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Midterm Key Terms

• New monarchies:
• Council of Trent:
• Renaissance:
• Renaissance Painting:
• Renaissance Sculpture:
• Spanish Armada:
• Treaty of Westphalia: -Prussia recieves territory
• English Civil War:
• Peace of Utrecht:
• Whigs: -Support anyone but king
• Hohenzollern Family: -HRE -Electors of Brandenburg -Inherited terriorties from
Rhine and Vistula -Had old claim over Sileslia
• Cottage Industries:
• South Sea Bubble:
• Mississippi Bubble:
• Jesuits:
• Peace of Augsburg:
• Humanism:
• Thirty Year's War: -Bohemia, Danish, Swedish, Swedish/French -Large parts of HRE
suffered -Each German state got soverign rights
• Balance of Power:
• The Fronde: Parliament and nobles revolted against Mazarin (Louis XV's regent) in
• Poor Law: -Queen Elizabeth provides social service
• Tories: -Support king
• Romanov Family: -Ended Time of Troubles in Russia
• Jacobites:
• Treaty of Paris:
• Scientific Rev:
• Natural Law:
• Natural Right:
• Philosophes: -Thinkers of Enlightenment -Salons
• Enlightened Despotism:
• Pugachev's Revolution:
• Jacobins: -
• Girodins: -wanted to start Rev war on Austria and Prussia
• Directory:
• Great Fear: -Panic that noblity were going to steal from peasants -Peasants attack
noble manoral estates = National Assembly renounce feudal rights
• Oath of Tennis Court: -Promise to continue to meet until constitution drawn -In
response King drops some taxes on 3rd estate -Then Louis XVI consolidates all 3
estates into National Assembly
• Sans-culottes:
• Physiocrats: -Enlightened economists in France
• Committee of Public Safety: -Emergency govt. -Dictator over France
• Civil Constitution of Clergy: -1790 King accepts -Church dept. of state -Clergy salary
paid by state -Swore on oath of loyalty to state
• Refractory Clergy: -Did not want to take oath in Civil Const. Of Clergy
• Constitution of 1791:
• Estates General: 1st- Clergy 2nd-Nobility 3rd-Everyone else
• Herbertists: -Anti-Christian -wanted to see govt. economic control
• National Assembly:
• Old Regime:
• Thermidorian Reaction:
• Conciliar Movement:
• English Reformation:
• Renaissance Architecture:
• Commercial Revolution:
• Mercantilism:
• Peace of Utrecht:
• Levellers:
• Revolution of 1688:
• Hapsburg family: -Prince Eugene of Savoy (Francis I) founder -
• Junkers:
• Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen: -denounced by Pope Pius -written by
• Montagnards:
• National Convention:

Key People
• Medici Fam: -Florence -Ruled because of wealth from banking
• Boccacio:
• Donatello: David (Bronze) G
• Brunelleschi:
• Thomas More: -Utopia
• Gustavus Adolphus:
• Henry IV (France):
• Oliver Cromwell: -“Lord Protector” -Governed England after Charles I executed
-Roundheads army (Puritans – Parliamentary forces)
• Frederick William: -Great Elector -Prussia King 1713-1740 -Military matters most
-Cut expense of royal household -Junkers got officer positions in army
• Robert Walpole: -GB -Chancellor -Had free hand to mold political system to his
advantage -Maintain control over House of Commons
• John Locke: -Two Treatises on Govt. -Clean slate -social contract -Life, liberty,
property -Knowledge comes from experience
• Hobbes: -Leviathan -Scientific -without govt. life is “nasty, brutish, short”
• Voltaire: Crush the infamous thing (religion), anti-church, anti-fanaticism, reason
• Catherine the Great: -Increased serfs -Obessed with Enlightenment
• Rousseau: Social Contract, general will, most influential in French Rev.
• George III (England):
• Robespierre:
• Machiavelli: The Prince, “the end justifies the mean”
• Castiglione: The Book of Courtier
• Rapheal (Rafael?): School of Athens
• Michaelangelo: David, Pieta, Sistine Chapel
• Erasmus: Northern christian humanist
• Philip II (Spain): Catholic
• Colbert: -5 Great Farms (tariff union became trade free zone in France) -Established
new industries -Improved roads and canals -Restore power to nobility
• Tudors/Stuarts:
• Peter the Great: (Russia) -Tax peasants -St. Petersburg (“window on the west”)
-Forced the shaving of beards to make Russia more like stylized West -Absolutism
• Maria Theresa: -Charles VI's daughter -Pragmatic Sanction -Pushed series of reforms
to help serfdom
• Spinoza:
• Montesquieu: -Separation of powers -Checks/balances -Spirit of Laws
• William Pitt:
• Adam Smith: Laissez-faire economist, anti-mercantilism, Wealth of Nations
• Louis XVI: -France -
• Petrarch:
• Massacio: Italian Quattrocento humanism artist
• Ghiberti: Sculpture renaissance
• Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa,
• Fuggers:
• Cardinal Richelieu:
• Louis XIV:
• Charles V: HRE
• Thomas Pitt:
• Copnernicus: -Sun is center -Heliocentric system
• Newton: -Gravity -Principia -Calculus
• Galileo: -Telescope -Condemned by Catholic Church b.c. Of astronomy
• Francis Bacon:
• Descartes: -”I think, therefore I am” -Discourse on Method -anti Bacon -deductive
reasoning -wrote in French -
• Joseph II: (Austria) -ultimate enlightened despot -Religious toleration -Granted Jews
civil rights -Abolished serfdom -
• Edmund Burke: -Reflections on the French Rev -Whig -Thought Rev would take
violent direction
• Diderot: -Encylcopedia
• Frederick the Great: -Prussia King 1740 -Enlightened absolutist -Moved forces of
Silesia to where Hohenzollerns had an old claim -Freed some serfs -Increased pop. &
• Abbe Sieyes: What is the third estate? Everything.
• Alexander I:

Key Dates
• First bible printed in Europe by Gutenberg:
• Luther's 95 theses 1517:
• Act of Supremacy 1534:
• Peace of Augsburg 1555:
• St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre:
• Defeat of Spanish Armada 1588:
• Edict of Nantes 1598:
• Gunpowder Plot fails 1605:
• 30 Yrs War: 1618-1648:
• English Civil War 1642-1648:
• Execution of Charles I 1649:
• Fronde revolts in France 1648-1653:
• Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 1685:
• Glorious Revolution in England 1688: -Ireland effect: Catholics excluded from public
• War of Spanish Succession 1701-1714: -Britain wins ($ and territory)
• Act of Union 1707: -formed GB (union of England and Scotland) -Happened to stop
Scotland from going to war with England
• Mississippi&South Sea Bubbles 1720:
• Silesian War (War of Austrian Succession) 1740-1748: -Began during reign of HRE
Charles VI -He pushed for Prag Sanction -Prussia tries to take Silesia -Austrian throne
saved for Hapsburgs = Prussia and Austria are enemies
• 7 yrs war 1756-1763: -Frederick launched plan so enemies could not defeat Prussia
-Frederick won
• Fall of Bastille 1789: -Crowd of 80,000 demanded surrender of the fortress for arms
-Louis formally recognizes Commune of Paris and formed National Guard
• Execution of Louis XVI 1793:
• Death of Ropespierre 1794: