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19 visualizações8 páginasMaxwell explained

Oct 03, 2014

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Maxwell explained

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19 visualizações

Maxwell explained

© All Rights Reserved

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1.1 Introduction

In this chapter we introduce the equations, already discussed in other courses, that are at the basis of

the propagation of the electromagnetic waves which is the main issue we are interested in, and we

analyse their basic properties. These equations are the starting point of the course because the

electromagnetic waves are the mean through which we can transfer any information from one point

to another one. In particular, we begin by recalling the relationships that are valid for the static

fields (electrostatic and magnetostatic fields) and in succession we analyse how they modify in

order to take into account the variation in time of the different vector fields. We derive the wave

solution in the particular case when the field generators are set to infinity and we studying detail the

properties of this particular solution.

Finally, we move the source of the electromagnetic field within the space where the electromagnetic

field is analysed, situation that mimic the electromagnetic wave generated by an antenna.

1.2 Static fields

The vector quantities that are peculiar of the electrostatic and magnetostatic fields are the electric

field vector E and the magnetic field vector B, respectively. They are related to their generators that

are the electric charge density and the current density in the following way:

(1.1) 0 = E

= D (1.2)

(1.3) J H =

0 = B (1.4)

Each one of considered quantities depends on the position: E(x,y,z) [V/m] is the electric field

vector, D(x,y,z) [C/m

2

] is the electric flux density also known as the displacement vector or the

electric induction, H(x,y,z) [A/m] is the magnetic field intensity and B(x,y,z) [Wb/m

2

] is the

magnetic flux density or magnetic induction. The relationships reported above represent in

differential terms, physical laws that as such have an integral representation (the electric and

magnetic quantities are in this last case measurable). In the integral form the relationships have a

general validity while in the differential form they are applicable only if the field is derivable in any

point of the space considered.

Equation (1.1) states that the line integral of the electric field E(x,y,z) carried out along any closed

path l is equal to zero i.e. the static electric field is irrotational. The second relation states that the

flux of the electric induction D(x,y,z) trough any closed surface is equal to the total electric charge

contained within the volume enclosed by the closed surface, i.e. the generators of the electric field

are electric charges. The third equation states the line integral along any closed path l of the

magnetic field vector H(x,y,z) is equal to the flux of the current density through any surface having

the above line as contour, i.e. the generators of the magnetic field are the electric currents. The

fourth equation states that the flux of the magnetic induction B(x,y,z) leaving any closed surface is

always equal to zero, i.e. the static magnetic field is solenoidal.

1.3 Dynamic fields

Let us now analyse how the above equations modify in the case of time varying vector fields. (i.e.

E(x,y,z,t)).With reference to equation (1.1), experimental results have shown that it modifies as

reported below (Faraday law):

B E

t

= (1.5)

This relationship represents in differential terms what the Faraday law states i.e. the line integral of

the E vector along a closed path l is no more equal to zero, but to the time derivative with the sign

changed of the flux of the B vector through any open surface having the line l as the contour.

Also the other curl equation modifies in the case of time varying fields. In fact, there is a

relationship between the electric current density J and the variation with time of the electric charge

volume density given by the so called current continuity equation. In particular, the flux density

J leaving a close surface S is equal to the time variation with the sign changed of the total electric

charge within the volume enclosed by the surface S. In differential terms we write:

+ D J

t

(1.6)

It follows that eq. (1.3 ) shall be modified accordingly:

D J H

t

+ = (1.7)

The two equation of the divergence (1.2) e (1.4), on the contrary, do not change.

At the end, the Maxwell equations for time varying fields , written in differential form, are:

B E

t

= (1.8)

= D (1.9)

D J H

t

+ = (1.10)

0 = B (1.11)

Note how these equations link together the electric and the magnetic fields differently from what

happens for the static fields where they are independent each to the other. If we now assume that the

variation in time of the fields are of sinusoidal type, we could make use of the phasor vector

representation where the quantities are complex as for example:

] ) , , ( Re[ ) , , , (

jwt j

e e z y x t z y x

E E = (1.12)

It follows that:

B E jw =

= D (1.13)

D J H jw + =

0 = B

Equations (1.13) come from eqs. (1.8) to (1.11) where the common multiplicative term e

jwt

has been

removed and the time derivative is reduced as well known, to a multiplicative term jw.

The four Maxwell equations are not independent each to the other as we could easily demonstrate

(only two of the four are independent and in the following we will assume that they are the curl

equations) and as a consequence we must add other relationships in order to balance the number of

equations with the number of unknown.

The relationships we add to this aim are the so called constitutive relations relating each to the other

the two vector fields of the electric component and of the magnetic component, separately, through

the physical properties of the medium where the wave propagates into. In the following, reference

is made to the vector phasor representation.

H B =

E D = (1.14)

E J =

In eqs. (1.14) , , , are the magnetic permittivity, the dielectric constant and the electric

conducibilility of the medium. In their most general condition, the three above mentioned quantities

are tensors (square matrices 3x3). In many cases, and in all the ones we consider, the three

quantities result to be constant. The magnetic permittivity is measured in [H/m], in [C/m] and

in [

-1

m

-1

].

1.4 The wave equation

Starting from equation (1.14) we can derive the wave equations for the electric field and the

magnetic field, respectively. Let us consider the simple case of a wave travelling in the vacuum

(free space), with no source inside the space where we want to study the field distribution. In this

case and J are zero, =

0

, =

0

and =0. From equations (1.13) and (1.14) we can write:

(1.15) E E H E

2

0

= = j

being =0 it follows that the divergence of the vector field D is zero and as a consequence also

the divergence of E :

0

0 0

2

= E E

2

(1.16)

We obtain a differential equation to the second order partial derivatives (the wave equation).

To simplify the mathematical notations but without loosing generality, let us suppose that the

electromagnetic wave we want to find the solution of has the electric field vector E directed as the x

axis and propagates along the z direction. In this case, we must solve the scalar equation:

0

0 0

2

2

2

=

x

E

z

E

x

(1.17)

The solution of which is:

z jk z jk

Be Ae z

0 0

) (

+

+ =

x

E (1.18)

where

0 0 0

j k = , known as the wave number.

Equation (1.18) states that the electric field E is the sum of two terms: one represents, as we will see

in detail later, a physical wave propagating along the positive z direction, and the other term

represents a physical wave propagating along the negative z direction. In order to understand the

above statements, let us evaluate the real electric field vector under the hypotheses that the A, B

amplitudes, in general complex quantities, are real:

( ) ( ) ( ) z k t B z k t A e Be Ae t z

t j z jk z jk

0 0

cos cos ) ) Re(( ,

0 0

+ + = + =

+

e (1.19)

The first term in equation (1.19) represents a wave that, as said before, is travelling along the

positive z axis; in fact, the argument of the sinusoidal function depends at the same time on the time

and space coordinates and for increasing z values the wave suffers from a phase delay (minus sign)

as it shall happen for a physical wave. Analogously, the second term represents a wave that as z

increases its phase anticipates (plus sign) and because this should not physically possible, it follows

that this term must represent a wave travelling towards the negative z direction.

We can now analyse with greater detail one of the two terms (similar conclusions are valid also for

the other one) and derive the information about the frequency, the wavelenght and the phase

velocity of the wave.

For a given distance z=z* , we can compute the time T (period) needed to the phase of the wave to

change of 2 :

( )

2

2 2 ) ( ) (

1 2

*

0 1

*

0 2

= = = = T T t t z k t z k t (1.20)

or, fixing the time, we can evaluate the space after which we find the same phase value

(wavelenght):

( ) ( )

2 2

2 2 ) ( ) (

0

0

2 1 2 1 0 1 0

*

2 0

*

= = = = = k

k

z z z z k z k t z k t

(1.21)

To compute the phase velocity we must impose the argument of the angular function to be constant:

( )

0

0 0 0

0 0 cos

k

v

dt

dz

dz k dt z k t d t z k t

f

= = = = = (1.22)

And from the expression of k

0

seen before, it follows that:

c v

f

= =

0 0

1

(1.23)

Equation (1.23) states that the phase velocity of an electromagnetic wave that propagates in the

vacuum is equal to the speed of light and also that the phase velocity depends on the electrical

characteristics of the medium within which the wave propagates. If we remember that apart from

magnetic materials all the others have

r

very close to 1, it comes out that v

f

depends on the

dielectric characteristic of the medium and decreases with the square root of the relative dielectric

constant.

r

f

c

v

=

In order to identify completely an electromagnetic field we must identify also the distribution of the

magnetic field component H. This component is directly derivable from the Maxwell equation the

relates H (unknown) to E (known). It in fact, inappropriate to solve an equation formally equal to

(1.16) in terms of the H field because, being a second order equation, it has two solutions. Indeed

this last procedure would possibly introduce spurious, non physical, solutions.

From eq. (1.8) we obtain:

) (

1 1

0 0

0

0 z jk z jk

x y

Be Ae E

z j

H

j

+

=

= =

E H (1.24)

Notice that H has only the y component with an amplitude given by the one of the E component

multiplied by a quantity named intrinsic admittance of the medium. In the case here considered

that the medium is the free space, the intrinsic impedance (inverse of the admittance) is

0

=377 .

Note also that for the reflected waves there is a change in the sign.

In summary, the electromagnetic wave solution we have derived has the following properties:

The electric and magnetic field components are perpendicular each to the other

Both components are perpendicular to the wave direction of propagation

The ratio between the electric and magnetic field components is equal to the intrinsic

impedance of the medium

This wave is called TEM (Tranvers Elettro-Magnetic wave ).

Graphical representation of a TEM wave is given in Fig. 1-1.

1.5 Lossy media

We want generalize what presented up to now, by considering lossy media (i.e. real media).

In this case the Maxwell equations have the following form:

(1.25)

= = zH H j E

0 = D (1.26)

= + = + = yE E j E j D J H (1.27)

0 = B (1.28)

In (1.27), the term E takes into account the conduction currents within the medium we are

considering, and are associated to the Ohm losses. In the equations, we have introduced

parameters named as impedivity and ammettivity, in such a way that we can re-write the Maxwell

equations in a very simple and symmetric form. Correspondingly, the wave equation assumes this

expression:

y z, ,

0

2

= + E E

2

con (1.29)

= y z

2

The solution of eq. (1.29), under the hypothesis of electric field E directed along the x axis and the

direction of propagation along the z axis, is:

z z

Be Ae

+

+ =

x

E with j + = (1.30)

The quantities and represent the attenuation component and the phase component of the

propagation constant of the medium. Note that in the case of lossless media, is equal to zero and

the solution turns out to be the one previously derived: the wave number k coincides with . It

follows that this solution could be considered as the generalized form of the electromagnetic wave

solution.

In this case:

( ) ( ) ( ) z k t Be z k t Ae e Be Ae t z

z z t j z z

0 0

cos cos ) ) Re(( , + + = + =

+

e (1.31)

Where, for simplicity, A and B are assumed to be real quantities. From eq. (1.31) we can easily

argue, even more clearly, that the first term in the equation, with amplitude A, corresponds to a

wave travelling in the positive z direction because during its travelling the wave amplitude reduces

steadily, while the second term, for the same considerations, represents a physical wave that during

its travelling within a lossy medium reduces in amplitude only if the direction of propagation is

reversed.

The other conclusions reported before are all maintained. The intrinsic impedance of the medium

assumes the most general form:

+

= =

j

j

y

z

(1.32)

and presents both a real and an imaginary component.

As a consequence, E and H are no more in phase as it happened in a lossless medium.

1.6 Energy

To the electromagnetic wave we can associate the transport of a given amount of energy. Because

both the electric and the magnetic fields are specific quantities, we must introduce the power

density S that in case of vector phasor representation is expressed as:

*

2

1

H E S = (1.33)

where S is named Poynting vector and the asterix indicates the complex conjugate quantity. Note

that S is perpendicular to E and to H. If we now consider an electromagnetic wave propagating in

the positive z direction, with the electric field component directed as x and the magnetic field

component as y, it follows that there is only one component of the Poynting vector which is directed

towards z, having the following form:

2

2

2

1

2

1

y

x

z

H

E

S

= = (1.34)

The Poynting vector has a physical meaning only if integrated over a close surface, resulting in the

associated power.

1.7 Radiation from a point source

If the source of the electromagnetic field is at finite distance, i.e. within the space where we want to

evaluate the electromagnetic field distribution, the solution of the wave equation is no more

straightforward and requires the introduction of an intermediate vector field: the vector potential.

We avoid this approach that would require to go back to the Maxwell equations (1.13), re-write

equation (1.16) by taking into account the generators J and solve the corresponding relation. On the

contrary, we try to deduce the form of the solution using an energetic approach.

The information we obtain from this approach are sufficient for our needs.

Let us proceed according to the following logical steps:

a) Assume an isotropic source (i.e. a source irradiating uniformly in any direction) at point A,

radiating a known power P

i

, at a given frequency f. The associated power density

measurable at distance R from the emitting source, much greater than the wavelength ( =

c/f), it is given by:

2

4 R

P

S

i

i

= (1.35)

where 4R

2

represents the area of the sphere with radius equal to R.

b) According to equation (1.34) the power density associated to an electromagnetic wave is

proportional to the square of the modulus of the electric field vector E.

c) It follows that in order to have equation (1.35) coincident with eq. (1.34), the electric field

E (and as a consequence the corresponding magnetic field H) has to vary with the distance

from the source as 1/R.:

R j

e

R

A

E

= (1.36)

where A is the wave amplitude.

Fig. 1-1 Schematic representation of an electromagnetic wave at two different times

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