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# Aim : To determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide

## Problem Statement : What is the empirical formula of magnesium oxide?

Hypothesis : The empirical formula of magnesium oxide can be
determined by combustion of magnesium in
fixed quantity of oxygen to produce fixed quantity of
magnesiumoxide
Material : Magnesium Ribbon , oxygen
Apparatus : Crucible with lid , Bunsen Burner , Tongs , pipeclay
triangle, eletronics balance , Tripod stand,!andpaper
Procedure : "# \$mpty crucible without lid is weighed
%# &bout %'cm of magnesium ribbon is cleaned with
sandpaper
(# The magnesium ribbon is rolled and inserted into crucible
)# The crucible is heated strongly until magnesium lights up
*# &s magnesium starts to burn, crucible is closed using its lid
+# The crucible continue to heat
,# Crucible lid is opened and shut once rapidly
-# .id is remo/ed when magnesium ribbon is no longer
glowing
0# Crucible is heated strongly to ensure the complete burning
of magnesium
"'# The crucible and contents are left to cool at room
temperature and weighed again
""# The heating, cooling , and weighing steps are repeated to
obtain constant mass
Precaution Steps : The lid of crucible is opened and closed at inter/als to
pre/ent white smo1e of magnesium oxide released to the
surrounding
Magnesium is cleaned with sand paper to remo/e layer of
oxide on surface
Tabulation of data Mass of crucible 2 lid3 a 4g5
Mass of crucible 2 lid 2 magnesium3 b 4g5
Mass of crucible 2 lid 2 Magnesium oxide3 c 4g5
Calculation \$lement Magnesium 6xygen
Mass 7 g b 8 a c b
9o# of moles b 8 a c 8b
%) "+

!implest ratio m n
Arrangement of apparatus :
Aim : To determine the empirical formula of copper oxide
Problem Statement : What is the empirical formula of copper oxide?
Hypothesis : The empirical formula of copper oxide can be determined by
using a fixed mass of copper oxide to produce fixed mass of
copper
Materials : Copper oxide powder, ,htdrogen gas :inc pieces , ;ilute
<ydrochloric &cid , &nhydrous Calcium Chloride
Procedure : 1. combustion tube with porcelain dish are weighed using
electronics balance,the weight is recorded
%# a spatula of copper powder is placed in porcelain
dish#the combustiontube with its contain is weighed
again#the weight is recorded#
(# ;ry hydrogen gas is flow through the apparatus se/eral
times to expell the air
)# The copper oxide is heated strongly
*# <ydrogen gas exit at the end of tube is lit
+# The blac1 copper oxide is reduced by hydrogen into
brown copper metal
,# <ydrogen continue flow through to cool the apparatus
-# When cooled, the combustion tube with its contain is
weighed again# The weight is recorded
0# The heating, cooling, and weighing process are repeated
to obtain constant mass
Precaution
Steps :
"# &ll connections are ensure to be tight
%# <ydrogen gas is flow through the apparatus for
se/eral minutes to expell the air as the air will cause
explosion
(# the flow of hydrogen must continued throughout
heating to ensure the air do not enter#
)# <ot copper metal allowed to cool in stream og h% to
ensure it does not oxidise by the air
*# heating, cooling, weighing process is repeated until a
constant weight is obtained to ensure all copper has
been reduced
Tabulation of data
Mass of combustion tube 2
\$mpty asbestos crucible
3 x 4g5
Mass of combustion tube 2 asbestos
crucible 2 copper oxide
3 y 4g5
Mass of combustion tube 2 asbestos
crucible 2 copper
3 = 4g5
Calculation
\$lement Copper 6xygen
Mass 7 g = x y =
9o# of moles = 8 x
+)
y 8 =
"+
!implest ratio p q
>>The empirical formula of############## is ?#########
Arrangement of apparatus :
Aim :
To prepare !odium 9itrate salt through reaction between 9itric &cid and !odium
<ydroxide solution
Material :
" mol dm@A 9itric &cid, " mol dm !odium <ydroxide solution, phenolphthalein
indicator
Apparatus :
%*' cmA conical flas1, %* cmA pipette, burette, white tile, e/aporating dish, filter
paper, filter funnel, glass rod, bea1er, retort stand, tripod stand, wire gau=e, Bunsen
burner, asbestos sheet
Procedure :
"# Measured %* cmA of " mol dm@A !odium <ydroxide solution into conical
flas1 by using pipette
%# & few drops of phenolphthalein indicator is added into !odium <ydroxide
solution
(# " mol dm@A of 9itric &cid is put into the burette# The initial reading of the
burette is recorded
)# 9itric &cid is added slowly into !odium <ydroxide while sha1ing the
conical flas1, until the pin1 solution turns colourless
*# The final reading of burette is recorded
+# Bolume of 9itric &cid added to the !odium <ydroxide is recorded
,# !teps (+ is repeated to obtain the a/erage /olume of acid used
-# The experiment is repeated without the use of phenolphthalein indicator,
using the a/erage /olume of acid obtained
0# The mixture in the conical flas1 is poured into e/aporating dish
"'# The mixture is heated until "7( of its solution is left
""# !aturated solution produced is left to cool in room temperature
"%# White salt crystals formed are filtered and rinsed with cool distilled water
"(# White salt crystals are dried with filter paper
Tabulation of data
Titration Rough " % (
Cinal
burette 7 cmA
Dnitial
burette 7 cmA
Bolume of
&cid used 7
cmA
&/erage
/olume of
&cid 7 cmA
Arrangement of apparatus
Aim : To prepare Magnesium !ulphate salts through reaction between
sulphuric acid and magnesium oxide
Material :
" mol dm@A suphuric acid, magnesium oxide
Apparatus :
%*' cmA conical flas1, "'' cmA bea1er, measuring cylinder, burette,
white tile, e/aporating dish, filter paper, filter funnel, glass rod, retort
stand, tripod stand, wire gau=e, Bunsen burner, spatula, asbestos sheet
Procedure :
"# *' cmA of " mol dm@A !ulphuric &cid is measured using measuring
cylinder and poured into bea1er
%# !ulphuric &cid is heated slowly
(# Magnesium oxide powder is added using spatula a little at a time
while stirring the mixture with glass rod
)# &ddition of Magnesium 6xide stopped when substances no longer
soluble
*# <ot solution is filtered into e/aporating dish to extract excess
magnesium oxide
+# The mixture is heated until saturated
,# The saturated solution is cooled to room temperature
-# The salt crystal formed is filtered and rinsed with cold distilled
water
0# !alt crystal are dried using filtered paper
Aim :
To prepare .ead 4 5 Dodide salt through double decomposition method
Material :
" mol dm .ead 4 5 9itrate solution, " mol dm Eotassium Dodide solution
Apparatus :
%*' cm bea1er, glass rod, filter funnel, filter paper
Procedure :
"# *' cm of " mol dm Eotassium Dodide solution is added to *' cm of
" mol .ead 4 5 9itrate solution in a bea1er
%# The mixture is stirred
(# !alt crystal has formed as yellow precipitate
)# The salt crystal formed are filtered and rinsed with distilled water
*# The salt crystal are dried using filter paper
Arrangement of apparatus
Carbonate ion
"# &bout % cmA of of !odium Carbonate is poured into a test tube
%# ;ilute <ydrochloric &cid is added
(# Fas produced is passed through lime water
)# .ime water turns cloudy
Sulphate ion
"# &bout % cmA of !odium !ulphate is poured into a test tube
%# ;ilute <ydrochloric &cid is added
)# White precipitate formed
Chloride ion
"# &bout % cmA of !odium Chloride is poured into a test tube
%# ;ilute 9itric &cid is added
)# White precipitate formed
Df .ead 4 5 9itrate is choosed, white precipitate formed is dissol/e when heated up
Nitrate ion
"# &bout % cmA of !odium 9itrate is poured into a test tube
%# ;ilute !ulphuric &cid is added
(# Dron 4 DD5 sulphate is added, the mixture is sha1en
)# !e/eral drops of concentrated suphuric acid is added slowly along the wall of test
tube
*# Brown ring formed
Aim :To determine the characteristic of /ulcanised and un/ulcanised rubber
Problem Statement :What is the difference between /ulcani=ed and un/ulcanised rubber
Hypothesis : Bulcanised rubber is tougher, stronger, and more elastic than
natural rubber
Variables :Manipulated G Type of rubber strips
Responding G The stretching of rubber strip
Cixed G The width and thic1ness of rubber strip
Material : Hn/ulcanised rubber strip, Bulcanised rubber strip
Apparatus :Retort !tand, Weight, Ruler , Clip
Procedure :
"# Bulcanised and un/ulcanised rubber are cut into equal length
%# Both strips are hung using the clip
(# The distance between the clip for both rubber are same
)# The original length of both rubber are measured
*# Weights with the same mass are hung on both rubber strip
+# The length of both rubber strip are measured
,# The weights are ta1en away and the length of both strips are measured again
Obseration
Type of !ubber Strip Hn/ulcanised Rubber Bulcanised Rubber
Original "ength #cm
"ength \$ith \$eight #cm
%&tension #cm
'inal "ength #cm
Conclusion :Bulcanised rubber is tougher and more elastic
Arrangement of apparatus :
Aim :
To prepare ethyl ethanoate 4ester5 in laboratory
Material :
pure \$thanol, glacial \$thanoic &cid, concentrated !ulphuric &cid
Apparatus :
.iebig condenser, Roundbottomed flas1, oil bath,porcelain chips
Procedure :
"# (' cmA of pure ethanol and %* cmA of glacial ethanoic acid is added into the round
bottomed flas1#
%# * cmA of concentrated !ulphuric &cid is added drop by drop and sha1en gently
(# & few pieces of porcelain are added into the flas1 to pre/ent bumping and ensure
e/en boiling process
)# The mixture is heated under reflux for (' minutes
*# \$thyl \$thanoate is distilled out from the mixture of the product at temperature of
,,-'
Precaution steps :
"# The mixture need to be heat under reflux because ethanol and ester that produced
are /olatile
%# The mixture is heat in water bath to ensure heating temperature is e/en
(# The concentrated sulphuric acid function as catalyst and dying agent
Aim :
To study the relationship between the si=e of reactant and he rate of reaction
Problem Statement :
<ow does the si=e of reactant affect the rate of reaction?
Hypothesis :
The smaller the si=e of reactant, the higher the rate of reaction
Variables :
Manipulated G The si=e of marble chips
Responding G The rate of reaction
Cixed G Bolume and Concentration of !ulphuric &cid
Material :
!mall and large marble chips, '#" mol dm@A <ydrochloric &cid
Apparatus :
"'' cmA of conical flas1, rubber stopper with deli/ery tube, basin, measuring cylinder,
stopwatch, retort stand with clamp, electrical balance
Procedure :
"# The basin and burette are filled with water
%# The burette is in/erted in the basin and the meniscus is mar1ed at *' cmA
(# + g of large marble chips is weighed and put into the conical flas1
)# *' cmA of '#" mol dm@A <ydrochloric &cid is measured with measuring cylinder and pour
into conical flas1
*# The conical flas1 is co/er with rubber stopper immediately and sha1en
+# The stopwatch started
,# The /olume of gas collected in burette is recorded e/ery (' seconds for * minutes
-# The experiment is repeated with + g of small marble chips
Tabulation of data
(sing "arge Marble Chips
Time 7s
Burette
7cmA
Bolume of
gas 7cmA
(sing Small Marble Chips
Time 7s
Burette
7cmA
Bolume of
gas 7cmA
Aim :To study the relationship between the concentration of reactant and the rate of
reaction
Problem Statement :<ow does the concentration of reactant effect the rate of reaction?
Hypothesis :The higher the concentration of reactant, the higher the rate of reaction
Variables :
Manipulated G The concentration of !odium Thiosulphate
Responding G The rate of reacion
Cixed G Bolume and Concentration of !ulphuric &cid
Materials :" mol dm@A !ulphuric &cid, '#% mol dm@A !odium Thiosulphate solution,
white paper
Apparatus :"'' cmA conical flas1, "' cmA and *' cmA measuring cylinder, stopwatch
Procedure :
"# The white paper is mar1ed with
%# *' cmA of !odium Thiosulphate solution is measured using *' cmA of measuring
cylinder and pour into conical flas1
(# The flas1 is placed on tha white paper mar1ed with IxJ
)# * cmA of " mol dm@A !ulphuric &cid is measured using "' cmA measuring cylinder
*# The !ulphuric &cid is pour into conical flas1 containing of !odium Thiosulphate
solution immediately and sha1en
+# !topwatch is started
,# & yellow precipitate of !ulphur is obser/ed at the op part of conical flas1
-# Time is recorde when the IxJ mar1 on he white paper is no longer /isible
0# The experiment is repeated using different solution of '#% mol dm@A !odium
Thiosulphate which is diluted with distilled water
Tabulation of data
\$xperiment 9o# ) * + , -
Bolume of
!ulphuric
&cid 7cmA
Bolume of
!odium
Thiosulphate
!olution, B7cmA
Bolume of
distilled water
7cmA
Concentration of
!odium
Thiosulphate,
BK'#%
*'
Time ta1en, t7s
"7time, "7t7s@L