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DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(cs )*
Test + (,
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( ,
Information Handled by a Computer
Instructions/machine instructions
Govern the transfer of information within a computer as well as
between the computer and its I/O devices
Specify the arithmetic and logic operations to be performed
Program
Data
sed as operands by the instructions
Source program
!ncoded in binary code " # and $
%SCII and !&CDIC
'emory nit
Store programs and data
(wo classes of storage
Primary storage
)ast
Programs must be stored in memory while they are being
e*ecuted
+arge number of semiconductor storage cells
Processed in words
%ddress
,%' and memory access time
'emory hierarchy " cache- main memory
Secondary storage " larger and cheaper
%rithmetic and +ogic nit .%+/
'ost computer operations are e*ecuted in %+ of the processor0
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+oad the operands into memory " bring them to the processor "
perform operation in %+ " store the result bac1 to memory or retain in
the processor0
,egisters
)ast control of %+
Control nit
%ll computer operations are controlled by the control unit0
(he timing signals that govern the I/O transfers are also
generated by the control unit0
Control unit is usually distributed throughout the machine instead
of standing alone0
Operations of a computer2
%ccept information in the form of programs and data through an
input unit and store it in the memory
)etch the information stored in the memory- under program
control- into an %+- where the information is processed
Output the processed information through an output unit
Control all activities inside the machine through a control unit
&asic Operational Concepts
,eview
%ctivity in a computer is governed by instructions0
(o perform a tas1- an appropriate program consisting of a list of
instructions is stored in the memory0
Individual instructions are brought from the memory into the
processor- which e*ecutes the specified operations0
Data to be used as operands are also stored in the memory0
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www.bookspar.com | Website for students | VTU NOTES
www.bookspar.com | Website for students | VTU NOTES
www.bookspar.com | Website for students | VTU NOTES
DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(
Test + (
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( /
Performance
T0e most important measure of a computer is 0ow 1uick-2 it can e3ecute
pro4rams.
T0ree factors affect performance(
5ardware desi4n
$nstruction set
#ompi-er
Performance
Processor time to e3ecute a pro4ram depends on t0e 0ardware in6o-6ed in
t0e e3ecution of indi6idua- mac0ine instructions.
Performance
T0e processor and a re-ati6e-2 sma-- cac0e memor2 can be fabricated on a
sin4-e inte4rated circuit c0ip.
Speed
#ost
!emor2 mana4ement
Processor #-ock
#-ock7 c-ock c2c-e7 and c-ock rate
T0e e3ecution of eac0 instruction is di6ided into se6era- steps7 eac0 of
w0ic0 comp-etes in one c-ock c2c-e.
5ert8 & c2c-es per second
9asic Performance E1uation
T & processor time re1uired to e3ecute a pro4ram t0an 0as been prepared
in 0i40:-e6e- -an4ua4e
N & number of actua- mac0ine -an4ua4e instructions needed to comp-ete
t0e e3ecution ;note( -oop<
S & a6era4e number of basic steps needed to e3ecute one mac0ine
instruction. Eac0 step comp-etes in one c-ock c2c-e
& c-ock rate
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Note( t0ese are not independent to eac0 ot0er
Pipe-ine and Supersca-ar Operation
$nstructions are not necessari-2 e3ecuted one after anot0er.
T0e 6a-ue of S doesn=t 0a6e to be t0e number of c-ock c2c-es to e3ecute
one instruction.
Pipe-inin4 & o6er-appin4 t0e e3ecution of successi6e instructions.
Add ,7 /7 >
Supersca-ar operation & mu-tip-e instruction pipe-ines are imp-emented in
t0e processor.
?oa- & reduce S ;cou-d become @,A<
#-ock ate
$ncrease c-ock rate
$mpro6e t0e inte4rated:circuit ;$#< tec0no-o42 to make t0e circuits faster
educe t0e amount of processin4 done in one basic step ;0owe6er7 t0is
ma2 increase t0e number of basic steps needed<
$ncreases in t0at are entire-2 caused b2 impro6ements in $# tec0no-o42
affect a-- aspects of t0e processor=s operation e1ua--2 e3cept t0e time to access
t0e main memor2.
#$S# and $S#
Tradeoff between N and S
A ke2 consideration is t0e use of pipe-inin4
S is c-ose to , e6en t0ou40 t0e number of basic steps per instruction ma2
be considerab-2 -ar4er
$t is muc0 easier to imp-ement efficient pipe-inin4 in processor wit0 simp-e
instruction sets
educed $nstruction Set #omputers ;$S#<
#omp-e3 $nstruction Set #omputers ;#$S#<
#ompi-er
A compi-er trans-ates a 0i40:-e6e- -an4ua4e pro4ram into a se1uence of
mac0ine instructions.
To reduce N7 we need a suitab-e mac0ine instruction set and a compi-er
t0at makes 4ood use of it.
?oa- & reduce NBS
A compi-er ma2 not be desi4ned for a specific processorC 0owe6er7 a 0i40:1ua-it2
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compi-er is usua--2 desi4ned for7 and wit07 a specific processor.
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DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(
Test + (
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( >
>
Definition of benc0mark
T0e SPE# ratin4 definition
SPE# ratin4 D unnin4 time in ef computer E
unnin4 time in computer under test
T0e O6era-- spec ratin4 of a computer s2stem SPE# atin4 D
; F SPE#
i
<
,En
Specification of SPE# /GGG computer s2stem HH U-trasparc ,G WES
wit0 >GG !58 u-trasparc &$$ i processor
Processor tec0no-o427 speed and 0ardware arc0itecture
$EO or4ani8ation 7 de6ices
!emor2 tec0no-o4ies 7 speed and arc0itecture
En6ironment and s2stem software e6o-ution
Arc0itectura- en0ancements
"O EA#5 ?ENEAT$ONS
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DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(
Test + (
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( )
T0e bi4 endian stora4e uses -ower b2te addresses for more si4nificant b2tes and
-itt-e endian stora4e uses -ower b2tes for -ess si4nificant b2tes.
i) Since it is 0e3 words of of ) di4its t0e bi4 endian stora4e words are >)>I5
and >J>>5. >)>I5 D >K,*
>
L)K,*
/
L>K,*
,
L IK,*
G
D

,>>*I decima-
>J>>5 D

>K,*
>
LJK,*
/
L>K,*
,
L >K,*
G
D

,>*,I decima-
ii) 9i4 endian stora4e of / 9#D words of ) di4its are >)>I and >J>> and t0eir
decima- 6a-ues are >)>I and >J>>
iii) %itt-e endian stora4e in AS#$$ of ) di4it si4ned 0e3 word is J>)I5 and t0e
decima- 6a-ue is JK,*
>
L>K,*
/
L)K,*
,
L IK,*
G
D

/,>/, decima-


iv) %itt-e endian stora4e in AS#$$ of a ) di4it 9#D word is J>)I decima-
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DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(
Test + (
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( J
Pro4ram:#ontro--ed $EO E3amp-e
!ac0ine instructions t0at can c0eck t0e state of t0e status f-a4s and
transfer data(
EADWA$T 9ranc0 to EADWA$T if S$N D G
$nput from DATA$N to ,
W$TEWA$T 9ranc0 to W$TEWA$T if SOUT D G
Output from , to DATAOUT
Pro4ram:#ontro--ed $EO E3amp-e
!emor2:!apped $EO & some memor2 address 6a-ues are used to refer to
perip0era- de6ice buffer re4isters. No specia- instructions are needed. A-so use
de6ice status re4isters.
EADWA$T Testbit +>7 $NSTATUS
9ranc0DG EADWA$T
!o6e92te DATA$N7 ,
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DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(
Test + (
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( *
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www.bookspar.com | Website for students | VTU NOTES
DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(
Test + (
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( M
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www.bookspar.com | Website for students | VTU NOTES
DEPAT!ENT O" #O!PUTE S#$EN#E
$NTENA% TEST & SO%UT$ONS
Sub'ect #ode(
Test + (
!ode- Answer for .uestion +( N
$n a primiti6e computer7 t0e o6erf-ow bit is not automatica--2 set w0en a /=s
comp-ementar2 addE subtract operation is done. Write a pseudo code for
detectin4 t0e o6erf-ow condition for t0e abo6e arit0metic operation wit0 4eneric
assumptions on t0e arc0itecture. Demonstrate t0e 6a-idit2 of t0e code wit0
assumed data in N bits
T0e assumption is t0at t0e arc0itecture 0as #arr2 and Ne4ati6e f-a4s and $SA
supportin4 t0is #onditiona- f-a4s. T0e data are in memor2 -ocations %O#A and
%O#9 and 0as re4isters G: N and t0e o6erf-ow f-a4s are to be set in re4ister
) G,,,,,,,
T0e t2pica- pseudo code as fo--ows( G,,,,,,, L,/M
G,G,G,G, ;L< LGNJ
StartOc0eck(!o6 G7 -oca ; : )) < ::::G,,G,G,GG L/,/ ;O6-
!o6 ,7 -ocb
Add G7,
!o6 >7 G C store t0e 6a-ue for future use
PNP positi6e C $f t0e resu-t is ne4ati6e c0eck for t0e addends si4n
!o6 G7,C sets t0e si4n f-a4
PP NoOo6erf-ow
!o6 G7 -oca
PP o6erf-ow
Positi6e ( !o6 G7,
PNP NoOo6erf-ow
!o6 o7-oca
PNP o6erf-ow
O6erf-ow ( !oV )7+Q""
NoOo6erf-ow ( !o6 ). +QGG
End
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