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# TURBULENCE MODELS AND

THEIR APPLICATIONS
Presented by:
T.S.D.Karthik
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Guide: Prof. Franz Durst
10
th
2
Outline
3
Turbulence models introduction
Boussinesq hypothesis
Eddy viscosity concept
Zero equation model
One equation model
Two equation models
Algebraic stress model
Reyolds stress model
Comparison
Applications
Developments
Conclusion
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Turbulence models
A turbulence model is a procedure to close the system of mean
flow equations.
For most engineering applications it is unnecessary to resolve
the details of the turbulent fluctuations.
Turbulence models allow the calculation of the mean flow
without first calculating the full time-dependent flow field.
We only need to know how turbulence affected the mean flow.
In particular we need expressions for the Reynolds stresses.
For a turbulence model to be useful it:
must have wide applicability,
be accurate,
simple,
and economical to run.

4
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Common turbulence models
Classical models. Based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)
equations (time averaged):
Zero equation model: mixing length model.
One equation model
Two equation models: k-c style models (standard, RNG, realizable), k-e
model, and ASM.
Seven equation model: Reynolds stress model.

The number of equations denotes the number of additional PDEs that
are being solved.

Large eddy simulation. Based on space-filtered equations. Time
dependent calculations are performed. Large eddies are explicitly
calculated. For small eddies, their effect on the flow pattern is taken
into account with a sub-grid model of which many styles are
available.

DNS

5
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Classification
6
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Prediction Methods
7
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Boussinesq hypothesis
Many turbulence models are based upon the Boussinesq
hypothesis.
It was experimentally observed that turbulence decays unless there is
shear in isothermal incompressible flows.
Turbulence was found to increase as the mean rate of deformation
increases.
Boussinesq proposed in 1877 that the Reynolds stresses could be linked
to the mean rate of deformation.
Using the suffix notation where i, j, and k denote the x-, y-, and
z-directions respectively, viscous stresses are given by:

Similarly, link Reynolds stresses to the mean rate of
deformation

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
v t
8
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Eddy Viscosity Concept
One of the most widely used concept
Reynolds stress tensor

A new quantity appears: the turbulent viscosity or eddy viscosity
(
t
).
The second term is added to make it applicable to normal
turbulent stress.
The turbulent viscosity depends on the flow, i.e. the state of
turbulence.
The turbulent viscosity is not homogeneous, i.e. it varies in space.
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
= =
i
j
j
i
t j i
T
ij
x
U
x
U
u u v t ' '
9
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Eddy Viscosity Concept
It is, however, assumed to be isotropic. It is the same in
all directions. This assumption is valid for many flows,
but not for all (e.g. flows with strong separation or swirl).

The turbulent viscosity may be expressed as

This concept assumes that Reynolds stress tensor can be
characterized by a single length and time scales.

c c c c t
t l or l u / ) (
2
o v
10
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Major Drawbacks
Interaction among eddies is not elastic as in the case for molecular
interactions in kinetic theory of gases.

For many turbulent flows, the length and time scale of characteristic
eddies is not small compared with the flow domain (boundary
dominated flows).

The eddy viscosity is a scalar quantity which may not be true for simple
turbulent shear flows. It also fails to distinguish between plane shear,
plane strain and rotating plane shear flows.

Successful 2D shear flows. Erroneous results for simple shear flows
such as wall jets and channel flows with varying wall roughness.
11
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Zero Equation Model - Mixing
Length Model
On dimensional grounds one can express the kinematic turbulent
viscosity as the product of a velocity scale and a length scale:

If we then assume that the velocity scale is proportional to the
length scale and the gradients in the velocity (shear rate, which has
dimension 1/s):

we can derive Prandtls (1925) mixing length model:

Algebraic expressions exist for the mixing length for simple 2-D
flows, such as pipe and channel flow.

) ( ) / ( ) / (
2
m s m s m
t
0 v
y
U
c
c
0
y
U
m t
c
c
=
2
v
12
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Equations for mixing length
Wall boundary layers

= boundary layer thickness
y = distance from the wall
= 0.09
K = Von-Karman Constant

Developed pipe flows

R = radius of the pipe or the half width of the duct

) / / (
) / / (
K y l
K y Ky l
m
m
o o
o
> =
< =
4 2
) 1 ( 06 . 0 ) 1 ( 08 . 0 14 . 0
R
y
R
y
R
l
m
=
13
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Mixing Length Model Discussion
Easy to implement.
Fast calculation times.
Good predictions for simple flows where experimental correlations for
the mixing length exist.
Used in higher models
Completely incapable of describing flows where the turbulent length
scale varies: anything with separation or circulation.
Only calculates mean flow properties and turbulent shear stress.
Cannot switch from one type of region to another
History effects of turbulence are not considered.
Use:
Sometimes used for simple external aero flows.
Pretty much completely ignored in commercial CFD programs today.
14
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
One Equation Model
Different transport equation for k is solved.
L is defined algebraically, in a similar manner as mixing length.

PDE for turbulent KE : Diffusion, Production and Dissipation terms

k l
k u
m t
2 / 1
c
=
=
i
x
j
u'
i
x
j
u'

i
x
j
U
'
j
'u
i
u P
) '
i
'u
j
'u
j
u
i
x
'
j
u '
j
u

'
i
p'u
(
i
D
where
P
i
x
i
D
i
x
k
i
U
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
=

c
c
+ =
+
c
c
=
c
c
2
1
2
15
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
c
D
i
j
j
i
i
j
t
i k
t
i i
i
l
k
C
x
U
x
U
x
U
x
k
x x
k
U
2
3

c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
(

c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
=
c
c
v
o
v
v
Modeled Equation
One Equation Model Discussion
Economical and accurate for:
Attached wall-bounded flows.
Flows with mild separation and recirculation.
Developed for use in unstructured codes in the aerospace industry.
Popular in aeronautics for computing the flow around aero plane
wings, etc.

Weak for:
Massively separated flows.
Free shear flows.
Decaying turbulence.
Complex internal flows.

Characteristic length still experimental.

16
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Two Equation Models
The k- model
Equations for k and , together with the eddy-viscosity stress-
strain relationship constitute the k- turbulence model.

is the dissipation rate of k.

If k and are known, we can model the turbulent viscosity as:

c c
0 v
2 2 / 3
2 / 1
k k
k
t
=
17
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
The k- model
K equation:
Model (simplified) equation for k after using Boussinesq
assumption by which the fluctuation terms can be linked to the
mean flow is as follows:

c
v
v c
o
v
v
2
2
09 . 0
k
with
x x
k
x
k
x x
U
x
U
x
U
x
k
U
t
k
t
i i i k
t
i i
j
j
i
i
j
t
i
i
~
c c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
(
(

c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
18
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Turbulent Dissipation
We can define the rate of dissipation per unit mass as:

Equation for

' '. 2
ij ij
e e v c =
n destructio Viscous Y
stretching by vortex Production P
city mean vorti of gradient by Production P
field flow mean of n deformatio by Production P
field flow mean of n deformatio by Production P
n fluctuatio pressure by transport Diffusive D
n fluctuatio by transport Diffusive D
transport viscous Diffusive D
4

4 3 2 1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
+ + + + + + =
where
Y P P P P D D D
Dt
D
p f v
c c c c c c c
c
19
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Turbulent Dissipation
( )
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c

c
c
+
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
i
x
u
i
x
p
k
x
k
u
k
x
k
x
k
x
k
Dt
D
'
' 2
'

v
c
c
v
c
2
'
2
2
' ' '
2
2
'
' 2
' ' ' '
2
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
c c
c

c
c
c
c
c
c

c c
c
c
c

c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c

l
x
k
x
i
u
l
x
k
u
l
x
i
u
k
x
k
u
l
x
k
x
i
U
l
x
i
u
k
u
k
x
i
U
k
x
kl
u
i
x
l
u
l
x
k
u
l
x
i
u
v v v v
v
D
c
f
D
c
p
D
c
3
c
P
2
c
P
1
c
P
4
c
P
Y
20
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Model Equation for
A model equation for is derived by multiplying the k
equation by (/k) and introducing model constants.

Closure coefficients found emperically

K- model leads to all normal stresses being equal,
which is usually inaccurate.
i
j
i
j
j
i
t
z z
j k
t
j j
j
t
x
U
x
U
x
U
P
K
C
K
P C
x x x
U
k
C
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
+
(
(

c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
v
c

c c
o
v
v
c
t
c
c
v
v
2
2 1
2
1 =
k
o 92 . 1
2
=
z
C 44 . 1
1
=
z
C 09 . 0 =
v
C 33 . 1 =
z
o
21
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Applications
22
Flow on a backward facing step using k-epsilon model
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Single and multiple jet flows using k-epsilon models
23
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
k- model discussion
Relatively simple to implement.
Leads to stable calculations that converge relatively easily.
Reasonable predictions for many flows.
Poor predictions for:
swirling and rotating flows,
flows with strong separation,
axis symmetric jets,
certain unconfined flows, and
fully developed flows in non-circular ducts.
Valid only for fully turbulent flows.
Requires wall function implementation.
Modifications for flows with highly curved stream lines.
Production of turbulence in highly strained flows is over predicted.

24
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
More two equation models
The k- model was developed in the early 1970s. Its strengths
as well as its shortcomings are well documented.

Many attempts have been made to develop two-equation
models that improve on the standard k- model.

We will discuss some here:
k- RNG model.
k- realizable model.
k- model.
Algebraic stress model.
Non-linear models.

25
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
RNG k-
k-c equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical technique
(Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations.
Similar in form to the standard k-c equations but includes:
Additional term in c equation for interaction between turbulence dissipation and mean
shear.
The effect of swirl on turbulence.
Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number.
Differential formula for effective viscosity.
Improved predictions for:
High streamline curvature and strain rate.
Transitional flows, separated flows.
Wall heat and mass transfer.
Also, time dependent flows with large scale motions (vortex shedding)
But still does not predict the spreading of a round jet correctly.
26
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Realizable k- model
Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as the
standard k-c model.
Improved equation for .
Variable C

Improved performance for flows involving:
Planar and round jets (predicts round jet spreading correctly).
separation.
Rotation, recirculation.
Strong streamline curvature.

28
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Realizable k- C

equations
Eddy viscosity computed from.

c
c

k U
A A
C
k
C
s
*
0
2
t
1
,
+
= =
ij ij ij ij
S S U O O +
*
( ) W A A
s
6 cos
3
1
, cos 6 , 04 . 4
1
0

= = = | |
ij ij
ki ji ij
S S S
S
S S S
W = =
~
,
~
30
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Realizable k- positivity of
normal stresses
Boussinesq viscosity relation:

Normal component:

Normal stress will be negative if:

c
v o v

2
t ij t
;
3
2
-
k
C k
x
u
x
u
u u
i
j
j
i
j i
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
2
3
2

2
2
x
U k
C k u
c
c
=
c

3.7
3
1
~ >
c
c

c C x
U k
31
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
k- model
This is another two equation model. In this model is an inverse
time scale that is associated with the turbulence.

This model solves two additional PDEs:
A modified version of the k equation used in the k- model.
A transport equation for .
The turbulent viscosity is then calculated as follows:

Its numerical behavior is similar to that of the k- models.

It suffers from some of the same drawbacks, such as the
assumption that
t
is isotropic.

e
v
k
t
=
32
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
The SST Model
33
The SST (Shear Stress Transport) model is an eddy-viscosity model which
includes two main novelties:
1. It is combination of a k- !model (in the inner boundary layer) and k-
model (in the outer region of and outside of the boundary layer);
2. A limitation of the shear stress in adverse pressure gradient regions is
introduced.
Actual
Model
Non-linear models
The standard k- model is extended by including second and
sometimes third order terms in the equation for the Reynolds
stresses.
One example is the Speziale model:

Here f() is a complex function of the deformation tensor,
velocity field and gradients, and the rate of change of the
deformation tensor.
The standard k- model reduces to a special case of this model
for flows with low rates of deformation.
These models are relatively new and not yet used very widely.

) / , , / , ( * 4 2
3
2
' '
2
3
2
2
x U t E E f
k
C C E
k
C k u u
D ij ij j i ij
c c c c + = = u
c c
o t

34
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Reynolds stress model
RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by
solving additional transport equations for the six independent
Reynolds stresses.
Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the
momentum equations with a fluctuating property.
Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation.
Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided.

Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled.

RSM is good for accurately predicting complex flows.
Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain rates.
Cyclone flows, swirling combustor flows.
Rotating flow passages, secondary flows.
Flows involving separation.

35
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Reynolds stress transport
equation
The exact equation for the transport of the Reynolds stress R
ij
:

This equation can be read as:
rate of change of plus
transport of R
ij
by convection, equals
rate of production P
ij
, plus
transport by diffusion D
ij
, minus
rate of dissipation
ij
, plus
transport due to turbulent pressure-strain interactions
ij
, plus
transport due to rotation
ij
.
This equation describes six partial differential equations, one for the
transport of each of the six independent Reynolds stresses.

ij ij ij ij
D
ij
P
Dt
ij
DR
O + H + + = c
' '
j i
u u
ij
R =
36
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Reynolds stress transport
equation
The various terms are modeled as follows:
Production P
ij
is retained in its exact form.

Diffusive transport D
ij
is modeled using a gradient diffusion assumption.

The dissipation
ij
, is related to as calculated from the standard
equation, although more advanced models are available also.

Pressure strain interactions
ij
, are very important. These include pressure
fluctuations due to eddies interacting with each other, and due to
interactions between eddies and regions of the flow with a different mean
velocity. The overall effect is to make the normal stresses more isotropic
and to decrease shear stresses. It does not change the total turbulent
kinetic energy. This is a difficult to model term, and various models are
available. Common is the Launder model. Improved, non-equilibrium
models are available also.

Transport due to rotation
ij
is retained in its exact form.

37
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
RSM equations
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
m
i
jm
m
j
im ij
x
U
R
x
U
R P : exact Production
) ' ' ( ' ' '
j
u
ik i
u
jk
p
k
u
j
u
i
u
ijk
J
k
x
ijk
J
ij
D
o o + ' + =
c
c
= : exact transport Diffusive
way standard the in calculated viscosity kinematic turbulent the is
: model transport Diffusive
t
ij
k
t
m
ij
k
t
m
ij
x
R
x
D
v
o
v
o
v
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
= ) (
38
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
RSM equations continued
ij ij
k
j
k
i
ij
x
u
x
u
co c c
3
2
'
'
2 =
c
c
c
c
= : model n Dissipatio : exact n Dissipatio
pressure the is
: model strain Pressure
: exact strain Pressure
P
P P C k R
k
C
x
u
x
u
p
ij ij ij ij ij
i
j
j
i
ij
) ( ) (
'
'
'
3
2
2
3
2
1
o o
c
= H
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
= H
vector rotation the is
indices the on depending 1 or 0, , is
: (exact) term Rotational
k
e
e
1
) ( 2

+ = O
ijk
jkm im ikm jm k ij
e
e R e R
39
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Algebraic stress model
The same k and equations are solved as with the standard k- model.
However, the Boussinesq assumption is not used.
The full Reynolds stress equations are first derived, and then some
simplifying assumptions are made that allow the derivation of algebraic
equations for the Reynolds stresses.
Thus fewer PDEs have to be solved than with the full RSM and it is
much easier to implement.
The algebraic equations themselves are not very stable, however, and
computer time is significantly more than with the standard k- model.
This model was used in the 1980s and early 1990s. Research continues
but this model is rarely used in industry anymore now that most
commercial CFD codes have full RSM implementations available
40
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Setting boundary conditions
Characterize turbulence at inlets and outlets (potential backflow).
k- models require k and .
Reynolds stress model requires R
ij
and .

Other options:
Turbulence intensity and length scale.
Length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most of energy.
For boundary layer flows, 0.4 times boundary layer thickness: l ~ 0.4d
99
.
For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l ~ opening size.

Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter.
Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows.

Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio.
For external flows:
10 / 1 < <

t
41
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Some Applications
42
Turbulent Annular Flow

Turbulence Models and Their Applications
43

The figures show plots of the normalized tangential velocity, for each of
the turbulence models, plotted with the experimental data.
RNG k - epsilon model produces the best results with the standard k -
epsilon model giving the worst but this variation is small compared to
their deviations from the experimental data.
The k-L mixing length model does lead to an answer which predicts the
movement of the maximal tangential velocity from the inner wall to the
centre of the annulus better than the other models. Where the
implementation of the model fails is in its prediction of the flow near the
walls.
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
44
Flocculation tank Analogy with flow over a back
step
In the middle of the channel, the flow separate due to the small step size of height h. The
flow reattaches at about 7 times the step height further downstream - similar to the 180
degree bend in the flocculation tank where we have flow separation and reattachment
downstream
Analyzed using K-, K- SST, K- realizable, K- RNG, RSM turbulence models and compared
with experimental data.
Plotting the derivative du/dy, the change in direction of velocity in x direction with respect
to y at the wall, the reattachment point is easily identified. At the wall, separated flow will
give a negative du/dy, while reattaches flow has a positive du/dy value.
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
45
Turbulenc
e Model
K-e K-W SST K-e
realizable
RSM

Reattach
ment
Ratio

0.195/0.
038 =
5.13
0.242/0.0
38 = 6.37
0.235/0.0
38 = 6.18

0.2/0.038
= 5.26
Flocculation tank Analogy with flow over a back
step
The K- model under-predicts the
reattachment length. K- SST and K-
realizable gives the most accurate
representation of the back step flow with
reattachment length. However, from literature
reviews, K- realizable is more proven for a
variety of types of flows.
Below in Figure, the stream contours (of the
averaged velocity) of the Re=48,000 for the k-
realizable model case closely approximate the
experimental results.
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Flow over airfoil
46
Contour plots of the predicted turbulent
viscosity around an airfoil obtained with
models: an algebraic model, a one-
equation model, and a duo of two-
equation models.

While the Spalart-Allmaras and Chien k-
epsilon models are in rough agreement
with each other, the SST and Baldwin-
Lomax models predict a very different
turbulent viscosity distribution.
If you looking solely at performance in the shear layer, you might want to
choose either the Spalart or Chien models.
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Comparison of RANS turbulence
models
Model Strengths Weaknesses
Zero Equation
Model
Economical (1-eq.); good track
record for mildly complex B.L.
type of flows.
Not very widely tested yet; lack of sub-
models (e.g. combustion, buoyancy).
STD k-
Robust, economical,
reasonably accurate; long
accumulated performance data.
Mediocre results for complex flows with
curvature, swirl and rotation. Predicts that
round jets spread 15% faster than planar jets
whereas in actuality they spread 15% slower.
RNG k-
Good for moderately complex
behavior like jet impingement,
separating flows, swirling flows,
and secondary flows.
Subjected to limitations due to isotropic
eddy viscosity assumption. Same problem
with round jets as standard k-c.
Realizable
k-
Offers largely the same benefits
as RNG but also resolves the
round-jet anomaly.
Subjected to limitations due to isotropic
eddy viscosity assumption.
Reynolds Stress
Model
Physically most complete model
(history, transport, and
anisotropy of turbulent stresses
are all accounted for).
Requires more cpu effort (2-3x); tightly
coupled momentum and turbulence
equations.
47
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Recommendation
Start calculations by performing 100 iterations or so with standard k- model
and first order upwind differencing. For very simple flows (no swirl or
separation) converge with k- model.

If the flow involves jets, separation, or moderate swirl, converge solution with
the realizable k- model.

If the flow is dominated by swirl (e.g. a cyclone or un-baffled stirred vessel)
converge solution deeply using RSM and a second order differencing scheme.
If the solution will not converge, use first order differencing instead.

Ignore the existence of mixing length models and the algebraic stress model.

Only use the other models if you know from other sources that somehow
these are especially suitable for your particular problem (e.g. Spalart-
Allmaras for certain external flows, k- RNG for certain transitional flows, or
k-).

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Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Other Numerical Methods:
DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation)
Very accurate

High computing time

Works on small Reynolds number flows

Used to verify the turbulence model

Some arbitrary initial velocity field is set up and the Navier-Stokes
equations are used directly to describe the evolution of this field
over time.

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Turbulence Models and Their Applications
LES (Large Eddy Simulation)
More accurate than RANS
More computing time than RANS
Middle route between DNS and RANS
Can work on larger Reynolds number and more complex flows
Simulations for large scales and RANS for small scales

Both DNS and LES require to solve the instantaneous Navier-Stokes
equations in time and three-dimensional space.

Hybrid Approach RANS + LES
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Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Developments
Eddy
Viscosity
Models
Reynolds
Stress
Models
Probability
Density
Functions
Accuracy increases
Complexity increases
Computing time increases
Usability decreases
51
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
Conclusion
52
Different turbulence models strengths and weaknesses
Usage of models specific to certain flows
Applications Where to use what?
Compromise between accuracy and computing power
Other developments
Turbulence Models and Their Applications
References
Turbulent Flows Fundamentals, Experiments and Modeling,
G.Biswas and V.Eswaran, Narosa Publishing House, 2002

Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wilcox, D.C, 1993

Fluid Mechanics - An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows,
Franz Durst, Springer, 2008

Turbulence model validation - https://confluence.cornell.edu/
http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/doct/comp turb model
Fluent Modeling Turbulence

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Turbulence Models and Their Applications
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Turbulence Models and Their Applications