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Cargo Handling Safety

1. Why cargo gear should be inspected visually before the start of cargo operation?

All cargo handling gears should be inspected before the cargo operation is commenced to ensure
that all gears are in good working condition in order to prevent any accident and/or damage to
cargo, ship, and/or injuries and loss of human lives.

2. Why SWL of equipment should never be exceeded?

Safe Working Load (SWL) is the allowable load of block, wires, ropes, derrick booms, crane jibs,
hooks and lifting beams. Therefore, the SWL of the equipment should not be exceeded, otherwise,
the safety of cargoes and the crew will be jeopardized.

3. Explain the importance of frequently checking cargo gears during cargo operation.

During cargo operation process, routine inspections on all cargo gears must be conducted for any
sign of wear and tear. If found defective, cargo operations are immediately stopped and corrective
actions and preventive maintenance must be carried out.

4. Why a mechanically or hydraulically operated hatch should be close or opened by
ships crew under the supervision of a responsible office?

When operating hydraulic hatch, opening or closing it should be done with the presence of a
responsible officer for safety purposes.


Care of Cargo During the Voyage

1. Why lashing of cargoes shall be checked and tightened everyday?

Cargo lashings should be checked and tightened everyday for security and safety purposes. When
the ship is put to sea, it is subject to external forces, which result in six modes of motion. Cargo
stowed on deck is also exposed to the forces of wind and of seas breaking on deck. If the cargo is
insufficiently secured, it may move freely and be damaged or cause damage to other cargo or to the
ships structure and fittings due to the motion of the ship at sea. Cargo stowed on deck with
insufficient lashings may be lost at sea in adverse weather. It may be washed overboard, causing
loss to its owner, possibly damage to the marine environment, and hazard to people when it washes
up on a beach.

2. Explain the proper action to take to prevent condensation.

Condensation can occur when the ship passes from cold to warmer climates. Warmer outside air, by
the process of ventilation, will in all probability, deposit its moisture on the cooler cargo within the
ship. If the temperature of the cargo is below the dew point of the external atmosphere and air is
admitted to the holds, condensation on the cargo will surely result. As to prevent this to happen,
proper ventilation is required.

3. How proper ventilation shall be exercised when sailing from cold to hot areas and vice
versa?

Under such conditions, it would be better to keep the ventilators closed. It should be the goal of
every chief officer to arrange the ventilation of the holds in such a way that the original temperature
of loading is changed slowly as the ship passes into other climates. With this, there is little or no
difference between the temperatures inside the holds and that of the outside air, thus, preventing
condensation on the ships cargoes.

When the dew point of the outside air is lower than or equal to the dew point of the air in the hold,
ventilate. Otherwise, when the dew point of the outside air is greater than the dew point of the air
in the hold, do not ventilate with outside air.

4. Explain which checks shall be carried out when carrying frozen or refrigerated
cargoes.

Hold preparations Cargo space or cargo holds must be thoroughly cleaned, otherwise, heavy
molds will develop on commodities despite optimum conditions of temperature, humidity, and air
motion. Fungus growth and rotting may occur on fruits and vegetables infected by imperfectly
cleaned spaces.

Pre-cooling and Proper Dunnaging Pre-cooling of cargo spaces is universal while pre-cooling
of the cargoes is not. Holds and lockers are then cooled to carriage temperature. The cargo hold
should be inspected ashore by the ships officer before loading to see that it is in good condition and
has been properly pre-cooled where it is required. A sample of the cargo should be thoroughly
inspected for signs of damages. A record of inspection and temperatures should be kept and similar
random inspections of the cargo should be made during the loading. Any damaged products verified
during loading should be rejected or loaded separately.

Use of Brine in Compartment Drains Brine trapped in compartment drain line must be heated
especially when loading frozen products in order for the excess water to run freely into the bilges.

Recording Hold Temperature The purpose of recording the hold temperature is the basis of
decision made when to regulate the temperature inside the hold through ventilation and it is
important that the temperature is monitored constantly during the voyage.

Operation of cooling fans Delivery air temperature must be brought down to the minimum
specification for the particular cargo within the shortest possible time. The length of reduction period
is to be calculated for each deck and the average of these values applies as the reduction period.
Normal reduction period is 36 hours.

Ventilation It is to be maintained throughout the voyage unless such action affects the control of
delivery air temperature. When the dew point of the outside air is lower than or equal to the dew
point of the air in the hold, ventilate. Otherwise, when the dew point of the outside air is greater
than the dew point of the air in the hold, do not ventilate with outside air.

Daily cargo inspection during the voyage During the voyage, it is most important that the
cargo is inspected at approximately the same time every day from the cooler room. Like the
bananas, check the pulp temperature and abnormal cargo conditions such as ripe smell and physical
changes in the appearance of the fruit and especially, change of color. When abnormal conditions
are observed, it must be reported to the parties concerned immediately.

*kato ning assignment sa Seam2 ni Sir Abella.. Maybe it could help. :) Sensya na sa mga
questions... x_x i.share lang nya sa uban if you would like to.. xD