hile reading the barcodes is tie
consuing/ R<I" readers can interrogate rates of ore than -0 tags in a second.

'eed of line of sight in case of barcodes restricts reusability and ruggedness of the
barcodes. R<I"/ on the other hand are rugged/ since its coponents are protected in
plastic co(er. The Radio fre!uency Identification and "etection can also be fitted within
the products for ensuring greater reusability and ruggedness. Unlike barcodes/ R<I" tags
can be used as write and read de(ices. >ne can use R<I" tags for counicating with
the tag and for altering the inforation stored on it.
,;



&*APTER 7
&OMPONENTS E>P<ANATION
,-
8.8 MI&RO&ONTRO<<ER
0tmega 30 4P5
,@
1$ Genera, description
Featres
7 6igh/performance" 8ow/power A9#: ;/bit +icrocontroller
7 Advanced #%'C Architecture
< =>? (owerful %nstructions < +ost 'ingle/cloc Cycle E4ecution
< >@ 4 ; -eneral (urpose *oring #egisters
< $ully 'tatic )peration
< Ap to =B +%(' Throughput at =B +6C
< )n/chip @/cycle +ultiplier
7 6igh Endurance ,on/volatile +emory segments
< ;D &ytes of %n/'ystem 'elf/programmable $lash program memory
< E=@ &ytes EE(#)+
< =D &yte %nternal '#A+
< *rite!Erase CyclesF =?"??? $lash!=??"??? EE(#)+
< Data retentionF @? years at ;EGC!=?? years at @EGC(=)
< )ptional &oot Code 'ection with %ndependent 8oc &its
7 %n/'ystem (rogramming by )n/chip &oot (rogram
7 True #ead/*hile/*rite )peration
< (rogramming 8oc for 'oftware 'ecurity
7 (eripheral $eatures
< Two ;/bit Timer!Counters with 'eparate (rescaler" one Compare +ode
< )ne =B/bit Timer!Counter with 'eparate (rescaler" Compare +ode" and
Capture
+ode
,1
< #eal Time Counter with 'eparate )scillator
< Three (*+ Channels
< ;/channel ADC in TH$( and H$,!+8$ pacage
7 Eight Channels =?/bit Accuracy
< B/channel ADC in (D%( pacage
7 'i4 Channels =?/bit Accuracy
< &yte/oriented Two/wire 'erial %nterface
< (rogrammable 'erial A'A#T
< +aster!'lave '(% 'erial %nterface
< (rogrammable *atchdog Timer with 'eparate )n/chip )scillator
< )n/chip Analog Comparator
7 %!) and (acages
< @> (rogrammable %!) 8ines
< @;/lead (D%(" >@/lead TH$(" and >@/pad H$,!+8$
7 )perating 9oltages
< @.I / E.E9 for ATmega;A
7 'peed -rades
< ? / =B +6C for ATmega;A
7 (ower Consumption at J +hC" >9" @EGC
< ActiveF >.B mA
< %dle +odeF =.? mA
< (ower/down +odeF ?.E KA
1$2 Pin Descriptions
@.@.= 9CC
Digital supply voltage.
@.@.@ -,D
-round.
@.@.> (ort & ((&IF(&?) < LTA8=!LTA8@!T)'C=!T)'C@
(ort & is an ;/bit bi/directional %!) port with internal pull/up resistors (selected for
each bit). The
(ort & output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sin
and source
capability. As inputs" (ort & pins that are e4ternally pulled low will source current
if the pull/up
resistors are activated. The (ort & pins are tri/stated when a reset condition
becomes active"even if cloc is not running.
@.@.J (ort C ((CEF(C?)
(ort C is an I/bit bi/directional %!) port with internal pull/up resistors (selected for
each bit). The
,2
(ort C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sin
and source
capability. As inputs" (ort C pins that are e4ternally pulled low will source current
if the pull/up
resistors are activated. The (ort C pins are tri/stated when a reset condition
becomes active"
even if the cloc is not running.
@.@.I #E'ET
#eset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will
generate a
reset" even if the cloc is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table
@E/> on page
@JI. 'horter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
A#E$
A#E$ is the analog reference pin for the A!D Converter.
2$ !,oc' diagram
,C
,4
3$ Pinning in)ormation
1.2 RELAY (HL jqc 3fc dc)
Features
30
6igh Current Contacts
#o6' Compliant
Compact 'iCe
Economically (riced
Specifcations
1oi, Data
1oi, Power" >B?m*
*omina, 6o,tage" @J9dc
Pic'-5p 6o,tage" =;.?9dc
Drop--t 6o,tage" @.J9dc
Ma7imm 6o,tage" >=.@9dc
1oi, Resitance" =B??ohm
1ontact Data
1ontact Rating" =?A @II9ac ! @;9dc
Ma7imm #witc(ing 6o,tage" @II9ac ! >?9dc
Ma7imm #witc(ing 1rrent" =? A
Ma7imm #witc(ing Power" @II?9A ! @=?*
Mec(anica, /ndrance" =?"???"??? )perations
/,ectrica, /ndrance" =??"??? )perations (,) Contact)
Ma7imm +rn--n +ime" =? ms
Ma7imm +rn--)) +ime" E ms
Genera,
Die,ectric #trengt( 8!etween 1ontacts9" IE? 9AC = min
Ins,ation Resistance" =?? +ohmME?? 9DC
0mbient -perating +emperatre Range" /J?GC to N;EGC
.eig(t" =?.?g
Ro:# 1omp,iant" .es
3,

in !a"out circuit
dia#ra$

6.D RFID rea+er '+(le
The EM-18 RFID Reader module operating at 125kHz is an inepensi!e solution
"or #our RFID $ased appli%ation& The Reader module %omes 'ith an on-%hip
antenna and %an $e po'ered up 'ith a 5( po'er suppl#& )o'er-up the module
and %onne%t the transmit pin o" the module to re%ie!e pin o" #our
mi%ro%ontroller& *ho' #our %ard 'ithin the reading distan%e and the %ard
num$er is thro'n at the output& +ptionall# the module %an $e %on"igured "or
also a 'eigand output&
33
Features,
Reading Distance, --1. %m
Dimesntion: /.mm2.mm8mm 01H23
Frequency:125kHz
Compatible Card codes:Man%hester-/-$it4modules-/
Current Rating: 55m6 0Ma3
Operating Voltage:/&-( - 5&/(D7
RFID systems detect the coded information in tags via readers. A Passive
Reader Active Tag (PRAT) system has a passive reader which only receives
radio signals from active tags (battery operated, transmit only). The reception
range of a PRAT system reader can be adjusted from 12,000 feet (0.30
609.60 m)
]
, allowing fexibility in applications such as asset protection and
supervision.
An Active Reader Passive Tag (ARPT) system has an active reader, which
transmits interrogator signals and also receives authentication replies from
passive tags.
An Active Reader Active Tag (ARAT) system uses active tags awoken with an
interrogator signal from the active reader. A variation of this system could also
use a Battery-Assisted Passive (BAP) tag which acts like a passive tag but has a
small battery to power the tag's return reporting signal.
Fixed readers are set up to create a specifc interrogation zone which can be
tightly controlled. This allows a highly defned reading area for when tags go in
and out of the interrogation zone. Mobile readers may be hand-held or mounted
on carts or vehicles.
6.6 RFID TAG
3;
A radio-frequency identifcation system uses tags, or labels attached to the
objects to be identifed. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers
called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response.
RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery-assisted passive. An active tag
has an on-board battery and periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery-
assisted passive (BAP) has a small battery on board and is activated when in the
presence of an RFID reader. A passive tag is cheaper and smaller because it has
no battery. However, to start operation of passive tags, they must be illuminated
with a power level roughly three magnitudes stronger than for signal
transmission. That makes a diference in interference and in exposure to
radiation.
Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial number that is
used as a key into a database, or may be read/write, where object-specifc data
can be written into the tag by the system user. Field programmable tags may be
write-once, read-multiple; "blank" tags may be written with an electronic product
code by the user. A tag with no inherent identity is always threatened to get
manipulated.
RFID tags contain at least two parts: an integrated circuit for storing and
processing information, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF)
signal, collecting DC power from the incident reader signal, and other specialized
functions; and an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. The tag
information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either a
chip-wired logic or a programmed or programmable data processor for
processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively.
An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag. The
RFID tag receives the message and then responds with its identifcation and
other information. This may be only a unique tag serial number, or may be
3-
product-related information such as a stock number, lot or batch number,
production date, or other specifc information.
TAGS /Tran$,n+er$0
%n RFID ta" is coprised of a icrochip containing identifying inforation and an
antenna that transits this data wirelessly to a reader. %t its ost basic/ the chip will
contain a seriali&ed identifier/ or license plate nuber/ that uni!uely identifies that ite/
siilar to the way any bar codes are used today. % key difference/ howe(er is that R<I"
tags ha(e a higher data capacity than their bar code counterparts. This increases the
options for the type of inforation that can be encoded on the tag/ including the
anufacturer/ batch or lot nuber/ weight/ ownership/ destination and history +such as
the teperature range to which an ite has been e6posed.. In fact/ an unliited list of
other types of inforation can be stored on R<I" tags/ depending on application needs.
%n R<I" tag can be placed on indi(idual ites/ cases or pallets for identification
purposes/ as well as on fi6ed assets such as trailers/ containers/ totes/ etc.
Ta"$ c'e in a variet# ! t#,e$, .ith a variet# ! ca,aBilitie$. Ke# variaBle$ incl(+e1
FRea+Gnl#F ver$($ Frea+G.riteF
There are three options in ters of how data can be encoded on tagsH +,. Read8only tags
contain data such as a seriali&ed tracking nuber/ which is pre8written onto the by the
tag anufacturer or distributor. These are generally the least e6pensi(e tags because they
cannot ha(e any additional inforation included as they o(e throughout the supply
chain. %ny updates to that inforation would ha(e to be aintained in the application
software that tracks :*U o(eent and acti(ity. +3. I9rite onceI tags enable a user to
write data to the tag one tie in production or distribution processes. %gain/ this ay
include a serial nuber/ but perhaps other data such as a lot or batch nuber. +;. <ull
Iread8writeI tags allow new data to be written to the tag as neededJand e(en written
o(er the original data. #6aples for the latter capability ight include the tie and date
of ownership transfer or updating the repair history of a fi6ed asset. 9hile these are the
ost costly of the three tag types and are not practical for tracking ine6pensi(e ites.

RFID TAGS
3@
Data capacity
The aount of data storage on a tag can (ary/ ranging fro ,1 bits on the low end to as
uch as se(eral thousand bits on the high end. >f course/ the greater the storage capacity/
the higher the price per tag.
Form )actor
The tag and antenna structure can coe in a (ariety of physical for factors and can
either be self8contained or ebedded as part of a traditional label structure +i.e./ the tag is
inside what looks like a regular bar code labelJthis is tered a K:art AabelK. copanies
ust choose the appropriate for factors for the tag (ery carefully and should e6pect to
use ultiple for factors to suit the tagging needs of different physical products and units
of easure. <or e6aple/ a pallet ay ha(e an R<I" tag fitted only to an area of
protected placeent on the pallet itself. >n the other hand/ cartons on the pallet ha(e
R<I" tags inside bar code labels that also pro(ide operators huan8readable inforation
and a back8up should the tag fail or pass through non R<I"8capable supply chain links.
6.? Pl#e$ter &a,acitr$
833 .att ? vlt$ ca,acitr in $erie$ .ith rela# ($e+ t $(,,re$$ heav# vlta"e +r,$
acr$$ the rela# .hen $.itche+ t the ac $(,,l# ! 773 vlt$.
It helps in
,.Managing #lectroagnetic Interference
3.Control Inducti(e Aoads with a Induction :uppression Capacitor
;.Capacitor %bsorbs the 7igh Loltages Benerated by Inducti(e Aoads
-.% Capacitor Ipro(es the Aifespan of the Relay and Reliability of the Board
5.Handling Inductive Loads
Perhaps the ost o(erlooked aspect of relay control is proper handling of inducti(e loads.
Inducti(e loads can best be defined as anything with a agnetic coil/ such as a otor/
solenoid/ or a transforer. Controlling a inducti(e load using our relay controllers
31
re!uires the use of induction suppression capacitors. The purpose of this capacitor is to
absorb the high (oltages generated by inducti(e loads/ blocking the fro the contacts of
the relay. 9ithout this capacitor/ the lifespan of the relay will be greatly reduced.
Induction can be so se(ere that it electrically interferes with the icroprocessor logic of
our controllers/ causing relay banks to shut thesel(es down une6pectedly. In the case of
U:B de(ices/ custoers ay e6perience loss of counications until the de(ice is
reconnected to the U:B port.
6.: I& 4A3?
It is sed to reg,ate t(e 12 &o,ts spp,y )rom adapter to ; &o,ts spp,y
sitab,e )or t(e )nctioning o) t(e microcontro,,er and remaining circit
pto re,ay$
<30; is a &o,tage reg,ator integrated circuit. %t is a member of I;44 series of
fi4ed linear voltage regulator %Cs. The voltage source in a circuit may have
fluctuations and would not give the fi4ed voltage output. The &o,tage reg,ator
I1 maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The 44 in I;44 indicates the
fi4ed output voltage it is designed to provide. I;?E provides NE9 regulated power
supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input and output pins
depending upon the respective voltage levels.

Pin
*o
Fnction *ame
= %nput voltage (E9/=;9) %nput
32
@ -round (?9) -round
> #egulated output5 E9 (J.;9/E.@9) )utput
6.4 Tran$i$tr B& ?64
It is sed to amp,i)y t(e crrent reac(ing re,ay sc( t(at abo&e a certain
t(res(o,d t(e re,ay is dri&en by t(e crrent otpt spp,ied by t(e
microcontro,,er in presence o) a &a,id r)id card swap$ 52* 2000 can a,so be
sed$
!1;4< is an ,(, bi/polar junction transistor. A transistor" stands for transfer of
resistance" is commonly used to amplify current. A small current at its base
controls a larger current at collector O emitter terminals.
!1;4< is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. %t has a
ma4imum current gain of ;??. %ts e2uivalent transistors are &CEJ; and &CEJP.
The transistor terminals re2uire a fi4ed DC voltage to operate in the desired
region of its characteristic curves. This is nown as the biasing. $or amplification
applications" the transistor is biased such that it is partly on for all input
conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and taen at the emitter. &CEJI
3C
is used in common emitter configuration for amplifiers. The voltage divider is the
commonly used biasing mode. $or switching applications" transistor is biased so
that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. %n the absence of base
signal" it gets off.
6.A Electrl#tic ca,acitr
An electrolytic capacitor is a capacitor that uses an electrolyte (an ionic
conducting liquid) as one of its plates to achieve a larger capacitance per unit
volume than other types. The large capacitance of electrolytic capacitors makes
them particularly suitable for passing or bypassing low-frequency signals and
storing large amounts of energy. They are widely used in power supplies,and
interconnecting stages of amplifers at audio frequencies. An electrolytic
capacitor will generally have higher leakage current than a comparable (dry)
capacitor, and may have siginifcant limitations in its operating temperature range,
parasitic resistance and inductance, and the stability and accuracy of its
capacitance value.
34
6.; P.er Re$i$tance / ?W 83 h'$0
the power resistor is used in series with the such that the current reaching the
relay is limited and could not damage it. #elays has a ma4imum current rating of
= ampere and the supply may damage its woring. ,ormal resistors cant be used
as they possess very low power rating (?.@E w) and may burn out at higher
currents
;0

&*APTER 7
BASI& B<O&K DIAGRAM
;,
8. APP<I&ATION B<O&K DIAGRAM
MICR>C>'TR>AA#R
+%TM#B%CP.
M#M>R)
R<I" Reader
%"%PT#R
R#A%)
P>9#R
:UPPA)
%PPAI%'C#:
T> C>'TR>A
;3
7. TOP <E)E< B<O&K DIAGRAM
;;
&*APTER ?
&IR&=IT REPRESENTATION AND
WORKING OF PRO@E&T
;-
?.8 &IR&=IT DIAGRAM
;@
?.7 WORKING OF RFID
%s soon as :hown below is a typical R<I" syste. In e(ery R<I" syste the
transponder Tags contain inforation. This inforation can be as little as a single
binary bit / or be a large array of bits representing such things as an identity
code/ personal edical inforation/ or literally any type of inforation that can be
stored in digital binary forat.
;1
:hown is a R<I" transcei(er that counicates with a passi(e Tag. Passi(e tags ha(e
no power source of their own and instead deri(e power fro the incident
electroagnetic field. Coonly the heart of each tag is a icrochip. 9hen the Tag
enters the generated R< field it is able to draw enough power fro the field to access its
internal eory and transit its stored inforation.
9hen the transponder Tag draws power in this way the resultant interaction of the R<
fields causes the (oltage at the transcei(er antenna to drop in (alue. This effect is
utili&ed by the Tag to counicate its inforation to the reader. The Tag is able to
control the aount of power drawn fro the field and by doing so it can odulate
the (oltage sensed at the Transcei(er according to the bit pattern it wishes to transit.
In the circ(it $h.n .henever a vali+ ($er .ith r!i+ ta" $.a,$ it acr$$ the r!i+
rea+er H a ,(l$e $i"nal i$ "enerate+ B# the hin+erance ! the 'a"netic !iel+ acr$$
the ta" rea+er r 're ,reci$el# B# !l(I chan"e an e'! i$ in+(ce+ in the ta" circ(it
.hich enaBle$ it an+ it tran$'it$ it$ $erial car+ n('Ber t the r!i+ receiver. I!
veri!ie+ .ith the $erial n('Ber e'Be++e+ in the 'icrcntrllerJ$ 'e'r#,it
$.itche$ the rela# n an+ the attache+ a,,liance .ill "et the ,.er $(,,l#.
;2

&*APTER D
PROB<EM FORM=<ATION AND
SOFTWARE
;C
SOFTWARE USED : Arduino
The open-source Arduino environment makes it easy to write code and
upload it to the i/o board. It runs on Windows, Mac O !, and "inu#.
The environment is written in $ava and based on %rocessin&, avr-&cc,
and other open source so'tware.
The program feeded in the atmega is as follows:
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
// Tags include the two CRC bytes (14 bytes total)
String Card = "08006A60282A";
prog_char tag_0[] PROGMEM = "08006A60282A"; //add your tags here
PROGMEM const char *tag_table[] =
{
tag_0
};
//----
String tagString;
char tagNumber[14];
boolean receivedTag;
int lockPIN=4; // pin 7 is controls
;4
int led = 13;
void setup() {
pinMode(led, OUTPUT);
pinMode(lockPIN,OUTPUT);
Serial.begin(9600);
digitalWrite(led, LOW);
}
void loop()
{
receivedTag=false;
while (Serial.available()){
int BytesRead = Serial.readBytesUntil(3, tagNumber, 15);
receivedTag=true;
}
if (receivedTag){
tagString=tagNumber;
Serial.println();
Serial.print("Tag Number: ");
Serial.println(tagString);
if (tagString.equals(Card)) {
Serial.println("Tag Authorized");
Power();
}
else{
Serial.print("Unauthorized Tag: ");
// Serial.println(tagString);
delay(50);
digitalWrite(lockPIN,LOW);
-0
delay(1500); // a delay of 1500ms and a fush() seems to stop tag repeats
Serial.fush();
}
memset(tagNumber,0,sizeof(tagNumber)); //erase tagNumber
}
}
// ----
// checkTag function (give it the tag string complete with SOT and EOT)
// compares with tags in tag_table
// and returns true if the tag is in the list
boolean checkTag(String tag){
char testTag[14];
for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(tag_table); i++)
{
strcpy_P(testTag, (char)pgm_read_word(&(tag_table[i])));
if(tag.substring(1,13)==testTag){//substring function removes SOT and
EOT
return true;
break;
}
}
return false;
} //----
void Power(){
Serial.print("Unlocking...");
digitalWrite(lockPIN,HIGH);
digitalWrite(led,HIGH);
delay(1500);// a delay of 1500ms and a fush() seems to stop tag repeats
-,
digitalWrite(led,LOW);
Serial.fush();
}
&*APTER :
A<GORIT*M AND F<OW
&*ART DIAGRAM
-3
:.8 F<OW &*ART
<low Chart is a basic and siple procedure for the e6planation of any prograing
procedure. It e6plains how the prograing part is working with siplicity and ease.
<low chart consists of initiali&ation of (ariables in the preset period of
icrocontroller.
Then coes the two separate loops naely
Registration
Lerification
Registration includes whether user want to add or delete the I"s.
Lerification includes scanning then coparing with stored I" if it is atch then
access granted else display the user is unauthori&ed.
-;
Initiali&e Lariables
:T%RT
#'"
Lerification
Copare I" with stored
I"s
Relay unaffected
"isplay %ccess granted/
and turn the relay on
Bulb glows
)#:
'>
--
&*APTER 4
&ON&<=SION
-@
&ON&<=SION
R<I" is an e(ol(ing technology which has a great future scope with its ad(ance
technology access. The role of R<I" is not just confined to %ircraft identification
anyoreD it is also lending a hand in (arious coercial uses. %lost each type of Radio
fre!uency Identification and "etection syste can be used for the purpose of asset
anageent. Manufacturing plants ha(e also been using R<I" fro a long tie now.
These systes are used for tracking parts and working in process for reduction of defects/
anaging production of (arious (ersions and increasing output. The technology has also
-1
been useful in the closed looped supply chains for years. More and ore copanies are
turning to this technology for tracking shipents aong the supply chain allies. 'ot just
anufacturers but retailers also are using this R<I" technology for proper placeent of
their products and ipro(eents in the supply chain. The best part is that R<I" is
con(enient to handle and re!uires low aintenance at the sae tie.
Inno&ati&eness and 5se),ness
$or mutual power sharing" entire rights are to the owner without the legal
instalment of electric meter.
Along with homes these can also be used at hotels" hostels" haats" bans"
offices etc. to provide controlled power access to various sections.
Due to the uni2ueness of #$%D tag" the power consumption data and
outage information of customers can all be recorded and then be identified
in the rear/end processing system
The system is fully automated" once installed it does not re2uire human
intervention for its processing.
%t is practically implementable and economical.
-2
&*APTER A
F=T=RE EN*AN&EMENT

-C
F=T=RE EN*AN&EMENT
Present trends point towards the fast growth of R<I" in the ne6t decade. 9ith around 100
illion R<I" tags sold in the year 300@ alone/ (alue of arket including systes/
ser(ices and hardware is likely to grow by factor of ,0 between years 3001 830,1. It is
e6pected that total nuber of R<I" tags deli(ered in the year 30,1 will be around -@0
ties as copared to the ones deli(ered in the year 3001.
Coercial applications using Radio <re!uency Identification and "etection like
logistics/ transport/ supply chain super(ision/ processing/ anufacturing/ edicine/
access control are also likely to grow by leaps and bounds. But this sart technology will
influence consuer sectors and go(ernent too. Barcodes and R<I" will coe6ist for
years to coe/ although the latter is e6pected to replace the forer in any sectors.
-4
&*APTER ;
REFEREN&ES
@0
;. REFEREN&E
httpF!!discovery.bits/pilani.ac.in!)ther!ceeai!sample/project/
synopsis.pdf
httpF!!arduino.cc!en!main!software
httpF!!www.electronicsforu.com!newelectronics!defaultcampaign.asp
httpF!!www.efymag.com!admin!issuepdf!#$%D/&ased/'ecurity/
'ystem.Cip
httpF!!www.electronicsforu.com!electronicsforu!circuitarchives!viewQarti
cle.aspRsnoSJE;OidSJI?J
httpF!!grietinfo.in!projects!+%,%!EEE!D)C/&.=>/#$%DT@?based
T@?securedT@?AccessT@?system.pdf
'icrcntrller an+ e'Be++e+ $#$te' B# MaKi+i
....electrnic$!r('.c'
NSK Electrnic$
@,
All +ata$heet$ !r' ....+ata$heetcatal".c'
AB(t ATMEGA AAGP= !r' ....at'el.c'
An+ ....triin+ia.c.in
AB(t DS8A73 !r' ....+alla$.c'
@3