0 Votos favoráveis0 Votos desfavoráveis

9 visualizações12 páginasWe present in this paper the simulation results of the speed control of a 3 levels inverter fed induction machine controlled by the Direct Torque Control with application of artificial intelligence techniques both the fuzzy logic (DTC_FL) and the neural network (DTC_NN). A comparative study of these two techniques is also presented to illustrate the merits of each of the techniques on the performance of the 3-levels inverter-/induction machine set.

Oct 13, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou leia online no Scribd

We present in this paper the simulation results of the speed control of a 3 levels inverter fed induction machine controlled by the Direct Torque Control with application of artificial intelligence techniques both the fuzzy logic (DTC_FL) and the neural network (DTC_NN). A comparative study of these two techniques is also presented to illustrate the merits of each of the techniques on the performance of the 3-levels inverter-/induction machine set.

© All Rights Reserved

9 visualizações

We present in this paper the simulation results of the speed control of a 3 levels inverter fed induction machine controlled by the Direct Torque Control with application of artificial intelligence techniques both the fuzzy logic (DTC_FL) and the neural network (DTC_NN). A comparative study of these two techniques is also presented to illustrate the merits of each of the techniques on the performance of the 3-levels inverter-/induction machine set.

© All Rights Reserved

- Home Inverter Introduction
- Como ponerla en Tinder
- fBlasting Pattern 01
- 657767.01_cvetkovic
- Investigations on Hybrid Learning in ANFIS
- 0315-0327
- AiandBeyond
- 31 Phasor Measurements-based Online Auto Detection Out-Of-stability Algorithm-libre
- Paper56ETESM
- Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance
- Adaptation Interaction and Its Application to NN
- Optimum Design of Isolated RCC Footing using Soft Computing Technique
- What is a Neural Network
- UT Dallas Syllabus for acn6348.501.07s taught by Richard Golden (golden)
- SimAUD2018 Proceedings LoRes
- 2004 a Neural Network Model to Estimate Aircraft Fuel Consumption
- 2DMatrixNN
- Comm vs Industrial
- Optimising Machine-Learning-Based Fault Prediction
- A Distributed Robotic Control System Based on a Temporal Self-Organizing Neural Network

Você está na página 1de 12

us

IMPACT: International Journal of Research in

Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET)

ISSN(E): 2321-8843; ISSN(P): 2347-4599

Vol. 2, Issue 9, Sep 2014, 1-12

Impact Journals

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO TYPES OF DTC WITH APPLICATION OF

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: FUZZY LOGIC AND NEURON NETWORK ON THE

PERFORMANCE OF A MULTI-LEVEL INVERTER FED INDUCTION MACHINE

BENAOUDA O & BENDIABDELLAH A

Laboratoire De Development Des Entrainements Electrique (LDEE), Diagnostic Group,

Faculty Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics, University of Science and Technology of Oran,

Oran, Al Mnaouar, Algeria

ABSTRACT

We present in this paper the simulation results of the speed control of a 3 levels inverter fed induction machine

controlled by the Direct Torque Control with application of artificial intelligence techniques both the fuzzy logic

(DTC_FL) and the neural network (DTC_NN). A comparative study of these two techniques is also presented to illustrate

the merits of each of the techniques on the performance of the 3-levels inverter-/induction machine set.

KEYWORDS: Induction Machine, 3-Levels Inverter, Direct Torque Control (DTC), DTC_FL, DTC_NN

INTRODUCTION

The technique of direct torque control (DTC) introduced in 1985 by Takahashi [1, 2] is a seductive approach due

to its effectiveness on one hand and its simplicity of implementation on the other hand. Several works have enabled

rigorous modeling approach [2, 3], that is based on a pulse width modulation feeding and on the decoupling between the

flux and torque of the motor by the magnetic field orientation [4]. The techniques of fuzzy logic and artificial neural

network will also be introduced and used for performance improvement of classical DTC. The model is then simulated on

a Matlab/Simulink environment.

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF DTC TECHNIQUE

The voltage expressions of the machine used in the stator referential is given as:

dt

d

I R V

S

s

S

S

+ = . (1)

r

r

r

j

dt

d

I . R 0 r V

r

+ = = (2)

The rotor current expression is written as:

) .

L L

L

I .

L

(

1

I

S

r s

m

s

r

r

r

=

2 Benaouda O & Bendiabdellah A

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us

With

S r

m

2

L L

L

1 =

Substituting (2) in (1) becomes:

dt

d

I . R V

S

s

S

S

+ =

S

r r

m

r

r

r

1

L

L

) j

1

(

dt

d

The voltage vector S V supplied by the three-phase voltage inverter source is shown in Figure 1 by using

3 Boolean control variables S

J

(j = a, b, c) such that:

S

J

(j = a, b, c) =1: High Switch ON and Low Switch OFF.

S

J

(j = a, b, c) =0: High Switch OFF and Low Switch ON.

I

high

: High Switch I

low

: Low Switch

Figure 1: Voltage Inverter Fed Induction Machine

The voltage vector S V can be written as:

] [ 3 / 2

3

4

3

2

0

j

c

j

b a S

e S e S S U V + + = (3)

Combinations of the 3 values (S

a

, S

b

, S

c

) are used to generate 8 positions of the vector S V , where 2 zero vectors

correspond to: (S

a

, S

b

, S

c

) = [(000) or (111)] as shown in Figure 1.

FLUX AND TORQUE CONTROL

From (1), it can be written that:

0

0

.

S

t

s

S S s

V t R I dt = +

(4)

With the assumption that the stator resistance R

S

remains constant, and the term (R

S

I

S

) to be negligible compared

A Comparative Study of Two Types of DTC with Application of Artificial Intelligence: Fuzzy Logic 3

and Neuron Network on the Performance of a Multi-Level Inverter Fed Induction Machine

Impact Factor(JCC): 1.5548 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us

to the voltage

S

V . In a time interval Te, the end of the vector

S

moves on a straight line whose direction is given by the

vector

S

V , Figure 2. By choosing the correct sequence of vectors

S

V on successive time intervals of duration Te,

one can follow at the end of the vector, the desired trajectory. To achieve this goal, the corrector used for the DTC is a two

levels hysteresis corrector. With this type of corrector, one can easily hold the end of the flux vector in an almost circular

shape.

Figure 2: Evolution of the End of the Vector

S

The variations of the electromagnetic torque can be controlled only from the rotational speed of the flux vector.

Table 1 shows the evolution of both flux and torque magnitudes for each of the four vectors V

i+1

, V

i+2

, V

i-1

, V

i-2

, which can

be applied in the zone Z

i

. The voltage vectors to be applied depend on the region where the flux vector is located.

The parameters Z

1

, Z

2

, Z

3

Z

4

, Z

5

, Z

6

represent the six possible zones of operation.

Table 1: Evolution of the Flux and Torque Variables as a Function of the

Vector V

K

Applied in the Zone Z

i

Vecteur V

K

V

i+1

V

i+2

V

i-1

V

i-2

S

em

C

k = (i-1, i-2, i +1, i +2)

SELECTION OF THE VOLTAGE VECTOR V

s

The choice of the vector

S

V

depends on the location of the

S

in the referential (S), on the desired variation of the

module

S

, on the desired variation torque and on the direction of rotation of

S

. The evolution space of

S

in (S) is

divided into twelve space areas i, with i = [1, 12], Figure 3.

4 Benaouda O & Bendiabdellah A

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us

Figure 3: Representation of 12 Divisions of the Complex Plane

The voltage vectors associated with switching states are:

Table 2: Voltage Vectors Associated with Switching States of 3-Level Inverter

Vecteur Symbole

ZVV (P P P),(O O O),(N N N)

MVV (P O N),(O P N),(N P O),(N O P),(O N P),(O N P)

LVV (P N N),(P P N),(N P N),(N P P),(N N P),(P N P)

USVV (P O O),(P P O),(O P O),(O P P),(O O P),(P O P)

LSVV (O N N),(O O N),(N O N),(N O O),(N N O),(O N O)

The table shows that there are 27 states of the inverter switching. Under these conditions, there will be

19 different vector voltages.

Figure 4: Voltage Vectors in the Hexagonal Plane

Figure 4 shows that the voltage vectors are classified into four groups according to their modules.

These are:

ZVV group, the zero voltage vector 0 V .

SVV group, the small voltage vectors 1 4 7 10 13 16 , , , , , V V V V V V .

MVV group, the mean voltage vectors 3 6 9 12 15 18 , , , , , V V V V V V .

LVV group, the large voltage vectors. 2 5 8 11 14 17 , , , , , V V V V V V

THE ELABORATION OF CORRECTORS

3-Level Flux Corrector

The purpose of the flux corrector is to maintain the end of the vector flux

S

in a circular mesh [1].

The output of the hysteresis corrector, as represented by a variable boolienne indicates directly whether the amplitude of

the flux should be increased or decreased (Cflx=-1, Cflx=0, Cflx=+1).

5-Level Torque Corrector

The torque corrector has as objective to maintain the torque within the limits ) C C C

em rf

, with

rf

C

the

torque reference and C the hysteresis band of the corrector couple function. However a difference with the flux control is

A Comparative Study of Two Types of DTC with Application of Artificial Intelligence: Fuzzy Logic 5

and Neuron Network on the Performance of a Multi-Level Inverter Fed Induction Machine

Impact Factor(JCC): 1.5548 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us

that the torque can be positive or negative depending on the rotation direction of the machine. To improve torque control,

the torque error C is associated with five regions defined by the following constraints:

) C (

2 min C

<

) C C (

1 min C 2 min

) C C (

1 max C 1 min

(5)

) C C (

2 max C 1 max

) C (

2 max C

>

The control torque is provided by a hysteresis comparator with five levels or two upper bands

) C , C (

2 max 1 max

and two lower bands ) C , C (

2 min 1 min

as illustrated in Figure 5, and also its outputs which are

(ccpl=-1,ccpl=-2,ccpl=0,ccpl=+1,ccpl=+2).

Figure 5: 5-Level Torque Corrector

BASED NEURAL NETWORK DTC

Based Principle of Neural Network

Neural networks are a set of nonlinear functions to build, by learning, a large family of models and nonlinear

correctors [5]. From a mathematical point of view, the artificial neural can be represented as follows, Figure 6.

Interpretation Mathematique D'un Reseau De Neurone

From mathematical point of view, the neurone formel can be represented in the following manner, Figure 6.

6 Benaouda O & Bendiabdellah A

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us

Figure 6: An (RN) Multilayer Structure

Direct Torque Neural Control (DTNC)

The application of neural network technique in the machine control is simple and has enabled the resolution of

several issues related to the control of these systems.

Figure 7: DTNC_12S Control of an Induction Machine with a 5-Level Torque

Corrector and 12 Sectors Controleur Neuronal

In this neural network is used 12 neurons in the hidden layer and for the activation function we chose the

log- sigmoid function.

BASED FUZZY LOGIC DTC

Based Principle of Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy logic is a method of treatment of uncertainties and is intended for the representation of imprecise

knowledge. It is based on current linguistic terms such as: small, large, medium etc. It allows intermediate values between

right and wrong and admits overlap between them [6].

Variable De Commande

Control rules can be expressed in terms of input variables and outputs as follows:

i

R

: if

C

is

i

A

and

S

is

i

B

,

A Comparative Study of Two Types of DTC with Application of Artificial Intelligence: Fuzzy Logic 7

and Neuron Network on the Performance of a Multi-Level Inverter Fed Induction Machine

Impact Factor(JCC): 1.5548 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us

and

S

is

i

C then n is

i

N

where

i

A

i

B

,

i

N

are the fuzzy sets [7].

The treatment of these rules shall be made by the method of the least Mamdani expressed by:

) N . min( ) n (

i i Ri

=

Avec:

)) ( ), ( ), ( min(

S Ci Bi C Ai i

=

Switching Table for (DTC_LF)

The following tables are similar.

The variables errors:"

"flux error,"

C

"torque error and"

S

"flux position.

Table 3

8 Benaouda O & Bendiabdellah A

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us

SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulation results are obtained for a 3-level voltage inverter fed 1, 5kw induction machine.

Figure 8, Figure 9, and Figure 10 below are obtained for the case of neural network technique applied to the DTC

(DTNC_12S) with a switching table: 5-level torque corrector and 3-level stator flux.

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Temps(s)

L

o

u

p

e

d

e

C

o

u

p

le

(N

.m

)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

Temps(s)

C

o

u

p

le

(N

.m

)

Figure 8: The Reference Change and Torque Evolutions a Function of Time, Case: (DTNC)

A Comparative Study of Two Types of DTC with Application of Artificial Intelligence: Fuzzy Logic 9

and Neuron Network on the Performance of a Multi-Level Inverter Fed Induction Machine

Impact Factor(JCC): 1.5548 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us

Figure 9: Flux Evolution in Terms of Time for a Reference Value:

s0

=1.207, Case: (DTNC)

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Temps(s)

Is

-a

lp

h

a

(A

)

Figure 10: Stator Current of Phase , Case: (DTNC)

Figure 11, Figure 12, and Figure 13 below are obtained for the case of fuzzy logic technique applied to the DTC

(DTNC_LF) with a switching table: 5-level torque corrector and 3-level stator flux.

Figure 11: The Reference Change and Torque Evolution as a Function of Time, Case: (DTC_LF)

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

phis-alpha

p

h

is

-b

itta

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Temps(s)

F

lu

x

s

ta

to

riq

u

e

(W

e

b

)

Figure 12: Flux Evolution In Terms Of Time Fir A Reference Value:

s0

=1.207wb, Case: (DTC_LF)

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

phis-alpha

p

h

is

-b

itta

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Temps(s)

F

lu

x

s

ta

to

riq

u

e

(W

e

b

)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

Temps(s)

C

o

u

p

le

(N

.m

)

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

0

5

10

15

20

25

Temps(s)

L

o

u

p

e

d

e

C

o

u

p

le

(N

.m

)

10 Benaouda O & Bendiabdellah A

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Temps(s)

Is

-a

lp

h

a

(A

)

Figure 13: Stator Current of Phase , Case: (DTC_LF)

COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE TWO CONTROLS METHODS DTNC AND DTCLF

Simulation results show that the performance obtained by DTCLF control is significantly better than those

obtained by DTNC control. It is interesting to note in Figure 11 a dynamic torque response with a slow transient.

The stator flux in DTCLF, Figure 12, has a very good response and we can see a slight excess in comparison to DTNC,

see Figure 9. Figure 12 also shows a fast transient of stator flux module in a perfectly circular with no ripples in the steady

state, and this is reflected in the torque and flux quantities.

CONCLUSIONS

The Benefits of DTNC_12S Control are

The torque is well controlled.

The flux and torque follow perfectly their references.

The stator current is sinusoidal.

The DTNC Has Three Major Problems

The flux is established slowly.

The switching frequency is variable around 3kHz.

The problem of the choice of the learning.

The Benefits of DTC_LF Command are

The flux and torque are well controlled

The constant switching frequency around 4kHz

The DTC_LF Presents a Major Problem

The switching frequency can be a little high

REFERENCES

1. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, A new quick response and high efficiency control strategy of induction motor,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.., IE-22, Sept./Oct. 1986.

2. Takahashi and. S. Asakawa, Ultra-wide speed control of induction motor covered 10A6 range, IEEE Trans.

Ind. Applicat., IA-25: 227-232, 1987.

A Comparative Study of Two Types of DTC with Application of Artificial Intelligence: Fuzzy Logic 11

and Neuron Network on the Performance of a Multi-Level Inverter Fed Induction Machine

Impact Factor(JCC): 1.5548 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us

3. T. G. Habetler and D. M. Divan, Control strategies for direct torque control using discrete pulse modulation,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., IA-27(5): 893-901, 1991.

4. M. T. Lamchich, Contrle direct de couple dune machine asynchrone systme de rgulation de vitesse avec

anti-emballement, Thse de doctorat, Universit Cadi-Ayyad, Marrakech. 2006.

5. Mondal, S.K.; J.O.P. Pinto, B.K.Bose, A Neural-Network-Based Space-Vector PWM Controller for A

three-Level Voltage-Fed Inverter Induction Motor Drive, Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on. Vol 38,

Issue 3, May/Jun 2002 Page(s):660 669.

6. O. Benaouda; A. Bendiabdellah, la contribution du contrle direct de couple d'une MAS alimente par

des onduleurs multi-niveaux en appliquant de l'intelligence artificiel (Logique Floue) , seconde international

Confrence on Power Electronics and Electrical Drives, ICPEED'12, Oran, Dcembre 11-12-2012.

7. R. Toufouti Direct torque control for induction motor using intelligent techniques Journal of Theoretical and

Applied Information Technology JATIT, 2007.

- Home Inverter IntroductionEnviado porEmily Warner
- Como ponerla en TinderEnviado porRodrigo Ferreyra
- fBlasting Pattern 01Enviado porPrakash Rao
- 657767.01_cvetkovicEnviado porAnonymous QZSSYNFfM0
- Investigations on Hybrid Learning in ANFISEnviado porAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- 0315-0327Enviado porlikhith
- AiandBeyondEnviado poradityabaid4
- 31 Phasor Measurements-based Online Auto Detection Out-Of-stability Algorithm-libreEnviado porAdantey Michael
- Paper56ETESMEnviado porKuldeep Saxena
- Neural Networks for Distinguishing the PerformanceEnviado porLuca Parisi
- Adaptation Interaction and Its Application to NNEnviado porMuhammad Zulfiqar
- Optimum Design of Isolated RCC Footing using Soft Computing TechniqueEnviado porBINDUSARA TS
- What is a Neural NetworkEnviado porbrindhasp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for acn6348.501.07s taught by Richard Golden (golden)Enviado porUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- SimAUD2018 Proceedings LoResEnviado porSofea14
- 2004 a Neural Network Model to Estimate Aircraft Fuel ConsumptionEnviado porElango Maran R S
- 2DMatrixNNEnviado porGebeleizis Morbidu
- Comm vs IndustrialEnviado porChetan Archery
- Optimising Machine-Learning-Based Fault PredictionEnviado porMarco Zanella
- A Distributed Robotic Control System Based on a Temporal Self-Organizing Neural NetworkEnviado porValentin Radu
- A Hybrid ARIMA and Support Vector Machines Model in Stock Price Forecasting 2005 OmegaEnviado porFaisal Khalil
- Ghonaim2013_Article_AnImprovementOfChaos-basedHash.pdfEnviado porsam
- High Power Project4Enviado porahmedrizwanchamp
- ededfserfEnviado porFizza Ch
- Comparison of DTC and FOCEnviado porJuseverck Junior
- guia rapida L7.pdfEnviado porjuan
- Pure Sine Wave Inverter 1500W-12VDC-120VAC Spec书Enviado porari jahjolli
- glorot10a.pdfEnviado porjos_01
- Modelling, Control and Simulation of an Overall Wind Energy Conversion SystemEnviado porAmine Mira
- Acuña, 2011Enviado porEdson

- 7. IJRHAL-Feminism the Origin and DevelopmentEnviado porImpact Journals
- 3. IJRBM-The Impact of Flooding on Property Values. - CopyEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. Ijrbm- Virtual Communication and Organizational EffectivenessEnviado porImpact Journals
- 5. IJRHAL-Spend Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities of Selected Companies in India and Its Impact on Their PerformanceEnviado porImpact Journals
- 4. Ijrhal- a Novel Approach of Coffee Ground Fiber Towards Environment Friendly TextileEnviado porImpact Journals
- 3. Ijrhal-lexical Errors Analysis of Written English Essays - CopyEnviado porImpact Journals
- 2. IJRHAL-The Philosophy of EthiopianismEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. Ijrhal-Article Djegbate-l _english_ _1_ - CopyEnviado porImpact Journals
- 3. Ijranss- Effect Ofantibiotics on Protease and Lipase Production in Seed- Borne Fungi of Soybean_proofreadEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. Ijranss- Effect of Amino Acids on Protease and Lipase Production in Seed-borne Fungi of SoybeanEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. Ijrbm- Entrepreneurial Development in Nigeria a Textual Analysis Ofthe Igbo Ethic and the Spirit of EntrepreneurshipEnviado porImpact Journals
- 9. IJRHAL- Skeletal Age Assessment and Lateral Comparison Using MP3 and Hand Wrist RadiographEnviado porImpact Journals
- 8. IJRHAL- PhonaestheticismEnviado porImpact Journals
- 7. IJRHAL-Aggressive Selling and Its Impact on Financial Performance of a Company - CopyEnviado porImpact Journals
- 5. IJRHAL- Intervention on the Existing Heritage, What Solutions for Moroccan Built Heritage_proofreadEnviado porImpact Journals
- 4. IJRHAL- Social Insurance is an Instrument of Social Security – a Labour PerspectiveEnviado porImpact Journals
- 2. IJRHAL- Interconnectedness of the Local and Global in Kingsolver’s Select Writings_proofreadEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. Engg- Impact of Power Distribution Feeder’s Contributions to System Reliability IndicesEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. Ijranss- Study of Certain New Tensors in a Finsler Space of Three-dimensionsEnviado porImpact Journals
- 12. Ijrhal- Diseases and Its Effect on the Country- Message of Walt Whitman and Keki n. Daruwalla PoemsEnviado porImpact Journals
- 4. Ijrhal- The Power of Money in Contemporary Life as Seen Through John Self in Martin Amis’ Money a Suicide NoteEnviado porImpact Journals
- 3. Ijrhal-difficulties and Challenges in Business Writing of the Management StudentsEnviado porImpact Journals
- 2. Engg- Monitoring of Ionizing Radiation Using Geiger and NaI_Tl_ Crystal Scintillator for Environmental StudyEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. Ijranss- Pathogenic Fungi of Some Selected Vegetables in Sokoto MetropolisEnviado porImpact Journals
- 3. IJRBM-Format- A Study on Consumer's Awareness Towards Mobile Phone Usages in Chennai Environment - CopyEnviado porImpact Journals
- IJRBM-2. IJRBM-Dignity and Quality of EmploymentWork in Nigeria – an Exploratory AnalysisEnviado porImpact Journals
- 4. Ijrhal- Historical a Study on Socio-economic and Political Conditions of the Depressed ClassesEnviado porImpact Journals
- 3. IJRHAL-Arundhati Roy’s Contribution to Indian Writing in EnglishEnviado porImpact Journals
- 2. a Comparative Study of the Empowerment of Adolescent Girls Studying in Rural and Urban SchoolsEnviado porImpact Journals
- 1. People’s Participation a Medium of Empowerment in Rdps (2)Enviado porImpact Journals

- Pol Icon Budget HotelEnviado porresh_radhi
- Lesson Plan Template 3Enviado porTrebligNivek
- Lab 10 N Acetylation--The Acetylation of a Primary Aromatic AmineEnviado porJuan Diego Trujillo
- 3030-XX-UMEnviado pormicams
- Rottweiler - Wikipedia, The..Enviado porxskaos5228
- Shimadzu GC 2014Enviado porbudilia
- landfill notesEnviado porapi-235750525
- Dhinesh Thesis ReportEnviado porAravind Ganapathy
- Topic 2-Quadratic EquationsEnviado por丽娜钱霙
- Doctoral study on Schubert's Nocturnes.Enviado porJustin A. Guignard
- Ground Water Regulation Act and RulesEnviado porVividh Pawaskar
- Bukkit's Database EngineEnviado porcryxli
- Versace v. Fashion NovaEnviado porCaitlin Canahai
- Osprey, Men-at-Arms #027 The Russian Army of the Crimea (1973) OCR 8.12.pdfEnviado porPazuzu8
- AHMAD ZAIDIN_Neurodevelopmental ApproachEnviado porLara Zairissa
- HPSA_Install_20160617-122940Enviado porSergii Karpenko
- Mobile Phones and Your HealthEnviado porPooja Matharu
- Technical White Paper for QinQEnviado porSlati Buckfast
- SAT paperEnviado porAnchal Chadha
- Face WidthEnviado porDipak
- LingoEnviado porDahagam Saumith
- WRS Presentation English Institutional PortfolioEnviado porAdler Linhares
- Assem1Enviado porHakim
- Pollen-Profiles-FullRoster-July2011-Lars-Leafblad-KeyStone-SearchEnviado porLars Leafblad
- Chemtrails Confirmed - William ThomasEnviado porfiremanM
- 19-8011 Lineman Slang Diccionary HUBBELLEnviado porAlberto Alber
- What is Information Technology Liability InsuranceEnviado poritoptimuminsurance
- IELTS_FAQ_JAN_05_Enviado porzabia2
- Pitch Deck EzzingSolar 20160901 CompressedEnviado porVega Miau
- Chapter 6Enviado porAfiqah Zainuddin

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.