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29 Worksheet (A2)

Data needed to answer questions can be found in the Data, formulae and relationships sheet.
1 What is a photon? [1]
2 -rays from a radioactive material have hiher frequency than visible liht.
!"plain why this means that -rays are more harmful. [#]
3 $tate one piece of evidence that electromanetic radiation has%
a wave-li&e properties [1]
b particle-li&e properties. [1]
4 ' liht-emittin diode emits red liht of wavelenth (.) 1*
m. -alculate%
a the frequency of the red liht [#]
b the enery of a photon of red liht. [.]
5 /sin the terms photons and work function, describe why electrons are emitted from the
surface of a 0inc plate when it is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation but not when it is
illuminated by visible liht. [.]
6 1he fiure below shows an electron ma&in a transition between two enery levels and the briht
spectral emission line observed.
a !"plain why electromanetic radiation is emitted when an electron 2umps from
enery level E
to enery level E
. [#]
b Derive an e"pression for the frequency f of the radiation emitted. [#]
c $tate and e"plain the position of the spectral line when an electron ma&es a transition
between enery levels E
and E
. [#]
7 'n electron in an atom can occupy four enery levels. With the help of an enery level diaram,
determine the ma"imum number of spectral emission lines from this atom. [#]
8 3ithium atoms emit red liht of wavelenth (,* nm. -alculate the difference between the
enery levels responsible for this red liht. [.]
'$ and ' 3evel 4hysics 5riinal material 6 -ambride /niversity 4ress #*1* 1
29 Worksheet (A2)
9 1he diaram below shows a hot solid, at a temperature of 7*** 8, emittin a continuous
$tate the type of spectrum observed from%
a position 9 [1]
b position : [1]
c position ;. [1]
10 What e"perimental evidence is there that suests that electrons behave as waves? [1]
11 1he electronvolt is a convenient unit of enery for particles and photons. Define the
electronvolt. [1]
12 'n electron is accelerated throuh a potential difference of (.* <. 'ccordin to a student, this
electron has &inetic enery reater than the enery of a photon of ultraviolet radiation of
wavelenth #.7 1*
m. With the aid of calculations, e"plain whether or not the student is correct.
13 a Define threshold frequenc for a metal. [1]
b 1he wor& function of caesium is 1.= e<. -alculate the threshold frequency. [.]
14 ' particular filament lamp of ratin (* W emits 7.*> of this power as visible liht.
1he averae wavelenth of visible liht is 77* nm. -alculate%
a the averae enery of a sinle photon of visible liht [.]
b the number of photons of visible liht emitted per second from the lamp. [.]
15 ' plate of 0inc is illuminated by electromanetic radiation of wavelenth #.1 1*
1he wor& function of 0inc is ).. e<. -alculate the ma"imum &inetic enery
of a photoelectron. [)]
16 ?eutrons travellin throuh matter et diffracted 2ust as electrons do when travellin
throuh raphite. @n order to show diffraction effects, the neutrons need to have a
de Arolie wavelenth that is comparable to the spacin between the atoms.
-alculate the speed of a neutron that has a de Arolie wavelenth of #.* 1*
m. [.]
17 ' yellow liht-emittin diode B3!DC is connected to a d.c. power supply. 1he output voltae
from the supply is slowly increased from 0ero until the 3!D 2ust starts to low. 1he yellow
liht from the 3!D has a wavelenth of about 7.D 1*
m. !stimate the potential difference
across the 3!D when it 2ust starts to low. [)]
'$ and ' 3evel 4hysics 5riinal material 6 -ambride /niversity 4ress #*1* #
29 Worksheet (A2)
18 a @n an electron-diffraction e"periment, electrons are accelerated throuh a p.d. V.
$how that the de Arolie wavelenth of an electron is iven by%
m Ve
where m
is the mass of the electron and e is the elementary chare. [.]
b -alculate the acceleratin p.d. V that ives an electron a de Arolie wavelenth of
).* 1*
m. [.]
19 @n an e"periment on the photoelectric effect, a metal is illuminated by visible liht of different
wavelenths. ' photoelectron has a ma"imum &inetic enery of *.= e< when red liht of
wavelenth ()* nm is used. With blue liht of wavelenth )#* nm, the ma"imum &inetic enery of
the photoelectron is 1.= e<. /se this information to calculate an e"perimental value
for the 4lanc& constant h. [7]
20 1he diaram below shows the some of the enery levels for a helium atom.
a !"plain the sinificance of the enery levels bein neative. [1]
b When a helium atom is not e"cited, the electrons have an enery of +..** e<. 1his is
&nown as the stable state of the electrons. -alculate the minimum enery, in 2oules,
required to free an electron at this enery level. !"plain your answer. [.]
c 1he helium atom absorbs a photon of enery 1.)1 e<.
i $tate the transition made by an electron. [#]
ii -alculate the wavelenth of the radiation absorbed by the helium atom. [.]
21 1he fiure below shows the enery level
diaram for an atom of mercury.
a !"plain what is meant by the !round
state. [1]
b -alculate the shortest wavelenth
emitted by the atom. !"plain your
answer. [)]
'$ and ' 3evel 4hysics 5riinal material 6 -ambride /niversity 4ress #*1* .
29 Worksheet (A2)
22 Eor the hydroen atom, the enery level E
in 2oules is iven by the equation
1* 1D . #

where n is an inteer, &nown as the principal quantum number.
a -alculate the enery level of the round state Bn = 1C and the enery level of the first
e"cited state Bn = #C. [#]
b Determine the wavelenth of radiation emitted when an electron ma&es a transition from
the first e"cited state to the round state. @n which reion of the electromanetic spectrum
would you find a spectral line with this wavelenth? [)]
c @n which reion of the electromanetic spectrum would you find the spectral line
correspondin to an electron transition between enery levels with principal quantum
numbers of ( and ,? Fustify your answer. [)]
$core% >
'$ and ' 3evel 4hysics 5riinal material 6 -ambride /niversity 4ress #*1* )