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A mobile network development Net/Net and small cells

Mita Gabriel
Abstract - In this paper I will briefly introduce the
method to improve the efficiency of cellular networks;
will explore some of the research issues and challenges; I
will describe briefly what the objectives of a drive test
and optimization are After that I will discuss how to
implement a heterogeneous network based on the micro!
pico and femto cells in "#$
#he energy efficiency but also improve %uality of
services network in the cellular network is a growing
problem for mobile users not just to maintain profits but
also to reduce the effects of the environment #hese
tendencies for improving the network motivates the
authorities and users to investigate new technologies and
bringing an improvement to the entire infrastructure
Mobile phone technology has dramatically grown in
the last ew years! a pro"e to that being the
appearance o the smart phones and this trend is not
e#pected to ha"e a slowing in the near $t$re% this
technology is contin$o$sly impro"ed with new
ser"ices and inno"ati"e wireless de"ices in the $sers
range and proessional electronics &i.e photo camera!
e'boo(s) sensors &ire alarms) par(ing car de"ices etc
*long with this de"elopments came the need to $se
the ser"ices with a higher data transer capacity! th$s
de"eloping the generation +G,UMT-&Uni"ersal
Mobile Telecomm$nications -ystem) $sed in present!
and $sed so called picocells and emtocells witch has
"ery important parts in sa"ing energy in wireless
networ( and increasing capacity o the networ(! this
new trend has p$shed the researchers to a new and
inno"ati"e demand called .Green Cell$lar Networ(s/
&0.g. o$r micro station co"ers better an area than the
macro station and $ses less energy)

The e#ponentially increasing demand or higher data
rates and other ser"ices in wireless networ(s re8$ires
a higher deployment o base stations networ( within
networ( cells. 6hile con"entional implementation
macro cell$lar networ( are less eecti"e! it is possible
that they are not economically le#ible by modiying
the c$rrent networ( architect$re. Macro cells are
generally designed to pro"ide great co"erage and they
are not eecti"e to pro"iding data at the high rate.
One ob"io$s way to ma(e cell$lar networ(s more
eicient in terms o energy in order to s$pport data
traic at high speed is decreased propagation distance
between nodes! th$s red$cing transmission power.
Thereore implementing the cell networ( sol$tion
based on the small cells s$ch as micro! pico and emto
cells are "ery promising in this conte#t.
5ig. 1. 0#ample o typical heterogeneo$s networ(
A. Femtocells
5emtocells are $s$ally placed in indoor en"ironments
s$ch as ho$se! b$ildings or ho$ses! it ser"e rom 9 to
+: $sers at the same time and ha"e a pretty small
co"erage! with a range $p to 1;m < 1:m! transmission
power is also 8$ite low and somewhere below 1;;
B. Picocells
2icocells are $s$ally $sed in open p$blic areas s$ch as
shopping centers! railway stations! b$s stations. They
can ser"e m$ltiples $sers at the same time rom a
emtocell and has at the same time :=; m6 to : 6.
C. Microcells
Microcell are $s$ally $sed o$tdoor with a pop$lation
oc$sed in the li"ing areas! ha"e a range o $p to :(m
and s$pports higher data traic.
5or planning a networ( we m$st (eep in mind>
5ac$ltatea de 0lectronic? @i Telecom$nicaAii! Departament$l
Com$nicaAii Bd. C. 2Dr"an Nr. :! +;;::+ Timi@oara! mitagabrielEyahoo.com
'-ignal obstr$ctions o "ario$s obstacles
&terrain! b$ildings! "egetation)
'3oss o signal penetration d$e inside b$ildings
'-ignal atten$ation o $sers inside b$ildings
'-ignal atten$ation d$e to the body $se
6hen we are implementing a phone networ( ! a
series o meas$rements are needed in that area !
in order to chec( the basic perormance o this
networ( ! ater that in the illing process o the
signal "oids and networ( optimiFation is
necessary to res$me the meas$rements in the area
to be able to renew inormation abo$t "ario$s
parameters and their possible impro"ement. *t
the same time e#panding the networ( in
optimiFation phase is challenging beca$se the
initial networ( perormance m$st be maintained !
while new additions assemblies and they are
0stimates o changes in the co"erage and 8$ality
o ser"ice Go- &G$ality o -er"ice ) beore
integration networ( new sites adHacent to the
declaration that can be achie"ed all
meas$rements only .
To e#empliy this (ind o meas$rements we
chose a site that ser"es the area where
2olytechnic Uni"ersity o Timisoara ' 0lectronics
and Telecomm$nications College is sit$ated% this
meas$rement was $sed a scanner mobile networ(!
a mobile terminal and a G2- all connected to a
laptop and the parameters are>
*. R-C2' recei"ed signal code power
B. 0c,Io ' Meas$red signal 8$ality
C. R--I ' Recei"e -ignal -trength Indicator
5ig. : Meas$rement in the 6CDM* radio interace
Time Latitude
14:36:0!000 4!"4""# $1!$$60
%"0!1 %"0!# %4!3
14:36:0"!000 4!"4""6 $1!$$6$
%"$!0 %"1! %4!4
14:36:0#!000 4!"4""4 $1!$$6
%"! %"1!" %4!$
14:36:11!000 4!"4""1 $1!$$6#
%"4!1 %"0!# %4!$
14:36:13!000 4!"4"" $1!$$"$
%"$!0 %"1!0 %3!"
14:36:1!000 4!"4"6# $1!$$"6
%"$! %"1!& %4!1
14:36:1"!000 4!"4"6& $1!$$&0
%"0! %6#!0 %!"
14:36:1#!000 4!"4"6& $1!$$&$
%"1!" %"1!3 %4!&
14:36:$1!000 4!"4"6# $1!$$&
%"3!# %"1! %4!6
14:36:$3!000 4!"4"6# $1!$$&
%"4!$ %"1! %!3
14:36:$!000 4!"4"6# $1!$$&6
%"6!1 %"1!" %4!
14:36:$"!000 4!"4""0 $1!$$&&
%"$!" %"1!1 %4!1
14:36:$#!000 4!"4""1 $1!$$&#
%"0!4 %"0!$ %!$
14:36:31!000 4!"4""1 $1!$$#$
%"1!1 %6#!& %4!$
5ig. + Table o meas$red parameters
IC. 1*NDOC0R 10TN0T,-M*33 C033-
Initial the G-M networ( is $sing switched circ$it and switched pac(et G2R- added. UMT- architect$re!
d$al domain concept was (ept in the networ( core. -ome elements ha"e networ( e"ol"e b$t the concept has
remained almost the same. 6hen considering the e"ol$tion o +G system or 3T0 +G22 comm$nity decided to
introd$ce I2 &Internet 2rotocol) as a (ey transport protocol or all ser"ices.
* signiicant percentage o recent acti"ity has been oc$sed on +G22 channel aggregation to meet the
growing demand or data transmission. Other priorities regarding radio area incl$de topics related notes higher
data transer and increase capacity by either $sing more re8$ency bands or impro"ement o spectral eiciency.
+G22 will disc$ss a strategy or energy sa"ing! cost'eecti"eness &incl$si"ely $sing sel OptimiFing networ(
&-ON)) s$pport or "ario$s applications and types o traic and interconnection impro"ements. 0icient
networ( planning is needed to cope with the growing n$mber o s$bscribers o mobile broad band ser"ices! data
transer. Operators ha"e remo"ed the problems by increasing the capacity spectr$m by implementing coding
schemes eicient
T10 1*NDOC0R 2ROC0--
1ando"er is the process o changing so$rce maintenance o e#isting connections. 6e tal( abo$t the system
transer &i.e within the same networ() or can disc$ss abo$t transer between systems where the connection is
maintained by a system &e.g UMT-)

1ando"er process can be di"ided into o$r phases> meas$rement! processing! preparation and e#ec$tion.
1ando"er meas$rements and processing are carried o$t by the U0. 1ando"er meas$rements are $s$ally based
on estimating the recei"ed downlin( reerence signal power &R-R2) while iltering process ading eects occ$rs
and estimated margin o hando"er meas$rements error. *ter wor(ing as ilters or meas$ring whether a
partic$lar e"ent pro"ided inp$t hando"er meets U0 warns ser"ing cell and report meas$rements made by a ratio
meas$rements. Then begins the preparation phase begins ser"ing cell hando"er process and prepare its
e#ec$tion with targeted cells.
*. -oter hando"er
I the U0 is connected to the networ( o"er two or three cells &sectors) ser"ed by the same B- &base station)! it is
abo$t -oter hando"er. D$ring the proced$re soter hando"er! a mobile station is in the o"erlapping area o two
adHacent sectors o the co"erage area cell! corresponding to a base station. Comm$nications between the U0 and
B- will conc$rrently ta(e place "ia two air interace channels! one or each separate sector! this in"ol"es the $se
o two separate codes! so that is how the U0 can disting$ish signals.
The U3 $plin( &U0'B-)! a similar process ta(es place in NodB> code channel to the mobile station in each
sector is recei"ed and then ro$ted to baseband Ra(e recei"er.
B. Soft handover
* eat$re o the UMT- networ( is in comm$nication with the U0 thro$gh se"eral base stations &$s$ally two).
*cti"e set cell is a list o cells &sectors) on the s$race o which the U0 is connected to the networ( and th$s is
accomplished "ia radio lin( settings.
-ame proced$re -oter hando"er comm$nication between the U0 and B- were held sim$ltaneo$sly by two
radio channels corresponding to each base station separately! so that i sot hando"er proced$re both signals are
recei"ed at the U0 le"el by processing Ra(e! respecti"ely based on ma#im$m ratio combining &MRC ) .
-ot hando"er proced$re diers signiicantly rom the soter hando"er by the act that the channel code $ser
e8$ipment U0 recei"ed two B-! b$t the data recei"ed is then ro$ted to the RNC or combining. Th$s the
connection U3 &U0 'B-) arri"e at RNC signals thro$gh two B- and RNC then these are processed and passed
on to higher le"els.
It emphasiFes that sot hando"er proced$res and soter hando"er may occ$r in combination with each other.
It is worth mentioning that the sot hando"er can be achie"ed e"en i the two are connected to a RNC B-
dierently! as long as the cell that is to ta(e the call wor(s on the same re8$ency.
C. Hard handover

In this case! it can be said that hando"er occ$rs NodB1 mo"ing rom a cell o a speciic wor(ing re8$ency! to
another cell o another speciic NodB: re8$ency dierent rom the initial one to another both in the 6CDM*
technology. In this case the connection established by means NodeB1 be discontin$ed and a new connection is
restored thro$gh NodeB:. The end o the connection is $ndesirable b$t may occ$r i the neighboring cells are
$ndeclared neighbor or networ(! which does not appear in the acti"e cell. 3ac( declaration or cell sector leads
and increased intererence in the area.
*nother e#ample o hard hando"er occ$rs when two base stations RNC are connected to two dierent sites. In
this case! while wor(ing at the same re8$ency i we lin( I$r interace switching rom one station to the other is
made with disconnects.
5ig. Types o hando"ers
' Chapter I ' de"elop independent e"ol$tionary necessity mobile telephone networ(s d$e to the great demand!
and growing! more eicient ser"ice to (eep pace with emerging technologies
' In Chapter II is s$mmariFed need heterogeneo$s networ(s! and is ill$strated an e#ample o heterogeneo$s
networ( type
' In Chapter III presented method is presented which ma(es the implementation and optimiFation o mobile
networ(s! based on an acc$rate analysis $sing inormation rom the ollowing dri"e Test strips! here we present
a meas$rement has been made or sites ser"ing the 2olytechnic Uni"ersity o Timisoara <0lectronics and
Telecomm$nications College! which were ollowed sim$ltaneo$sly se"eral parameters o interest in the networ(
' Chapter IC ' described (inds o 1ando"er
1) http>,,www.+gpp.org,
:) 62:'MJ > 1ando"er strategies between emto and macrocells ! MarFieh Dashti Uni"ersity o -heield
-heield! U7 m.dashtiEsheield.ac.$(
+) Inter Cell Intererence Coordination techni8$es in 10TB0T- % *lmost Blan( -$b'rames approach
9) 1endo"er parameter optimiFation in 3T0 sel p organiFing networ(s % Thomas KansenL! Irina Balany!
Kohn T$r(F! Ingrid Moermany! Thomas 7M$rner % L Technische Uni"ersitMat Bra$nschweig!
Bra$nschweig! Germany! Hansen%($ernergEin.ing.t$'bs.de y Interdisciplinary Instit$te or Broadband
Technology! Ghent! Belgi$m! irina.balan%ingrid.moermangEintec.$gent.be F Codaone Gro$p!
Newb$ry! 0ngland! Hohn.t$r(E"odaone.com