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Tobacco is an agricultural product process from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.

It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some
medicines. It is most commonly used as a recreational drug, and is a valuable cash crop for
countries such as Cuba, China and the United States. Tobacco, named for any plant of the genus
Nicotiana of the Solanaceae family (nightshade family) and for the product manufactured from the
leaf and used in cigars and cigarettes, snuff and pipe and chewing tobacco. Tobacco plants are also
used in plant bioengineering and some of the 60 species are grown as ornamentals. The alkaloid
nicotine is the most characteristic constituent of tobacco and is responsible for its addictive nature.
The possible harmful effects of the nicotine, tarry compounds and carbon monoxide in tobacco
smoke vary with the individuals tolerance.
In fact, scientists from all over the world are looking for new uses for tobacco. One
potential use is as a natural pesticide, due to tobaccos content of toxic nicotine. ``For centuries,
gardeners have used home-made mixtures of tobacco and water as a natural pesticide to kill insect
pests, the Science Daily reported.
Ayurvedic medicine also used black-pepper paste to treat boils, hair loss and some skin
diseases. Other medical conditions treated with black pepper were cough, colds, diabetes, anemia,
toothache, sore throat, piles, colic and heart problems. Some studies suggest that the alkaloids in
black pepper have antifungal and antioxidant properties, along with anti-fever pain-relieving, anti-
inflammatory and insecticidal effects. Black pepper has also been used for treatment of malaria,
cholera and syphilis.
Golden apple snail, popularly known as ``golden kuhol [Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck],
was introduced to the Philippines between 1982 and 1984. It came from South America (Brazil and
Argentina) via Taiwan. Its high nutritive value as food for human beings and farm animals
generated interest among both public and private sectors to propagate the production of this
organism. However, a few years after its introduction, the golden apple snail became the major pest
of rice. Of the three million (M) hectares of rice lands in the Philippines, 1.2-1.6M hectares infested
with golden apple snail. In 1990, P 212M was spent to control this pest. The first account that it had
become a major pest was recorded in 1986 when about 300 hectares of irrigated rice farms in
Region 2 (Cagayan Valley) were heavily damaged. Since then rice area infested with this pest has
been increasing until it became a national menace. (Leocadio S. Sebastian)
Pomacea canaliculata has recently been introduced to several Asian countries where it has
unexpectedly developed into a pest of rice. Reasons for the introduction as well as the economic
and ecological impact of the snail are described. Most farmers have resorted to chemical control,
with implications for human health and the environment. Integrated snail management practices are
summarized including the use of snail as a valuable aquatic resource. It is concluded that research
on control strategies is urgently needed but requires sound knowledge of the ecology of the snail in
its natural habitat. (Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences 2010)