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.Ad. is:reaB.y having ns chance, The urge to ,dd'liY seems te ha vetaken bold of many more tbollils3i~Ws~oda. y t1~an. ever bdio1'le. It has: spread aeross the nation. y.Vllil!emallt)..3!ll.8iJJ.i1:terlecsted.ln art as a pastime or hobby. others W'OIl1 M g]acUy choose it as: a means of 1ivdihood. if they were convinced thattbe:i:r ability was ,ufficient 'to provtde a:ny real bope of success,

111(n~ will always be a certain amount of confus~oo abo!!.]! Wb:fl't Is '~n~,@nt 01' natlve a hi]ity in drawing ~md what is knowledge 0.£ ~he craft. Too oIt.en. krww~edg:e is construed as taleDt. On the oth,er hand, cIra\ving !tbat h.t.Cks eonsteuetive b,oi\vledge Wli seldem sl[lcc~sful as drawing:. The truth is th:at we do not see the 'tal,!!nt until the means 01 bringm,g nfo.:rr11 has been: dervoioped. Tha:t :mea]l)~ is a reasonably accurate :analysis and understanding of the laws of nm,t;ltTe as theJt a:pply to m.an· s vision,

Drawing; is vision 011l. paper. More thnn that. it ~s in:dividl.uaJ. viSion; Uedl!lp wi.th Individual perceplti,on, ill~e'llecst. observatjon, cllaract~u't phtlesophy;. and a h.ost ,of other qualities ,aU com~ng fro,m one source. It C31D!l10t. and 'to 'be suooessful ihould. not~be :anyttill,i;o,g e])'01. Dra wing is very cmose]y related ~o 'tile other l~reatL'V,e arts, all .of W:hlcll are ()utCfO~lp:ing:s of 8 desi1:le to express in,djvidl.~l)Jl. emotion, to, make the other fellow conscious of our inner fee]ing,s. 'i\' e want himto lis,ten or look. and! we want his appreciation of wllat we have to ,of[er.. Perhaps we' wish to reeeive admh:-aUon for our p3iriticu1nl'I,Ii.OC'omp]i~hmcnts. P,erhaps we have a message we deem '''"OIit:hy of others" a~ite._fI!t['OOl.Pedl;a,ps, we see in, s~C:b,~!Il ,elOJitt a;1ii!. e.njoy,a:Me means ·of l:nMti:ng o_sel'l/es:,:U!$efu.~~ orpro,vi.ding: oUIi;'selves; with the

[" 101_' .1' 'b II • '.

IveJHiloClut at we nrltult admeve Ul some way.

We whO' choose art as ommedium l(liE exF,re;s;... sion. shonld reallze that it has eertaln fundamentals from which we progress, just as there ate fURdam.e:ntmls of li~nlrturo, drama, or music.

U nJortlinate~y. the ,fundamenta)s of ,an appurooch to ,ju;lt hsve not usually been so c~early defined lOll" p:r!iictmca'~ $,tudy as, ha,ve 1~lllose olf some otber creative iiI.ctivilt les, Cemmerelal art is Oil <XI'liIl,para,~ Ilively new' pro,.~essfQn. I-lO\"'-e'VI€tll t:l~e leaders ta the field are' beginning to cOlllltrihute t~me and thought to its teaching.

Success in tl1.e creative .fields is ahvays aCC01ll!:panled })y cli:sUn.'Ctive:ne.f;S" somethil1lgtbat singles one out M: 1)..11 incli v,~dua] ~.nd filets hlm apaxt from the cro\'l!'IdL One artist can he as successfu~ as another in his use o~ basic knowledge, w'itbout l-epeatllllg:anothel;DJr~iSfs performance. .If them is any \vay that one mall .in. the CI:'a~t can. .re~dly help another ~ ~t is by incr,easiog his knowleldge of the craft, ~'lse.H.; not 'm ~b.e padicuIar qualities of the men's (lw.nw()(k. The knowledge of our Ci1ift m'U!i~ be peeled, as .~~ is: to ~l~,e seie:nc()s and ether prO'£eli:s[{ms~ each of us absorbing and in. turn con.h;ibu,ting. It is; difficult for a. m.an to' t@i:!l.dl wi rhout !n;e~el'llting lus own work as an example, But I am ce'rtailfl that In this book, Jor example, there lIS much. matcriQW \:Vh.id~ the stuB detlt can 31>P'Wy eo his own '\\~ol'k wallOut re6erenoe ~'O any partk:ilJllar s~yJe Or t'cdullqUe,ofn"!!in:e.

S UppOS(il! WIC tin \Ie two d.r'a'wlngsbefore ~US. One appeaifs:; the other does not. '11.~is (me iis good, the other bad, Why?' m bcJievlll' I ca:np(;IIiut out under]y jng: reasons that are perfectly m derstauda hle, Strangely mlough"the reasons are usually not found W'!l art books or taught ,ill classes. The respofise 'to dtawlng lS l'(l~Qt,@d. 'to the CllloUons nnd experience ()If the 'imlhrlallla~. and is \vl1otely aparlt. so £9'1i' a's I know .ffOnil tJrullre~u;:hing: 'Of art. 'Y'€It .1 do not. bc:liav'e a.lit can gOI "'ey,, far U!lfIil~ the artist bas .roIJ.Iu~ sort of an.l)lndc'FStaod.ing: of' tJljl;l response. An artist can go all Ius life wUhout rea1tz_~ng: wby his work Idoies, not ~ppe<lt .E"(iin successfulartists may not r;ea.Uy know wby dwb: work does appeill; though. theyth:ank l~ea ven It does.



TOo U1lr1del'.stand wbya. drawmg does 01." does not aJppea~, \\N';: must: mcog~1b:e a eertam ability that is devdoped .in ,every normal individual from ear Iy childhood through ad nIt Me. The term "h~t,e:nig,ellt pereeptson n m think comes as c~ose a~~ any bJ' desed,b111g this faclJ]ley. It is visioa coordinated with the brain, It is a sense ,or ri,ght., ness developed by contact, At some time or other. our brains accept certain effects o appearan.ces as truth, and abide by these decisions. \,Ve learn to distinguish one appearance Irom another." in size or Fl'opo'1'ti,on. in colot, ,and in ItextUl'e. All the senses combine to give 'Us inteUigent PeI'ceJ?"' Han. \V e have a Sell se ,Qif space or depth, even if we lrn,CJwnothing: of the science of perspective. \Ve are quickly aware 01' dlstortion or deformity, smee the nppear,~nce' duesnm comcide 'with what e: 'perienc{l has taught us is n (Jl'f!I'U'!J 0:1: truthful.'oOTl1 isn~g:ist,er,ed in the niind, even if we know nothing of anatomy and. proportio.n, so that we reccgnize a face immediately, thougb we could Il0t even. give aguod verbal description of it Otllt sense of propol[t;ion ten~ us that this: is a child find that a mjdget. orthis a. puppy and. that a smaU do,g. Ip~eTJ[ge'nt pereepdonmeludes a feeling for bulk and cont<)l.n-. "Ve know a swan flVfili a goose, or a goose froma duck. This trait

]$ as 'w'eU d~Wl]'oped hl those who look at €!i:rt U it .~ ]S In arHs~$, We all as Urldivf.d uals have subconsciously accepted certain effects oJ JIght. 'We know when appearances: are consistent \!liTith day]igli1lt~ artificia] ]jght. twjlight. 01: hliigllt sunlight. Such pereepnon is part 'Of nature"

The minute the speetator sees ehange of proportion, dis'~QFtWQn .• change 'Of form, color, 01' itex,tUU'e, he realizes l;iIul't ~~ometlling is 'wrong. 'Th~ cleverest W!E]1Utl tion wm 110t fool him, Tile dummy in the depar.tment store window is a dummy to. everyone. We know .Iesh from wax by the dEeds that have previously been registered in our minds.

We m"tists cannot ignore tbisinteUig ent perc!!lIlHon and ,e"'pect b) secure U'l'lIOIUg@n't response, or even favorable response, ~o oW' work Malee up yourmindthaJf:;-'Olllt a udienee win If(~d: to

your work just as lit does to' life its elf .lnteUigell'lt pu:oep,Uon finds mdy truth convincing. l''he l(ty~ man does ,not' need to knOll) anyt'h'J:ng al art to knOIW ti;hether 11e like~ ymu' wtl'rk Q;,' not, "We ~n use' 011 ~ theaJrguments" alibis, and defenses in th.e wor Idi we can e."tplain oursel ves hoarse: but we caanot a ieN somethtng so' deeplyimbedded in human 'c1_m~dou.~ne."is. If what we S9!y ill p:dnt is untrue, In color values Or elect. the spectator feels it, and there is nothing we can do to convince him othllin'1lis~.

fsychologk~l response goes sHU furthe.l'.lEvery P]!CfU:rB s~lol.lld ba,ve some reason For eli~s'L'ence" some P UJrpose behind it' It we C31ll make tl~e spectator feel that ]?uwpose wehave succeeded further in captming his interest. Not only is 6\ ,ery man Iivillg~mong nature's eIfec1ts) he is also Uvirtg experiences, Life is not only what he sees bUit wbat he feels. SllpplemenUng. in our drawing an emotion that Is illreadyw.ilhill him secures rLu:~hef response. Y·ou. can feel emotion oJ.1]ywi~lfdn yo,urse1 f" I,l"ud ~uly emot~ontha.t is In your work must rome from y(}u. You oan be sure th:lft most of the emotions you Ieelare also pIiesent in others. That lis \"dlY we live through a movie OIF a I)hwwnh the characters. Toa con-


sidcrabl,e d-·gree. We Hke or dislike a perfon1l1Q nee

blSOfat as It hu appealed to 001" individm!l emotions, FOil: 'tIle san:l'!J.@ reasoa \'\re~]k:e Oor di:sHk~ ~ piece of art

\,,1'hellJ dra whlg is: o011vinci.ng Ito the mtelltgen t perc pHon of the specta.tor because of its dghtness of fOl-m. texture. spacq,. and]ighting. and at th same time appeals b) bms emotions, the artist can d~p cnd upon ,3,. favorable l'~ponS(l.

Drill.\"dng should Il{)t l) e taught by teaching spectalized or fndiv:~d.ual techniques. 'What should be tau.gbt is dle way to get the Iorm.thecentours, and the values, regardless: of maratertsms, How Jim lones, handles 3 pencil has little to do wid! your main problem, How be handles Ugbt on form and ,COl tom's is '\ivhat to look for, in. case he interests you .. J{ owover, 'i:f J too Jones Is good. YOIil can be q uUe c-ertain. he goesfo:r his tnformaUOll: 'to the one best source - Hfeli.ts!e]f. He has



p!robab~J employed a model Or used a camera ~Q' secure .hltdHgent informaHoll. He h>l5psfak~ ing to a olinnnunl, uswng his ilillagin~tion only wlil.lm he has; no oth@Ji" way of gettil g ~t result,

There are eerram basic elements 0.£ good dl:1I.Wing without which no ill'awtng call renny 1~ sueces8'fu~. I beli eve these dam eats can be taught. So far. I have been unable to 511lld a b::xtbook of drawing which defines the relatiom.hip of IWOpm·Hon ,lQInd perspeetlve to the Shld!y of ]1 ghtana. shadow, Since these dements are so thoroughly il1l~elrdlependent,tllis book"whidh presel ts them that 'Nay; should meet Oli real need.

For those who have an ul'lde'rst~nd.i\ng: ,olf nalure's laws,. p]usvlSfou, Ithe gr,eat,est teacher is nature itself. If the artist has the technique (if depkUn,g the construction <IUd. C01~tOlJ.US of an obj eot set ~n space, plus U:n.,eknowledge cf how light opeI'utcs on the forms live consider basic, hebas a.ctf1"lirOO the springboal'd to his own individual expression, which, after all, is of grS;ilJller valu€ d'lfil'l~lJlJ)~tllwng else,

Suppose Vi e ask ourselves \!\ihat a good dra.wi!lg is? Let 11[1S think first Qif the qua]rties tJiUlt make 1.11:';' a good. dJnlw~ng; these PO,]ut out the dep~I'I~mel'!lM of Our C1imJt.Allything we d['aw is dnnensional. It has height, breadth~ and 'thkk:= nesi .. There ~s a ratio between the three din: ensions, which we call lPffOpOlfUOOO"J!, Then all the parts within I~he slilbjEH::t have rattos to one another, and if these m-e correct they add up to make the Qver-all dimensions correct. A dra'iN:ing oaneotbe good ifi t .i!} l'l,ot in pllOp~lr tlon, so Iet USCfl,U. WOI,m'Uon the nnm bar on e element

S ll1C€ the Pl'Dpodions exist in the thing we wW!lh to draw even before we ]}ave dra.\,,'IIli it; let us consider how we shall place it wi t!h in the bO'uud:al!'~c:~ of ou~· pape.r surface, Let 1JJ;, think oJ the l)!a pe.l: as representing open sp~\(::e. within 'which we w ish t,OI place ,the subject, 'We want it tn settle uicelywithiu the area in whIcb it is most ~~f~~,ing, ~]nd at th€l S<U'IIJif3 Nme Imost convincing. ,\\fe look carefuHyat the subject to select a vicwpoint.\iV'6 l11!~y cut it. Finder-.~ rectangUl]~'U' opening, In a card that is in prop or-

Han toour dmwjng alfe<ii- to sf:,.~ just where ~he sllIbj0-ot should go. now big or small should 'it te, hQlV,I close or far away,. and where? Let us eall Ithis element pll1c(:!llu:J1t_

\Vlhen a vlewpoin t h as been selected and a" ~)l<l!(:e'l1llent decided upon, 'W(~ ,stliirt to draw. The third elemen It pops 'i.ilp. W" 'il l1HOt draw an ob~ ~eetwithoutt "u~I''$pecave. Since perspective is the ~ r..s.l' main problem, that adses, jt Is the fh:stthiug the (il!ltist sh'Qiu~d learn, Am lm(lersta~')djns o~ 'i~ should preced 01' be a p.art of ,every art-school h'nining,,, No dmwfng is real drawing unless it is related to an eye level 01' horizon, with the relationship Ull.del'stood byt he ,ilJrIUst. The subj,ec~ of perspective cannot be covered ,completely in thisbook, but I sl all ntteml)t to give the stockin-trade knowledge of lit Ithat 1 believe is, indispensable, I suggtlSt, however, ~h.< a t y,O(u get othef books> and, while yon are leamiTlg.leal.'ll. as much about it as possible, since It ms one ,of the most ilmpurtnnt elements of sueeesslu] dl'aW~llg.

Suppose we understand the pe:rs(lective and. get it C.'·O:I,T 'ct. What now? 1.11l order to set. up convincing, form .itl theeBoot of light, halftone" and shadow, we must selmrnte the threemto piau(Jcq" Throughl:he effe(~t of light 01') planes we amve at the solid apl)e~u'luce of the [onn. \Ve look first Ior areas, Or planes of full ]ighit:, then, as the form. turns a\\lay from the light, we find dlehalftone areas '0:1" Fh1i.n®s. 1J(~y(md th~ haU~one planes '\NI'} find the areas th;)llt are in shadow, the shadow p]anes." \Vnldn thashadow we find reflected: fight. wbkh., Ithough a part of the shado\'v, still defines fOHn.

After deflnil,g the phno$,. we come to another element of (;'00(\ drawing, wlueh we may eRU p'alted'u. 'When we (~(~lr with values.we become in vc:[ved in the tonal ru:.range:rnt.."Il t of a dl'awt!]:g:. Pattern is a.notht:r aspect 'of C-O:n1]p o5ition. Placerm l,"Iit relates Ilo compcsidon in terms 'of line; patt:eml;-eIB,tcs to it in terms of tonal areas.

Here is where Cnl~lH\fenes$ gets Us .Gl1'st dHllnce., \V,e can arrange the l)aI terns of a ,subj eel; not .shllply accept aU patterns as the {l3tmer,ilI. does, ~:Jilt11lie S "lPaU:eI'lIS, may be eood or had in 'Our



opinton and wIthin om- particular ~lJ:R.Qe ~imits, Ev,eI-Y drawing is an artist's problem ill spacing and ,afrange4nent of the patterns o:f tone.

Composition is an abstruet element. Only at ltttle of con'lposit]on ean be tau ght. There are bocks on, the S1.l bjeet worthy OIf hard! s~lld y, Add. some [0 Y0l.li:l' library. Howevee, oomposleion seems ~o be more or less instincUve. )"lost oj us would rather make ow' own ;,lLrr~tngemen'ts IHih11l be tQ,]d1. how to make them,

The 'best wa.y to arrive at pattern or c()[il"Ipasil:iolll is ti) make sm ifl.1l sketches. wh:h:::h we call dll~m hnaiI sketehes, ~fi:like them up of three or four tQll1eS~ILIU twl you getthe feel of the 8U! hject, These may well precede any aetna] drawing, Dra.wing ill essentlally d€Sign,.'tJld design Is ,drawing" One will ahvays, be the outgrowth of tll}1e (lIther.

Now, ,if YQ1l] ha ve no,t already noticed it, we have listed . five elements OIf good drawing. all starting with the letter P. These are: propcrtlon, placement •. perspective, p~9iJles> and p~tb~m" Let us caU them the :five Ps.

But these are not the only conslderattons of good drawing, Awhile back we were consideri'nglhe e:m.otkl!nalqualities\ddcll. evru:r good. dnl,\\;jng should have. If the suhjeet ,~s in.'llilbnate. Ithe emotlneal qualit~e's wm He ill the way i'l: is presented. If' it is a, landsc~p~]t ill ay be the mood of th~ da v, or the freslmess and. eharm of


handHn,g. In a still life it may be th'e appeal of the sub~eotro1nUBt, dl,e IJe'anty of iliJ~ ,ohj€)cts themselves, in afignre subject, I:lii.e emotion may be revealed ill tb.e ttCitlCl:1l ()~~ expr,essioo of the 6 gures, or in. tile story theytell.

Bdon~: beg,hm Wl'l:g to ,araw. close your eyes a:nd. ,try to see the subject. TMnl{ of what wouldbe bappening. 'Think of the basic idea or purpose of the effort. All this may be called the C(J11Cep~ :tiocn oJ the ~ubject. Again we need. to make ~~m nbnail sketches, even scribbles, Ul1tU. OUI' 5ubjecthe,gins to take shape,

Remembering thaI: sense of: l:igh.m€Ss which we rna y expect in tlu)$6 who win look. at Of judg1e OI.IDI' efforrs, we now need infolJll1Jin~ioT!. in order to

do the thing convincing]y, We have an idea" we have made sketches. and \\'e U"~!st now proceed with 'OUI' dr,awing. '[he next important element ]S cml$!l'Uction,. Now we must collect photographs, make sl(et,ches and studtes, hunt up clippings. go to any aVl,lUa'b'te source for correct information. If we c.m ~fford it,. we get a mode] for J?hotog;r3lph s Or studtes,

There is another element !-;'O dosely r~Ifl:ted. b) eonstraetion that it must 'be considered at the same 'time; si:nc@..,,\~e cannot m.ch~eve the one withon t the other. 111 is ws contour, Construction is Oom~erI ed \lllith thebuIk. 01' the mass 'from the inside O~1.t. Cont(lil,lli;WS the outer edge of the mass ]11 space. COtls1tru.ctlon Is based on iewpoint and perspectl V~" the appearance of an object may be ,difFe:rent Irom everyang;~e,. Therefore 'we must tls~~hli:sh an eye level to ,:o.'bkih werelate an construction ,audl. contour, No subject can be dr~ wn correctly to lii'lore than one ,eye level. this, is because it is fmpossible to ~oQok at any object from two posltions atthe same tlme, Fcu!' ~Ms reason, the infomlati.ooll we have must be ad[usred to fit the pJro:b[em. Two,cUppings or 't\'lrQ. photoglltapbs (If the same subject wiU seldom ha Voe the s amfl eye l€ve~> or - and this is 'vitally important - tile sam e source or kind!. of .Ugbt. Th,e ideal fnformatton, of OOlU"S,e, is secured by having aWl pads of the :subject before you at once .• in ~h@sajme Hghting~ frou,] one viewpoint of eye or camera. Be:gi:rm,ers especially should work this WOil.y. Tb,a,tis wby sUnM,c. art-school ,IX)ses, and eutdoor scenes are the best s,u1bJec~s from \v:!II:i i.'ch to. leam to see :aud ~o draw, Bl]t we still need the fundllime!CItal~l1£'Ortrult]oi!li. or bow to dnmf them. The :Sitl!ldelll t who ~.oes to <1.11. art class knowing scm eth:ing of proportion :;md J? erspective and .how to achieve them. wiUp ass bis fellow students by Ieaps and. hounds, and when he leaves school hjs work ;\viU ga iJi acceptance much faster than theirs will,

Without a knowledge of perspective and dIe iooghting of the bnslc forms, O,~" some Idea 'of measuring and proportion, the ;~l.l:UiSit be-cen-nes a. slave to photostats, projectofS.Clr any other


Think 10'£ your paper a's: I,epr~5~nUng ,open :space, not asa tWCHlimeIil8~cm3il surface, h~t as: i( ,its edges were~he 'bOlUn,dldes of an. ,open, wm.diow. YQ~look at all of life arnd na.tme ,through this pap0r wind'i)'w,

AUlmlipt ,e'ilthe:r eo set $atm~s, ,iniI() this space ,that exists belor,e yO'1!.I.ot~oglvea i'ee'J~Dg ,oj'aJ.cluaUty to fonus \!!I'hich, you, create, froID a k:now]ed.,ge of th,e ~I,WVS of namre, We study :Iila,ti!ll\e 100: e.ieds and 8ilit th.em down.

This; il:1ivoi]yes d~m,en,siiG'n, eOAlto~. vi'e:wpoiill:~ (m,~arningpers.peclov,e), and lighting. Only throu:~ ~ig4t, which produces all tOl~e~ color, and a.ppce:rance, can we prlodilll.1ce a true ilnage o[~ife.

llle®.Uy to chaw", we canlnot thi~k o:n]y of :!l1JlJ, y 5ling~e :aspoot of drawlllg~ such as: IOOnitOUT. WitJi)'01[lt ,the ,other ,ess'entialls" but must seek ~o unify alltipects intol ,Ii oorn,pl€!te ,a,Dld org,anized 'l!VhQ~e.


i~ I~ y __ e. l





'Thehaibit: of seffin.g, ,down yout .mental conoeption. of a !!ubjeclt m mima:tur,e :foughs ean play a row! imlpO.nlUlt parrt in your development as: an :msst. The bes.t way is to shut: Y'DUff eyes

and .try to, V:biU8i,li:re what Is taking place; as it woldd 'be in life. y,o~ have no. detail to ,gQ by ~ so just ngg,e:s~: the, :matenal ThJnk or some kind iof light It wEU ,come.



meehanicaJ means tha'l: will substiht~e for the knowledgehe lacks. If he traces olfprojects photographs instt::a.d of drawlfl:g Ili~ subIiGC~~ the result wt]] show' up inbis, WQd" , SUdl an Ol.rHst \\V,iU seklom [each 'l he lron,t rauk, unless hls wo:rk has oitlilel: qualiHes ~ita{ soroehow ll'llaike uben,er than tl'lewQrk of ,other phctogr,aph CQP)'i:s'~s. If a dra.wlmg;is to 'be indi"ic'h.t~l ana dyna:anie. the artistnll1S't use the eamera On Iy ~o provide ¥QJlI10- tnillg to draw from" as he would, draw from, a model The camera does not see in the same pe:r~ sll'ectiive ,or pr(lportior! ~S: dO' t~e hvo 'hIiIDL'li'U10, ,eyes,. Beil1Jiga :dave to t:he camerausus ny~ea,'I8s the stamp ,oJ the p'botOgi',;'i, phie OD a roan· S\:\110,ik If you use phObJigrapns, !i'l uare tih em ,off and draw, bu~ always draw, don't traee,

I onceknew of an artistwhQ was askecl to do ;:Ii, subject away from home, when a'nl ills copying pn:ropb,emaita was baek Iill hts studio. Fer 'OMe he was .£orwd. to chaw. H,e WE!lllttbrO'IItg,h torture before 'he ha,dfiuished. The ,draw:ing never was g()od. He had n ever rea]j~c:,cl how m~H:ih he c1e~ pended upon his ,cl'utche.;;. He went back home and sft~d.ed drawing Inearnest, Theslsve te the ,camera never l-enUyknowsh,ow bad be l'enUy is or what his WOili'k '[:liCks" '~li1ti:l be cain see Ithe dif~, Ierenee of r~ea] dtnwin:g on his own ar~,w~ng beard, The way he '\ve,rkl"l is a man's oll,vn bustness, but it: sho'UM be pounded into the novice t)l,a~ .bJrS greatest hope ~i~, ut .his own go~}d, free,. h..md drawing.

When. by dillt of harril ,eilooo-t. 'W'E! 5JUooe~1 b1 getting consttucUrul.~nd oont01;rli;, there ,is something else, do:se.ty related t~, 'both. which, we must be C011stant]y ,thwnking of .. That is c1~QJ"~ (I,oter. rChm~)"c~er is the thing,that distinguishes one object 01' persoll from an)' Ot]lCl'. Usage brings 'challi"acter to an ,object~ exp eJ1'i,enoe blin,g~ it ~o man, ChaLractcl' IS ~lwayl,ll s~lIilgu']at'ii,ty. Pie't,odally. chMaCrer ws a foon ~lat belongs '~O thWs s~bjoot and no other. It is form in aparUCUh\,r pb,e<;un.der parthnd,af Hghul1g conditions,j f'rOllll 81, particular 'Vlewpoint,.wit!J'l particular ·eff·ect:. M t ]s something hnmediaoo; cfI.ught as jf at <l. glance - th~ set of tbe f'eab:u'es at th3Jtmometl'tJ, It:he look

,of the ey ,[); the lnouth. the planes 'of the bee ~n tha~ Hghtil'~' all h<llv:il1g ~o do with etrcum.shllll!ces; then and there .. Here is 'WhClIC the camera tau catch vallllab~e' jn£O'rnl~ticm;, But belowe the camera ,d~cks,. tIle emoHrro. and nppe:rl.l~ances all lfi.·m~tbe present - f'e:lrw~tMn. the aJrti:s:t. flltd. t:r·flU~ ~)O~(;d. t,o the model, or exis'til1gill\ ~h,e model and a liecoguiud and caught: 1by thlC ",r[wst TheIl,. through the whole eff01"t, the artist f,eels the thmng be wants Ito express" the 'tMng rlHlt makes him wal~t te soy sOI:nething \\/idl hts penciilol" 'brush. Sud} fee'~~ng 'haS1J;, way of gettw.g mtcltbe kchlfdca~ elilpression. the handling of the med~.Ullil.. Somebmes the artis~ is 'ID!O~ 'C'V1@D cO'nscio'1IJS of it,. but u :stiU contributes to the SllOC~..sS of the work, sUn:pJ:y beea use the J~elll'lg, is,a]so conveyed to the spectator.

The sJudy of do~iI1Ill~g .1(1). dl',9:p C"1f)" does J1l~lcb ~o a{ld ehae Iclm', the ~l:ands. tll~e shoes. The geesture, inoo:rr(!.ct sf~lJcing and d~':liw~ng, dees Its: part.. }\nd yet g,~sture is really c;,."Om}'uuetiou and contour, planesand value's" A p()l'tral~ sket:cll. is about onehundr,ed, per CeJ.11t clnu'Qcter. which means :)l(lcura:te sjJfM~cing of featur'es~ p~ane.s, find ,contour Gh~u~lcter ,cannot be achievoo witllioot <lI1, 't~le elemsn,u of :good draw ililig. He'oJ' pr-c-.Sen-, tation ,of cJI,a~"rJcter ,lifts the artist to the tOt' (If his 'P"'('J'fefJSf()"I1c"

FinaU)' we have the most important element o:faM~ wh~c'b is cCI'nsistency .. COdlsistency embr~ces much, Consisteacy is :r~a]ly bllltbj as reoogrd"lJed by thili;t intelligent pettq:dion \VEl an h.II!VC, mrtist and Jayman alike. C'OID8;i!itmlcy~teehuica,U.y, ,[!I1e9Jl'lS tll9:t lighting" l»opQlritlon~ pe:tspeoa tive: are so baru:1le:Cll that all elements belong to one parUcu~ar subject :and no other. There is a consistency of purpose, when an dlil.i1.f;tSpites,,'1i home tha:t purpose. There Is n technic.al eeasis t~JJ:CY ,of ~~i\t1llie,n:t> so. Itha:.t all parts of the $ubj'l')ct, seem to, be dOliiLeby the ssme hand, in the same it~d~vidua] l:'V9iY. I do 11ot~anfthalt i;l~~ su:r(aJc:es: should be handled as if made 'Cl'f the same J:1'Ia.t€:d~l.~~ or wid,. the ~,rumleklnd, of strokes:, bot tbat all parts have a tlfl'ity 0'£ approach. and vision w.hich ,org:a:m21es the su,omed in~.o as:ingl,e




Tb.e ~eedirnet'!.Sioiilis





A :positio!l in space

~I fJ)

P'EE.SPlECflV'E Rel!aticns.nipofviewpomtt'il' subject



. .


SwfBl,ceap(i~anceas de6nfHl iby tight and S1!Htdow


" ": .. : .. ! "

: . _ '.~", _ ""4t


A rough indicaticm ,of an id.ea


~, aUem.pt to, es~a!b'~is'b tTh1l,e .fo:rllltS ,(lIom.e or .from bas.ic knowledge


The Hmits of .fol'ms b1 spaee, :i).oOGifdiug to Vi'flWp((m~


The spe:cl£i.cq u3ili'ties of i'Odividual units o.f yODt subJeee in li,gnt.


All (he essentials lof eonstruedoa, 1liig:h~liD.g.<TIJl!d. pa:Uern" orgawUid as a unit














, .


e:li:pIrHssion. . €l' us see the nrt$st himself ,oorning througlTl his work ~ his f'eeling about it. his: ira}" in doing it IFrMs is achie'i1cd. rhe work will never be cons.ide.red illdt;)!ti<m. foli'" it is not' an imitation. cWh·11 we thinl~ o~ eonslsteney, then let us: ~hlnt of the ullity of all dIe s]e'lnel1t,s brought to:g,eH~eif in~o ene whole eiffo'rt. Tbe !iwUst won't go '''''lIong when he can. see ll'lle h'ig truths, or wh a,ll he feeh to he the hmg tru'tll.!i. If .he looks fo~' th bwg planes; the bi:g, ~igh~s and sbadows~ the b:i:g values andrcl~tiO!llship5', he will do a bet~er job. Onecan "asw)y ,g t ~.ost in ;)I. lot of hula truths ,*itho-ut sillcing the big ones, The ~.eaf compared to the bunk and mass of 'the tree i~seU is the d:i.lerence between big truths and IDiule (lIIlE!S, or between big v1ision ,arnd ,ey,esight.

Now let us h lee stock ,o.f' ~~ n these el,emnnts.

Y.ou mav have l"eil,liz'ed d':lat we have now added

,j." - --

,t~veIilllO[·e. aWW be!i:mllil e. with C dl~S time'. l11e:v

~ ~ J

are caneeptiorr, eOllls~rl!.lc1tion.oQint:oyr. clu.l:ra:c'ler.

l'tnd consistency, So we have five :pIS and .!flNie; C' s .... w hich should help you remem ber them, 'They ~~'e illlll:strate,lon plllges 18 and. 19.

Rep,eat theaames of these elereen ts 'over and over in your l'nind lmUl you memorize t'tl,elll'l" for ~~l'ey will ii]W,;l.,yS be the guiding Jights ~o successf u] dli"a wing. We w.Ulnot suceeedwlth them an eV'efft.imc', ner wiU e:ve1r1 sL~g:]le drm'\"Ij:ing be slJ.ccesSifu]~ but \'Ve can look 3& each dr~l.\Ylng to see in hew rn~lny of the.~e elements the work C'Juali:fies. A ,]:rawing f~dJs hcause of fad~Iil('e in one Of more of the elemer ts; au.:.1yzffig it te 6ndl. the source of faih,)J:"e points It:Q 'D~ 'efta!.'s a.nd, d:ilIk=l1llUes. Concenh:atiug 0.11 these elemeuts kee-ps uS O.!Il. our t'O~s. and lil:tle by little O'u~· 'W(lrII: hnprov6s. In o~ur ~ntenigeill t perception we .18 ve a ,guid(~ to vWsIJa.1 r~gbt and "!fOng as good. as our sense ,of moral :ri,g~'t. orwroIlg -~,)fr!.'baps better, We can, he taken in much moreeasily t1tl~O~lgh O~lJ' ears than t1~m'ug:lll Our eyes, Have dl'r,;: ,cOlU11g,e ,tomldieve wn what you see, as }fOU see :it. and. to, d~aw it dU'l.t \V;iJ;)', even if' Jim Jones sees th~l1gii ,;m()dl,er way. 'That is v';h,at makes each of you an artist Art is ,certainly a mat-

ililorg<'u j:;..;ing the material ill !lite. book. Lhave p]aoed perspective first, because I believe it is easier to learn 'to handle ]iu('! ~d~.1I:l,e hefOI'€: ge'tUng int,o< the oompJ[c~,tioill.'i of IJTh(llllCS sndtones, \\th'eh are meanjng~ess '\~ ith.out di:men:s,~on and pcr~pcetfve. In ,art schools. a s" bi-eel ~s usuaUy 'set up hefore US; Imd ~1Ij'{~ siimp]y have to ,(Iraw wh~u Ii"' there, But WhOll. we are out on ;():IJIl: own> Itbe subjccit is,lI'su;)IUy nottbere.it is, not too hard to drawa cube that is set ~1P' beWore us. ]But \'!~Uli.t we nl'tls t leam h; ito draw an :iInSlgiT1L9JILY ,cube at any ,eye level, to fit into any set of circumstances, rt e lmportance of th i:S;wn~n be Ul derstood wh 'n YOll knmv tj~at a Jnr~O;St al!l)' obj-ect may be. <:lrawn iti perspectlve Irom a. cube or Mock. since thaJ.t represents the over-al] three dimensions of a.nyIt]dt,! we draw, Even n sphere; :B:~s eompaet 1)' into the cube. Theeu be or blodk ma y he' thoug,ht of as 'L he box ~hat will fit around nl,1J)rt~dlllg .in :the nniverse. KnowiJ;1:g dl.e proper way to draw ,the bloekleads 1.1iS rigbt in at the fll'Oflt door of perspective. The buiidblg is the outside of the box. The: wntcri()J' ist'he h~s~de, andw:e mustk:uo,w .Ii:!owto give It d.imensioi1~ndl~~eas""rement. when those are needed. They usually are needed, j.f only to. keep the figul",es 011 th~ 0001', ill propor\o U(n!ll to t.he '\van:!!~ doors, ilIind. fl1rni:::ihin~'i., 'VVhen b'lliWding,s and figur,es IQDCIilIt in ~he .s,alJlIl~ SU~)j,cct, we need dimension and scale.

It is simpleto 1)111.00 ~ figure ~It a;JIlY given spot On the 90o(f Gil:' gl:fiund pbwt'i,. in correct pf0'PC~l'tion 'ttl other Gg;'l.ll'e.". but over and over even high-ranking alttists fan ~o a.chi(;"'Ve tII.is, and tU~e result I-s ,a bad. [oh, ,(,!,s even. John Doe can see. Wben diff,erent eye levels appeal' in a drawing, the ,artist has proiba.My faHed to reconcile the' in~ consistencies In thev1CUFious pieces of ropy frmrn. 'ilihich he ]s wO'tkwu r.t .He ii11ay 110~ e""V\e11. be aware

o ~

of the inconslsteney ~ hurt the people who, see his

w-o.l"k wm havean uneasy feeUn,g d'l.at. ,something, is wrong. though t]l.,ey do not kno,\,.'wbait. V.~h(tn an ;S lI'ight the f,u'b:Eie reaU), cluck. over a t1 in,g. When it is wrong. th¢;!J am usually jus,t si~eni


Anything we draw; no, luaUer what: it is~ :l<S affected by t}'!!e eye level and vIewpoInt fmn'll Which. we draw jt. 'Tille ,ey'c level rus ,~'h_e 'hodwll. €If the :pwhue. It may b;e3J beve @irbe~O'W' the p.~ol:urcptane' @'r may I~S; it n~ any poin,t.W,e must

. - -

:kuow 'how to fels,te ,an ~O'nns ,md their contours te an eye level In :aphmograph. everyth~ng j!s l'\e~a,'ted 'k> the cameea lens in the same way~ but ,UnJJ\') ·a.1;IUslt eaanot dBpru:lid upon the camera. lie must 'know perspective,



The sllIIcee.sdu] artist must keepth.e'J.l:'II dueling.

I p·l'Sm:liaW~}' believe an utwst CAn ,de,:oelop' a sQ:undincl.ividuality in his l;v.ol[k o·Ji;lIy if he~:Jl!OW5 how p rspeeeive, .light, and shadow truly afFe<:t the basic forms, Then it Is not too diflcult 'to peTclf:live tbe rel.1Uooship of ~U odl~r fo,rms to the basic oaes, The artist must l."JlIOW the difer€:llce in ~be q l1ali ty !Of diil'U5i€~lligh~ al:ld, d.ir~ct ligflt and not m:iix the ~~V'o' within the' same subject. S6 many <li.1~lis:t's get imtQ~v·ed in ti'i,ek-y teehniq Ue5, 'whjch arewell and good if ,3J1I e'liSie. is: in order but can cover up just so many sins and no more, Technique aiO!l,e will 'not ~'!t\Hsfy dlnt iintel1igeflt perception o£ [ohn Doe; s,l.IIndiiwe \:I,';aI'1't hilll t,o write to d.lIe magazines and say that he thinks olU'\'lork Is g,ood~ WI!;! can"t depel,'IId an technique. P'Orl'lJ'li is form, and ill any' parl'lclid<!l.'l lig~'ti:ng ,e\ferypl:~me illil a. pictul'C ll1!l1Slt hlJlve Us rd!!.itiv<e value, or the whole faU~ 'to ,convince. The wrong val ue means that the angle ,of the plane is not whatwt should be, ,and therefore dle [()l'l'TI is incorrect whetheethe contours: are right ()T 110t.

Let us consider Jor a moment what made the gr~'al f'lfHsts,great" III O~~1"Iost every ease tbey were '(i'Ulsters of form. wh_ich means tllat ~ey h~.d. to be ~a;shrrs: of ligbt en form. Ltgh't Hnd!. form were )jUJ dif(,e.;n;:nt then. The artist ,of the past had no cUpll~ngs 011' eameras .. 'They had to find out £ron~ ·~if,e. By observationand st'lJ.dy they learned b·uths. which are still staring us 5n the ,face; but l'vhiclb. 'we do not know 0.1' see, because we thhik an F.2 lens is gob. g to take th~' who]€: heavy bUSiness off our sbou,Iders. \.'If,e ;~ctu.uEy ha.v:e hve~lt)' ~jJ.'nes H\i~ opp orhlJ'~ilty llO! produce liliiasteFf~eces that they h:l!.d. \V,c are not holJ~.ered w,itb maki:ug materials, or ske~ches~ or studies £rmlll life. The trrn'th is we ~.I'e .~ ust not botfuel~ed.We ere neither crdtSlTl!oll nor contributors. The only le,gUirll®lt'eeXC'llse the artist .of ~oc1ay has -Sl.~.d1. it' S WOl'Il thln ,_ is lack of time, But where islack 'of Ithne biking 'Us?

To know is the S!lU'e"s~ 'way in the 'world. 'to save time. .kn <1ll!"I'"()l" ~n f~'1fSpll:~clti.ve '00 n use 1llp nJlio:re: tilne Ithan fnl)tadislt has, Bad pWa:-o,e:5 ~lldi.peoit~

~"(!ctmodeli.'IIg can. ruin a mall"s ehences sofa:s:t that the Urne saved may be s:pe:ntpoulldin;g side"valks.. When ,I.t pa,htting G'l dmwing stan ds as a great tldl1g dOl\v" through fl.e year8,wi~h g:enemUol'l aft.er genera:t.ic~n ,of new 81") eChi.tors~ I be~~.ieve theJ.~[g, a positive' reason, which means more than the name sl,gl ed on the canvas, Those R~"lists were g,feat because they Cfl.Mtl! so elose to· the till! (11 'of vlsiou, because theyhad g!l'ea:t unden;bm (jli ng of nature and her ways:. Til) stand 'before a 'r,(lmz na~s .ws anexperienee. It i!'; life" brou,ght down through the years to you. The worn an. in ,tbe white eap and. friUed CO~klr]S a :~:i.v:i.ng character. and we see her bdOO'e us just as I=JI[a~ssaw her. She almost speaks. Thl'OU,g.h his: vb;](m and mastery we are 'hviug jn:l!.thll13: before we were horn, There ilS notbing,,,,e dOIDOt c.o'mpre:hend. No, eXll,laiflations are needed. ';VenJeed know no'lh~n.g 'Qif~ut h)· Feel ;luul ,aplPl.'eci~:t:e t1.'le grmiltn€lSs: of the work, I cannot hdiecV1ethat Franz H!iI:]s wm ever be outmoded, His works will be lfl~S~r.Jitpi~ccs; ru~ong as there are, people to see them and ~be: paint and canvas hold together.

No m~n can s!!:lc~slli1ny draw or paint a head unttil he can render ttlli.e surf.ace of a spher,e !in light U hie CilIin~t lee,] tll~ W'eIIilUO.l'iI:!ii~ipl 'M the roun ded forms of the head to the sphere 'Gregg, the rendering will net have so,lldi'ty. In ,the material In dl ~J.i book \1V1e :apply the ]tgbt 'Oll basic fO!;"1'f.list·o tll'li: figure and. tIl.e' head, Foj 1lI. I.i:tdc:l fun, \V~ even give solidity to comte drawings. It is pO;'ls.ih Ie to n'i~}.r;e' even a oomic seem to e!'ljst in .Wight and sl'u\Clm!l. with notmng but ilU~btina!tion

to work fro:rn. -

The tlrae that you spendpra.c'tieiog on esseati:l.\]s wUl not bewasted, Suppose you ~v,er'e asked bJ! dr,()Jwa, set:wes of eolumns.spaeed !UJ ,feet apart~ set on cubes m,easm-ing5 f~~etea,chwlJ\\y~.witb some figures standing at the second and :liftl}. oolumns, and the bases g..E eight 'cohunns going back in the dtstanceThis ~s ve.lty S,inlp~e 'if Y,Otl k'lOW p.!i'spective.W1-ilich '!ffiuld tak,e ~he most tiiI1l1E!. boo ]~un~ '(I,P s~l(~h a. buUd~ng"t;!l,ke ~)bOk)gr-;;rphs~ ,dcw'emoF' !Ums:;.~~e print8~ m1d setthe



Ii -lki,il,ckfeN ,Gr~f' w- ahdik .If cOlHl'ar.r.f~n

,M I.DPou'fr ... lllitltlk;»tidcl/teipAt t/lHc/wtdlk. ItCt2Jl J,e6cakl

k~ _L . I.·_/L . 'Jd _,DI._ ~7fA'4CtHf~PtelMt(lC/lt at'~

)'otHio/A-1h ietfld

A-C2tulJ(kr/A?titfflH~j'tr~ Be EipUK}'vtirll If' t1IfdahtWt. aJltc?kdnZlDVtf;;alJl ,/ih;,

llted.ran?irfi#Utt idtifU aftWctlJii/dCtnf(lk~.

/iHt/fJ)iMre &efC1 ~-fzII oe mock/or Co/'f



v'~J;,. l ~, P(Je~



ru~IH;)fflbly 011'1 a. proj ctor, Or ]U.\it to sit down ~md drnw lit? A_most (L'lily,.lilick of knowledge of imp~~ ptm;pective can hack away ar au ,(]Ir{-is,t's, (Iinl!le. Theamount <l!f metlon and tim' whieh 'l,l\(m save


by knol'it"~ng hO\J\' to so],,(=) your probl"I:JfIS rm' e,;,;;-

eeeds :lmy Stl.·" .illgby the OC)fOfcct(lr. Thtl' UI,OI'(. YO'Ill lean on you~r crutches, tl 0 more YOWl sll-eng,th. ebbs; and soon }"OiU en mol g t nh:mg \""it~IQut them, No artl st 'C'3n cv'c~· sa V,C IUme by not bC'i 1 g able t(l do forhimli:e]t the things his camera dm~.~ for him, Nev,er .let that camera get beyond, being a source of infclI:m41lti(in. ':0 11)5 ln the world is a roc:ll dr'<lftsuuu~: that skU! belon gs liu ~he artist himseU a-

Une tlra"\'i:ng andpainUng ael.uaUy simp1ify and stress the basic rd.llkms'hip' of the forrns. The leg (w torso is actullHy better ~1S: a cylind:riC<lI shape, \vitb [ust enough an~'to1fllly to make it eon= vinel n,g. th::l n as a photogra ph ~c rep~ ica ·or eo' ery hump and bump of the m\ISCWeS on it. '\~',e must learn ~o SU~) ortHna.b3 HI'IlH::h ofwha.l: the lens sees. We are reaUy conecmed H10re with light and sb.'l.Jd,ow ~ma bulk .ot' II'HUiS th.an with \!i;'hat the came ... l ell g1vc us. J[Jiloto,gl'tlp)lS with several l.igI'ilI~ sourc s, '\!iMchis ~hc way most comlil'ilercinl photographs are mad ; defy every prillcipl ef good. dnnvi n g. There ls !flO anth cnti.c form hl them; it has boon. broken up 10 menn]llg~ess light and shadow, n.nd good dn~\\fing hi e!:lsenti~lny a shl~Ctncn( of IQI)'.m.

I should Hke Ibhe }'otlng. art~:St;l as :hc . It;uts \\""Owking. on the rna teria 1 in this book; 'to eonsider, befnte discmmting what nature has to o.ff'l', what i:t would be hke tcbe blind. l'Mnk what Ught ~Uld fonn n~.'lny n'1.I.::nn to us, Thines that seem. so c:omlnonph~,ce3ire ~'e~ Uf ~h;ings of be1ll,u!ly,. Strijln~r·Jy ,enough ,,,,II1"n they are well (hr:.lwn ,the), seem even more b 'muUluL for th,ey have been set apart .from the endless muh:lpHcity of uilItm:e.A, good.cll:';]lw:ing, o~ fi thjng can be rnore ·lIltel'~lil'iJg than the thlill_g itself. (or jlt con' ntrates ,ilJUenHon on aspects which tbell;jlYllll;;liH 1,mbnMywou1,(llilQt see, Flowers in a vaseare beantifu'l,but seenwith the painter'~~ vlsion they can be even more beautifu], A head is just au-

other p,'rsQn tc the~a.yman ~gntiI it ws: beillllllUfuHy drawn or l)1<dut(ldi.

'We have no mock 'Or mnt,erffial plus all th,s 'thim!'s In natuse, we have an the man-made thwn,gs that have become a par~ ofm()d]el'u life. \Ve ha ve thousands and thous l'mdis o£el'ects,.w many worth setting down. so m~lny worthy 0,£ study. Th arUslts of tod~}' '-\lj'li a~lh~v'e ha,d. t'heh' ycstcnla.y b cfmr,e roo, lmlg. Some of you students wi]] h ~ in their places. yo~! win be Uiviug ~n tll:e same 5unLi,ght 'lh.ey U\l~d in; 'wiH~ all of nature now YO'm's instead of theirs. You ,,"vi.n Jive iJlmong, new U.lnH,:.'S and. laces, bu t \vuh the same kinds of P Oi)~C' dO'iol! ~md til. i nl in g, n~~lJI::h the same rh:ill(tS. To "lPPC<:ll to those people Y{nU win have to g:JY them credit for intelligence, or awarel1!3SS of [if an.d. mllm' '. Crudity and distortion wiU not be .my more <~:p:prcchlted fifty ye~[':':; h 'nt' th3.n ~hcy .n'C now, If you can achieve truth, 11)0 L~rllli can discredit you.

1 cnnnot believe that art devctd of fl,1nda.mentals, Sh'uctmaiknowhu:Tge. and. somesort (i,f beauty, een endure, Sil C~ we as huma.nbeings cam l.lIolU dio 0 the \\<isc tl mn lhre \~fit~l mlhu:c Oil.~~d her ~a ws; 'f \"f(lilldt.'t' ir art C;;UTh do otherw lse, I bel leve that du;~ artis'ts of the [utWfle wm k I:l:O'W m nch more about nature ~h .. an we do; and tha t nH~ know 1 d,ge will lead to gl:ea~et art. I nereasing ul.wdc!r,bl1uHuO' has ~ed to the pdJllcipEes we use new, Let \IS aUThCk ,the materia] bcfoJl'€: us Wlit! lhl.: fed~1I g Ithat adiUUon3iI 1:1 owlcdge can lwin g on lly added p~J\'!i'(;'lr.


Th c~c j,~ ] j tele En..hou t pend] technique l hu.t C>1.1'l b t~ught. ]But it may be' a ]l:elp to the student to l'i~HJ~~I"Stnl:ld $().'iTlC of ~h,,! th~n g.s h~:ipcl1'lcn 'wm do. I have .a~w<\y fa oredi soft pencii ~md. do. not ~ f~c;l to use d i 1I(~ent gndes lO'rh;~'I'dne sses within th ~ same dnl'i;ving. I like a lvge lead, sharpened to <lIi. Ioug poh!.t, capable of sbmdfng oO'ilsid "1J'~t b,~e l'l,rcssure. Thcpuint :mny be ]aid ut-'all'b" n~l.t On the 'oal)er ~)\t .1.'IIoldino' t:hci:JcncU

.rI .It" LIL,~ iii.

undo .. the hand Hllilld IlJ~iI g the arm and wr.iist

rather than the nng~rs for the stroke. Tb 'lip of 'til e point ma y be' used I or ~illes> such as Olll[~


'~/t., ,J/itce 04 ,/t'r/d,C'aH. ckliHe'/orM,aJe ~4vdr care~ltY '{o/uz,I/k'/tfH.

doer Of if iro.rebacroJ.f ike ,.ra~ceJ;j€,ofti-tt; I/t£ ~ea.rcfLi9'k;,kal1~ ,aad .riadow'.


llines or contours, and the :Bat side for shading or gnys. For the dfect. see pag~ ,24. 'The dxawings in this 'book were d.oM with the Eagle Pencil Gom.p:t,ny's Frmsmacolor Bhdc 89'5 Ito obtain good blacks fo}' reproduction, since a.U (lots on a ltne cut must be black

DilJ,er'l;:'nt papel's give rliHeren't effects.. The pap(3',l' used f"Oil' thcs,e- drawmgs was CoquiUe Board, a grniny (laper meantfQ{ this kind of .repl'QclucHon.

There are alsoearbon pend~s} cra.yolls, charcoal, ,anything you want-Drawing is dnnving in any medium j select the 011 e you hke b res~" You 'can buy Iarge pads of Ja yout bond paper, which is not too thin and trausparent. Get a bo.x olF kneaded ruhh91"" or the fl,l~:s,t[c' Itype of eraser, The pencils I ha e us~l dO.1 orerase readily, lFO for awhlle it mi;ght be best ~o sttek to dIe regubr graphite OJ lead pencils,

My only ~:tlg:g'estion as to the technica I use 0' ~'lIe penc~l Is to tTy to avoid scratch y ~ small, alll,d. thin-bned strokes for your grays Ol.l'ld!Wacks. They persl!'i't in I,aoking amm.tewdsh and fussy or 1 urry instead of suggestln g an area of tone,

ToO dothe pers!pec..1i¥,e problems, y.ouwiU need a fnirly\v.id.e (lrawingboard, a T square, and a triangle. You need (lot get: a;, complete set of drawing instnrment5 ualess you ~lIltend to jnk in your drawing'S. A pair of cUvldel'g: and a penon

compass wlll suffice., Any ruler will do when work ingto scale.

Theproblems 'Of' ltghnn g on Iorm can best be solved by working, [rom li~e. If you must work -ai~ 'I~'ipht, mw arti6dallhtht on \i'OUlr :s.ub;e.ct will

e ~ ~ ~ I

give you the effect yonwan t. However, keepthe

light ,s~lTIph.·", using one source, Draw anyth[r1g you wish for practice - some oIdi. shoes, some pott ry, some vegetables, fruits" pots and pans, bottles, bnc-a-brae, toys, books, dells, anything at a.n. It 18 all Iorrn wilrh light on ffit3J·nd all present interesting: problems.

To keep yOllill' ]?1:'acHce from getting: too borling. perhaps one' evening at peI"Slr)edive can be fmlkrwed by an'v,ening of drawing from life or copying someof the drawings in this book. Tl"Y O'l'lce mn a. \1vhiIeto draw real people - some memher o.f YOUI' (amily wtll pose :f():r you, Spen.d an evenlug wlth comics -.~t.ey are £'00 to 00. There ]8 plene of material an about: YOll. Do not try tOo make masterpieces, just sincere smdtcs .. S~V YOIU work [or .Water comparison.

Tc Jearn to draw is to draw and draw and draw,

Note; If yO'll \"Ilish to ,copy any o( the drawrngs shown here, for practice, yOllllnay do SQ, However, since the book is copyrighted, no part 0:£ :i.t may becop.ied fo,t reproduction 'CiT' slle.




~ I




?lr.e/"e' if Aidc£:J{erjZ;:(3clt~e' tit everrlhtl!1 lkai aie COt II ever: cViZaJ; larf€ or Jmt2 II.

The pages of tJlis book that are tlevoted to PM~:I?€>cliv,e sh.ould.l1ot be eOl'lsidered a ,side isSf!.ul:by al;"lyonew h€l is: se:ri.ously i'ntel."e.s,t,ed in, drawing. It In.l)' be' hard to see die ccnnectlon between 1)lanes and. vanish.ing points and the khild. of dir3f;,iI,I'ing y,au ~'Y:i;sJ'i, to' do. But there, '[.'5 a der.nit:e eonuection, fo~' anyt hing, you dm"" is re~ated.w, ,3; hOl'lizol1 ~nct vanisJun! pOhllis,. eVEn1 though it is IilO~ :alwaysneccssfll'Y 'to draw them. If YQU iililte:nd. Ito R'JJa::ke:a. ~ivill;g at dr~,w~ng" by an means leam these things now. and do not I'll ave tbem hotherin,g you a.nd your vl!ork f,or~be rest ,of yOllll" ute. Even. if you ar drawing on~y as a ho1b:];,), ~ ~hG knowIDedg:e w iUefia b1e y,o:ut<c) do much better work. Remenl) bel' that anything can be drawn within the cube or block. EV,eI'II though you don't draw the ,il,ctual block! you mu~tfecl the pel'spectivereJa:uanship ()f the Rgur6 or obJed as it would be withil\l. a bleek ..

Experilue:nt with leal dj'aw~n,g by drawing a thing .~rst. 'witb blocks. See bow 11:luchmor,e 1'001 eenstructiea you I:ert into :it. Yon win '~ate:r see the tie-up,be:twee'll ligh.tin,g, ~nd perspective, which Me much more ,d08i~ly relaeed dUIDtlile3vt!:l"ag.c artist re.ibrzes.

Art s'~llIde'ntl'!i, are as :Fronlll: 'to' lun(telfiestwlil'!aJrelhe vallue of tile Shldy ,~Jperspecdve8ls: music sta-

dents are to underestimate the need. of practicing scales, Bo:th f oundatlous aee :necessa.ry. I~ drawing, the ,eye is as: illlportalllil,lls; is; theear in music. M usiclans \II!I1O play only by ear ate never us accorliIJPU~hed 05 those who (:,iln also read musie, SIrnihlfty, an ~.rll'ist ean ,dr.~w by ey,e ~l{lln,e~ hrj;t't he \:o.dll never draw as well as o:ue'lvho kuows F undamei tal pe(spectiv:e. The handicap is, UIll'l~ce$Sary it emU~F ease, Sit 00 the knoi\i\·ledge ms a\,<lm~able~\!Vh"y ~:ry 'to :strugg,le aIDo~~g \\~i~b.ou:t n? The ,dillic~dUes !(lif not know il\g9l~e alwllJs l'lliiucb gr'e~ter IthantheeHort of [(r.u;n~lll,g.

The prob]e.ns in thls section are not d'lud·;s p]~y, They l'equ~l~e con:si!d~:[';fible appJication, But the, time and e,iJort requlred to d1.igest t1t~s mat·erial thorouglly wmpay d~vidends thl"ougiho1i.Jt your whole career. Alt'h(n,g:h luany of the lfflport:aot princl,ples s[;r~ presc:,:n~cd here, spal:e aibvieus Iy does not permit c:olflpleb:coverag~ in a book of this krir~tt. and. I cannot possibly answer personal let:tlim!l on prohIems .o.fpeIspecltive. I uil:ge, you. 'the;l'elore~ ~o 'supp leu.'ilen~ tltis 'hook willl. some goo d ~e1(t!.i on perspcettve, A. simple one to understand i~ PefSfJec.Uve 3-I,aae' E'(J:8g by Ernes't Noi~il)lg; you will find ethers in boobsteres and art s'~or~s. N,Q subject: Is :Mor-e' worllry 'Of dLU~ alflist's st!il.dly.


Let usstad with the: beginning of aU good dn~.w.tng,p!I'oportion and d:imellsion. The square with Its equal dimensions is e\Xtl'emely jmpOd;atlt~as the: .followi.ng. pag,0-sshow',. From, tbesqlHue: we

,ean Ql)nstrud u.e!arly all adler forms .. io pe.rspective. The square is a 'basic means of measurement, W·e must BrstIearn to ,div:id.e the 8qu~:re .

Ji."a« ~/oqe.;,d-:;(wil! IiI: ~&, t2 ~.~ a;,tli Inltl't- ~,(I.) i.a·~·.tf, ~Ike ~ o;~a~ ifl.per.t;P@:~6ve~ Idtc~ig? ~'. '*~nzI/&~e#t.r<!aKrc/(M:l_ o~~ odS co~P"V&t ifl...6Q.x wl,,~: ~Id tit .~"'(}uMlt. meN @e. bui/dike object ~'jf"il4 d ... £""el( ?O(tJ<d obje,c6- ftC -&e ~ (>;" .6IacA. Ib, d'~ '4e cu.6e,. we .muJ.t eiwlt.rk 02 knzO/( (O/."·&rekv:td'I)~ .~ .~""~9' pc-~:"I-,E. "'I/J.r.d'e.r ,a/ ike <x.t.c6~J Pe(Xde lowa.n:! ~. 'v:arUfck(.~ ~

Tihe dr,a,wing abCl<ve shOW's the sq uare ~a;id tact ,on d}).egronnd.. .A n g;r,olil,n.d."lalllsbe.g~flI wru~ih ~'his. We ean f!!0i1W ·bui1d the cubeen the ·square. The shies of tb,e cube are divi,ded' Hke: the squares at the top of 'the: :page~ butnM'-i' are shown m per-

Spi~cUve. In the: dr,Q.w~lilg above d1ete is some d.istortion because the vanish~.ng. pomts had to be ptac.,oo, :11 Inde too' ,clore in ord.er~o show _hem both on t:he pa.ge. Try wCQ"w[ng some cubes eorr.eedy.



Dr .fl!J:ea:ns ,of' (be, dl.v:id,e,dJ squa~e andll:he cube, we can .:.l:W the c:WIJe iI:nd. tbe cybndcl. We!!!lse a (.'l}MPQ:SS~O 'm:,a!wa~e ,circJ~. The cilrcie~1i1!i pei[\sfooU.ve beoome;san elUpse. We, can dJ"3;W the

ellrup'se qutte aiOOUXaJI:ely bYlIDs,ing thedi.vlded squ:arn dlmwillin pe.~p'~cUve. T~i5 ~sv~~~labJ.e ]1\ d!rawlng:aJI FOlimd. or ,cy:llh'ildrlea:~ {OJlUS.

1'0 draw a: ci:rde in pefsf~ti\l'lej W~ first: layout a dMaed squJare. W,e mw dl!e ares anr~n.d.lhe f;'ouIsicles~ malki1:lJg, the atCSc"u:t jrusft mort .of m!E: hfiU\~1 _POlnlts bet'ilv€lel'l .Aallildl. III N Q'W by (k,3iWiug: ,e~Hps:-es en Ule fGP audbQu"Q.m ~id!es of a:

clllbe or 'Mock, ,ve ()Ollslrncl:a cylhlld.er ill pers:pec,Uve, The vlilinJ:sh~ogpoints for a srn,d] obi ec~ sbollidbe spaced\v.~deapaJit:. ','Oir laj"geobjects. ~h~y can be spa.cdl.clOJieT'.



Tile ,coDe i:sbWlt on the c:bcle in perspecHve. and thecirele Dlperspe-cUve is o.f OOUlltSe,COJl:stru.c:tedwithin the sqU8[I;',e., Many objects are

blULi]~t with the: COlle as the baste form. sucih as f.he wine g~ass, hom. ete,

J(~Hte:JltJ'er !ha,i fwl4 ,VaN"'.rIt.· ,it? I'Ot"rtt.f h(,u.rj.: /;e~a..J~d ~ &e, J~ IYUf /ev,e//tOl"lZOR .,

Latec' y,olJ,lwiU dr~.w Il!eehand, bUlt at 6rsl. when you are le~nl'~ng the basicpri:n.cipb~s of dr~wjll~ you wm .atwaysneed:a S'trai,ght~ed.ge to, get 00f-

fecit' perspect.ve. So. get a T'square and abiaJng~e and make .IlU Ilhe lin.es true and straight Cai[\eles:s: dra.\iI!'ing :isthe Sum sign ,ofthe :a.,llHlIWUl".


Since a ende fits Wti.,thiiI a squar,e. a spbere wiU :liIt 'mth~n a. cube.. Firs,t divide th.~ ,cube. then ,chaw the ,circle pman in per~pectjv,c hodzonta.UY 1iI',c:r.o&s, the Diliddle ~t:iion. of the cobe (Fig. I).


\\'helilllh.e, circIe 'pIan 'bas been laid o iii! [ On. the m5(l..horim:fl:m~. !p~anei.!is 'WeW~, as 'OtI! alilyciftical pia:nes whi.c!hlpasS thwolU,gntlle ¥er~~cal axis} a.

'Then dra,w tile ,dreWe ()b,n. On the 'l1prigll!~ d.ii:\\gm ona] planes; 'nUl lengdl of these plaaes is det:er~ ndfledby Itheperhnet'er ()~'the horioonta~ eirele,


r:......,·...,"""_·!il!!""' - ..... '!!!I'r-'- ";;;;;;'ii"'O'~_~_.~ .. ,

#iii ~_ - ~"

p,,' a U'~, I~,TW'O'

'THE e'~Cl.E 1:11.6'1\1: IAIID 'ONI ALlPUi,NiE$ 'JHtI.! p.mOOt.JI(;',IIfCi A Oi,!;\, !jDeDftW~:fi.e

T'Ii'IO 'N-rel~I'eCTU'4IG CIRCLer W' ~T'I-IIIN A S'PlFlle'R.£

perfectly divided sphefe wiJI r-es.uh',. The OOJ)i'toux olE a sphere nevee ,Chang:es. tlli.ougb the lines IDE di'vi.'l:iut! iiJl'e affecb;:d by pe,rs-pootiive I( Fiig., :2.).


What is: true lo.f the cubeand the·s:phere is alflo true of any.eJlongated block that wii!lI fit arouad :any rounded .. ~Omli. Any sucb form can be drawn

it'll accurate' perspective by us~n.g Ithis: baste ap~ plloach.. F:~rst draw plans 'Of Ithe middl'l;! :planes of the block.

"f'H,E. M Hi! ~,,r.. ~ !P~" Ii ·C,r:tO.F.lW J' . .;r ~

The >d:ra;w:ings. here: mdica:te the s;oundn,e~ ,of this: .ap.p']loacbto ,good dra:'wing. The wbo~e pdncip!e of per~pectlv'e drawblg is to enable the ,draftsman to g:et at the :h'lllt'lf (!Otii!l~ruotion and to re~a:te all section!! or .parts 'bO lil sin.g1e viewp'Oint. 1ibe mlecwali1lro b\t[~d:s .fr'Om p1l:ii!Tis: '!Ivnlch :ar,e eress :s«:t:~on,S dlwugh tbe object. These, a[it:·!l]su.a!l1Y :Rat'p:llJills lib the two aJt the: top of this pa.,ge. Ha:v:i'ng such. pWa:ns,. we can draw them to a hodzon and V3ni:S1:1IIing: pOints, showing the object ill} three dimensions.


fbe! elrele and the block can be a pplted in duwWig main), diHeFent objects. J f you can dra w the' bloci~ intperspc(:lt:ive, YOlJ, can dnu:Y3ilmos.t

~,nyobJect in anY' pOSUiolliwirThi:tLn yotlil' subject. Draw the block to equal the heigllt" wid~h., and depth, ,!)If tI/1,e form..


I ...

lie a'!)-! /ja _!lat yer..rio:g O/I~' cyhH~ 'a'e~ ftitc:~ Ilka[hfa~'~feJj ,tt'f(tjWj tb kko~/tpt#OdJ Iltee/~fe.1' ..r.lott!t?/e

dra'f'l'! 10 J2lctlt/f oq(J:cl Hc1kf weff~ j».tHt tVtd*oHt ~ e;Y&kye!



III case yonare .having brQu.ble iratdrawiing'b]ocb C'o1"fiect~y I ~he dI'aVilings below wlll :he~p' you. ReIrnembertfua~ ellipses narrow as they near the eye ]Ievel. Studying, fl. teal object win he:fp you

'lP nORI--' N


ap'P(1oximate this. the perspective depth* of the' top, slide of the bllocl,dete:nnwfie8 Ithe, pevspecUve depth of t~e bortom side.

lIatu 10 C'aH(fp_~t:/~Jlor:Ir o/ftv.eR

orde..r:tred dtm:~IU.u)N,f

.¥'(1tl xeed a. TJf'a~p'e aff¢~6-(a".f'" £riaJIt'si, ,i2 ltorl z"" .01" '7e1e,v(?!: /J,mttJ 4l P'"'pelt~"c.uIar(j).h/~..fk Ae/fltl aNd (ulb:llt ai.&0c-K @O/f lie peljCendicdar. ~d~()/ ~o/ ,~ iopJtd:e t: ~_l'_ .. - .. ~~ve ,(J;'tj-~~ 1io~4i* 7ler?;(,.(fk lite PQ(.id-s .eJt~ laked M.engj-o/llite@ dnz~ ~H~ tm,kHs.r@:l7rtd@~. hJIf.t/Uf~ J'l'm a/x,Yd~ Zek dnrMO~e,~rJ;'te:fiH.1k ~e)"-~~adw."Ar&.el;'~.6e,,J;





Here are tWGIWi!l:ys .0'£ co:n:!l~rMcffi:ing bJociks ,of speci6ed ,iJil1i!.e:nsiQ!J)s" 1[1 Ithe drawlngat lhe ]ieft~ the dimetl!S~cmiS, afle~a~d. ,[)!U1torn. the midl.d:~eHn@ owaxws,. usiuRth.ep.rooedlure showfil. O~ thepre-


~ - - - ~ '1- ~ ~ ~



C~illg; page. In. me on~ on the l'~gl'l~~ we estabhsha measuring Ho.e touchwng~he~ea:r corner, th~1iI. cal'lr)' H'!I€ unit~bo the brule Ii~~.

If \

./1 \

/' \

j ,i \


f I \

j ~'

I 1

1 1 .' l



'\ \






MEA.fV Iriit,l N G' :1.1 N E.

Jl.4,,¥ 'OlJT .IilN U'NI~ • .r ,AN 0 Pr:l::OJ !5CT TO' 6,A.fE L.l H E

IJ'N~T.f ,<!;,RIE. PR() J I!! CT,!!,; D"l"O '!"fIE FR!OH\!l' I"ll.AMIE Q!",HIE;;, ,{H"OCK

Vlhe~ you: ,~-a~p[oduoo .a:bloclk: of !!peciHec!l. di~ llI.ensions.you ha've the ba.s!b; foo: dl1awirng a:~y obiec~ ~cc1.nat,ely, You af(lur,gedtQ practice thi:5 ootH you ,can do it. because it is a preeedure (oot

you wm use For tber~sto~ your Hfe. We prig,. gress from tbis toether methods of measurement in pefspecUv~.



The drawings below shOW' h.ow to spaoe ,off 'equal ·tmUS :rn :perspoot~ve" with.iin. bCiJtb :h(lri,mnta~ and.verUca:l.p~an(is .. This: is v.aluabWe in ,drawjog even ~y spaced urri:ts rt:hat recede: ~o,waJrd the har1~ 2~n. It \\v.m enable JO'U to SPI!I·C(l ,correctly such

dl'itmlgs as units: (If rug dJesig_ns!. fe:Jlt.'C posts, ·t:e:i,e.. p'hQne poles. lr.a.ilil's~ Whld,QtlN' pnmes~blocks in, sidmvalks. building blocb. brleks, r,oo.6~g. wallpa pe:TIi~ 'etc.


Iv.e:ry i!lt~~st ~ihouM ~n()w 'how to dr.iit\v to, a, seale. Sca~e dlrn.Wlilligs !!ls~aUY!i'equire: tIle division of vel1ical :ilndhoiI'Wzon:hd planes: into squaJlIc f'eet 01" squa:re units. By the-plalll shownhelie. we ~iIIi qU!i,c'k~y Idivide ,s!I:!ch p]~nes in.tQsquares of any

dilJilll(liflSion. Here we t!lJ~e ,a un~t M 110 'by 101 fee1t.We measure widl this ullliit as far baek as 2500 Ieet, \vb.cll is as muehas yOl!J, wil] ever need. This Is very vaJuab~e t,o you.

,.- ~,

I"iIGAj"VR.1 N.~


1-; <::) ~ II ~g NI TA \..

l.i N &;

Hot{) 10' ,fca!~ a v~rlt'ca/~d ahortionta/ f1/aMe

ale Httuf lir:.d eJlab!tj/c a v(?r6,c,d~d a ,J-or~~onlailltfi>a.r«rtdt. ,~~q 1 louc/!.t~ eack alAer alnr*1 Cl.NyieJ; !foln:1 eero). o)! ballt Itite.rcue lay oui,o,~9"'a/ Ui'aiJ io Fe;o~~~e~t!/ol"e~l.7hefii~ o~a., Wt;ti-, '. ,joy:nf('Oual#:etorizoflt tf lAe", felai~y ae:.rlrM k:(~lrkl oAlike verkcal

.hteaJ;ur'~ tHe. Uk '*~ t?f~~ a V~(~Jtllrr- rid' anywIAereon.~ Itonz.ow.. WHHiect potnl:r IQ /laKd A tb IVR'&taJt.'JIc o~wta/d€pt.k' oIli:e' ,t;.,...d- ;;'01 ~~.f£ dnza;,/i,ar h-om,all A,oiUlt(;fJ-/v((.fl:lld,/I/? ika,o.ICai ,o/hrft .,I;u,/(oc) ,Muzrkr,o#" ve,.Jt,Ca/ dtv.l:rt,O;~f 0/ ,Gal wul.! ,aNd ~o Ike 121'".$1/0' ~ wd:I a/pain:! C' £)la?i?na/A'iA~UfIt 8'foilt 641ft hU-edt~ &d~ltaL1~a'kf 01120#.0;11 ~e1/VUMd&He. 7kH,'{;ffIoE(J ""IV :fl,.~'d .J'iO ,O~ tf,t.ivIi~t:tr~*




It isv'ery impOl1amtt:o'l.nllde~st:®nd wnaltt :is meant by a smgle-point perspiMtive and two~lPoint perspective alnd] ho~ the: plat!u~s and d'.i.elJ.' di,a!gcll1als, operate :in ea,C:b. The basile plan fOlsing)e'PQint

pe,rspectlve ~s Shown below. A]thO;ug~, we dio 'not need an the ,diagonals for p~rurposes of measurement, we .s:hould klfiOiW ~~w Itt), choose the enes we need,

'VIP.' oF~I""I:iS.

~ .J;(ZftcttJorKtnfPI4I't 01 fticfle'~pOlid!,et:{lJecliv€?'


13A.,l'Ii!!. LII N .... PAQ.A. I. " E.L m TH!!!. HO.~ 12; 0 N

" ., i ] n I •

\ 'H~I ut ! I

\ \ \\ , 11. I

'. \ I\~\~~: j,/,.,. I

\ \\1- s 1/., I

S· . 1 "t t····h II... I, ~ \\ ~ it. if I. • t ~l d" I] 'I II

mg ,e"pmn pei,'sp~ we- exUlts "V en ~WIIe \ \\\i 0' n J / mg PClUlt ror UI reoe iIlg par:!!.! el pianes.

base lines ,of the objects or plsues in the \ \ \\;(, ! m r I It ls usuaUy located at or near It he mldldle

]] 1 h h L(\L,.I, ill; f -

pwcture are para 1e to, t, e orison and at '\ '~~ I j)'I'1 of the b"or~zoL'l.. However, SjlW~, the diag-

Eight angles to the line ,of ljI'isJOl). Tbis \ ~ l )J~ onals of dlOse p]~l"U~S are' obhque Iiaes,

'i\J ' -

means that the objects we are loo,kmng a~ they vanish iill two pohltS. Diag,oIl.tl:ls of

are5;tra,igThlt 1n frOl'll~ of 'U:S~ not at ·a'n oibUfliue\j' p horlljonta] planes v:lInish on the no:ri1;oo.

'"1 Of' DIA(iJ-

angWe. Obv~ously ~:ines parallel to' 'the: horl- OF Diagonals of vertical pWanes vanish iii) a


ZOJ1i. cannot conv'e':rg,e to <ii, vaF.iJis~ing pojnt P!L.l!.1'1 il-r vertleal line dlr:rwn ,t'h.rougb the ma~A. va4l.-

and tbere£or-e have none. In sing:]~PQ'hlt ishing peint,

perspective: therle~s OR]Y OI1:e main VR'Oi:sh·

DIAGONALS IN TWO-P'U.ll!N"l rJJ:!,n~.c L"~' 1 . .I.".a.!

cb'awiliig be]uw. wh'ile jt~:p:pean, to be eomated~ is s~rmple whmll youunde.rs'tand. i~ .. \t\'e il dhrided. a b~ocli:: into, :gec~ion~ .of roor 'Ui'lIi'ts:

I side and c~f.t'1ed :aU the d(3),g9'fl.als; Ito, their'

)IA~N41..f ¢~ !I!'tIli"t~""L, JII (::iIS;,J"

DI.o..G(iM,Ai..:r OF "'i!lIiit"~'~G L,,j!',I!;l' s

The v~lishi1illg poin.t ,of the' diagoJii,a]s, of the horwzOl'lIta,t p~ane!S is, located. on tbe bo:ri~on. 'What is tIme of diag,o~ats Olil verllio,,], p~~lnCs. a~so app,li,e! t,o ir~c1in~d plallies as we f.ea.rp, ~atet > {io:r tl!!eir yttnms'hingpoin.ts ~ds{) faU 0111 a ve-rll'i,ca:1Hne

,pro'per vanis~Jing :po~:nts. This is, S'e~diom necessary) bu.,t: U n~us-tra,tes 'the basicp1an for ,dia.g .. onels 'h~ Itwo-po:iintperspeet;iy,e" and . Is 'important to know,

/' ./'


P f,AG',(l'N,A,U" OF V,P'I' VEIR'TI';iC;lr." j~lt>e,f'

'throllgh, dIe, "IIanis~dngpoit~ts of ,tbe v,rieal planes" It is, necessary' 'W ~tudy the drawing Ctm"e~, fully tOI locate ~be diagonams, ,of any parti,ctdu sect km. T~y draJwiJl'.l,g 'this.



By the !FaMe .11~iU'l,th~~~ c£ rne,nsuvlng. d.epd~ by means of diiagplII!a]~:li we eaa also repeata .solid b~otdk. as ShOWWl below; Thi~ is valua ble in d'w:awi.ng buJlcilin.gs 0.£ re.p .ating dimensions or a.n:y

I"OW of objects. tha~ ate cOW"l!stmcted w~thin eq~al bloch. RemielITlilbe~ IthataU objects ,caR be d.rlitwn. with~n Mocb.

:r~'~ mar aie th@ c(t~f0#;~ or &-~ ,whole fide{ AAAA), or ltallolt't(8LJA'A)~,pn.},d_«.C·-

ift.,? ike J(:ll«€ f'eftd/ ettHer /Qay ..


..... "'.,







an ang.Le ,can be aUac,hed to any oblject~ lliu!I setltill,g up a scale of ,meas·weHlent for all v:a:_rl~ able lIiIeiigbts, and widths.

,/io«) ,to dl"aw' Ult:ic.1" ,otYCV-:I'R~/e dtHt't/x.ria'H:i" 'Rrrfj't!c Z'(YQ

_. . • . .t· .L j' /. _1

(l,~.r«nHf j10lhrit e.r-mQU.rheq'

;N c;-:t:/q", -Io,?~e.c:t 1IM'9.r"re_ePl.,t ~ &e i:vriZ:'()H;W,.I~ ~ ~ JarQJ;:.r.e ,a/ rite UPlIf:T. /I S':htnJ<I .6e:l'.!aC'er/ H(MU" &8 Yerlit:tJ,/ ~e ,ON th'(;1 j((::~r£7!ZI:.n ttl!' mo jVX.

lIatU fa dr~,w varea/;/e Jp4Ct:HIJ;t',(DltAlk« fl"o/Ie ,6locK or ,ttJti.":

,.ti¥ ott, _t4,'/(~~~/ec~ Cl(IIIf~aJj. urBme.,~"".tJ _Ipa~ ~e p(ep,t;(",calor /toF.txc.Hta..I.rcct:./e.

- -


;M'ensur'enlEl'llts ~M all spaces may be set by ,choice 'Of' takell fIr'om a plan 01 scale elevatlon and laid, out o lit the vertical and 'hod2Jon~ru seale.

They are thellptojected ;J1 perspective inthe manner sbown in tId.s: d!!·a,whlg.



Herle is 8. very sim.ple rne,thod of projlecUng di.D1i1Ienl!l~ons and! 5pacillp in petsp ~ct~ve. The l'Op draw~ng: show.s the front and s:ide: eJe!l'at~ons (If 31. house, The ,(limensions; of these create avertical and a horizontal seale, The ·horiizon·m.~ 8pao~

~ngsar,e proj,ec~ed ~o tbe base ~itl!eshy means of ~wo mea$urh~g: points. The verUoal s,PlaciIDIgs are tran sferred to tll!~",sl:'tiCilI scale olE the, perspecliv,e duwillgaJll:d projected to th.ev.:::mi:dl.[ng points ..

___ I-

I' -.~ ~ - - ~ ~ - .

- ~ ~-TI. 0


/fnf 0'/1'(210 &e/rt)It-ttUtd .tide elemtic.HJ oIdkiNfKf! ,or anr a/~(?#t.rioN'F ,or

d(J'J't'l"~Io· a f(,~.

8n.~ ... tleect.Y'!t.erf i0181-1i:eP' ·tqt'tk 'paro.lle/ .I/~..r.

E.r:l-a/'.4 fh a hQ#':f:Z: t;;l:~ witlt: .,J(,Q,() .v4·!(,·,".tJ.t~9I'Cllt",f ,fd1i- aJt9/ /

.aparl: Plac:e"~; Nt(Pt:lfU.J!"t;H1 potP.~ .o~ ·etu:A: .rtCl19 ofilt:.e

.pe.~.I". -!-ecal JC. ale. kif o"'~ ~0(9kt'.r OJ! &e've~1 frale. Ext~Hd ba-!,~ bfle~ tb vaMqlc,~'f potldf qr.h'(;!tk Pl1lct OJ«Ilult ..

7Ae POli<.tJ"OIt tlte /to;-izoM/alrcaie are all C()/uulcieclt& tie two' hl9t2J"urtH'.:r l'0eFt:tf lIt,our1t lie ~aJ7e' '-j:,ze~ k· .lAi.r wa.(l tAte JpaciJ!fI are carried 6,Q;ck ro w 6a,('ie/citr· .?ken ix;' I"UHl4tRUl perpl2.1t·dccu/arf .f1D lASe ,~a/1Jal f/refS POIH.tf;aJe

.~. ~k .. ~ .. ~'Y;. ~m.~(fl~ fJt,e_la._ .. -icera:IJ~a'C:t~.fi~-pe; ..... ~-'/':.~pec~ z 7ke ... ~·.pa. -. ' •..•..•. ~R6 o/tke yernCa( .fcr;.le 'are .carr~~OIJr.m .D:ek&ZhtJlttUfpo,ch;t.r;, &Cff e~ta6'u~!tl'Y ikeredtca!.IPQCl#lrf· '~ ,6fe pe'/beudt'Cu..iar;f 6rou9lt.f ":p #OI'U -Me bttft!' It seer:


The VleJ:'tiea~.s:c:a~e ,can bep[[ojec~edt() any PQtit of a ,~~wing. MWi! ~ili:I~drawffin~gbe'~O'Wi~iSn1!O~ :pr.1l.cuc8il~o p~a.ce the, SiC'a~ei~, frofllt of :tllC:l:1!1Ih:lldle 0.£ th.e: bui1ding. SlO' we move it from the fmn~

c0n':l~r oftbe~~ep's, O'l:tong dle base }[~e to' 'tile m:~dd~c line, \~'.Mch. has been p:rojecJt~. do.wn l[rou:li ~mle .f[!:\ont elevatten 'to d:u~lIilleas!lniri!l1!~ ltae £)rhori,7.o:ll.ta~ seale,

------r-- -7:


I I ~ \

~~~ - - - - .- .. ---- .. -. -~'-"- - - - UJ

~ I ,~

,- II -----iill-~~

- - - - - - - ~-1..!- _, - , 1---------------9'

~ .~ ~._ ~~_ - 1_. __ I....__



- - - --~


~---___;.-~-.....:..;~-- ._- '~, '~==;:::::::====;:~=-:;;=::::::;~=.~=~~=~:

---I~J r ~ -_ -_-_ D--O- -O--O--c

~ __ ~I~l ._~~~~~~~~~ ~

/1 II

,[JrtltlJ(Z,ffOltt attd:a flOe ek.vaitolt ora iJ(,uLdiq


~ r Id q __ l

--- ~I

II ~


l~ I

Po 11-4'1".,!Ii' of FFtOJ>!ll' 16 LEV.~',',"r I' QN f-!lO R'i Z: ON TA L .JeA LE.


Thtis ~s the 'way ,ama:r~.it~ct~endeJ:s grouod p~atls and ,e~evwtiom!s~iI1 peoupedi'lt'e. ''[Ids lk:nowl~ edg~rl!iIa}Qe.s itfoss~Me for an artist te dr~w any builwng In· sc~le.. BoHlv,ertkal and ho:ri.Z)crmtal

.~padng of un~ts can be achieved. with aCClll'30Y. Note that another pohd, eelled jhe «Sb!I.tIQA. point," l~as been eJupmoyed h.ere.




E:_L E; VA "i\'i, 0 N

7ite Jtd.ltaH~aiJtt refJ'@J€ltt5 t1Ee;oo~itt'cJ/t ortKeob~?rver: hrJ,t toe far aula. r-,06lKd;:;laN aRc/plao€! tr crlttJltat&~er m<rk weotoof8 to view tlte butldt".M,,-.tLJe drop a rertica.llin:e c70WK .fir&m &e ,c/o.re cornel': ~ fiLfCtlPfitJP aJeai..r:v dfnztI) ako;FlzoHtCZ/ i.tia:? -tf, repre:.r(?'lCr ,&e;oiclurepltZ.lu? /lioR"ezolt C'a/t:be efhz.6ILj-Aed al,z.ltY'kBt,9kt a.6of/e Cit ~rou.h:dl/;eJ6ottft CF'OfJzitr &e.f/:erticcd ~if p~rbcal k.couc~ aNtrC~~f,dIte .klc: Jti2zf~~iH.t "e/c)«.J&er.ro~

~~e, .. eftt(i •. a~ ~tllte ~/<z60!(~ an: d~LdK tf°#t.~ero~

,f/&z1fJ tb&te ;;tc.~e ;;1t!H.e 1111~ l!1!iC'Nl'ro;;eded Iolie bue 1£.I<&.r.



l1il.t!lis drawing we ha.Vie a I!S the I" oorop]ica~ed. ground plan. .But l'ememhering th'at •. amy (onn can be huiJt within a box: ... w'e make use of this truU1 to' s.im:plif y tih.e rendewing in perspective of

th is odd dla~e.'1\>?l'! are coneernedhere witll setting the ground plan on the gronnd plane usIng a. single over-aU lteig,ht ~(Ji' the brn~di.ng~

I _-

__ .---

I __


I . --

~'IJ!IiI;I>~-_J_ . ...-

k 'CO!ffl~cafeo' exteu'orf or .6«i/(/tar..;; a# t:/.r.v,;".rio~.r #t'6<.r:lk ex t.1E~d€d to' tRe ha:re /t-fite'J; or .I~e 6Uel'wflt'cA- rw..(' 0«-1 ~ :6ke ,auo Y4!!aJ-At.N9' p!>lir.u /#o.nt ike /P-oh:.t (Z)P';UJ:'" 0:' &e bd.tl'd~H;?; &CJ ~((d;lf 1o,;;lact~.&e ,6"ildt~rQitAiP. a nu:&z#9w:lar block; 7b ,t;VPl".r.C'O;l£ po,in:(-rar;e br-:OUJ,.ht doUJ'h!: ;;'out :tHe p.tc.tu.r:e'j!JLaxerl" &,e k.r:e ttMf dCeJ'(: carried back to !he ~aK..(,J-lu,Hj /lOtH-if. Jiu.dy "'if .




This Is an ili!n~WM to per:ha:plii the gr~a t~stp!U~der irnpelspeclive W-.awiA_g, By iliis memcd.the base line of the p~c~u_re maybe sst at atwy di'iit.a:n:OE! from the obseJ'Vle:rQiill.a an. accurate scale

.'J:etup in squ3ire Jee1t> er otlher l.n:d~s>Fbr the whore p~c:tYJre area .. Thisglves both vertleal ~t1Ld .ho.r.iml1J!b\l scal~g,


I~X.AM pu=; OF JH~Gl.,E~ Pa,r NT PE R.J p,Ecrl lifE JCAUN ,0


/J~ti:t9WWf ~6e; .. ~nJnlJ[0S:=~~CEH?~~1T-)P.~ic~I.w-::.':'fi'~' ~:_;. :o:.:z, •• ~.p(.;4;'7;' .. ~te

d()~ Mt YS""~:!'f~; dt,,,.t(].;.t wd*- iiililin.l't.f'

Ciro;qo ~ ffl~o/< .pla ced aldq:.lir~d

N wtd(Auee! an#, ,owr~ .fm.ie Ol"afUI,/lf.

W:dicaldMt~G'..t" "!,, .. ~.?'1_~. ~~~~.~, ..•. ~.! .... ~_e_ ~R:~

ten d~tI upwzvd J' cteo'. .".... "",..,_,

OJ' p.nJjdCisrJlo(1l¥f "Aru.ri.!Cf d,af(j~f.

pid 'bI-fIw ",dlU"e.

A---II H'"'-If--il---i!~H-~---:o'~~"--,o'--+""""",,"-i--+---4-B ./J.w:J;"(;l & Yt#lbt~ .~qi"It.{- . .f:~/et:;ted u,81f~MeuMei4


re.I'b.'ca/ .r~eai w.Aalkf'!fOi4i 0/ 4/t.~ (Q'tll ,~~

(/tcate a dk~ olli /I. O(kf. t'J;e 'l',I'!(}~d'.Pj_dXq,

.hlect/cet'rftfloraFiew;uo.id. Ua.l!ll;lt.alt~izolt .lbottfltbfe.pie~. Co>tdrttd a~OK(Z.OHft. ~ ~clav.erh ... crl/Jca/;~~t).~eF.··.····~Io.r.Iltf!Iu?{.f!. ifO:tlWJXf:f .1f.~~.' ~ a)i(KihHor'Z;()~~dICOlH/!tele LZf'lfar:e..#~ o#kerlLlUu OAt P0tH Jctt!eJ.

j)~tIJ .#e Itonztvtk(AB.'6¥rar:9H .~kr:zl/@tlYl?aUt~ olve~{calJcd« atu~ect a/1UMttJ.. th 6fe r<fZUl.IltLHtj /?CN/t-l{tM =: etlr~tJene{Ormy.Ere:cIfM~gdtczb It)~n? !tlleA8:&&ff~f ba.r1?lt:A..e. ~d(tee·,a~tZ.f ID.r1UQd ~e't Io/tlftHf ,dta'1tJltaLr •.


Sealing: the ground pEane f,o[' two-point pers.pectjiv'e l-eqUlRstfi€!lLlsij!al t,W,QIi y,:lInfmin,g poh~,ts ,~t w,~de "pili'. ''lile hori:zO'ntal seale is set ,on l(i'l' be= low the bottJom Une of 'the pictu_fe. The vertical

scale is: pra,cHeal when. plaC'ed a~:the nertl: comeT' oft:lle; first sq uare, T~lbS ,horrz.on ean be: ,se~ a~ amy he~gl:t't you choose.

-rWQ~' ,POINT PE R:.rpe CTII V E.,

-m~'~e!"I/C4/ J"ctde elm .be pr('jeded I", all? p<nitt 0"; r&d! fl':t1UflOp/(lIt.'t!

_--, __



&fllhuj/i two'Htea.fartitr 1'.()iPlt-r, oyte ,all e:aclt fide oftlte l<~rfic«IJ"ca,/fB, ert?k/¥ fpaced 0;1( fie kor;zOK~ r/ttpJ. 170#(120111:1 $@,tJ eflaf;tjJ kre liKef 10 .6ot'lt }/@ti.rittier pOll-tl':t. ,('Onl(ect.It()l"izonla/~ tutifr th l'et'lc.ltl:Jtlfeltltt(!:/ Oil i?ollt ,J"tde'f' 60/ Line:r fJ'Otntt~f ,at P1pj'~ 7lurm:arAT,of/ tudlf 'H.per.1io~c:ljve o/t,6t;,1R_ blUe /JJNJ Exient/lltefe UititJ zb kilt Yalt'lf1uk9' pOlnit;, filler roll. kaye ,efk6/t:fhed.roJhe ffalZn!f, r()actu< /ocale lite Y-UttfJinfjJUlill oI~afa,()l(ak a:.~e AOn~()H,JI/oye .t'lUtU?F.Jttlltl.6e hltZrk~(/(J1f 12/ lite dia.9:oltoj.l crOff (tIlit il.ict2 J ~lIt,fI Vtl.UtfltlHfPotnlJ .,

Georg.e 'Fox Co:lI.efl~ lil;mHY Newberg" Oreg'O mil


The Yefitiea:i and. hodzQnt:a! scales can be 'useil to, SlC:a:~~ aJny p~a!il.e. Owc@:we have the un-it Hnc.s l'unnin.s in one d~n.~·cUon~ ~he dma:g:oHal of any sq uare in. crossing these lines: matks; off ~he unJts

:runlliling .En the other direcHcm,foF width or dep~h as the' c~ule ~a'y be. i\U d~n,gon<l.~8 of simliars£} UiiI'J'\es .OJ' uni't,s wm .hav,(l ·the ,sam~ yanbh~ ing l?Glint.

~ f

j-IC R.IIZ'O I'!IT...:i" .J..J"C#A ~ Ii!

A IOh . ~

.' Iii, '_. -. - ',', , •

. Yl :IIte'dmainr'~OH?1It:e ... ·.·"~tKf {Jfl-'_l!1'N Il'aJOt:Kl?dod

. /)I(t2U1 a: mam 18hy27 "rl2ft alH"OnJ(alo/flk/I'ff!J~«/t~ itoo nfttr6".f .dzzwdtHf2sflc;otzn; t;c$(fitrie-p>UtIperJjDecftp:e; .folul(OH~· E.tlnJbA a Yen?CaVfC$,on akoP'I'z;pglez/Jcak .

H~fJefe o#:m: IOofHNLIf ":le' EfIbZIOliWitfCaief. .ki Ike .io#~zo~f' QI.tkfltl_fr kg lJaM.6 wl7'lical N,e/; MKt.tJt;/.ri.lH.r ,,[)tfl..! aI iKteKUCh'att: O/Ao.riZM l.:qcta rer:6Cd.Jfctt/e. C Otl'hedJ:OI";z(JHz!.altl.l(,fJ~· YI?' £.ddb//.f'k tlepih oIhp..rtff-I!t12h? Ioct.Dr8.HJdd:zfoNt:tI Ioltanzolt. ~iJ" eff4Jlirhe:! lIP',ol&le dt(zr~aIr tGr alll((!CMKf .unt.t.r alftl,oMo creal!?!" a tut,',

90/ . .9'19: .Repeal iJer tuat t1Jll.lt $.49D:ltalraJ' r!toIYP&.


Here Itbe previous problem has been ehanged to tW(FpO'lnt p~rspect]ve. This amollltlts to a change of v~ewpoint. Instea:d. ,0£ lookjfig~tnlfght down 'the mtddle of the mom, the observer has moved

t03J theoretical pOi[i:ition to dH!! right 0'£ me figures, -Dnly two vl"aU.s are now visihle" Th,e fun length of ~b,e room cannot be shown.

~ • 0 I' :2; ,3

"OR I ZON,TAL .rCA LEo 11,( D~'OP'PEDae Low 80'TTO'M WI M IT OF PI en IJ !'tE,

~e' JfttfJ!l"lU, ,off of lie' 1Mlt1lQ;;latte,mht-e t7h2'U)lff,' a;bOIKe, 'f maoh' fl~I"" ert-nJ!t:r1tlHf ko mearlU"tHy pot~~.O/te th tile !t?#~ ONe;&' fI& riflti ,0/ z%e rel'"tzcal..rca/e. Zf'e HBa#'" ,romer of f.itz'mom 'f th1O;Rl'sri .6e/ct"O ~ Aa$. tom !tHat ,0/ lite piclu,e . ./tkLb on lIlek.onrokia/.fctz/e ~ !M'o/eafl?d ,v;; k Ike 6rZfe IMte:rol lite Iloor/;Y(DJtltec!i'o/,iltem6;,lke ttao »eeer'~~f pot~lf, 151 ae aJ:e oIc1tafoJ{aiJ),{de ,GtJt ~ c./lwmcziatK? tUtti.r.



Tl~.e imp@rtam0e o.fbeill1lg able b) sea le~nside weiRs and. floolrs: should be 0 bv lens ~O' anyone inh::f,est:ea ifill. good. dra.-..:v ing. Wh.ElW1l, )'"\OH can dc! this:~ you can draw any ~nteriarr and a:I'Dyfm'n~sihings

wwthiumnin:tedor,. keepiliillg an th~ngt'l in Sica~e ocr pJi"Opo.rfion ~oeach odlJl!'lr jand. you know wha~ SI7:iC a IglH"e sho!iJM be al~ any spot :~[). the fQ~m,

Iii --,f

-1~-ilI-i~-!--I-' -1---+------1-1-----;.1 _j--l--li-IH-- . - -j- ~I- ~I--+-----!


, I

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~ I~ L I

EJ:Fabu:rlt a p(!t';tica/.fC4/t? .#arJ: tJflifei1ito.f:dtkHQed (l)a/I ;)C

.fw·/. . E..r6zVitlf tl/la1?lzqlt c"tti~. - ."e alUi!.I't#-d& k~/?it.:

h:ldltJA"~mt/.(Jtt'JfrfW!Jt;t;( . .". t?~q.w &~6.<ue!t~/l'Jr

le.fl ~/( .~. ~'fKt -" " ~"f-.ve,.~ci:iJ'd;W'/~,f't(Jd(,f' .to ,t1C'

Ya!$i.tlt.t~ ~tlf:t. . .' J'fj1,l~ ,&}d iAemflf;fNJ/o/'·tNe

~,w ' ..•.. e J¥iMt~J. ra,:lUel'dt4~~~aI.f"(Qi11 t!.r*bll,",,~

a;,wt.t~tMe.f"U!fS wl/k i1m:r1Qaf4.(4/~AeIl k(Ji4'.d''Kf~t.lt''.



Thep'I'ob,lem of drawmg ncmv"ed .sl"u·fa,oe~n cerreet perspeettve is· oft€"tl fllzz1[ng. A stIIJ'lp,le ,roJu.tion is Qleredbe~ow . .A. ground plan ~!i made~

w'hh~h can be scaled ,oft' ~n unns~ from which the ClU've, can thenhe put i11l~o perspecttve.

f_OI(otd'apttlHat&e ctUYB. Blo,ciilo#'tftJfaare IUli!-!,l1ar* ~p',id wk6'!Ci?J4!I" :i~e ctlYV"e' 'cnJ'I";R!rfJMlrm-l'Z(2~

ttle .l'cet&e _P/<moKiNe 7'1"(?4C1u1~,!tme iN Ike tUtm/H(t2K~'te~ fit ,ett!er J7'iatk or iuJo-pOtKC per~cipe" ./Jie .e.rU.6!t§h a fC4/e' 0/ A.r?~?~i alU;e,do.re ,e/Cd'o/ &e l'~aHe. fleri-ieal lUUb-· aPe &a .rr«ared',a# It:, ~:rrH<: a ~£r:klc:'~,at

AbO' ....... ,-"'/;.:. _-I" _.1:1'; ... a.-n " .. "'''d· ,//) t.,."",L:';''''''c-j .... ~"p.e.",...f,,.... - - t.,,_-.1 D<.''''''',,.U' ~. -~'~-.1 ~h(""''''''''' ~~~ ~.!C;.~~ ~r ~~ j -;,. .. _..~~ _. / '---'~ .• ;:;~,~ . ~'~ r ~ r/ __ ~ .. ~,F~IV"\on:uF~ rfZC-'Ir:""'~"}'-,I_ '~wK~.r~--

ike cU:IIPe Craf.f'Q..r e kal"i.l:o.t:(z!tZ/ cnv.tf.t,·O.l.( o~&e 9?!(:)I!iUCQ UK/t.r.ZJ#-aw,a~

/Z()~/~d &'m~eieacP?J~~d£ct?lar/K;m' &e ft,po/de fide waJ't$u (?;fta/J(t'.tw~It&'9~~ 0/ zfk cUoV:l>1ecfl'lt2He at lka:lpoafl4&/t'r Ht:aj" be b~.pec:kd cuAe.« .ltec:eff'CV9' ar .rkoCO/£ ~ &e hY.I'z! «.J€ii-abt:>Me.


p:!i''&c~i,ca.!l For sl~ch, things as! ~ettleling,IDpel'SrecUve; w~n andloo:r designs~ '(}f placement 'of 3lfl.y clesigp in any 9.u p~a:ne of your suibjec!t.

" \

''I'h~s is a s~mlfJeb-llIlt very va~lUaMc bi~ of w,01'king knowled,g:e", Any d'raw~ng or design caa be squilr;ed oland r.tojected lnpt.-'rspecUve ,OJl ,either av,eIrUea~ OJ' a hodZ01lital p~ane. Tih~s ;[~ / '

l ;'


'" 1"'--T""""~-,----.-.L..--I-....l..II"""""-'r----'---:t1


TO ,ILOCA"Ii'E. POliN. r :IN TTii'lE! OE.JiU:J;·N) t..1;;iTTI~~ THE UNE'" IN 'ION!;!. DI~f!CT!'QN AN~ID !~H!J!M B5~ TI;H!M J'N T"I~ }:;;l''rUiiRj TI"IU,J E;,3 1$ "I'WI:!., CEN'!:E~'ClIF CIIf.t.C1.e..

- II '" Po


/ / I






A_ny dljlsign 1C3i1l be repeated in pefspectiv'e'. . Simply square off the deswgn. TIle squares serve' as ,guide, lines fi1Jrth,e points te be fonowed" By laymg; out such points on the squares. you cam

readi~y :appool'(imate the posjUoo of the points on the dividedrectangle in. perspeetive, Draw diagonals. torepea t dIe blocks,

z e

t· }

~ I R*'7ai &e hlocir <w & e <1",_d pI_e,..i6!; dia'loltaP

"_ .~, _VP'OF OJAG.r HOR-I"ION

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'~l=' jfsi~!!;~~~~



L,a,'¥ ga.t ;0, ot.~t.r W, :ltel-W, , ", -,'~r. ~q .d€t.fe'It:t ,CF., 'O.t:,-Je.r &e'c/livi.r{ou.h'KeJ, ! or fAe ~'<lc!. iaf/ o~1 .r:a«r../ar PCl..H:.t:,f OH ike dIVt..rtOH. lute:T Q/ ike.6/0cK lJtper.rpec/:tve' a r .rk'OlLlk. below.



''['he ground. pIDooe~salwl:lYS a!)ns~d!er·Gda:s a level phlne str~tcM_ll}g milt to' t~.e horizon, AU otber lei\!el planes, or _p1:<'!:llIe.s; pala][~e·I ~oth~ ground

plane, l~ave U1Icir 'Va.n~sh~mgpoiil11!ts 'on. that horizon. Incli:fiiied :p~anes vanish above ,,)r 1be~o\iVthe ho:riwn.


I I I f !


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C/ /, /" / vP

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Jiit9J(J~pol.it t Per.rpech.:vs





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AJC:~N D~ NG IP·!".!!!,IN 1!l!J' OE.fC .E·N ~.~ ~(;j: PI.·AlNlleS'·

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Drawing roofs, isa proble:mro, one who, does not [mow penpecUve. A roof ~ 'being ian incoo,ed plan,eil'l'it'b,two ed~:.'i ,ara:Uel 'ro the ground~hM; two vanishing poln:ts.The: edg,cs: p'aralle~, to the gro~nd plane v,ani!sih on the horb:oB: Sit the van-

is}1ing: poiat of the lbuilClini. The inclined edges: vani:sb above o.ll" below the .hod:Z1on on a vertical mine dra:wn iliIo,ugh, dle: v,3Jnishing poin.t of~he building-,M ~nylrtjsts do not know tillis"


// // //



The lPynt:midand simw~ar f:o:rms are exoepUons to the g'efier:a~ rule" in tha tthey have novanish:ing points exe:ep~ those for the base Hnes. A loonic~l form bas 111.0 vanishing POlhllts excep~tbo$ie, lo~

the bioc'lk inside wll~cb th@ :form[s eenstructed, We mus't always 'build su:ch f'OffllS from. a block :iifli correct perspective, since there 'is no other way '~ relab~ them Ito' the horizon.


Pq?fl.HJtc"da/ '.00/:1 ~ b.u.ilt .O'g ,a lnuJ'd/e t.1"ie

~e plfrmat.'cl ad oott),H,



We must u~d.~~·stand tha!t i,nc~lned.plaWles dio not va:tdsh at ~hl;: ey,e level or on ~l.e p1cl~m,e h(ijd:l!0l)j. Th!eho:ri:z;on hasul'llly~o do w.iit~]eVle] planes and pia"lf~es: 'w~th ,edgesplarane~ to~he le~l

grQlr~d plane~rhj:s is oonflllsing to Ithe ave"r-age student. .Asce:nding pla,nc'.'i always varnish a.borve the horizon. Des!oond~ng planl0s alw'aysvani.sh below th.ehilYdZOIll,. T-:ry ~o f{:m,cm ber ~his.

In the dra WILfDlg, abov~! tu. road desoel'lds raTfild then rises over a hms~.de. It: then <lfpea.rs ~o drop over aeeest lut€.! a, yl,li1~ey be~ow .. This is: acoomm .p'~~8hed by ,ch:'a:wlng tne[,oadiilll, seetieas, e3!,cn

w[tn3i, di:fFe:tent v;9in~shh~g POhilJ!t. AJstb.e aA_,g~e of eachsection cha:ng:es.the v a:n~shlng points are Jfajsed~ Ulan dl'io.p:,ed~ to foUo\i\I' the con toms of the VC1und ,plane.


Theproblenil ,of dr,awing a downpde in perS,p~clt:i,ve becomes simp'[~ Oililce you. ki!lGW th.e basic pitirtclple. A. downgrade has its V9.'pis'h'i:n,g po~nt below Ithe hodzon ,in a perpendfC'1i.d.ar Un.€:

dtawn d'lfOUgh dle va,njshinglP:o~n~ ,of' the level plal:1lGs. Note tm1 a.~ ther-e an: twe ho!l'1i.z;o:ns. The

• L ," 'h' .. ' T-~'- .]

upper one 1!i ~"e true "on~m,'l!.. - I neow,er ,one"

not b~iltlg au eye ]eve'~, is a ··fa]se'llor~z,on."


Looking Downhill

Sinoe the roofs and :ftoors of butMin~: are bl.dlt On level filali:le,s~ dieyva.n~sh in a [p<omt O~ the level hor,i."(;on. Th.e doping p'hmes vanish lfl a "false ao,ri100n,''abiYVle OJ:' beIa,VII' the ,gound. Ievel,

The "true bod:zon'" is: ah.vilJ.ys: at eye Ievel, Not.e that6g,Ul'~ on. the bH~ha,'ve been stlll,ted. to, the lower horizon. since tlley are aff,eet,ed.by the slope.



For an. upgad.e view. the perspective: .priTIcip!IDe' .is! ~,e oppoS~Jb~i of tt.a,t foil:' a d.OWfi,grade,. ~nlihat 1ihefa~e horlzon is above t:hebmJe hortzon. T.h.<C1:

vat'lisbmg point of the MOf€falls: on s. vle:di.ca[ liIine dra:wnltbrou:ght:he v;8:mlis'Mngpoint on~e :!:rue horrson,



I FA 'll ~ MOR: J .ZiG til

Tile roofs. :Hoors.. wiindows~ba:se [~lles~aJI1d. all othe:r]eve'i planes: v<iLnish~n a pom~ On. ~e true ho[izon. A:oy plsnethat isa part dE the slope v;)IIDshes inthe po.int a.rbow 0':11 the Ialse horimn. Asb<efo:te,the fi.gU«lsare scaled tol the :b,ori~Qn OiE th.es.llo:peswnce (bey al!:,esratwonJ8d ensn in.~

diml,ed p]~ne. FwguJ:'es on Ieye~ ,lanes ue always sealed to~he roue hQ.r.izon, :asshown :at Allind B whexethe figW!es :are st3i!tiCIDJed. On. a. ~evel,cr[!l,li~~ hlg. Fi.gures: fa w~ndows ,or on ba~coniesa.re sealed the same 'WItty.


It is, im,Pol1tant ~o' know how to draw a stainvay in loorroot perspeoti,\I'e allld how to p1!'oject 6gu_r,es upon an~ step. Th:is is ]lot dilicuilt to do. Tile plane of the s:tafi'w,3(yloea~~ all tl'i.C points of the

risers., TJ!u: treads nn have lthe same v,91nishinl po~Q;t: on the hOJrizo,D. Scale tbe: lJ!eighl' of th~ r~ser-s to lthe 6:gl!1re" as sho'Wfi. in ltbe ,dlra~wing beI~Y.








,H,elle we, rnN]';®El the p_wblem 0111. the precedin,g page" but we can s:till iica!e ,all 'the &,pes from the one at the bottom (I,fdle sta~nva.f' :Note~a,t

- .,.u11· 1h. ~1L . h.. Ii···· liL'· iL· - .. L

we ~i'liUJ· Jlave 'W,e'L""" (]I .H.iesWu:~C'n :gJ ve us tne

s[ze of tbe' ~ise:r,s a;ndl treads as ,!they come up the plane of the stairwa"Y. The Il.guresa.re in a.p'p!I!oximate.JY tile same posiUans.


I ' ....

, I

\11 -~-' --~~

J1te' ,0:6:.f&rve.f;Y P,;?,:/",'/tl'OK k;o.u; ar',Pea" :Iok ar 1M I,?f' ~t#PJ&zt""tQ~y 10>ak-(~ ?"W#( upon; fkl? J_aNte JC€!/a'? #0& tlitpoffdH.T cs perfFN9'ct'£,v-o!


AnariIJist maybe facOO. w~th the problem ()f ,draM"1 a U~~ed objieCit The objed may be Iall[n;!!;~ blown ov,er. a sq uared o'bjiecl resting ,on""n

inclined plane, Or for aill.y reason nQtbe in a~igAment with the horb'lo11l. T.heile is a simple tecb~ nlq ue £or soIvlu; this p~oMem.

nrrt er_k6(l".rk a~;rIt~ItUt:9 _,PO(itr:O;n.ilt6 ~ h~iFiimil4. 7hma9~li-ai~"Pftd~~(Q #-e';2A9'le rd 4I:~'ck &W o.6i&ci,iF~,.6e a#~d " 7Itu,liKffft UJill .6s U@,4:a;r~broN a/#,te Itlt!<Jld,~/ec:/ ~ w~ ute'qil'tzW:c,/'<y lZMdraw a re:qi:f-aMrk db~u /iV..w" ~e' Hew ;Cor:iZON. ;:;'o#t, -_Ileal dT"aNaMoilt:er uiM aen?ldato;k>s .zb <?dd lirA 4,ba.re bl«J lOr a .610r::K. CO#~jJletvtr' #Cot? diHUf.#'UZ04f o~~ block wi~h: «Ik{..'& &e o~et:"t.ifioM.dra&J1:C ~ ~,I-".!jf€Cn~. ,.P~acP 'llte ()b.l~ wih.konzog,t:?J'irtt-CtM'.Mff' OH~ b~1

~tlalte. ~P?UtUh.!~ POlH:T .f'kouAd .t:& a.~ ti'lS'l'o't;i( f·o/ erai' J l~ of tJb9, tmo kO,,:Z:O.I<CJ.


,It is hlllpo:rt:rfJIt to .!know fhatany Objiect ~~h~ch is llJotparallei ~o the gn:l'l,md pJa~e bas its vami:s]dng point eiithe:r .aboye erbelow the horizloln. The am-:awhtgbe[Qw S:ho'l'vs an a;sce:ndwn.g a~rphu;te.

The .angle of sseension ~;t~ts bdow till€: hori2lorn and comes up tbwiilgh the gr01!l!lll,Q, plaIDIe and through thecenser of the oibjieot;.





\ \ ). \ \ 1\

---= -~- -,",,,,,,~~, -

".,..,-' .... ,. "..,n ------ ~.


7ke t:Urpla,ltC" .£;dn:uuh; ~a ,v~n'J.ki4f pr)t~t p/_gCM /;s/r;wf./MMt-"izo/rC. ~e Wl!t:r.f v~tfk ,(I(; ,a. pei'"tC"Rt &:~ AO'Ptz;oAt ..J"ticC:4~;r~if0..r '4rep;ap~/M/ ~ -zM:B'I"cu.tAt:d p/~.,


Since any objlect can be eonseucted within a Mta-61l:~ ,the me~hod shown on d~js pag:e win enable you t,o duplieate amy lobi eet for placement at any ,other spot on tb.e groun.d.plan,e. Th.e p~o-

pOirHaos wni be ()OJiTeotaocordi.Jlg to, posldon and distance r~om t1~e fj'rs't o'braot. The llIan is to draw the block fh:'Sta;nd then. dU;l: 0 hje,ct '\IVHhin the block.


,DI"4IQ wi ,cub.u~ io tt(e Ja~e ni;kI~~ Iq,pt v:att:iJla:.l€f poi.utf (kat- fROWAt o~ IR(,f ,IMlfel


Ali)yveri~ic~al measurement j inch.lld~lllg the 'he~g~t of a ,Gg:u:re, can be projected to any p~)iinit in the piJ1!tullie. If dU;l me:asureDTIle'llli~ er 'gu]1e is to he ShOVlI1 Olll a plaue higher ~h<lillthe :gJf01l~)dI p]aJle~ it m~!:it be eleva tedto that p[illne. TtDl~s Is done

~y projectingtbe measurement {A and H,) toa Spf>t Hg1ll!1uslt HI!t: elevation and ~i ft:il1JJg~llil,at measurement to dH~ e~evaitedp],ane~bove. U seapals of dh~ideFsto ,~]fl:~he measurement.



,A;~ltl~or',sN Gite ~~ Especia~ a:Uention~bou~d begtven to thils page~ because ithe f,rincip,les of pmJieclh'lg meaSliJ!reme~tsas app,liedh.er,e are ofel(treme v:ahJle to every m~:lst:G1!toF Qr ocmmeretal arUst.

The foll()I\l\"JID.g page shows haw d1.e prj;nc~pl~ a:pply to .~Ubrie(:ts in wh],ch the6gures are a:~. dllHerent levels, Fi_gll[eSm l.tst be hl correet pmpUlft~o:n IbJ OilllG at:loH1.et.


E,verything hl a pi.atlJre has 3lfda:thltl s~ze aeIco.rdjng tOI~ts posiUQWl! in per$pe~Hve. In the "awing below, the heigM (}·f d'l.e boy (m) has been pmileded!~o several pOc.~m(Jn:s. Although


tbis cl:ml'l"lfJIg wasmade witihout models: er C:OFY, the~e]ati ve :sj zes o[ :rtg~U"es and other units are oonvlncl~ngbeoo1i11le the· pe:rs~ective [s oorreet, Study this care[uUy..

.,-.-~~~s: ~m~:::::::;;;.· ::--::_=-------. ~~


. ,N:uor C~Mlf ~ ~ ~


.N 0' maUer how wnwh yo'P, know of ~,rulltom,y and the OOll's'tnrot:ion. of' the iii gl!lil'le. )"ou will not be able to, draw6gures from. .mag.nation untU you ~ll reJia:te the: dilerent parts of ~hA figure ~o a

,borlizo!i!. ow [ey[e level, SOilr.ietimesit is helpfu1 bJ think of thlil various forms 318 theyW'Ou~d! appear as btocks - square jm;:~ead ,of round. Thell round OlelJil out.

;;;11(; u~~J A801t!; THE;, HO~ 12 01'11

f)[_ ,', ',' ..J.' " ,"Ii, , ",t .1. , __ L ,t-"e'Klpecave lUlll iW"t"eacf(_

~ouk(}to it; draw lite h:ru:e, but ,!ouctUtJt4rercinzw it ~£#totd f:1p'.fpBcl: t've / I'erfpeclt,'ve: tntlte h9'Uye h€eaaJr' t1t:a.J allpartJare related to f2Iit. e'r;€ Ie ve /.

One of tlie SJimp,Ies~ and. ye~ ]C<lI;S;t observed r ules of ,lPiers,f;ect~velsthj)jt ",]I GgUl'eSOill the S<lIue g~@~ndplane must ber,el3itJed~n size. Te be sure of the ootrootl"le]ution, establiih. the hc~ght olf a

"key" fignre ~nd scale an o~he[s from ithQ;t 'height. To do this, draw a line froM the {'eet of one fig;~re under the feet of allKolther to ~he hO[l'j21Ql1I,. Then c~rry a. lin.€: back to dIe fb:st f.igur~.

All ,6g.;es 0f ilhe same height.. w'h.eAstai'il,dir1lg: on the same ground p]I:!lTl!e.. win be crossed by

the horiwn,all: th~ sa.me vetti(!'a~ po~nt lOin the flg~lre.



W.ben it~s so ,easy to scale a ng:tll''e toan y spo~ ow, the grml.nldp]a~,e, sueheerors as those shown. he~ow are uufiOocgivab]e. Ef~he feet of a6gure (lien, l'I!O!t show.,a.ny por~ion of afigt'!!r,e may be pl1C1~

/~1 . I /Droit?,'

jected ~ as~ (or exam,pl(;"l, the .heOi'l!d. and shoulders of die 'IlIan~]l the draJwing below, Rememher alwaty:Sb) scale your figures. Don'tg;uess._ you can>t,

1f1t, /

~f. ~'f

, j


p.f}qtUJcb~ piVw,r /ltttN. Wfe'k .... I:m~'idiJ(.1·7k.i1' if a wfft cO: '1M#(, error.



Whea we: bow that an :inclinedpmane has: a h..mizon :and vQ;nj~hing,pom,ts '~\Y'h~ch are used. in 6e s.amemaameI' as those 'Of 3. ie,Vlei plaine, seal, mg, :Sip~, Colli :iIIn blJdbiJ.ed 'planebeoomes muCh

s:i~,ple:r. So, lougls the ,entme p~an,e 'has, &e same slant, the perspec,ti~e is: wowkedl out in ~e man,· net shoYm.~!IiI, .[1;= dj.ag,~arm below. TAe diagram

shows: au' 'the Rooessary 'vaJ:l!lisht&g, pomitS.

J/t;()Wt~~ ~aJ -Me ~e5 0Iit ike rQ.or (,ft tIte. dr4 Wilt'lbe/o'/() were Jca!e.dutpe:1':.lptU:C'tV8'



nfUn?;f,Ct2R be' Jcaled ,000aur tKcliJtJ8dpl«-Ke.



Tbe projection of figulles en 'hillsides can bel v,ery puzzling, if the :principl,e is not: undefs~,ood. The ,dra'win,g be:lo,w off,en; a simple soluUon" Whenever ~ke plane ohang:es as it: goes :a:!roUl!d

the hmJ we <kaw to a new hot,il~on., To, keep ,oulyone horizon would ,continue th"e same plane a,t the same incline to Nnflniity.,

--. '"


\ -,




Many arUsts do not rea]~ze that a refleetton (toes not dupEEcate thep~rsp,~cHvle ,of ~h,e odginat Thepe:rcspective of the roe:8c:ctio:nis tlh:a,t whiCh the a,e.nal objec~ would 'hav,e ;~r it were i~ve:rbed!

:(I!,n.dplaced In 'thepos:itiion, of the iMlse. 'Thou,b, the p:roporUons are dup]icatl0d" the act,ual ,dnTw .. mg i;s quite dUI,e{'eJ~t.

A r,eiect:i.(ln is not :3. reversed tracing IGf the thing r,eflectoo, 'buJt: Js an hnag~ ",ith :~ts IOWJl. perspeeUve. :[f you tun(l, ,tbe dr'I,~'ii'b.lig arlo'lmd~ ~'he Idii~ enee in ,tbe Illi.ng~e of 'v'iiew booo.Mes apparent l'h.e figure and its: image a ttach at the watel' lins, An .!points: of the figl~re mu..st be pro] eeted down to a simi1!ar point on tlheilnage. wh~cb is directly below.. Both the Ggurle, and, irts r,deetion are drawn 'to -one vanishing point on the horizon. Any movement ,of til.e water aHects 'the reiectio:n.


'" ....._

T~e :~tis~. w.llilo ~s uO!tskinedi, in pe~spect~\!'e ma:y havedU16ic-u~.t.y in dra:l~in.g a rdection. fa amir~ 1'or, Th~ dJa wing below m,alkes tlhe proceSiS S:iMiple.With a fair knowredg<e of t!he&g~e'fIl

~e,aeC'it~on can he ,dira.wn w~thoot copy. Study thJs dMwblg careftiUyrosee how aU pM'ts of the Ig!:l!JT.e havebeea proj€icrnd.

7It.ep/~ c/tlis I1drl"ora(warJ"a?F~arJ. ~ be &e Aai(war ea¥ between .Ike rellecf"ed ,"HU:UJ&=cd'zfke U9c.ure oroiyec.tl7f'/leckd



Dis'oo:rtion. resuks from hliL v ~n,g both vanishing points witMn Ute field 0'£ visi()iIl, IOir too close to Hle ,ob~ect. If the ,object 'has a. rigbt ;~n,gle .;lj,t the near cornel, the base ~ines must make an: a:ng:le

gre:a;;te,r Ithan a rigp1tangle ontbe drawing. S~D!lCe a ri,g;lt 8Jl;gle cannot be represented bya:nydlm,g ~G88 ,tha:n a right angle. The dt~wing below ,S:ho,ws this ,OODilnlOll et'JI'o:r·.



"~ _ ____J'


__ ~ ".,.. 7


_- ~ /

,...~ / /' /


./ /




J).'. 'id-.._. (Jr/~.·~.o ..•. ,*,., .. , .. c .. :02.:; .... ~ .•. q..r .. iIP-" .. a.·. D .6.. ·_ .. ·(ir..yl .. ·· ntltUU'tM p.?tJt.tf ~ Jet- Mit.Ui/t: wo' cI(7fe~-


Too few ail:Usts: foRm,,, !he sUnipEe p,lan ol£p.rojootwng l,gufe'S to a .borium and a, wnkh~n,g ,pomt .. 1.0 per,spectlivei,6gl..U\es a;r,e no, dilerent from ,fenoeposts ilInd no hude~ to scale ,oo-r,rcedy., It is easy

to ,scale any ye.rnca]l1lDit or me~1Dement ·to a borizon~, hut: the faib;mre to do so ,oOO'UJ:,S a,gai~ and agam in. otRemse good 'Waik.,

1 I

Light on the Basie Forms

'When tile a;rtj:st Ieaves the study of line a,nd seeks to combine ligh~ and Sh;~Ic1o\v, coastruction :m,I:~d conl~o'ut) he s~eps it'.l'bo a new \:"If(UI']<;1" I:Us clrtnvhl.gs: heg~1:l to imke on a Iflua] it)' of existenee, fO'Ji"' ~hroLtgb light and shadow we ddinea te Ionn, and aU the visible world isonly Hgh:t on form.

But. nature, until11ef\vays and laws are un,tle.rstood. ron se,ellil so compr'I:,ex; as Ito 'be .1JI,hn(»,1t overlloweri~lg, USlI!nUy her fO~~l'lJ1s are surf.~ced wuh e:ndJess variatioas of texture , and the relaItlonmip of her f/arms. as we:n :LUi ,of l'Ilm1,~ma&e forms. bi) basie'~o:J'1l"iili is not al wa y:s ,('wioen't. S,o S'O~~I:I!e simple plan must he devised to help us: understandth - complexities before illS.

As an ,a.:PI)roacl" we must :dn~plify both Iwgllt and form. TI~e basic Forms sburt \1:S on the w,ay. :dnoc they do n.ot have ,confusing S!l:trfa-ce inegu~ law-Ues or ehan gas of color or 'tlcxt ure .. T'.~ley are ,Iii, sim pie wh~te', with a, smo oth surf ace, thns allowing usto look at the effect of Ug)"lt uninfluenood by other Iaetors,

There is 110' better placeto ;s,ttu'it than with the SphCl'-',whi,ch S ·C,IRS 'to be 'til() btuUrc form of the un iverse. 'Witk~he sun Hgh.Ung Our uni'VGl'S e, Itll€l sprh.eres of aLI the 1)I~anet~ are al,;\,ays half in l~g)lt: and, haU in shni~t" but beci';m se ~ he l')'~~Ul!e:ts ,m;T~e tO~I;\ting on ~heil" axes, any' sing'Ie spo~ 01'1 these sp~~eres moves from ~ight, Into shadow, and. back into the light. In ~he course Olf u, single' revolution. ,Siilll!ce ,tbelligl t on a spbel!C itnlC'rges into the shadow tlnrQu gb gradually dal:keuing halftone" the rotation '0£ thesphere ,of OUt earth produces the gr.mduaI dkU'kenmng o:f [be dayligb:t which 'we know as, It;wruHg]lt and. evewdng .. ltJ In,gmt we ~ave reachedshe shadow side where the l~a1i;'d.Uel 'rays Qr the sun can no longe[ n~ach. us, At noon W'iS are in the middle of the lighted area" and at midnight we are in the middle ,of the . 'hado,,\' area,

These ~f~~ds nre ,the basis of ill] tbe might aml :s:h~'lIdo"' tha't we shan ever dll';a w. On ,::II! h,ghted spI~~re there is ~ highest ,point of light~ where

the surface is ne:ady :Rat or .at right angles to d"e source of light. Thd p.ut collects more Ili,gJlt rays Ithan il,ny lo~'her. Thws, we c,~~'U, the :h~gh'~i,tht I't ~s al'W':lliyS at the s hortest distance Irom ~hc' surda,ee of the [onnto the light soure '. As the surface turns; tlW~ly Irom the :!lol'U1c:~.i:t collects few~r my:s and this causes halftone. The edge of dm shadow then beglns '\'II'hcre rhelight mys are at a tan g:cnt to 't:llc surfaee of the sph r . Therefore, i:f ""I'e have am cstabHsl~.ed dirocNoll of the source of lig,itt, \VIe ean approlidmat.e where the ~haCl,ow bcg;in,':l O,II!! anyri)m~cle(l ()rS~)herECfl~ (orm. It is a:~\"'~1Jys at the hal.f·wiIY mark around the form .. ,

'lilt fil'st basic law of H.ght til n is; The light fratn t:llly :oJingl,e source mns,t; tnwol ,bll a st'l'aig'i&~ Uuc .. (md dU1.r,efm'e ,Cnnri(.lt tlf$(Jch n:J;Or-e dlcm haZI~ :f,t-'t'~' m'o,rm,f.l (~1'Iy fQUlfUl farm .•

11'l1c n,G';'d law follows from. the r~rs,t ~ Any ,u,... face ,tS lighted a,oGonllngto cluJ' (jmgl'e of its sw'I(~'C'e in: J'eiatiO'n t,t) t IN~ d~rccNon ,of tile ligl~t S\O'.u~,'ce. '11~e hrigb Ie-Sit planes then are either Olill.t: 01[ ot !"igl1,t~1lI[lgles lo the light \1\!jdl every mJlw crease ill: He curve away hom the perpendicubu' to the 1ight s:ourc.'c, the value o.F ,the plane darkens un.t:i ~ i t reaches d\e lrn 3111:imUIl darkness, which is a~' and just be'yond U~Cl edge ollthe :ilil3d,0'\Cv.

~f'he n e:Kl ]~t w ['OUows in. order 1 y sequence:

Only a fift,t inane elm be crJenly lig/l~ed in tl!.(~ same valu'le. 8ir~ce cure'ingml'cl 'founded planes tll,Ef;'lI'Y8 1Jrgd'~u;'e tlus ,clJect of 3J'l/,tltUll'led tone« 0.1 Jwift'bne" Here then ~ies the seer ,t of renderlng light on (orin. The Ha~ areas aee Hat in tone or va'IIJ:M':. The rounded areas are modeled fm gl'adu~ a~ed tones, The way we treae tlte srea shows: rhe Obsel·V(~t· rOlillllildi.'l€SS: O]r Hatn ess, Ql'l:d.th1J1s !estnb~ li'she'sthe identity of the fonTl.

The sp.here; or egg is the fflJiy {ONrt 'Withm:~t {lflllt€#18. Th« cube 0'1' .block is w.ith;m~t i'Ountlne3s, l'lwej1elQr.rJ dIe s,phe,ji',! ,01' like ,'onns con be n~:t:t .. tlered only i:n grtl<d1lat ed tones. lInd tluJ cube lo,r b,lQcl( onty in flat tanes:. AU ,fofflt8 l~ro Icomp(;i,8'l.~d


e1~hef' of Jfat 1JlanB& ()ir r-o'unded S:-UljtlC(!S,.vr a cmflb,i,~ation. of t.l~e two.

No,w let us think of shadow., When a, surfaee rups SOi that a t!lW~"l' lllli,,a on lhep~a~ne cennot l?aWt at the Hght seueee, ,tIla~ area, mllstbe i))(li'tatoo, as in shadow. That is \vh"", there can be

. '

,badmi\i,s b!lltw,een, lighted areas, as in the I:olds of

d.mpery. In ,fact~ any depre.ss[an 1M indent,atiool1. ld,entifies RselJf VlJiitJ" halfto'P.e 'Or sfuu:1{)w. Ally pl'otu1i:lmr:anoe On the ;surf<l!ce has ll,ght-er value on the .'Siclesfaclngthe bghit andh~lfitone on the other stdes, and, if i'l: Is hig.h enou.gllJ casts ·111 s'hadolw 0.'-'. tb.e surface.,

Getting back 1:01 the sphere; let us look carefully at ~he s'hadow' sJd.e.\Ve find that the dark~ est pl1~t of dlltl shadow OCCl1!.l·,s neat Hl@ edge of tbe ]i,ght. Tile shadow can be a .Oat tone onl!y ]_f there ~s no .reflected light. n~js is the way we see tJU!l hall-1'l:'.iOon. There 11J nothing to Jight up the shadow; However~ since (MJrydl~t1g .in the light alse reiteet,g l~~ the shadows we see have usu;;dly taken on, SOU1i~ of the .li'eD.ectedl, light of H:ghited. planes ne~u'by. and ther·eJore the tones within the sh.adow are somewhat lighter than its edges. This daI'kl.\ll' edge of a shadow on a rounded forrn ,is wha1t illustfatOl'S 'C~lU "th,e hump," !B eing dMler > ~t tends ~o accentuate fhe brj]J!iaiJlcy of 'the Ughted areas ne.dto it, and also Ito g~ve a iriness and. lUll11.ifiiooity I~O the shadow areas, T.his: "hump" eeeurs only when, the lniUalli:g_:ht has been relectcdba.ck. on tb.e ,obj:eet. Unless the .~eilJl.eded ligh:t is d'lr'o,w.n d~ectly bad.:: at d.'u~ Bgh~: soufoe,tbis: darker edge disappears, since it Is caused by the (",Cit that neidler dle lig~t nor d~c :re-hc:ted :~ight ean faJ,l] Ol~, the angle ,o:fth:ep~alle 61' sUJ·faoc ,at ~h~lt POillt. To get dds be~utifu] elect pho~og,apb.~caUy> dIe ~m~in ngl~Jt sllouM be po~nt0d drul1'€cdy at. tl1eU!3!i.ll ]jgb~ source, 8l1fld.be ,of nOit more th(\D bal£ its iint,ensUy. This is flu:;: ,secret'ot 1,.re",ar£n..g goo(' 1Jho,tograr).1~tc '(;~P!J (.rom, wl~iclt :io am:ro.

,sillc,e any obI eet may be moved about in re];a:Mon to the light source. and wle;ntay look 3lt~ftle ob~,~ct frornany vi~v:pojnt! we: ean seeW,ight and. sbadO\-v in any prO,portiol1 on the ,obj;ect:. Uwe

at'€: looking at the might source, w'€ see I1lny objec:t be:tw!(')lcn us an d. the souroefn fun shadow. .fOi ~lfe are onthe slladmv s~dJe. If Itlle: HgM SO~1IOO is directly beillind U~ or between us ,and the: ob1ect'~ 'Vi"~ see In}€: obj®ct in fu111igh.t WW~hO~l!t s.tl.'ldow. This i:s the e.llroct: we get in pho'lograp,hsw~th a . flashbullb at Ithe 'catl1r1er3:. A. dirnw:ing llluler tl10se loo~di't[o¥~s 'I.'V'(mldbe ICO:!IW!posecli only of Hgh~' Iilncl. halftone, withthe d<llrikes:t darks at ~h.eedg-esof contours. U Itbe ob,~ect is placed. at ,right angles to O~lr pos~tiQII1 and, to the ] ~gh~ SOUTt·€, ~t is seen as half in l:~ght~n<l ha.lf' in shad.cnv. If placed in one ,of the q:l12Lrte:ru: posItions n is cithffl' ~lr.ee~ quarters in light and. on:e-q uarter ill shadow, '01" the reverse.

U L'u:1er;;)llan.ding these fMI~s> we C:'U'lI draw' a sp] ere'} as H it were lighted! hom iilily dfrectlen we choose. By turning the dl;awing on end, we can get the efiiect '0£ 'the Hgl1t SO'I!.u-ce beinS;3!ho'll0 or below the spheres. Incld-entaUy. the qllia'l\t'e:r lJightmgs are usually more s(j\l:lsfadory ph~,to!l:'i,aUy than }uit1f~fght and half shadow. Having either Hght 0'1: shadow dQrnim~'te is more: effective dl~n an equal di]v is.l,on between ~hem. The, :[ij]lIront ]ightfuO' is ve1'Y g()od £01' sh'np:le or poste'IY effects. It ws used a. great dea Uby No.rnlian Rock~ well, among othees,

The use o( hvo li:ght :oourCC$ tends to' brenk down ~he soHru~y of the form. Cl':i;ssCl'O!S!l Il~btjug - Iigh:t sources at both t~'i,e~·fgh.t and, the -~€l.ft of the artis t - ~s espec~nJlybnd because it breaks up ,every~h~ng, ilrThto snn~U ~.ights :JI;nd s'~ladO'W's'., Outdoor SUl1ig)ht or clayliight is the J?erFect ~i:ght: f<)I· drawing or painUng.

The sphere in l~ght3in d its, C3st s<had,ow on the g)loll.lI1d p~~neillte she .. \'111 on page 81. The oen~ral my of lig'h t is 3. nne passing ,t:lln'ough the ,oenter of Ute sphere Irom tL.e ]jgh~ SQI!.Y(',OO. The pom:t a~ \\=.hidh ~Ms Iline hWts the' ground l)~ane i's ~he cellb: .. 'T of the east shadow, ,~'lh~ch ~!i ,a:t,",y,3I),s seen as an e'Uipse.

Sp.heres Aatnd B on l,ag,e ,82 sho\\I' they,etry iU1I.polrt1;Q!nt dlffererllC:e between Ilil,e 'effects 'of dtreet ~ight with its: cast sliladaw .1ild of dU! used light with its dwU:u!ied. shadow, In sphelie A, tlu~]


/ .'


!Vole fA€' ,barafoAc(ar-k??T fhadoU)'iluzt apfH3ar.r beiv.;eelZ#teltalll-qlte 01 Ike Ilrltf aNd lite' reflecfed 119ft! aliffUM t~e fH.adoCQ. &e,cadJkaxl .. oso .0" &e "1'0LtAt c;I f?LizK~ dar6- £t:m ikIJ6a<l'&Q




:t~glb;t3nd sbadoi\:V ru-e sh3ill'ply d..eined .aJndl p0:5.tth',e. On !Iph~r® B, the modelin g ts very gmdu<1i.l with no' sh,arp' d,e:£juition. The ~ight~ng on A is dlail'~'u:~ter~st~c ,of sunlight Cu' d.ired arHlcia~ Hght; ~hat On B, of '~]ght from the: sky w~dtout direct sunlight 01'1 the 0 bj ect, 00: of the pOipu1nr ]nd~l'ect er diffysed mi,ghUng.

'the ,d iffer,eflC'e ~n these corect'S must be 'tak,en into c'Orisidentioll by the ~l'Ust" Th<l: whole pk-' ture should have the effect of one or the ollJlcr. U o!lletlting, casts a sbadow, all things musf cast shadows, If one shad.Dw is soft and difftlscd~ all other shadows must recei\~e I~[le san ... e 'rrea;t!1l:le.nt. OtherwIse cons~tency~s lost. Wher! the elect of a drawing is bad. this maybe the reason.

Figure 1 on page 8.2 shows 'the eUipsles of the (orm shadow and Ute cast shadolli,Y on the gli'ou~~d plane. N o~e d1.e cent.r~[ ray tbl/lough, the middle of'tbe ball to the middle of the C~ts.t :s:1tndow, The el[ipS<es are dta wn [n pcrsl'oo'l tve. Pi,gure 2: shows how :a ,s'hadiolM m:ay be p~'Ojt,'II;:t-ed tG the gro·Uld. p~ane when. a sphere is: in mida:~f' ..

Cast shadows of 00 irse require perspective, \!!"Mch many *'frtis.ts fail to. state cerrectly, '\\fw~h any cmst shadow we h:(l:v'{l ~h.['ec things t,:o consiife'l': firs~~ the pO.l>i tion of the: ligl~ t WUIC-C; secolld, the angle of ligptj aad, third. the van[slling I)oip't of ttu;: shadow' 'on the hOll'izon. If the ~igh~ SOULIi'ce is behi ud us, we get the angle .QI.f ligh~ Irom a PQ~ntpl~~. h e~ow the hor:hr.un on a perpe1fldiculat Una dropped. down ~1uongh Hl€! vanIshing point of the shadows. From this poi'llt 'V1:re bring lines up ~hrou,gh the grounj plaae to, tIle o.t)~ec~. T~~e shailo·w Ist hen - located C'lil. the ground plane by drawiflg lines from the ohject to d'iJevanishing point of the shadO\vs. (See ·wg. 4., p!l.l,ge 84,,) \iVhen Ithe ligM source ~S~l'l front of t'beob~ec,t (Fig. 5,. ll)age: 84,). we es t:ablfsh ~ pos,j,f,tOJili of the ltg,h:t source, and, on the borizon d,ir.ed]y beneaeh, a vtlTl.wshing, po,intfor til,. shadMrs. '" e 'then draw lines from the H,ght SOurce down tlu'ough ,t'he ~ofl,oO'mers: of ,the' cube. Then Erm)). the vanishing po~n:t o[ &I,e shadows we ara.w .~ines: through the bottom corners of the cube:. The crossin.g of these two Sle:t.s ,of lines in-

di.ca~es tb.!: lbn,~~s oftbe sh3idO\y on. the gtooll;~l place, (See iji b.o plll.,ge 85).

Thesilliadow .11"On1 a eone Is surnpleto execute.

Dt,1l. \V the line of the dirc~HO'n cf rh.elligllJt th:l\ough. t11G center (If: the base. Then divfc1e Itlle el i.fps.u of the hilge acoold:il'l,g~y, 'From ~hea pex, ,o,f the <."one draw the angle (liE lIght to the ~oulfid. ,plla:ne. The poin t ;a:~ '\~lbicll it meets ~b.e 'line of '!:he di:r,ec.ti.olll of light ~s tbe point of the shadow, C'olillJnecit ~his: to tbe base of the cone at: ~he half-, waypoint~o~ tbe' cn~pse (se Fig, I. pag~ 84).. F'igulf·es 2: and S show the lighting worked out \vUh ·a d~Ie'J1!l(n~ di1"ect.i(lu. s'hQwn j I'll Flg. ,3.

The elect of looking.tOo the bight source wi th these planes !!,lI,orlred Oi!i.tis shown on page 86; Page 87 shO"ws the opposite effect - shadow" rooeding. wlth the light soureeat ~'h.€ a·l!'tis;t's hack. The cr:fect' o:f 11:. ... us~~elllded arM.f.k!;iaJll~g~lt ~s shown Oil] J?age 88. Here the perspective principWe is reversed, sin{'C ~he Shad'OW8 vanish. a.'t a po,j,nt On the grouli1d Th'),],ane dirGd~y und.er tn.e li'gh~ sou:rce, '''heo~'eti~ny they spread Qutl:O, jnfinIty and have linle to do 'with t'hcpictuu' hor;izon. This is l'eaU)< a mdj;)!!tiil'l'g pownt ~'o giYG dil'·cctiotn to thB sha.do\;v conl'Oul's. However ~ we ,<;ti I'~ h m.ve H~e dl:ree necessary points oM' the triangl<: formed by the 1igl'l!t SOUI!'(le. tbe tflmlgle of lWght •. and the dtreetlen .of (he light.


l~'/~et:i. yOltf are ioo'ki~g fJ~lo dl'e' l~ht-

The <lJ'lig]O of light Is the nearest point .of the three and is located (In the ground plane.

The wm~shif1lg point of :s.ha.do\V's. :IS, en the lte!l'.~.~ zon, directly under t'be light 8.GurQ€:.

WhentfH! light. i~' behind' rJ()t~-'

11'1lc <'II gle of Ug~lt is iocaf,ed below Ithehori:zon di.l\~·cdy beHeath the vanishIng POllilt Q!f shadows ..

l'[h~ dwroecUQn of n~'lt is the ~ine from the van,ish-in g, point of tIle shadows to the ,object 111 .. source. not beinli visiMe. is! Wlo,t shovim,~but t1~ · angle is used ~o .pointbachv:llrd ~o tl1,e ohio ject. and nu:t beyond wt,.

AU poi.tl t\~ around. n ,etllltour l'egis~ru' as a CMt shadow. and yon draw those contours on the' ground phme 'within a :recbtnlgle (see page (51)'.







",0,. .... ,~. I,~ .

NCJ~e ~llQ;t9ill ",hadolWs reeede '~~ t~e same van~ ~S:him1llg pOInt Thev;Ji!nru~h]ng ,POhlt of ~ihado'W:s ~anSOl'll t~'U:l: .ho.l:iZQn diirecdy below the ']ight

so_ceo By eOl1lDJecfhll:g lint1 spoto~tbe gt'oUl--:l.d plane to the H~ht S@lUfOO ~ get the angle ,of ~igll.t~t that partj.QY!~~r point.


Loo,~ing t,()w(Ud the Light Source

The small &awtng at lhe lower right iUus:trates the prooodm-e ~al was foUowed in the main dralOYing. The lines from LS ( ligp't source) th_rough A, and from VPS (vanisMng point o.Ii

shadows) ~.lliOllgb. D,> meet at the poilllt oiE C, Thus C is the point of thecast shadow. Always think of a 'tr~ang~ cemposed of ligbt source, angJe of I~ght~ and vanisildng point,








i ..........

"< 0", _ _ ~c I




-_-- .... -._,....I!'-II_~"'- .. ·~_."....,.· .............. _~ ................ _- ~ .. t--... ...... _.J'..........,.,.. __ • __ ,'"'_~_ ..... -"--._ ..... ~ ... "'iI_,.. --~.E,,~ ........... -- ....


The a:ng:~e ,of H~t :[s deteTmined, by lines drllw.n 'to :a, po.nt placed dire,ed), below 'the vn-n'Ls~~g point €If sh.adows:,. Any objc:ct, rna:y he squar,ed ,of in: dle wily' s'~, in the pict".J"e of the tree at the right above ana tbe ~~q ua.res; pro~'ected to

the ,groll,l,nd plane. If you oo_nsider r'he tree as a fI',a:t d,esig~ ina squal1l!d-oIf blocl:, t1le eontours ,of dlJe tree are pl10jecltM Ito the tp:(iioodi, plaOJe. These ddiine ,tbe shadow"


- - -


Note that die shadows iU radiate &om a :point an the groWld plane dirootly 'beneaw the 'Ii.ght SOm:Cl!i. This is called the vanishing point of ShadoW'S, I( VPs.). Iw~n. 'ltlu:mgb it is: not Ollthe

horizon .. Such shadows do, not dfmihilim, as 'lib,ey reced.e toward the oo,:dzon. Their length on the groundpla-n.e t~ ,detennhiled by 'the aOIJe of nght.

Coml1l'exForms in Lighl

To the J3Y'mm the l\endermg Qf .form with ~ro~l.t '00 it SCCiIl1IS; Uttte l!lhort ofmimculo'll:S.. lie is: ~mlk!ely to talk about yOUli' great talent an,d how' lucky you are, to. have been born with it. The truth .is liha:t he is unah~~ to distiOgti£Sb t~llent loom plo:hli ob'5:ervatiQ~ tlI.nd. knmvled,g;e. lIe has ~~evew rea.lliy m'lla~Y7_;ed the W1ll!Y light works: 'OIl fo.nTIi, though be has leamed Ito recogJ)jz.e, and. accept tmHi: pl1()per e:II'i;lct When we pGlililt ,out th~t an ind'eI!ltMion causes h~l£bcll:'l,e and s'h''l.dow, h~ nH~y shl)j~e his bead. lllut[et therce be the s,Ught~t dent ina f'i3liurl,el!'after ]IlUli:o!rhas used 'U~e C!I!f. andhe w.iU see it as a den't as far fig he cansee. Ally dlsturbacce of a smooth tQ'IiI'@ is ,eilther a smudge oJ foreign materia] Or a cb::ltng,e ,o.f some IDrt . In thecharacter of the slIi.u;.ftllce. How 'qu~ddy a. spo't on the wall or a f:aibricis 'BvId,el t'. 'l'ihe same SCYlt O'f ~hing happens :in a .drawblig;.

If we put in <'I. tone of dar'k where it S:~101illd. not be. the elect lS that o~'~, SJ11udg,t'i';' A light where it does not belong is just as C\1id.cnt.-l1t seems ,strange to lnefurilt SOJll!O; art students wm no~ draw objects as filley reany 1001(" Ear t:hey ean see the difference between Ugh tsand drorks as well as anyone else can. The chances are that Ithey are nO't ev,cn. lookin,g £(Ir ~he efEec~s ,of liig11.tS:; g,n\ys. and (~arb~ dnrey m:ust :sJmply feel r:hat they have to rm t1lle space 1111s:idle t1le oiILi.tliilles: \'ifith. s.trckes cE some sort. They 1 ave seen that drawin,gs are fun '0£ strokes, so 'strokes m-e thek rea] IOOlJ1;cem~ 'witbOtlt mu.c:h. thought of \vha~: the .,;,tl'okes are supposed to beaccomp:lliisbr.ng O~ representhlg.Tbewh[,tes: on tJl,e;: subj'ects bfllve ~10 strokes, since we are really lean.dng the whites as \vhilt:e.. The gra ysha "t:! de]_iC!\ te Sh'Cl]{~S 't\'l' leave a gra y wb$re we see: it ~s gT~y'~ afild then tThl.B d.o\rks are l~nd: .hi! willll gusteand press:l.llFE: to' set ctl the gI'aysand whi'te.s,.

Tile ,da.riks and acceats rea'n y makethe dr awing. bees use 1iI.ey are most easily seen. Tllley carry tbel'UJillch. Any draw ing, can be l"ed\lCed. b) a rendering of hallftoiil§ and darks ollly, si:nC(l:

the '\~ldtes are ab-,eady preselillt in the 'whilte of the p~per., So the: J?l:dc1ti,ce '0:£ good dr,3i\v.twg •. ll)eiyond o1Jj;tHn.e ~CID.S truetlon 01' con~our~ ts Gnt looking for theareas o~ light, th~t1, seeing Ith~ ha]f,tmlles and darks which s~u·.rou:ncl them ..

D.raw'h1Jg: is lI:',eal~y dilicu;~t onlly to' ~hoSle who do not know wt).atto, look .fo r, 'The placement of CO!lllt.01H'S ismeasurement lJInd nothin,g else, Te find the p]~lT'~,es of an olbject~s to wtlIitc,h th.e s,ngle Q.f tihe ~nrface fo'rm trI,s ~t cbang,es~ :~I1I~ tlletl '001 record the tone or ,fa lee ,caused.b.y tl~~t cbange or angle., The d:ra:\V~n,gs ot:ip3lge 001 show .Mw ,ea.dlly the effect 'o:f forrn ,~nd s:tlI!i"face and even of the mmterial itself is: d.e.Gned by simp],y p.;lUing down the g,rays iimcl darks as they aFpear. In these d,i'iliwlngs, we' are l~mid~y ,coniSClOUS of penefl s~.r,o'I!:e.~ '01' 11IiIanne:l'i;sm~ .• ,on~y of the use 'of apeJlc~l to render the ,e:ffectas seen.

After a"ihne you '~Cl!nm tGll'leoogn!zechal"actelrmstic cieets. and they become much easier to set down,. 'The student ShOl.~d start 'by setting 11p a s~ibNect in a good :~~ghtand. shl~ying tl'l.e ,elects, . neg~n W~dl t'hilligS that are :silmp[e in fonrll aJud not 1'00 eomplex in texmre, Take a piece 0.£ brokea sto.ne and try to, draw It. Take some dishes or pouery. a: h.d~. er a box,. Ow Atly ,simpie o'bjec~~ ,~.ndl, (lmw foil: d~e <:tfifecls oil ltg:Jfllts~ grarys~ and, da\d~s'" Later, try s'O~nct.hj])g t'lilatbns drapery - ever), the YO'1I:mgs,t,el,"s dolt Or drapes. piece of mrla~(~rhtl over semethlng and try to d:ra.\vthe .'o'~ds. Cmnljp]ed p~.per .l.sthe best ext'U:'np~e of pll;uu~s j n ~wght;, l\a!lfl~O'fI):e~ ttl'ld. sl~.ado"~/.

.outlines shooM ~ot be dark and hea.vy a~1 around, but light where the Inside tone is Ugh'!:: and d~n'k whW'<t!l the dad .. s are. In. :fact~in. some olE the b,est draw jni~w'G: 3l1'ehaJ"dly conscious, ocr oudmcs at aD. the Sb!ess being laid. Olii thetones :and shapes Inside Ithe oultli:n.es. Alillll)O t every light area has (;II ·deJini'te shape., then the halftones haveshapes, nnd ~naUy tl~e darks have sha pes. They 11lliU:st be ftttf~d' tog,~'tlle['. Some sh.1pe.s have de£ii!lled edg~s~ 'ot:het.s: Lave soft edges:.



Care:f\li1, study o~:rnJs pag:e win Ievea~ ·lli,efact that any type of surface .form can be rendered. by dup1ica:t~~g t!he eJFeot. -.!Of Hght a:wd. shadow .as they QCCI!.If acrQs\S~atfQfm. E'V1I;lffWJgt'erial Qf s.fareha:s :3: c~achl'risUe e:f[eclat any given m.ome.l'!It. EV1eI'y ,effect is mlade tlp ·(!,f light. hallftone,. andshaduw. H we sllildy the suibjlect and

cafll ,define ~o.se elemenbi cleady and!, can ·then £if tlhem ,P1l"Qpedy wiithin thecontoms,. we will. Jh_.ave m-creatllid. the .form. sud 3100 the clEect of the ]]ultterial(llf 'Wh~ch.it~s oornl!pO'sed. .liIlI. th~ drawing$ above~ arrows imdw.ca;te the djre~tio[l, o.fthe UgM", Se~. trp3i n.n.b~r of Su'lbjecls oom.posed of a v;;u:iety 'Qf matetiab and render the ellE'ecu.





A. sl1!!Ibj1ec:t like t~_A! ol'll,es:boW'n. a'boYe lcatLmot iJlle drawn. or painted convincingly withQut a-study .of the li~ht 00 its p,]anes. The eemeraean give lomd,f'il.@ Ilntrwoo.tle super.Ei;dal ,elecbl. 'We mUi~t always :sealich farther bl1oa,der planes upon widell thtseoJ:'i:f~silllg demil iIJi.€S!. Sinoe, ~igh:t ehaJlitg,~s@i

rapidly. iJt: :ils o(too p~dti()!lil to' •. all:;e a quick ley drawing like the one a,tthetop of the pac~" to l'eoord." '~he 1li:Mn planeso~i1ig,h!t. baiInone,9:1ild . shadow,. TbJs gives a ba:.sis for 'building ·the· solid ,efFects larer.


~;e; '" I-r'tH!'''iI P"!' Dr:. e.OOfZ OFstlA ""-'''M ~

Iii ! i:.i I'" I-f .a"H'f elf.! ~C1it'iic.s'T ~R.~

- ".4He

C)~~ ~ CJk.~t N: ~ ..fi:lll)tiW' rNG" we HI'T

l' Tac~.ird)pawoit af'.auy .otA:cr J~ffaoe. iFdr~I.()~6'1 IOI/otOllt9' Ike cm?le.fof tleefltrmce t2UC/(QLtic eaclt clt'tUt:f'e of"pla~~;, ItO,t-tkflkedta'Mre 1e;I'H:Zlae.


~e metifu)(:/lftkeJt:l.B'rtJ.


,Lic;ht aR IOYH!f.f rela,ted iz, lite baJ'lC far/4l!.f of.J'pitt!re CUlt:! cru,it.der 95

~e.rt~rof:Jtl"!/~11 Nit oneaflltrJ:6e#wa~~ of !e;~",ttiJl? .f-o dh2·U). Lt9*tNte 0b;ect-;-iroH(. o'/I(;e JOUI'fc:e. #:¥ 10, feparate·Q//~e .a,~of 1ti;lttJI Aal/f;-a~e ,aRId' J-Hadb,f() tit everfllriJt? ¥Clt c:lraa;1 fCJlI(,etiHt~.r #teJe a~e4f p,eHt?Rf JH;~'p:p,q gRo' qe4cO'te~ ,J'O tJut lllBl//ieJ'i,oar· (J/:;.re.pya,tl",/t and .r1e,?1 ri; ,deh.iee :6'teue.

If you are il'lItere:r;;te:d in comios" here i:swltete you can have a lot of .tun. Once you get the '"feel''' Qf light en fo:r.m.; and lssrn tlhe way light lope:r3i,tes:, y~o can add.i1ight and realism to your h,umorous dntwing~.

Suppose you have drawn a sp,liere in its: normal eff,ect of ligbt and shadow. Now begin to :add forms to the surrnoe '0'£ the, spbe~~e. You do nothave to finish the sphere 6rst, bu.,t fOor a change docs-\\' some bumps on it This principle was I?Desented in I'll)' earlier b,ool<:; P'U?l W fth a Peno.il, hm.m :lline only. Here: we aHempt Mn add the ]j"'ing;CJl!l1,a~i ties of ligbt and sha,do)V.

Lig,ht can be handled just as se:.dously en comic forms as on any other. for farm .is fOJrI1!Ji. and Ught d,e.fines it. TIle sphere! wnthe left··hand 'upper eemee of page 99 and. the dta",ln_g next ~o it show the p]an ,of drawing such forms ~l~ ~achei b) the baIt illn V(l[l't ylOIlH' .rol'.ms as you w.iml. so 10018 as you ld.ulP'lka~e th.em on eacl~ side o·fthe face ,r Q!J.l: can ga.in, lI" lot ·ofexpei'h~11Ce fn lighting form ~f you get some modeler's clay Ocr pla.sHcille and! build upwme of these forms 011 a ban. Then set the model up in light; and draw the. .ight and sha-dow :3iS ~hey appear. Tms willhdp you aehieve a. very oon.vincing solidity &:1 your cl'Eawings;, and also deve~of' your SITUCtuifal sense. Ally 'co:m:peteotartist should besble, to model forms that he has dra Wl1. often. hJIf dr-awil'lIg3!nd mode]iRg have such an affi,nityfua.t tobe able: ~o do, the one almost assures the abiili,ty tOI do the other ..

In the 'deeply roundedforms, like the nose, O[ the smiling cheek, we are pretty sure to, have some r.e:lec~ed U~ht \vMch causes th.e ·'hump'·; at the edge; of tile shadew, Norte th,a.,t the darks ICOIme: in. the depressions - the deeper ,the darker. We watcll for tile ~Mgest 3indbrightest areas of

light on the forehead - on a bald head. on. dle cra!lium. A bignose catehes a. lot of light" and. fat cheeks de alse. The ,chj~1 ,ff pr'Clltrudting]. wiU • cateh its share in most nghlilllg'S. vVe esn mak,e a. ehin com.e forward or recede by the way i~ is: ligl'tted; especianyi~ a front view"

On pages lOll) and Ulll I have gi.ven yO'll the outline construcuon of some characters I have drawn. Y ou can go 00 buiIdJng such heads In,dlemrutely, arriving at chl(,e.rencpersonaliiu,es: hy varying tbJ;: .fi:lolll:1!: you attach 00 'tile hal" I per .. s:omaJly ,('mj(lly dorng these tlli.im.gs" and it iS3Imaz-· iug: hO'W' such f~)(lllin,g around helps you In seriously drawing heads, ThB Wighting p~'indple may !be applied to dle whole figure as shown on pages lOSt/oJ 105.

Co-mi,o drawing is a fi,e1d m. itself.. Most eomte artwsts shello Qu~HTle on iy, fol' the sakeof sill·· phCity. :m:I,owever~ these artls;ts also may 'ngv~r ha ve sttlidru.ed. tile possihiHtles of :Iig'nting; on tiM fi:guIl3'S. Of oourse~whEl)il, the d_r1il;wings are til be reproduced in smal] Size" thereere c1:ifficuiIties involved. But if a grainy board and aVely bla.Ck pencl~ are, used. ii:t is not nece:sslllxy to use ha1£~ tofte reproduction. 01[11 such boar-d.the penciil may also be used in 'corn bjn3itio11l, witb.p:en. line.

ror rel3lXafti.o!il audreal fun, th.ere 18 nolltlmgm. d.r~.wwng: to ,compare w.i~h dds type of creativeness. The lliitt]!e wooden o[ pla.s.uc mamikins ~vait. :ah.me :at most at .. ~ dealers can help out a g,reat deal for pose!.> and action,

In ,comic drawing the ,(ictllsfit'uction and prro.portionwtll be mostly youI' own, S ometbnesthe mOie iaeorrect they appe:a.r ;tbe funlllie~ itma:l.;;es ~e draw.mg. If the \vdoldliis in H'II.e c'lo:th~s are ,8. pro,Mell:~. :get ufmid wok at yom.rs.eH in a mmor. Miikeamel1tru note of w bf\ t happens jln a sleeve or trouser leg.

nQ: '<:10'

.J"" - .~r:~~




Usi:ng a Mallikin '(or the BIDdy of J\,nOl'lomy

The: best way to ,s,tudyanatomy ~s to set up a hook of a~n8iti!)mieal d~agnuins be~ore yOt), and set up an art-store manikinalong}'!:id!e it. Draw d:u~ actio~1! (lJom ~he mmni:kjiJl and. 'the muscl,es from the book 'iou, ,cal'll also l!l~leml.lgb.s:ke~ches ,of the manikin itself for gener,al bu~k and, ac!ti»u on'fy.

Just copying aii;a~omk.al cUagr'ams does llot seem vely helpf'ulta, most ,'l,tudien,ts. The meseles m'usts:om.ehoi\\i' be built 'upon a ttru:n,e or figure in ot<d.eii' to get t'hmpro'po:l'tiio(Jl and .!i)e~J.lfi,tionsbi!p h) the figure las 3\~ho~e'" The joints of the m,:rnDciR 3Ir'e usually b.1.1b of SO'Ifl:llC' kind~ aud. of e .. iJUl',S!E! such. jOints must ev,enruaUybe covered Up" Fo,t th.is; retlloon it ~s well to! concm:~trnte on Ith¢MUS'ciles 0" tbe s:houlders. 3Irld Itho~ .of Ithe t1dgbs~ e5ipe~ ,eiaUy ;~t the h~p'S., Theti smdy d~e chest., waist, an.d buttoals. N,e.li.t ge~ the back, tbentbe ::lmliS sud. dl.e who~e leg. To ba~ance ~e llu:liI1iikiu on its feet requites 3I.bo\lttb.e same ,a:rra,ngernent of Umbs and.t.~m tha~ ._.e, :b.umarn needsto bold jits: bslsnee,

Tl'll,e :m:llrd.'km. is ~hm,ded {'OJ' liDe ODIy. nt)!t for tbe study of tll/(li Jlgure in, lighta1'lld shadow. The lighUl'l,g on these snnplifi.edl foo:.ms: ~s not enough like tJJat oa live models'. \\r'e, oons[der la:t~r the ~gUire in lighland. s:had,ow.

W,od, .. inthe liEecID=w, soouM he ,done: ~d:I. 'the ana!l:ffiny hoo,l; o.l'e:n. n .is diiUi'oult 'to8t3ill"t drawmg; the6;gulie from lire w~tbout: 1:I,fi.y p'r~vious pll'~pal'aUOill. Upon ,entering, a :fi'e class 'the s:tudept sboulld have a, rniFI,accw:ate id,e& of tIle; propoI'Uol1S of the figur,e .in.h.eadlsj. and in .silxths, as :iiHuslrnted on pag€l 1:07. I haV!e tr~ed, t:Q, coyer moot af ,the prob1cnrrls ofRgun diICarwing in a previo:us vohune,. Figure' Drawing f'orAU: It!1 'WQirlh.

Some i.t'l~b'lr.tcb:lrs, objec~m tAe, use of !the wooden. man:ikinJ sbtce the aetiOlii.ws only an :a:p'"

pll1o,ximat1on at best, and, thelte ms no a,ctua~ J?'~IY of muscle 'to, gO' by. This ,obJection is sound. l,)oc,O'vided. ~ll.e pe'I:son studying drawlng 'hlils~U'e classes 91niklble. the time :£01 them~ and Idle funds ItO',p;l.}" for them. I g,I:!ld!lya~ee tNl.".!.t 3'rI)" young person wbo intends 'to' [l'I:3ke a lLi.vmng :at :~rt .llhou~d.by all means atbend. '~~fe C]MS'~:. Ho'w-, ever, I believe that the manikin has an important use' f'i()r ,f]l,Ei study ,of aeUofli~ s.ii~cel a '~i\i'e model ,cannot hold an <ldion. pos~ .for any.~n:g:th of tiMe .. 'WOlilkhiig .r:ro.the l'll1itl'!liI.ikintenrllsto loosen. up' the .student's :fi:,guille ,dtilWin,g~ V{hen an attiist gets out Illito ~be active: ploot.ioo o.f .his art, 'be: can seldom draw :JI: fi.guxe posed :!}S it worud be posed in a ltfe cJa.s~ for hv~:nty ~o ~nty-:6v,e m.~~ut~s ata tbne. The static poses ·o.f' ,theall:'t dElss ,should 'be m1'Ulch more (Of ~he s:b;uJy of lIght O:l'.! f'O"mlI,t ",,:lInes. and calor,.

To. g(2it 6gL~lrQS m act!JJn the artist is £l.1moot .fo'r,ce:d to use th.e camera, ~.nd m=.ulY p~eS'ent~day ,aJrti.sts ha,ve high~s:J?eed cameras for thiS purfO~.(i. Rowe'\flJli'" f<ll anaetion pic~lIl.re. Ithe artistshoUi~.d haV'c a wien~deveIDoped bo\V~~lge ~f 'the ,Gg,IIl.lC; under the &a,pery . It doesno harm to Maii!.:!e tIte fig~do sometbIng besides ,s:tf.n;ld or sit~ 'Of per'tlaps, hold a rod or pole. Thepcse 'Or ,gestme ()f ~he figure ,doe-SliI1\lchtlQ, 'Make it tell ,a, st<l_ry'. If ,YO:u .in:tendlto, be an m,ustra:tor~ )I'IID must: b.1Iive aetlon in ycrur work .• , ,or i.t '\iilin 1110t be \lie!!')' suOeessful.

Th@ D1aniki:nhelps pa.ftlco'lady in rna;ki:ng, pre~lf:lllin.al"y ~eeches 0)' devel0'Ping:rough ~deas \"Mch han.Hy warrm.n;t. ~be 'e!\:pense of a model. A model can be hUed, fm Ithelast stage clthe W'Ork or :ror the ma~cr,ial ffon'!. Vi'hich ~he .'t\Jal werk wil1be drawn.

The student sbO'uM ,O'f COl,D"seUs,e his own judgment. If he fin,w, thnt 'lhe mao"=~~ 'helps" let ldmu~e .it.




M:anikrns are a ,gr'eat help in. deveiJoping ,a:ction. in figure ,drawblg., in that they can be put intO' "snll" poses 1110 itve mode] ooo.ld.hoM. They ,Cain b.ipu:I'\ooased a,~ m.os1tatt dlea~s, 'TM.eir appro:rl,marte CQ.nstli"u,ctiQIiDJ is shown by the £ig:m-e arl the riight. FOli' eomparlsen, tho :liig:tU'IS: at the~eft mows the .ideaW pm'po]lti.ons of the: mal.e htmllln

fignre. The line :at the extreme :~e:ft shews ,divisjons: ,O'f Ithe height of the Hgul'c ,of ided proPQt~ions. One :sid,e of the :~in~. :is ,dliv.idedmfo SImmS :and. the othie:1!' sid.e ffim1l~Q e:ig;h.'llis. These '{wIO sets ,01£ div~slons indica,te: the: imr~O:lrtan!t pO~WJ:ts ,of' ·Ute

l' , .

fi,guI~. Mem;ol!.".iH tlie~e seales.


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