Você está na página 1de 6

1

Table of Contents:

Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1
Brief History ............................................................................................................. 1
Significance ................................................................................................................ 2
Green Revolution and Pakistan ............................................................................ 2
Impact of Green Revolution .................................................................................. 3
Impact on Agricultural Production ..................................................................... 3
Impact on Agricultural Production ..................................................................... 3
Benefits of Green Revolution ................................................................................ 3
Impact on Employment ........................................................................................ 3
Indirect Effects Of Green Revolution ................................................................. 4
Impact on Social and Political Environment .................................................. 4
Policy and Green Revolution ............................................................................. 4
Weaknesses of the Public Policy ..................................................................... 4
Steps to achieve optimal production level .................................................. 4
References .................................................................................................................. 5










2



Introduction
The term Green Revolution refers to the renovation of agricultural practices beginning in Mexico
in the 1940s. Because of its success in producing more agricultural products there, Green
Revolution technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s, significantly increasing the
amount of crops produced per acre of agriculture. It was the technological response to a world-
wide food shortage which became threatening in the period after WWII.
Brief History
The beginnings of the Green Revolution are often attributed to Norman Borlaug, an American
scientist interested in agriculture. In the 1940s, he began conducting research in Mexico and
developed new disease resistance high-yield varieties of wheat. With the experience of
agricultural development begun in Mexico by Norman Borlaug in 1943 judged as a success, the
Rockefeller Foundation sought to spread the Green Revolution to other nations.
By combining Borlaug's wheat varieties with new mechanized agricultural technologies, Mexico
was able to produce more wheat than was needed by its own citizens, leading to its becoming
an exporter of wheat by the 1960s. Prior to the use of these varieties, the country was importing
almost half of its wheat supply.
Due to the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico, its technologies spread worldwide in the
1950s and 1960s. The United States for instance, imported about half of its wheat in the 1940s
but after using Green Revolution technologies, it became self-sufficient in the 1950s and
became an exporter by the 1960s.
In order to continue using Green Revolution technologies to produce more food for a growing
population worldwide, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation, as well as many
government agencies around the world funded increased research. In 1963 with the help of this
funding, Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center. Countries all over the world in turn benefited from the Green
Revolution work conducted by Borlaug and this research institution. India for example was on
the brink of mass famine in the early 1960s because of its rapidly growing population. Borlaug
and the Ford Foundation then implemented research there and they developed a new variety of
rice, IR8, which produced more grain per plant when grown with irrigation and fertilizers. Today,
India is one of the world's leading rice producers and IR8 rice usage spread throughout Asia in
the decades following the rice's development in India.
The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by former USAID director William Gaud,
who noted the spread of the new technologies and said, "These and other developments in the
field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like
that of the Soviets, nor is it a White Revolution like that of the Shah of Iran. I call it the Green
Revolution."

3

Significance
The revolution occurred in agriculture sector by following the agriculture inventions and
innovations. The agriculture inventions and innovations are concerned with the high yielding
seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, sprays, and the intensive use of water resources, use of tractors,
harvesters, threshers, and change in the outlook of the farmers. Thus, because of green
revolution the better seeds, fertilizers, water, and modern technology becomes available. As a
result of such all, the production function is transformed. Because of such transformation, the
per acre yield of the crop is increased. Thus we find that it is the green revolution which brings
technical changes in the agriculture sector. Such changes are of two types: (1) Biological
changes, (2) Mechanical changes. The Biological changes are concerned with those factors
which result in increasing the productivity of the land as the case of high yielding variety (HYV)
seeds, more use of fertilizers, and the changes in cropping patterns.
The Mechanical changes are concerned with more use of machinery on farms, i.e. the use of
tractors, harvesters, and bulldozers etc. on the lands. Because of such mechanical changes the
ratio of capital to labor changes on the lands.
Thus we conclude that all those input changes which result in enhancing the productivity of
lands, and increasing agricultural outputs are associated with Green Revolution in Agriculture
In addition to producing larger quantities of food, the Green Revolution was also beneficial
because it made it possible to grow more crops on roughly the same amount of land with a
similar amount of effort. This reduced production costs and also resulted in cheaper prices for
food in the market.
The ability to grow more food on the same amount of land was also beneficial to the
environment because it meant that less forest or natural land needed to be converted to
farmland to produce more food. This is demonstrated by the fact that from 1961 to 2008, as the
human population increased by 100% and the production of food rose by 150%, the amount of
forests and natural land converted to farm only increased by 10%. The natural land that is
currently not needed for agricultural land is safe for the time being, and can be utilized by
animals and plants for their natural habitat.
Green Revolution and Pakistan
In 1965, the new seeds of wheat were cultivated on just 12 thousand acres of land which rose to
7129000 acres of land in 1969 70. In 1966 67, the rice seed In i Pak was cultivated on 5000
acres of land which rose to 1239000 acres of land. In 1965 66, the hybrid seed of maize was
cultivated on 10,000 acres of land which, rose to 375000 acres of land in 1968 69. The
bumper crops of wheat, rice, and maize are not only attributed to HYV, but the contribution of
chemical fertilizers and tube wells also counts very much. Again the pesticides and tractors also
played their role in boosting agriculture output. In 1960 61, in spite of subsidies, the use of
fertilizers was 31000 nutrient tons which rose to 248000 nutrient tons in 1968 69. In 1960
61, the private tube wells were 6295 which rose to 75720 in 1969 70. The greater effects of
GR were realized in case of wheat, rice, and maize. In 1965 66, the total production of wheat
was 3854000 tons which went to 7123000 tons in 1969 70. The production of rice which was
1272000 tons in 1965 66 increased to 2372000 tons in 1969 70. The production of maize
went to 567000 tons from 531000 tons in the above mentioned periods.
4

Impact of Green Revolution
Impact of Green Revolution Green Revolution had impact on Production, Consumption Overall
Societal Development, leading to a tangible increase in production of agri produce, and its easy
and cheaper supply to the consumer.
Impact on Agricultural Production
Impact on Agricultural Production Growth Plan Growth Rate of Agri. Sector First 1.8% Second
3.8% Third 6.0% Which indicates that due to green revolution the average annual growth rate
has doubled. Wheat Production Year Million Tons 1959-60 3.7 1968-69 6.8 Sources: Pakistan
Economic Survey, Ministry of Finance, (Various Issues)
Impact on Agricultural Production
Impact on Agricultural Production Per Acre Yield Year Million Tons 1963-64 11.1 1968-69 17.0
Agricultural Income Year Income (In current prices)Rs. billion 1959-60 7.7 1969-70 15.5
Benefits of Green Revolution
Benefits of Green Revolution General Factors High yield varieties were introduced, which gave
more production. Progress in fertilizer manufacturing was observed. Better quality pesticides
and insecticides increased acreage of land. Better management of human resource was made
through optimal utilization of already available farm labor and induction of newly trained
laborers. An effective utilization of non-human resources was made. Water availability was
ensured, keeping in view its quantity required.
Benefits With Respect To Pakistan Government policies to provide subsidies and credit to the
producers encouraged them to develop and adopt new technology for accelerated agriculture
growth. Incentive prices were offered to the farmers through the price support program. The
governments policies made way for the enhancement of private investment in agriculture sector
especially in manufacturing and installation of tube wells and machinery and allied equipments.
The annual increase in 1963-64 and 1964-65 was around 35 percent. Transmission of the
improved technology to the farmers through Extension Service Programs.
Impact on Employment
Impact on Employment The introduction of the new high yielding wheat and rice technology has
resulted in an increase in the demand for labor. The net effect of the increase in demand for
labor lead to a significant rise in real wages. The increase in labor use has been due to greater
labor utilization per unit of cropped area, and in some cases to high cropping intensity. Even
mechanized forms typically were utilizing increased labor inputs per hectare although simulation
results conducted by some researchers indicate that labor inputs per hectare might be expected
to decline substantially under fully mechanized techniques combined with adoptions of the HYV
technology. According to Gill who has done a USAID study, the labor requirement increased in
agriculture by 20-40% due to more harvesting and weeding, introduction of HYV, more tube well
installation and greater fertilizer use.
5


Indirect Effects Of Green Revolution
Indirect Effects Of Green Revolution Rapid development of tube well related small-scale
industries. Repair shops for tube well, tractor and other machinery. Electric transmission lines.
Distribution centers for fertilizer and diesel oil. Transportation services. Tube well manufacturing
industry provided 8000 jobs in industrial towns of Pakistan. Farm equipment manufacturing
provided about 106,000 jobs in Pakistan at the end of the 1960s
Impact on Social and Political Environment
Impact on Social and Political Environment A change of attitude towards education, which was
necessary for appropriate utilization of mechanical and chemical technology. Net enhancement
of capabilities of agriculturists. The green revolution was the first big shock that abruptly
changed growth path of agriculture in Pakistan. There was a process of the development of
capitalist farming, which generated political controversies in Pakistan rural society .
Policy and Green Revolution
Policy and Green Revolution Availability of water was ensured by constructing new canals and
dams. Incentive prices were also offered to the farmers for their production. This was done
through the support price program, This assured the farmers a market for their products at a
guaranteed floor price. Favorable terms of trade for agriculture in the form of liberal input
subsidies and active price supports
Subsidies on key agricultural inputs like chemical fertilizers, diesel oil, electricity, Insecticides
and tube well equipment were given. Extensive service program was launched to transfer the
improved Private investment was mainly directed in tube wells, machinery and equipment. A
favorable trade policy was adopted for agriculture development.
Weaknesses of the Public Policy
Weaknesses of the Public Policy No proper arrangement was made to change the conservative
thinking pattern of the farmers. Even distribution of credit to all the formers especially the weak
and small was not ensured. Marketing facilities could not be provided to farmers to get better
reward of their hard work and labor. Storage capacity was not increased Stability in agriculture
prices not be maintained. . Opportunities to reinvest the surplus in agriculture sector shrinked .
Proper agro-based industry was not developed, which would absorb the agricultural output, and
create its further demand.
Steps to achieve optimal production level
Steps to achieve optimal production level Use of HYVs of different crops. Availability of
advanced technology on cheaper cost. Reduction in the prices of inputs. Attention on research
and development Strengthening the agriculture extension services through demonstration at the
spot Strengthening the media and information process Improving the marketing facilitating
Provision of infrastructure such as roads, electricity etc. Provision of storage and credit facilities
especially to small farmers. Provision of government subsidies to agriculture inputs.
Improvement/provision of food processing units in rural areas. Increase in export of surplus
food. Improvement in early disposal of food grain and other agriculture produce.
6


References
1. Burki, Shahid Javed, 1999. Pakistan: Fifty Years of Nationhood, Vanguard Books, Lahore.
2. Byerlee, Derek, Agricultural Productivity in Pakistan, Problems, and Potential, World Bank
Agriculture Sector Review, cited in World Bank Report No. 13092 PAK.
3. Hamid, Naved and Hussain, Akmal, autumn 1974. Regional Inequalities, and Capitalist Development,
Pakistan Economic and Social Review.
4. Hussain, Akmal, 1980. The Impact of Agriculture Growth on the Agrarian Structure of Pakistan with
special reference to the Punjab province: 1960 to 1978, D.Phil. thesis, University of Sussex.
5. Hussain, Akmal, 1988. Strategic Issues in Pakistans Economic Policy, Progressive Publishers,
Lahore.
6. Hussain, Akmal, 1989. Pakistan: Land Reforms Reconsidered, in Hamza Alavi and John Harriss
(ed.), South Asia, Macmillan, London.
7. Nulty, Leslie, 1972. The Green Revolution in West Pakistan, Implications of Technological Change,
Preager Publishers, New York.
8. Shiva, Vandana, 1991. The Violence of the Green Revolution, Zed Press, London.
9. UNDP-Pakistan National Human Development Report, 2003. Oxford University Press, Karachi.
10. About (2014) Green Revolution - History and Overview [Online] Available From:
http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/greenrevolution.htm
11. Oregonstate (2014) A. HISTORY [Online] Available From:
http://people.oregonstate.edu/~muirp/grrevhis.htm
12. Hub pages (2014) GREEN REVOLUTION [Online] Available From:
http://saif113sb.hubpages.com/hub/GREEN-REVOLUTION
13. FM Urdu (2014) Green Revolution In Pakistan | FM Urdu News [Online] Available From:
http://www.fmurdu.com/green-revolution-in-pakistan/