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The word art encompasses many meanings, including process.
Which of the following is considered an artistic process? 1.
memorization 2. human capacity 3. a tapestry 4. sculpting
5. a building
sculpting

Marc Chagall's self-portrait I and the Village can best be described
as a depiction of ____.
fantasy

An anti-commercial movement begun in the 1960s in which works
of art are conceived and executed in the mind of the artist is
known as ____.
Conceptual art

Robert Barry wrote: All of the things I know But of which I
am not At the moment thinking - 1:36PM; June 15,
1969 This is an example of a ____.
wordwork

The 19th-century painter Jean-Franois Millet wrote, "I try not to
have things look as if chance had brought them together, but as if
they had a necessary bond between them." Here, the artist is
expressing his quest for ____ in his art works.
harmony

Henri Matisse and Romare Bearden both utilize ____ to create
order and harmony in their versions of the Piano Lesson.
color and shape repetition


In his famous 1907 photograph, Alfred Stieglitz captures the
juxtaposition of the upper and lower classes on board the Kaiser
Wilhelm II ship. This photograph is titled ____.
The Steerage

African-American artist Faith Ringgold records the story of her
life and dreams on a Harlem rooftop. Her painted memories are
depicted within the framework of a(n) ____.
patchwork quilt

In Nighthawks, Edward Hopper's desolate scene of late night
diners in a city caf, the scene seems to be set in the period of the
____.
1940s

Zaha Hadid's Sheikh Zayed Bridge, connecting Abu Dhabi to the
mainland, was heavily influenced by Arabic calligraphy and arches
that mimic Middle Eastern ____.
sand dunes

Picasso protested the horror and brutality of the Spanish civil war
in his 1937 masterpiece painting known as ____.
Guernica

Examining a work of art in its historical, social, and political
____ enables you to better understand it.
context

In Betye Saar's The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, the artist is
protesting the use of Aunt Jemima as a(n) ____.
stereotype

Marcel Duchamp's Fountain is a readymade, produced from an
upside-down ____.
urinal

Images painted directly on a wall or intended to cover a wall
completely, such as Jos Clemente Orozco's Epic of American
Civilization: Hispano-American, are known as ____.
murals

Judy Chicago's triangular installation called The Dinner Party was
constructed to honor and immortalize ____.
history's notable women

The use of space and atmosphere in Max Beckmann's The Dream
could be best described as ____.
claustrophobic

In Laurie Simmons' photograph Red Library #2, the perfect room
and robot-like woman are meant to symbolize ____.
the dangers of too much order

The Roman Emperor Trajan's tomb is a(n) ____ designed to
glorify his military victories; centuries later the French adapted
this design for ____.
column; Emperor Napoleon


Suzanne Valadon's Adam and Eve subverts ____.
traditional negative Christian views of women

What civilization was obsessed with its idea of beauty, and
developed mathematical formulas for sculpting the human body
so it would achieve ideal perfection?
Classical Greeks

The 16th-century artist Leonardo da Vinci produced what is
perhaps the most famous painting in the history of Western art.
This painting is known as ____.
Mona Lisa

Glass sculptor Dale Chihuly's Fioridi Como, located in Las Vegas'
Bellagio Hotel, is a 70-foot-long ceiling piece reminiscent of the
shapes and brilliant colors of Venice's renowned ____ glass.
murano

Mexican artist Frida Kahlo is best known for her extremely
realistic and often anguished ____.
self-portraits

In Four Marilyns, Pop artist Andy Warhol participated in the
cultural ____ of the film star and icon Marilyn Monroe.
immortalization

Until modern times, art works have been primarily devoted to
____ themes.
religious



Located in Istanbul, Turkey, the ____ was built as a Christian
church in 532-537 CE but was converted to an Islamic mosque in
1453 and now serves as a museum. Its ____ is especially
wondrous, appearing to float on light streaming through its row of
windows.
Hagia Sophia; dome


In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the
simplest and most complex of the visual elements.
line

From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in
place of the word modeling?
chiaroscuro

In La Source, Prud'hon's nude figure is ____.
carefully modeled and three dimensional

A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light
into different colors is called a ____.
prism

The message or meaning in Helen Frankenthaler's amorphous
abstract Bay Side seems to lie primarily in its ____.
color

The colors opposite each other on the color wheel are ____.
complementary


Art works that utilize closely related families of color seem ____.
harmonious and soothing

Impressionist painter Claude Monet was trying to capture the
effect of ____ in his Haystack at Sunset Near Giverny.
optical color

Actual texture is primarily experienced through the sense of
____.
touch

David Gilhooly's Bowl of Chocolate Moose seems gooey and
edible. It is a visual pun that employs the use of a technique
known as ____.
trompe l'oeil

When an artist places one object in front of another to create the
illusion of depth, it is called ____.
overlapping

In works with ____, the lines are completed by the viewer.
implied line

____, in which parallel lines converge at one or more vantage
points on the horizon to create the illusion of depth, was highly
refined by ____ artists.
Linear perspective; Renaissance


American sculptor Alexander Calder is known for his mobiles,
which are excellent examples of ____.
kinetic art

Every Sunday, ____ suggests the motion of the characters by
repetition of imagery that changes slightly from frame to frame.
Dilbert

One of the best ways to create the illusion of motion on a two-
dimensional surface is by ____.
blurring outlines

When you look at a(n) ____ painting, your eyes are manipulated
to see rippling movement and afterimages.
Op art

What inspired Picasso to create his groundbreaking painting
known as Les Demoiselles d'Avignon?
African and Iberian art

The edges formed by the flesh and muscle in Edward Weston's
Knees are best described as ____.
contour lines

Mark Tansey's Landscape depicts three-dimensional massive
shapes on a two-dimensional surface, creating what is known as
____.
implied mass


Which of the following shapes can be considered a cultural
icon? 1. all of these choices 2. Chinese yin yang 3. Jewish
Star of David 4. Christian cross 5. Apple logo
all of these choices

In Martina Lopez' Heirs Come to Pass, 3, the primary technique
used to create the illusion of depth is ____.
relative size

In Emily Mary Osborne's Nameless and Friendless, ____ visually
connect and lead the viewer's eye around the composition.
gestures and glances

____ creates the illusion of roundness or three dimensionality
through the use of light and shadow on a two-dimensional
surface.
Modeling

Diagonal lines are often used to ____.
imply movement and directionality

Unlike pure, bilateral symmetry, ____ provides variety within an
overall unified composition.
approximate symmetry

Leonardo da Vinci's Proportion of the Human Figure can best be
considered an example of ____.
bilateral symmetry


Andy Warhol's grid-based composition, Ethel Scull Thirty-Six
Times, exhibits ____ due to the multidimensional and varied
views of Scull's personality and expressions.
variety within unity

____ is often a major design element in art forms such as
ceramics, basketry, jewelry, and stained glass.
Radial balance

As in Robert Capa's photograph Death of a Loyalist Soldier,
imbalance in a work of art can be used to capture a sense of ____.
movement

Palmer Hayden's The Subway represents a demographic and
ethnic cross-section of the strap-hanging riders of 1930s New
York City and thus demonstrates ____.
emphasis on variety

In Family of Saltimbanques, Picasso places visual emphasis on the
seated woman in the painting through ____.
isolation

Content can be a powerful focal point in a work of art. In Edgar
Degas' Woman Leaning near a Vase of Flowers, the focal point of
the composition is the ____.
daydreaming woman

A good architectural example of rhythmic progression can be
found in the ____ in the ceiling of the mosque at Crdoba, Spain.
arches

Count de Montizon's photograph The Hippopotamus at the
Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park is trying to communicate the
____ of the exotic animal by comparing it to the nine onlookers
behind it.
scale

The device of ____ to create unity is reflected in the ages of the
youth, their ethnicity, and their suggested bond of friendship in
Delilah Montoya's Los Jovenes (Youth).
continuity

According to Polykleitos, the head of an ideal human body should
be ____ of the total height of the body.
one eighth

The ancient Greeks developed the concept of the ____ because
they believed that it created ideal proportions in architecture.
Golden Mean

If you superimpose a diagram of a ____ over a photograph of the
East faade of the Parthenon, it is a perfect fit.
root five rectangle

Whether conscious of the mathematical basis of ancient Greek
architectural designs or not, Michelangelo utilized their
components when he painted the ____.
Sistine Chapel ceiling


In Welcome the World Famous Brand, the Luo Brothers portray
an overcrowded composition which emphasizes ____.
the convergence of consumerism and globalism

In Kay Sage's I Saw Three Cities, most of the visual weight in the
composition occurs in the lower half but is balanced in the upper
reaches of the sky by ____.
a flowing column of drapery

Variations such as the use of complementary colors and the hazy
double of the clear, detailed face of the dog contribute to make
William Wegman's Ethiopia an example of ____.
approximate symmetry

In Wu Jide's River Dwellers, patches of white and well placed
touches of color are responsible for the overall ____in an
asymmetrical and essentially monochromatic composition.
visual balance

We can discern the proper size of which of the following objects in
Magritte's Personal Values? 1. none of these choices 2. comb
3. goblet 4. matchstick 5. bed
none of these choices

Which of the following statements about the patriarchal figure in
Viola Frey's Family Portrait does not indicate his influential status
within the family?
Toys can be seen in the composition.

Although there is much variety amongst the characters in
Archibald Motley Jr.'s Saturday Night, the overall composition is
unified by ____.
a glowing red color field


The compositional unity in Thomas Hart Benton's Palisades
derives primarily from ____.
curvilinear shapes and lines

When artists focus on the unity of ideas and meaning in their
work rather than the visual and compositional elements, they are
pursuing ____.
conceptual unity

Unlike two-dimensional compositions, three-dimensional objects
such as sculptures often have ____.
actual balance

____ refers to a distinctive handling of elements and media
associated with the work of an individual artist, a school or
movement, or a specific culture or period.
Style

Oskar Kokoschka's frenzied brushstrokes in The Tempest are
thought to mirror his own ____.
inner torment

Donna Rosenthal's male and female figures in He Said...She Said
are implied by a suit and party dress made from ____.
pages of discarded books and newspapers


Compositions such as Barbara Hepworth's Two Figures are
termed ____ because they make no reference at all to nature or
reality.
Nonobjective

In Brancusi's sculpture The Kiss, the two figures are reduced to a
simple block form, much like the ____ of Pablo Picasso and
Georges Braque.
Cubism

Judy Pfaff's nonobjective painting Voodoo leads viewers to try to
find subject matter in the work based on its ____.
title

The form of an artwork includes all of the elements that make up
the composition except ____. balance 2. subject matter 3.
three dimensionality 4. texture 5. color
subject matter

The ____ of a work of art is everything that is contained in it.
content

The main narrative or subject matter of Barbara Kruger's
Untitled: We Don't Need Another Hero is ____.
gender ideology

Jacques Louis-David said "To give a body and a perfect form to
your thought, this alone is what it is to be an artist." Based on his
statement, David was most likely a(n) ____ artist.
realist


____ is the study of the themes and symbols in the visual arts:
the figures and images that lend works their underlying meanings.
Iconography

Roy Lichtenstein's Forget It, Forget Me! is an example of Pop Art
that has the visual appearance of a ____.
comic strip

The underlying symbolism in an artist's depiction of an elderly
man stooped over amongst leafless, snow-covered trees in the
depths of winter is most likely which of the following?
The man is approaching death.

Bronzino's complex allegory Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time offers
up such an iconographic puzzle that there is little doubt that he
intended to leave the viewer with a sense of ____.
ambiguity
Willie Bester's collage Semekazi (Migrant Miseries) was intended
to symbolize the ____.
oppression of South African apartheid

Jacques Louis-David was first the court painter to King Louis XVI,
but by a twist of fate ended up as painter to ____.
Napoleon Bonaparte

One of the best ways to illustrate stylistic differences between
works of art is to choose several works that have a ____.
common theme


In Robert Mapplethorpe's photography, such as Ken Moody and
Robert Sherman, he drew the world's attention to what it was like
to ____.
be gay and living in America

The setting of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's The Two Girlfriends
takes place in ____.
turn-of-the-century Paris

Context has a profound influence on style. Artworks are very
much a product of ____.
their culture at a moment in time

____ refers to the portrayal of people and things as they actually
are, with no idealization or distortion.
Realism

____ is both a very realistic portrait of rural life in America and
an icon of American art due to its many commercial reproductions
on cereal boxes, greeting cards, posters, and the like.
Grant Wood's American Gothic

The couple in Lichtenstein's Forget It, Forget Me! are not very
realistic but they are clearly recognizable. The painting is
therefore a good example of ____.
representational art


The artist Jacques Lipchitz said "Copy nature and you infringe on
the work of our Lord. Interpret nature and you are an artist."
Based on this comment, Lipchitz was probably not a(n) ____
artist.
realistic

In expressionistic art, the artist intentionally distorts colors and
forms in the composition in order to achieve a(n) ____.
heightened emotional impact

Broadly defined, ____ is the art of running an implement that
leaves a mark over a surface.
drawing

From the Latin for "blood," ____ is the name associated with an
earthy red chalk color.
sanguine

To achieve the subtle tonal contrasts in his Portrait of a Woman,
Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux created a hazy atmosphere through the
use of ____.
soft chalk on coarse paper

Edgar Degas was one of the masters of pastel drawing in 19th-
century France. In ____, Degas depicted one of his favorite
subjects.
Woman at Her Toilette


Jaune Quick-to-See Smith's The Environment: Be a Shepherd is
reminiscent of a ____ due to its simple forms and sketchy
manner.
mental sketchbook

Many of the artist Chuck Close's unidealized portraits, such as Self
Portrait/Conte Crayon, are based on a ____, which produces
blurry photographic likenesses.
grid transfer method

After meeting Ms. Mary Lou Furcron, African American artist
Beverly Buchanan's life and art have focused on ____, as seen in
Henriette's Yard.
southern shack dwellers

The oldest known type of ink is India or China ink, made from a
solution of ____.
carbon black and water

Pen and ink are used to create drawings, such as Jean Dubuffet's
Garden, that are essentially ____.
linear

As in Giovanni Battista Tiepolo's Hagar and Ishmael in the
Wilderness, wash provides a ____ absent in pen-and-ink
drawings.
tonal emphasis


____ artists are masters of the brush-and-ink medium. They have
used it for centuries for all types of ____.
Japanese; calligraphy


With a drawing, the quality of line and the nature of shading are
very much affected by the ____ of the support.
texture

The medium of brush and wash is more versatile than brush and
ink, as seen in Leonardo da Vinci's Study of Drapery. It is so
realistic that it is almost ____.
photographic

In its original meaning, a ____ was a full-scale preliminary
drawing executed on paper for projects such as frescoes, stained
glass, oil paintings, or tapestries.
cartoon

Which of the following drawing materials cannot be smudged or
rubbed for a hazy effect? 1. chalk 2. silverpoint 3. charcoal
4. pastel 5. pencil
silverpoint

Dr. Seuss, famous for his children's books, worked for a New York
tabloid newspaper as chief editorial cartoonist during ____.
World War II

Honor Daumier's pen and ink drawing, The Three Lawyers, is a
caricatured illustration of ____.
pompous, superficial lawyers


Rembrandt copied ____ but added some additional features to
his own sketched version.
Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper

Michelangelo's Studies for the Libyan Sybil is a good example of a
drawing that was meant to be used ____.
as a preparatory study for another project

The unforgiving medium of ____ was widely used for drawing
from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s, when it was largely
replaced by the lead pencil.
silverpoint

In silverpoint drawings, the drawing surface must be coated with
a ground of ____.
bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment

A form of charcoal was used by our primitive ancestors to create
images on ____.
cave walls

The effects of ____ when each is drawn against a paper surface
are very similar.
charcoal, chalk, and pastel

Claudio Bravo's Package is an excellently executed trompe l'oeil
drawing that presents the illusion of a package wrapped in ____.
crumpled brown paper and string


The binding agent that powdered pigment is mixed with to form
paint is known as the ____.
vehicle

The transition to oil paint in the 14th and 15th centuries was
gradual. For many years, it was only used for ____ in order to
give the paintings a high sheen.
glazing

Rembrandt used ____ to create his oil-on-board painting of the
Head of St. Matthew.
impasto

When a painter's oil paint becomes too thick, he has to thin it with
a ____.
medium of turpentine

Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein's portrait of George Washington is an
oil-on-canvas image that most resembles a(n) ____.
comic-book hero

Contemporary artist Ed Paschke's Anesthesio composition has
been "defaced" by ____, thus obscuring Lincoln's portrait.
abstract patches of neon-like color

____ is a mixture of pigment and a synthetic resin vehicle that
can be thinned with water.
Acrylic


Helen Oji's Mount St. Helen's is an opaque impasto composition
in the shape of a ____.
Japanese kimono

In Roger Shimomura's Untitled painting, he has blended
traditional Japanese imagery with American cartoon characters
and includes a self-portrait in which he is depicted as ____.
the Statue of Liberty

Contemporary watercolor is referred to as ____, made up of
pigments and a vehicle of ____.
aquarelle; gum arabic

____ was the principal painting medium during the Byzantine
and Romanesque eras of Christian art.
Gouache

True fresco, or ____, is executed on damp ____.
buon fresco; lime plaster

The fluidity and portability of watercolor has often lent itself
to____.
rapid sketches and preparatory studies

Master graffiti artists almost always add "tags" to their artworks,
which are ____.
stylized signatures

The Synthetic Cubists were the first to create papiers colls, or
collages, in the early 20th century. The two major figures of this
movement were ____. Picasso and Braque

Miriam Schapiro's Maid of Honour is a paint-and-fabric
construction that she labeled ____.
femmage

Ralph Going's Rock Ola is a contradiction of what we normally
consider when we think of a watercolor on paper because the work
is considered to be ____.
Photorealism

Gilbert Stuart's 18th-century traditional portrait of George
Washington achieves a realistic likeness largely through ____.
modeling

In Giotto's 14th-century painting Lamentation, joints can clearly
be seen that break the blue sky into numerous sections. This
occurred because of the ____.
limitations of fresco

The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tinted their sculptures with
____ to give them a lifelike appearance.
encaustic

The traditional composition of tempera, rarely used today,
consisted of ____.
egg, pigment, and water

____ was the exclusive painting medium of artists during the
Middle Ages.
Tempera


In both tempera and oil painting, the surface of the wood or
canvas is covered with a ground of powdered chalk or plaster and
animal glue known as ____.
Gesso

Fifteenth-century artist Gentile da Fabriano applied thinly
hammered sheets of gold to his Adoration of the Magi tempera
panel using a technique known as ____.
gilding

The working surface from which a print is made is called a ____.
matrix

____ is the only printmaking process in which prints can be
rendered in paint as well as ink.
Serigraphy

Etching is a very versatile medium. In Henri Matisse's Loulou in a
Flowered Hat, he used ____ to represent the essential features of
a woman.
only a few uniformly etched lines

The popularity of relief printing declined with the introduction of
the ____ process, which did not appear until the 15th century.
intaglio

In works such as her Untitled mixed-media print of Chinese girls,
Hung Liu's purpose is to ____.
highlight the degradation of previous generations of Chinese
women

Which of the following types of printmaking is not an essentially
linear media? 1. drypoint 2. woodblock 3. mezzotint 4.
engraving 5. etching
mezzotint

In the 17th century, a Dutchman developed a technique for
mezzotint, from the Italian for ____, in which the metal plate is
worked over with a multi-toothed tool called a ____.
half-tint; hatcher

Mezzotint is rarely used because____.
it is a painstaking and time consuming procedure

In The Painter and His Model, Picasso was able to approximate
the effects of mezzotint with a much simpler technique known as
____.
aquatint

Aquatint is frequently used along with line etching to mimic the
effects produced by ____.
wash drawings

____ is a type of etching that can be used to produce the effects of
crayon or pencil drawings.
Soft-ground etching

The oldest form of printmaking is ____, and most likely the first
people to use it were the ancient ____.
woodcut; Chinese


The 20th-century American abstract artist Josef Albers created
Solo V, an inkless intaglio technique known as ____.
gauffrage

Lithography, invented in the beginning of the 19th century by a
German playwright, is a planographic, or ____, printing process
in which a ____ is used.
surface; stone slab

Chinese artist Wang Guangyi's Great Criticism: Coca-Cola is a
____ that resembles a commercially produced propaganda
poster.
color lithograph

Serigraphy, or silkscreen, was first developed for use as a(n) ____
medium, a fitting medium because Pop artist ____ used it to
create Four Multi-colored Marilyns
commercial; Andy Warhol

A monotype differs from all other printmaking techniques
because ____.
it only yields a single, unique image

The female image in Red Coat by Alex Katz is most reminiscent of
a ____.
supermodel icon

Zhao Xiaomo's Family by the Lotus Pond is a ____. The areas
that were not meant to be printed were carved out ____ the
surface of the wood. woodcut; below

Woodcuts make use of the flat surface of wooden boards, but
wood engravings use the end sections of the boards, yielding a
____ surface.
hard, non-directional

In Paul Landacre's Growing Corn, we see a good example of the
____ that can be obtained from the skillful use of wood
engraving.
precise lines and tonal gradations

Intaglio prints are made from ____ into which lines have been
incised.
metal plates

In the ____ process, the artist creates clean-cut lines on a plate of
copper, zinc, or steel by forcing a sharp burin across the surface
with the heel of the hand.
engraving

In creating his Christ Crucified between Two Thieves, Rembrandt
used a drypoint needle in order to create ____.
soft, velvety lines

Etching is an intaglio process in which the matrix is covered with
a waxy substance and the design is drawn into this substance. The
completed matrix drawing is then put into a(n) ____.
acid bath that etches the exposed areas of the matrix


The advent of the camera replaced the age-old need of art to
imitate nature as closely as possible, and this change, in turn, led
to the development of 20th century artistic ____.
abstraction

The Artist's Studio, taken in 1837, was the first photograph of its
kind and was produced on silver-plated copper by ____.
Daguerre

William Henry Fox Talbot's first "photogenic drawings" were
eerie, delicate photographs of ____, produced from a ____.
plants; negative

After the daguerreotype, the next major advance in the history of
photography was the development of the ____ process, an
example of which is Young Lady with an Umbrella.
autochrome

By the 1850s, photographic portrait studios became quite popular
and began to serve the needs of ____.
a growing middle class

Alexander Gardner's Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg is
a graphic photo taken during the ____, probably from a camera
in a wagon known as a ____.
United States Civil War; Whatsit

Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother is a touching photograph taken
during the period of ____.
the Great Depression


Margaret Bourke-White wrote, "Using the camera was almost a
relief; it interposed a slight barrier between myself and the white
horror in front of me..." Here, Bourke-White is describing ____.
Buchenwald during the Holocaust

Edward Steichen's ____, taken in 1906, is one of the foremost
early examples of the photograph as a work of art
The Flatiron Building-Evening

Which of the following photographers is not known also for his or
her work in other artistic media? 1. David Hockney 2. William
Wegman 3. Sandy Skoglund 4. James VanDerZee 5. Cindy
Sherman
James VanDerZee

William Wegman's Blue Period is a canine spoof on ____.
Picasso's Old Guitarist

The word photography is derived from Greek roots that mean
____.
to write with light

A flash or whirl of abruptly changing newspaper headlines meant
to indicate the progression of time and events in a film is known
as a ____.
montage

Which classic early color film depicted real life in black and white
and imaginary life in expressionistic color?
The Wizard of Oz

Dara Birnbaum's multimedia installation PM Magazine
appropriated images from the network show of the same title in
an effort to focus on ____.
the exploitation of women

Salvador Dal and Luis Buuel's 1928 surrealistic film Un Chien
Andalou was intended by the creators to ____.
evoke instinctive reactions of repulsion and attraction

Robert Lazzarini's computer altered study for Payphone is
intended to ____.
compel the viewer to take a new look at the familiar

In both the camera and the ____, light enters a narrow opening
and is projected onto a photosensitive surface.
human eye

When a camera shutter opens for a few thousandths of a second
over and over in quick succession, ____ shots are being taken.
candid

A(n) ____ magnifies faraway objects and collapses the spaces
between ordinarily distant objects.
telephoto lens

The "active layer" of film contains a(n) ____ of small particles of
____.
emulsion; silver halide


With a Polaroid camera, the photograph appears before your eyes.
This is an example of ____ film.
color reversal

Higher quality photographs are said to have higher ____.
resolution

The first photographic process to leave a permanent image was
invented in 1826 and known as ____.
heliography

Michelangelo's The Cross-Legged Captive is an example of ____
sculpture.
subtractive

Due to its ____, clay is frequently used to make three-
dimensional preparatory sketches for other sculptures.
weakness

In his Apollo and Daphne, the Italian Baroque sculptor Bernini
captured the softness of flesh and the textures of hair, leaves, and
bark, thereby showing us the potential of ____ as a sculptural
material.
marble

In recent years, artists have produced ____ sculptures by
welding, riveting, and soldering.
direct-metal


Referring to sculptures such as ____, art critic Robert Hughes
said such works were "everything that statues had not been: not
monolithic, but open, not cast or carved, but assembled from flat
planes."
Picasso's Mandolin and Clarinet

Claes Oldenburg's Soft Toilet elevates an everyday object to a
work of art and forces us to rethink its function in society. This is
an example of ____.
Pop art

Betye Saar's Ancestral Spirit Chair is constructed of ____.
tree branches capped by salt shakers

Made from the seat and handlebars of an old bicycle, ____ is
probably the best known assemblage of all time.
Picasso's Bull Head

According to Marcel Duchamp, the function of a readymade was
to ____.
prompt the viewer to think and think again

The Simon Rodia Towers in Watts, coated with glass, tile, shells,
and dishes, took 33 years to erect. It an example of a(n) ____.
mixed media assemblage

The American sculptor ____ was one of the early pioneers of
the ____, the first form of art that made motion a basic element.
Calder; mobile


Which of the following is not an additive sculptural process? 1.
Welding 2. Constructing 3. Carving 4. Casting 5.
Modeling
Carving

Of the following, which material is more commonly used in
assemblages?
wood

Edgar Degas' The Little Dancer was exhibited as a wax model in
1881 and later produced in ____.
bronze

Concerning his Cluster of Four Cubes, George Rickey wrote, "The
cubes glide, nearly brushing one another in an intricate and
graceful dance that belies their apparent bulk." This is an example
of a ____.
kinetic sculpture

Light sculptor Dan Flavin primarily designs using ____.
fluorescent tubes

The painful realism of Kiki Smith's figures, complete with body
parts and bodily fluids, was likely influenced by her career as a(n)
____.
emergency medical technician

Janine Antoni's 600-pound cube, titled Gnaw, is made of ____
and sculpted by ____.
chocolate; teeth

____ is very likely the most demanding type of sculpture because
the artist must have a clear concept of the final product from the
very beginning of the process.
Carving

All but one of the following materials can be used for casting.
Which one cannot? 1. Concrete 2. Wood 3. Iron 4. Bronze
5. Wax
Wood

In the lost wax process, molten metal is poured into a fire-
resistant mold known as a(n) ____.
investiture

Sherry Levine's Fountains after Duchamp pays homage to Marcel
Duchamp's original Dada "readymade" and is a classic example of
____.
appropriation art

In sculptural works such as Three Figures and Four Benches,
George Segal produces plaster replicas of people who seem very
____.
isolated

Louise Nevelson said, "I began using found objects. I had all this
wood lying around and I began to move it around, I began to
compose." Nevelson's compositions are considered ____.
assemblages

Wood has more tensile strength than stone, meaning that it can be
____ more.
bent and stretched
Site-specific works are distinguished from other artworks in that
they are produced ____.
in or for one location

Cai Guo Qiang's classic example of ephemeral art, Transient
Rainbow, came and went in about ____ in June of 2002.
15 seconds

Daniel Libeskind's zigzag design for his extension of the Berlin
Museum was derived mathematically from plotting the addresses
of ____.
Jewish artists killed in the Holocaust

Michelangelo's David was originally installed as a public work of
art for the ____ in Florence.
Piazza della Signoria

One of the most beloved public sculptures in America is Emma
Stebbins' Angel of the Waters, located ____.
in New York's Central Park

A ____, located at the entrance to Barcelona's Parc Guell, has
become a favorite symbol of the city.
mosaic serpent by Gaudi

Antoni Gaudi was known for his ____ that helped define the
Modernista style in Catalonia, Spain.
playful, organic forms


Located in Chicago's Millennium Park, Anish Kapoor's ____ is
nicknamed ____ because of its elliptical shape.
Cloud Gate; the bean

The Cow Parades, turning up in every style and theme imaginable
in many cities worldwide, are considered ____.
public art

The primary purpose of ____ is to preserve memories of persons
or events.
monuments

Probably the most ubiquitous type of monument depicts a man on
horseback, known as a(n) ____ statue.
equestrian

Andy Goldsworthy's Ice Piece was produced using ____.
his breath

The Oklahoma City National Memorial is a multipart memorial
site that incorporates a number of symbolic elements, the most
arresting being the ____.
Field of Empty Chairs

Which of the following is central to Peter Eisenman's Holocaust
Memorial in Berlin?
a sense of loss and absence

Peter Eisenman placed 2711 gray, concrete ____ side by side to
create a sense of claustrophobia at the Berlin Holocaust
Memorial.
stelae

Which of the following monuments is considered a traditional
triumphal design? 1. Oklahoma City Memorial 2. Berlin
Holocaust Memorial 3. Vietnam Veterans Memorial 4. none
of these choices 5. National World War II Memorial
National World War II Memorial

Which of the following statements about the Vietnam Veterans
Memorial is not correct? 1. It has 200 foot long black granite
walls. 2. The designer was a 22 year old Chinese American
woman. 3. There is a large label that states who is being
memorialized. 4. The work is antiheroic and antitriumphal. 5.
One must descend into the ground to read the list of names.
There is a large label that states who is being memorialized.

Which of the following was designed to be a site-specific work?
New York City's Washington Arch

Goldsworthy's Storm King Wall snakes through fields and around
trees, ____ and reappears to continue along the landscape.
dips into a pond

For The Ice Cube Project, Marco Evaristti and his crew ____ on
an almost 10,000 square foot iceberg off the Greenland coast.
sprayed red dye

In Robert Smithson's Yucatan Mirror Displacements, the mirrors
transform the environment by interrupting the ____.
natural setting


Walter de Maria's The Lightning Field is considered a spectacular
example of ____.
land art

For The Gates, Christo and Jeanne-Claude installed ____
throughout Central Park in February of 2005.
saffron colored fabric panels

Which artist used their body as a building site for miniature
dwellings for the work entitled Landscape-Body-Dwelling?
Charles Simonds

For her "Volcano" Series, Ana Mendieta marked the presence of
____ in the landscape using various methods and materials.
her body

The Native American dwellings at Mesa Verde, Colorado used
____ as part of the back support for more than one hundred
rectangular ____.
cliff walls; apartments

Because it rests on a square base, the dome of the Hagia Sophia in
Constantinople is supported by four triangular surfaces known as
____.
pendentives

In Hiroshi Sugimoto's Go-oh Shrine, by using both smooth and
rough areas of wood and stone, the architect reveals that his
primary emphasis is to create contrasts in ____.
texture

____, primarily used for covering roofs of structures, acquire
their strength from the fact that the sides of a triangle, once
joined, cannot be forced out of shape.
Trusses

Originally a derisive term, ____ uses mass produced, light, easily
handled cuts of wood and metal nails for the assembly of millions
of homes and small buildings on site.
balloon framing

Richard Morris Hunt's Griswold House, built in 1863, was
designed in the short-lived ____ style. Its exterior treatment
resembled an assemblage of matchsticks with many turrets,
gables, and dormers.
Stick

The 17,000 almost identical small homes built in post-World War
II Levittown, New York, are a reflection of the ____.
need for mass suburban housing for growing metropolitan areas

Nineteenth-century industrialization led to the development of
____ as a building material, and it was the first material to allow
the erection of tall buildings with relatively slender walls.
cast iron

Louis Sullivan's rigid horizontal and vertical processions of faade
elements that suggest the regularity of the spaces within his
Wainwright Building reinforce Sullivan's famous motto that
____.
"form follows function"


The Eiffel Tower's magnificent iron trusses were ____.
prefabricated

The original idea for reinforced concrete began in the 1860s with
Jacques Monier, who proposed strengthening concrete ____ with
wire mesh.
flowerpots

The prehistoric Stonehenge is one of the earliest examples of
____ construction, in which two stones were set vertically and a
third stone laid across them, creating an opening beneath.
post-and-lintel

Which of the following structures did Tokyo architect Shigeru Ban
not design? 1. Paper Refugee shelter 2. MOMA paper-tube
arch 3. Nomadic Museum 4. Paper museum 5. Pod House
Pod House

In Frank Lloyd Wright's famous "Fallingwater," he made use of
reinforced concrete to produce ____.
cantilevered decks

Which of the following statements about steel cable construction,
first used to build the Brooklyn Bridge, is not true? 1. It has
great tensile strength. 2. It is flexible, allowing the roadway
underneath to sway. 3. It can be aesthetically pleasing. 4. Its
many parallel wires share the stress. 5. It can only span very
short distances.
It can only span very short distances.


____ designed a type of shell architecture for the American
Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal known as the ____.
Buckminster Fuller; geodesic dome

The assertive clashing of shapes in Frank Gehry's high-tech Ray
and Maria Stata Center at MIT symbolizes ____.
the diverse disciplines that will be housed in the structure

Peter Testa believes we "need to rethink how we assemble
buildings" and has designed a high-rise tower out of ____.
woven carbon fiber

The Incan fortress of Machu Picchu is considered to be ____
construction, as it was built without any mortar.
dry masonry

The interior of the Egyptian temple of Amen-Re at Karnak is
cluttered by a forest of columns because of the ____.
weight of the massive stone lintels

One of the best preserved ancient Roman aqueduct systems is the
____ near Nimes, France. The ____ of the limestone blocks
allowed for the weight of three tiers of arches.
Pont du Gard; compressive strength

The Church of St. Michael at Hildesheim, Germany, built in the
Ottonian period (1001-1031), has square bays and its walls are
blank and massive. This is due to its ____.
barrel vaulting


____ are constructed by placing barrel vaults at right angles to
cover a square space known as a ____.
Groin vaults; bay

The Church of St. tienne was one of the first cathedrals to use
true ribbed vaulting, allowing a(n) ____ to be pierced through
the walls from which light could enter the nave of the church.
clerestory

The Gothic, pointed arch church of Notre-Dame of Paris is bathed
in light due to its ample ____.
fenestration