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Durian trees are large, growing to 2550 metres (80164 ft) in height depending on the species!

4" #he lea$es are e$ergreen,

elliptic to o%long and 1018 centimetres (4& in) long #he flowers are produced in three to thirt' clusters together on large
%ranches and directl' on the trun( with each flower ha$ing a cal') (sepals) and fi$e (rarel' four or si)) petals Durian trees
ha$e one or two flowering and fruiting periods per 'ear, though the timing $aries depending on the species, culti$ars, and
localities * t'pical durian tree can %ear fruit after four or fi$e 'ears #he durian fruit can hang from an' %ranch and matures
roughl' three months after pollination #he fruit can grow up to +0 centimetres (12 in) long and 15 centimetres (6 in) in
diameter, and t'picall' weighs one to three (ilograms (2 to & l%)!4" ,ts shape ranges from o%long to round, the colour of its
hus( green to %rown, and its flesh pale-'ellow to red, depending on the species!4" *mong the thirt' (nown species of
Durio, nine of them ha$e %een identified as producing edi%le fruits. D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. grandiflorus, D. graveolens,
D. kutejensis, D. lowianus, D. macrantha, D. oxleyanus and D. testudinarum!5" /owe$er, there are man' species for which
the fruit has ne$er %een collected or properl' e)amined, so other species with edi%le fruit ma' e)ist!4" #he durian is
somewhat similar in appearance to the 0ac(fruit, an unrelated species
Durian flowers are usuall' closed during the da'time
#he name durian comes from the 1ala' word duri (thorn) together with the suffi) -an (for %uilding a noun in 1ala')!6"!&"
D. zibethinus is the onl' species commerciall' culti$ated on a large scale and a$aila%le outside of its nati$e region 2ince
this species is open-pollinated, it shows considera%le di$ersit' in fruit colour and odour, si3e of flesh and seed, and tree
phenolog' ,n the species name, zibethinus refers to the ,ndian ci$et, Viverra zibetha #here is disagreement regarding
whether this name, %estowed %' 4innaeus, refers to ci$ets %eing so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as %ait to
entrap them, or to the durian smelling li(e the ci$et!8"
Durian flowers are large and feather' with copious nectar, and gi$e off a hea$', sour and %utter' odour #hese features are
t'pical of flowers pollinated %' certain species of %ats that eat nectar and pollen!5" *ccording to research conducted in
1ala'sia in the 15&0s, durians were pollinated almost e)clusi$el' %' ca$e fruit %ats (Eonycteris spelaea)!4" /owe$er, a
1556 stud' indicated two species, D. grandiflorus and D. oblongus, were pollinated %' spiderhunters (6ectariniidae) and
another species, D. kutejensis, was pollinated %' giant hone' %ees and %irds as well as %ats
1icha7 8o'm, a 9esuit missionar' to :hina, pro$ided one of the earl' (1655) reports on durian (upper right) to ;uropean
#he durian has %een (nown and consumed in southeastern *sia since prehistoric times, %ut has onl' %een (nown to the
western world for a%out 600 'ears #he earliest (nown ;uropean reference to the durian is the record of 6iccol< Da :onti,
who tra$elled to southeastern *sia in the 15th centur'!+5" #ranslated from the 4atin in which =oggio 8racciolini recorded
Da :onti>s tra$els. "hey (people of 2umatra) have a green fruit which they call durian! as big as a watermelon. "nside
there are five things like elongated oranges! and resembling thick butter! with a combination of flavours."!40" #he
=ortuguese ph'sician ?arcia de @rta descri%ed durians in #ol$%uios dos simples e drogas da "ndia pu%lished in 156+ ,n
1&41, &erbarium 'mboinense %' the ?erman %otanist ?eorg ;%erhard Aumphius was pu%lished, pro$iding the most
detailed and accurate account of durians for o$er a centur' #he genus Durio has a comple) ta)onom' that has seen the
su%traction and addition of man' species since it was created %' Aumphius!5" During the earl' stages of its ta)onomical
stud', there was some confusion %etween durian and the soursop ('nnona muricata), for %oth of these species had thorn'
green fruit!41" ,t is also interesting to note the 1ala' name for the soursop is durian (elanda, meaning Dutch durian!42"
,n the 18th centur', 9ohann *nton Beinmann considered the durian to %elong to :astaneae as its fruit was similar to the
horse chestnut!41"
Durio zibethinus :hromolithograph %' /oola Can 6ooten, circa 186+
D. zibethinus was introduced into :e'lon %' the =ortuguese in the 16th centur' and was reintroduced man' times later ,t
has %een planted in the *mericas %ut confined to %otanical gardens #he first seedlings were sent from the Ao'al 8otanic
?ardens, Dew, to *uguste 2aint-*rroman of Dominica in 1884!4+"
,n southeastern *sia the durian has %een culti$ated for centuries at the $illage le$el, pro%a%l' since the late 18th centur',
and commerciall' since the mid-20th centur'!4" ,n )y ropic "sle, *ustralian author and naturalist ;dmund 9ames 8anfield
tells how, in the earl' 20th centur', a friend in 2ingapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and cared for on his
tropical island off the north coast of Eueensland!44"
,n 1545, the 8ritish %otanist ; 9 / :orner pu%lished he Durian heory! or the *rigin of the )odern ree /is theor' was
that endo3oochor' (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose %efore an' other method of seed
dispersal, and that primiti$e ancestors of Durio species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular
red durian (D. dulcis) e)emplif'ing the primiti$e fruit of flowering plants
2ince the earl' 1550s, the domestic and international demand for durian in the *ssociation of 2outheast *sian 6ations
(*2;*6) region has increased significantl', partl' due to the increasing affluence of *sia
Factors afecting the rate of evaporation
(1) Nature of Liquids : The magnitude of inter-molecular forces of attraction in liquid
determine the speed of evaporation. Weaker the inter-molecular forces of attraction larger
is the extent of evaporation. In diethyl ether rate of evaporation is greater than that of
ethyl alcohol.
(2) Temperature : The rate of evaporation of liquids varies directly with temperature. With the
increase in the temperature, fraction of molecules having sufcient kinetic energy to
escape out from the surface also increases. Thus with the increase in temperature rate of
evaporation also increases.
(+) Surface Area : olecules that escape the surface of the liquids constitute the evaporation.
Therefore larger surface area contri!utes accelerating evaporation.
(4) Composition of Environment : The rate of evaporation of liquids depends upon the "ow
of air currents a!ove the surface of the liquid. #ir current "owing over the surface of the
liquid took away the molecules of the su!stance in vapour state there !y preventing
@il does not e$aporate noticea%l' #he pre$ious answer, stating that all liFuids contain water, was posted %' a %igotG water is
not oil solu%le *ll liFuids e$aporate to an e)tent- HwarmerH particles mo$e to the surface of a liFuid and disperse into the
air 4ets loo( at wh' Aemem%er that thermal energ' is actuall' the a$erage (inetic energ' (energ' of motion) of a
su%stance #he more the particles mo$e, the hotter a su%stance gets ,magine that 'ou are standing in a line with man'
people on either side of 'ou, holding hands Iou are all lin(ed together %' 'ou hands, 0ust as particles in an' solid or liFuid
are held together closel' %' intermolecular attractions 6ow imagine that all of 'ou start 0umping up and down, Fuite
$igorousl' (representing (inetic energ' and therefore thermal energ') Bhat do 'ou thin( happens to the groupJ =eople find
it harder and harder to (eep their hands together 6ow imagine that e$er'one starts 0umping e$en more Fuic(l' and
$igorousl' Iour grip on 'our partners> hands starts to loosen, and e$entuall', the' let go #o relate this e)ample %ac( to
particles in a su%stance, when heat is added to a su%stance, the particles %egin to mo$e until the' o$ercome their
intermolecular attractions and %rea( free ,n their free state, these molecules are a%le to diffuse into the air as a gas 2o wh'
doesn>t oil do thisJ @il is lipidG coo(ing oil is a phospholipid deri$ed from plants ,t contains, in solution, small amounts oil
solu%le su%stances li(e some $itamins, odor particles, organic pigments, and other fla$ored su%stances =hospholipids are
large molecules #he' consist of a head and a tail ,n oils (not solid fats), the tails are (in(ed %' dou%le %onds, so that the
molecules cannot line up and form a solid #his also hinders e$aporation #he large molecules tangle up and hoo( together
so that, in addition to intermolecular attractions, oil molecules are mechanicall' held tightl' together 4i(e a hair %all, no
matter how much (inetic energ' 'ou add, there is no efficient wa' to untangle the particles
8' comparison, water does not ha$e this pro%lem %ecause it is a small molecule
In short, oils do not evaporate readily, because they are large molecules and are tangled together too tightly for easy
separation while changing into the gaseous state.
Aead more. http.KKwi(ianswerscomKEKDoesLoilLe$aporateLorLnotMi)3322/ENtNf6
$ils can evaporate, !ut they have a much lower vapor pressure at room
temperature than does water. I have experienced the evaporation of oil
when I heat it up for use as a high-temperature oil !ath for heating
chemical reactions.
#fter a few hours at temperatures around %&'(, you can see the oil level has gone down a !it. oils
vapour pressure is much lower than the atmospheric pressure and evaporation takes place when
atmospheric pressure) vapur pressure
hence !y some means like temperature increase if we can increase the vapour pressure then even
oil can evaporate
Durian Fruit: the stinky King of Fruits
Durian Oruit is an e)otic, e)pensi$e, and seasonal fruit that has rich content of ph'tonutrients, antio)idant, protein, $itamins and minerals
Durian has high calories and car%oh'drate (good source of energ')
1ain ingredients are Organosulfur ompounds and !ryptophan, and other health' components li(e dietar' fi%er and protein
Durian fruit ha$e no cholesterol
1an' fol( medications use durianPs lea$es and roots to treat fe$er
#he Organosulfur has these %enefits.
Q inhi%it the formation of %lood clots, thus pre$ent from heart attac( and stro(e
Q control the inflammator' en3'mes, thus also pre$ent from cardio$ascular disease
Q act as antio)idant, antimicro%ial, antifungal, and anti%acterial
Q help 'ou get good comple)ion, health' hair, glowing s(in, %etter %rain function
Q treat muscles soreness, enhance %alance %lood sugar, reduce stiffness and pain, and impro$e 0oint fle)i%ilit' #he tryptophan or 4-
#r'ptophan has the following %enefits
Q treat an)iet', %ulimia, depression, insomnia, migraine, nightmares, compulsi$e disorder, and stress
Q help 'ou get %etter sleep, especiall' if 'ou ta(e some calcium with it
Q help the treatment of =ar(insonPs disease, o%sessi$e compulsi$e disorder, premenstrual s'ndrome, suicidal related depression, and pain
Besterners hate the smell of durian fruit, while *sians 0ust love it
*sian countries li(e #hailand, 1ala'sia, ,ndonesia, ,ndia, Cietnam, =hilippine, are main growers of durians
#here are hundreds $ariants of durians, %ut onl' some are hea$il' planted and sold
*lwa's choose the %ig, fresh, full' ripen, and ha$e solid stems
,t is usuall' full' ripen in 2 to 4 da's after falling from the tree, the %est time to en0o' the durian
"ealth #enefits of Durian Fruit
Q Aaises serotonin le$els creates an o$er-all sense of well %eing and aids in depression
Q ,t has a high amount of protein and amino acids (22 of 24
Q ?ood for muscle %uilding and organ function
Q /igh in antio)idants
Q *nti-aging %enefits including enhancing the appearance of 'our s(in
Q has the most complete nutritional profile of an' fruit
Q ,t has the most complete nutritional profile of an' fruit
Q ,t is power pac(ed with nutrients, including essential fatt' acids and organo-sulfur compounds
Q increased energ', endurance, mental clarit', and cellular health
Q enhances li%ido helps re$itali3e the desire for se)ual intimac'
Q anti-inflammator', anti-parasitic, #hermogenic, calms fe$er, aids healing of swelling and s(in diseases
*ccording to Da$id BolfPs R;ating for 8eaut'S
RDurian contains high le$els of tryptophan
#his is an amino acid and a tr'ptamine (similar to serotonin, melatonin, and D1#)
Aesearchers ha$e disco$ered that tryptophan helps %oth an)ious, depressed, repressed people, as well as insomniacs
!ryptophan wor(s %' raising serotonin le$els in the %rain
Bhen serotonin le$els increase, a euphoric feeling is felt as a free passage is cleared for ner$e impulses to tra$el
Durian is such a strong blood cleaner that eating durian changes the odor of urine (urine is filtered out of %lood)
Bhat gi$es durian its strongest %eautif'ing characteristics is its high concentration of raw oleic fats (and $itamin ;), sulphur compounds,
and soft proteins
Durian actuall' contains one of the highest concentrations of protein of an' fruit, ma(ing it an e)cellent muscle %uilder
@rganic sulfurcompounds among other properties in durian are $er' cleansing for the %od'
Durian pro$ides $more concentrated healthful energy in food form than any other product the world affords%
Durians keep the body vigorous and tireless& the mind alert with faculties undimmed& the spirit youthful.