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# CHAPTER 1

WAVES.

Learning Objective
1.1 Understanding waves
Learning Outc!es
A student is able to :
Describe what is meant by wave motion.
Recognise that waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
Compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give examples of each.
State what is meant by a wavefront.
State the direction of propagation of waves in relation to wavefronts
Define
i. amplitude
ii. period,
iii. freuency,
iv. wavelength,
v. wave speed.
S!etch and interpret a displacement"time graph for a wave.
S!etch and interpret a displacement"distance graph for a wave,
S!etch and interpret a displacement"time graph for a wave.
S!etch and interpret a displacement"distance graph for a wave,
Clarify the relationship between speed, wavelength and freuency
Solve problems involving speed, wavelength and freuency.
Describe damping in a oscillating system.
Describe resonance in a oscillating system.
#.\$ill in the blan!s by choosing a words given.
parallel perpendicular rarefaction trough compression crest
a% &he wave that travels along the spring consists of a series compression.and
'#%rarefaction.
b% A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the vibratiton of the medium is'(% parallel to
the direction of propagation of the wave.
c% A transverse wave is produced when the vibration of the medium is')% perpendicular
to the direction of propagation of wave.
d% &he wavelength is the distance between two ad*acent'+% crest or two ad*acent
',%trough.
1
(. -atch the following terms with the meaning given.
&erms -eaning
.avefront # )
&he displacement of a crest or
a trough from the euilibrium
position of a wave.
.avelength ( +
&he number of waves
produced by a source in one
unit time.
Amplitude ) (
&he distance between two
phase on wave.
\$reuency +
# /ines *oining all points of the
same phase.
.avespeed , ,
&he measurement of how fast
a crest is moving from a fixed
point.
0eriod 1
1 &ime ta!en for an oscillation to
complete one cycle.
). Complete the chart given below with suitable words.
a% '#2%3333333 'Damping4 5nterference% in an oscillating system occurs
when the oscillating system loses energy to the surroundings, usually in the
form of heat energy.
b% 5n a damping oscillation, period and '##%333333.3' freuency4velocity%
remain constant while amplitude decreases.
c% State three causes of damping in an oscillating system:
i% '#(% 333333333333 '6ravitational force 4\$rictional force%
ii% '#)%333333333333 'Air resistance4 .ater resistance%
iii%'#+%333333333333 'Sound energy 4 Chemical energy%
&he examples of damping in oscillating system are simple pendulum,
+. \$igure shows the displacement"distance and displacement 7time graphs of an
oscillating system.
2
\$rom the graphs determine the33.
a) 0eriod: 0.4 s (1)
b) \$reuency: f 8 #4& 8 # 42.+ 8 (., 9:'(%
c) .avelength : from displacement-distance graph, = 4 cm.(3)
d) Speed of the waves.:; 8 f , (., < +8 #2.2cm s
"# '
+%

Learning Objective
1." Ana#\$sing rer%#ectin % waves
Learning Outc!es
A student is able to :
Describe reflection of waves in terms of the angle of incidence, angle of reflection,
wavelength, freuency, speed and direction of propagation.
.
Draw a diagram to show reflection of waves.

#. Diagram #.# and #.( shows water waves and sound waves propagating towards a
reflector.

Diagram #.#
3
=ormal
Direction of reflected
waves
5ncident
wavefront

Diagram #.(
a% .aves that propagate after the incident waves collides with barrier is
!nown as a '#%333333'refraction4 reflection%
b% Complete the diagrams #.# and #.( with correct direction of waves.
c% .ith refrence to diagram #.# and #.(,compare the wavelenght, freuency,speed and
direction of propagation of the reflected wave with the incident wave. \$ill in the
blan!s.
)..avelength remains
unchanged
+.\$reuency remains
unchanged
,.Speed remains
unchange
1.
Direction of the propagation
changes
d% State the principal of the reflection of waves.
Angle of reflection = angle of incident.7.
(. 5n certain places li!e harbours, recreational beaches or seaside residential areas,
concrete walls are built to '#2%33333.'reflect4refract% sea waves in order to
protect the beaches from erosion.
Learning Objective
1.& Ana#\$sing re%ractin % waves
Learning Outc!es
A student is able to :
4
describe refraction of waves in terms angle of incidence, angle of refraction,
wavelength, freuency , speed and direction of propagation.
Draw a diagram to show refraction of waves.

#.\$igure below shows the plane waves approaching a convex"shaped shallow area.

Complete the diagram by drawing the wavefronts of the waves entering the shallow area.
'# 'for direction% ( 'for pattern of waves%
2. Diagram below shows the phenomena of refraction of water wave of the sea water

1. Why are the speed and wavelength of waves in the middle of the sea almost
uniform?
The depth of water in the middle of the sea is almost uniform.
2. Why do the distances between the wavefronts decrease as the waves approach the
beach?
n approaching the beach! the depth of water decreases. The speed of waves
decreaes and the wavelength is decreased.
3. Why is the water in the bay stationary compared to the water at the cape?
i. The bay is '>%.333333.'shallower4deeper% area compare the cape.
ii. The energy of the water wave spreads to a wider area as compared to the region
near the cape
iii The amplitude of the water wave near the bay is low and hence the water at the bay
is comparatively still.
"
Shallow area
Deep area
Deep area
5ncident waves
1.' Ana#\$sing di%%ractin % waves
Learning Outc!es
A student is able to
describe diffraction of waves in terms of wavelength, freuency, speed, direction of
propagation and shape of waves,
draw a diagram to show diffraction of waves.
#. Diagram # shows a listener who is able to hear the sound of the radio behind the wall of
a building.

Diagram #.
=ame the wave phenomenon shown in the diagram above

'#% (i%%ractin
(. Diagram )a and )b shows water waves passing through a narrow gap and a wider gap
respectively.
'(% ')%

#
Diagram )a Diagram )b
'a% Complete diagrams )a and )b above to show the wave pattern after passing through
the gaps.
'b% State the relationship between the
i% wavelength and si:e of the gaps
'+% T)e greater t)e wave#engt) c!*are t t)e si+e % t)e ga* t)e greater is t)e
ii% the si:e of the gap and the wave pattern formed.

',% T)e greater t)e si+e % t)e ga* t)e s*reading % t)e wave%rnt wi## bec!e
#ess.
+. Diagram + shows light from a laser pen is diffracted if it passes through a narrow slit
comparable in si:e to its wavelength.

'a% 5n the space below , draw and label the diffraction pattern of light through a narrow
slit.

\$
'b% As the light passes through the single slit , it is diffracted to produce a wide brig)t
%ringe fringe at the centre.
'c% After diffraction , interference also occur to produce alternate bright and dar, fringes
at the side of the middle bright fringe.
'd% &he bright fringe is caused by cnstructive interference and the dar! fringe is
produced by - destructive interference.
.. /nter%erence % Waves
Learning Outc!es
A student is able to :
state the principle of superposition
explain the interference of waves
draw interference patterns
interpret interference patterns
apply the following formula in problem solving

D
ax
=
#. State the 0rinciple of Superposition of waves.
W)en tw waves inter%ered - t)e resu#ting dis*#ace!ent is t)e a#gebraic
su! % t)e dis*#ace!ents % t)e individua# waves.
(. 5nterference is the superposition of two coherent waves. &wo waves are coherent if
they have the same wavelength , same %re0uenc\$ and constant *)ase di%%erence.
). Complete the table below
%
1a2
Su*er*sitin
% tw crests Constructive
interference
1b2
Su*er*sitin
% tw
trug)s
Constructive
interference
1c2
Su*er*sitin
% a crest and
a trug)
Destructive
interference
+. Diagram + shows an interference pattern produced by two coherent sources 0 and ?

A =
0 ?
Diagram +
&
A3 Antinda# #ine - 4 5 4da# #ine
5n the diagram above , draw and label ne antinodal and ne nodal line.
,. Complete the table below to compare sound and light waves.
/ight Sound
Constructive
interference
@right fringes Lud sund
Destructive
interference
(ar, %ringe S%t sund
1.Diagram 1 shows an experiment to study the interference of light waves.
Diagram 1
'a% .hat is meant by monochromatic light A
Lig)t wit) ne c#ur6ne wave#engt)
'b% 5n the boxes above , label a , x and D where
a 8 distance between " surces % waves
x 8 distance between " brig)t %ringes
D 8 *er*endicu#ar distance between waves surce t t)e *sitin w)ere 7 is
!easured.
'c % .hat is the relationship between a, x, D and BA
1'

D
ax
=
'd % Calculate the wavelength of light used if a 8 2. ( mm , x 8 ) mm , and D is + m.

B 8
4
( 1' 3 () 1' 2 . ' )
3 3
x x
* '.1" + 1'
,#
* 1." + 1'
,\$
m
C &wo loud spea!ers placed ( m apart are connected to an audio signal generator
that is ad*usted to produce sound waves of freuency ,,2 9:. &he detection of
loud and soft sounds as a person moves along a line is at +.2 m from the
loudspea!ers. &he distance between ( consecutive loud sounds is 2., m.
Calculate the
'a% .avelength of the sound waves.
=
4
( " . ' () 2 )
= 0.25 m
'b% speed of the sound waves.
! = f =""0 # 0.\$" = 137." ms
-1
1.8 Sund Waves
Learning Outc!es
A student is able to :
describe sound waves
explain how the loudness relates to amplitude.
explain how the pitch relates to freuency.
describe applications of reflection of sound waves.
calculate distances using the reflection of sound waves.
#. \$ill in the blan!s.
'a% Sound waves are longitudinal waves .
'b% Sound waves are produced when a vibrating ob*ect causes air molecules around
it to vibrate and producing a series of compression and rarefaction .
(. Diagram ( shows a tuning for! producing sound waves.
11
Diagram (
'a% /abel the wavelength
'b% /abel areas of compression and rarefaction
). Complete the concept map below.
Learning Outc!es
+. Diagram + shows a submarine transmitting ultrasonic waves directed at a big roc! on
12
/ow pitch, loud sound, soft sound, high pitch
Sound
waves
pitch
depends on
freuency
loudness
depends on
amplitude
the sea bed. After sometime, the submarine detects the wave again.
'a% State the wave
phenomenon
involved.
Reflection
'b% State ( reasons
why the submarine used ultrasonic wave but not ordinary sound wave.
#. Ultrasonic has high frequency
(. Ultrasonic can be reflected easily
'c% Calculate the distance of the submarine from the big roc! if the submarine
detects the second wave after #., seconds. D;elocity of ultrasonic wave 8
#,12 m s
"#
E

d =
2
vt
=
2
" . 1 1"#'
= 1170 m
'd% State ( other applications of sound waves.
#. Sonar- using ultrasound to lacate underwater obects .
(. Ultrasound scanner ! use to scan and capture image of a fetus in a
mother"s womb#
Learning Objective
1.9 Ana#\$sing e#ectr!agnetic s*ectru!
Learning Outc!es
A student is able to:
13
D5A6RA- +.

Describe the electromagnetic spectrum
State that visible light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum
/ist sources of electromagnetic waves.
Describe the properties of electromagnetic waves
Describe applications of electromagnetic waves
Describe the detrimental effects of excessive exposure to certain
electromagnetic spectrum.
#. Diagram # show the electromagnetic spectrum. .rite the names of the electromagnetic
waves in the boxes provided.

Diagram #
(. Flectromagnetic waves are transverse waves ,consisting of e#ectric fields and
magnetic fields vibrating *er*endicu#ar to each other.
). :a!!a ra\$s has the highest freuency and the s)rtest wavelength.
+. /ist + properties of electromagnetic waves.
T)e\$ trans%er energ\$ %r! ne *#ace t ant)er.
T)e\$ are transverse waves
T)e\$ can trave# t)rug) a vacuu!
T)e\$ trave# at a s*eed % a**r7i!ate#\$ & 7 1;
<
! s
31
in vacuu!
T)e\$ a## s)w t)e wave *r*erties = re%#ectin- re%ractin- di%%ractin
and inter%erence
T)e\$ carr\$ n c)arge
T)e\$ can be e!itted and absrbed b\$ !atter
,. Diagram ( show electromagnetic waves. -atch the correct source by drawing lines from
the boxes to the respective sources.
14
1. =ame the electromagnetic wave which is used in the following appliance: