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# CN2125E Heat and Mass Transfer Quiz #1 (March 4, 2014)

## Venue: E5-03-20. Time: 8:30-9:30pm.

Covering Range: Week 1-5 Materials

Student Name: Tutorial Group: _____ Yr:_______
Matriculation Number:__________

1. A sheet of insulating material, with thermal conductivity of 0.2W/m-K is 0.02m thick
and has a surface area of 3.0 m
2
. If 4000 W of heat are conducted through this sheet
and the outer (cooler) surface temperature is maintained at 55
o
C, what will be the
temperature at the inner (hot) surface?

q/A = -k dT/dx = 0.2*(T
inner
-T
outer
)/0.02

4000/3 = 0.2*(T
inner
-55)/0.02=10(T
inner
-55) -> Tinner = 188.3
o
C.
Touter = 55
o
C.

2. You can apply the theory of unsteady heat conduction to estimate the time required
to cook fish balls. It is assumed that the cooking is done when the center of the fish ball
reaches the temperature of 95
o
C. The fish balls are 3-cm in diameter, cooked in 100
o
C
water from an initial temperature of 10
o
C. If the convective heat-transfer coefficient
between the fish balls and water is 3,500 W/m
2
-K and the thermal conductivity (k) and
thermal diffusivity (o) of fish balls are 0.658 W/m-K and 1.60 x 10
-7
m
2
/s respectively.

Hints: Please construct your solution in the following sequence: (a) What is the value of
Biot modulus (Bi)? Is Bi <<0.1? (b) Can the expression
0
BiFo
T T
e
T T

## (WWWR Eq. 18-

9, 5
th
Edition) be applied to determine the temperature of the fish ball? (c) If the above
expression fails to determine the time, what other method you can use to find the time?

(a) Bi = hV/kA=3500/0.658*(0.015/3)= 26.6
(b) Bi > 0.1. One cannot use the equation
0
BiFo
T T
e
T T

## to predict the temperature variation.

(c) To use the temperature-time chart (Figure F3 or F6) to solve this question.
Y=(T-T)/(To-T)=0.056
n=x/x1=0
m=k/(hx
1
)=0.0125

With references to Figure F6, X0.3-0.5
t=Xx
1
2
/400s-700s

With reference to Figure F3, 200s~900s are still acceptable due to the vision deviation. The
interpolation can also be used to enhance the accuracy.

With reference to Figure F9, the details of extrapolation should be provided otherwise it cannot be

3. A 20-cm diameter cast-iron ball (initial uniform temperature = 1300K) is suddenly
placed in still air at 270K. Calculate the heat flux due to natural convection. The
following properties of cast iron and air may be used:

Cast iron:
Thermal conductivity ~ 39.8 W/m-K.
Heat capacity ~ 4.8 J/kg-K.
Density ~ 7370 kg/m
3
.

Air: (at 785K):
Thermal conductivity ~0.057 W/m-K
Pr (Prandtl number) ~0.688,
K
m g
3
6
10 015 . 2
2
2
~

|
, where | is the thermal expansion coefficient; and are the
density and viscosity of air, respectively.

Note: The natural convection heat transfer for sphere is to be estimated by the following
Yuge correlation,

Nu
D
= 2 + 0.43 Ra
D
1/4

T
film
= (270+1300)/2 = 785K.
Ra = Gr Pr = 11423277 688 . 0 1030
3
2 . 0
6
10 015 . 2 Pr ) 270 1300 (
3
2
2
= ~ D
g

|

Nu
D
= 2 + 0.43 Ra
D
1/4
= 26.99
Q / A = h * AT = Nu (k/D) *AT = 26.99* (0.057/0.2)*(1300-270) = 7926 (W/m
2
).

Office: WS2-06-15.

Items Common mistakes
Question 1
Mathematical calculation mistakes and wrong equations are seen for some answers by
students.

Question 2
1. Mistakes due to wrong calculations of surface area and volume of sphere as well as
other calculation errors.

2. References to wrong Figures, such as Figure 18.3 (suitable for relative resistance ~ 0,
or T=Ts on the surface). In addition, if using Figure F9, details of extrapolation for
estimation should be provided, otherwise the stipulated values cannot be obtained for
this case.

4. Some students used Eq. 18-9 to determine the time even though Bi is greater than
0.1.

5. Some students used the diameter as x1 by mistake. Actually, x1 represents the

Question 3 1. Some students are confused by the rate of heat transfer with heat flux

2. Some students took resistance of heat conduction into consideration as well although
the analysis was inaccurate.

3. Used thermal conductivity of iron to calculate the convection heat transfer coefficient
h. Actually, in the Yuge equation, thermal conductivity of air should be used.

4. Didnt calculate the film temperature.

5. Used film temperature as the surface temperature.

6. Didn't know how to calculate Ra.

Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Total

Average 9.83 8.34 7.29 25.4

Standard Deviation 0.57 1.50 2.57 4.01