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BOILER

A boiler is defined as "a closed vessel in which water or other liquid is heated, steam or vapor is
generated, steam is superheated, or any combination of liquids for the generation of electricity and
other purposes.


FIRE TUBE BOILER:
A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from a fire pass through one or more tubes
running through a sealed container of water.
PRINCIPLE:
The heat of the gases is transferred through the walls of the tubes by thermal conduction, heating the
water and ultimately creating steam.

TYPES
OF
BOILER
WATER
TUBE
BOILER
FIRE
TUBE
BOILER
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF FIRE TUBE BOILER:
When water is heated, it increases in volume and becomes lighter. This warmer water rises and the
cooler water drops to take its place. The steam bubbles that eventually form break the surface of the
water and enter the steam space.
The addition of tubes inside the drum containing the water increases the heating surface. The heating
surface is that part of the boiler with water on one side and the heat and gases of combustion on the
other. By increasing the heating surface, more heat is taken from the gases of combustion. This results
in a more rapid water circulation and faster formation of steam bubbles.
Placing an internal furnace within the boiler shell greatly increases the heating surface allowing for
maximum absorption of heat thus reducing the time to create steam.
ADVANTAGES OF FIRE TUBE BOILER:
1. The water is supplied in shell and outside tubes while hot gas is supplied inside tubes so the water
volume cannot be shaken easily when the fire tube boiler is running.
2. Fire tube boiler is so easy to use, operate, clean and maintain.
3. Fire tube boiler can be used in small scale industries where less pressure is required.
4. Fire tube boiler is relatively cheaper than water tube boiler.
DISADVANTAGES OF FIRE TUBE BOILER:
1. From the furnace combustion side, required time to fill water is longer than to increase temperature
and pressure.
2. The efficiency of heat transfer (heat transfer efficiency) is bad enough because of the heat exchanger
does not use thermal radiation.
3. The fire tube boiler cannot produce steam at a pressure higher than 250 pounds per square inch.
4. Capacity of generated steam is limited.
WATER TUBE BOILER:
A water tube boiler is a type of boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire.
PRINCIPLE:
In water tube boiler, the hot water go upward replacing cold water and steam generate from the surface
of hot water could be useful.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF WATER TUBE BOILER:
The working principle of water tube boiler is very interesting and simple. In this type of boiler,
there is recirculation due to density difference of hot and cold water. When the water is
heated, it moves upward replacing cold water and steam is generated from the surface. High
pressure steam could be generated by pumping water at high pressures. Steam produced from
water tube boiler is normally of high pressures.
ADVANTAGES OF WATER TUBE BOILER:

1. High efficiency (generally greater than 85 %) hence reduced fuel consumption.
2. Capable of high output (i.e. high evaporation rate).
3. High pressures and temperatures improve turbine plant efficiency.
4. Generally all surfaces are circular hence no supporting stays are required.
5. Steam can be raised rapidly from cold if the occasion demands.
6. It can generate very high pressure of steam.
DISADVANTAGES OF THE WATERTUBE BOILER:
1. High initial capital cost
2. Cleaning is more difficult due to the design
3. Physical size may be an issue because it should be large for high flowrates and it is economical.
4. Heat losses is prominent.