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Lesson 22. Introduction to Subjunctive Mood Read (twice) and complete.

In this series of lessons you will be learning as much about your own tongue as that of the
Romans ~ the subjunctive is not fully active in English anymore.

If it were, it would

make learning this mood much easier because you would have something in your own
language to build from, but alas ~ spoken languages contintually change, as you know.
Here are some subjunctive phrases/sentences that are rather antiquated now:

be that as it may

if need be

Were I he . . . (rather than If I was him)

It is critical that I see them.

Then I suggest that you run.

I wish this night were over. (rather than I wish this night was over.)

What if I were to grant you a kingdom?

If there were any other purpose . . .

Id prefer the Gestapo be kept out of these matters.

I wish I were back in England.

Do you notice a common theme in each of these?


uncertainty.

They each contain an element of

In fact, the Subjunctive may be called the Mood of Uncertainty.

It is

generally applied to verbs to show potential action (or wishes, prayers, and exhortations
which we will come to by and by). Mood of Uncertainty. Remember that!
In Latin there is another wide-use of the Subjunctive Mood; that is: to express Purpose.
In English we often express purpose with Infinitive verbs. However, in Classical Latin, this
is prohibited. The Romans used a subordinate clause in the Subjunctive Mood to
express purpose. For example:

Infinitive
Special

In English: I went to Kroger to buy milk. Conjunction


In Latin:

Subjunctive
Verb

I went to Kroger in order that I might buy milk.

There

is

specific conjunction that signals a subordinate clause in the

subjunctive. The verb in that subordinate clause is put in the Subjunctive Mood.
So, besides being the Mood of Uncertainty, the Subjunctive is also the mood used to
express Purpose.
Lets review what we know so far:
1.

There are 2 moods in Latin. Up to this point we have been working with the
_________________________________________ mood.

2.

We will now begin studying and using the ______________________________________ mood,


which is also called the Mood of ______________________________ and the mood used to
express ___________________________________.

3.

In English we can express Purpose with ____________________________________ verbs.

4.

In Classical Latin we express Purpose with a _______________________________________ clause


in the ______________________________________ mood.

5.

The first indicator of a subjunctive clause is a ______________________ _______________________


and the part of speech showing subjunctive is the _____________________________________.

Lastly, how do verbs show subjunctive? Its easier than you might imagine. Look at the

Present Tense Subjunctive here:


1st Conj.

2nd Conj.

3rd Conj.

4th Conj.

laudEm

monEAm

mittAm

audIAm

laudEs

monEAs

mittAs

audIAs

laudEt

monEAt

mittAt

audIAt

laudEmus

monEAmus

mittAmus

audIAmus

laudEtis

monEAtis

mittAtis

audIAtis

laudEnt

monEAnt

mittAnt

audIAnt

that I may praise

that I may warn

that I may send

that I may hear

Do you see the pattern? e ea a ia


If that is troublesome to remember, try this: ShE rEAds A dIAry.
Notice the personal endings, -m, -s, -t; -mus, -tis, -nt. We are accustomed to these
endings. The only new thing with these verbs is the connecting vowels.
Note and memorize the translation of the Present Subjunctive ~ it uses the helping verb
may.
Review.
1. What part of the verb changes to show subjunctive? ______________________________________
2. What is the vowel pattern for conjugating verbs into the subjunctive mood?
________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. What is the mnemonic for memorizing the vowel pattern?_______________________________
4. How is the present subjunctive translated?___________________________________________________
5. Change these verbs from Indicative to Subjunctive keeping them in the same person,
then translate. The first one is done for you.

Subjunctive Form
laudamus

Translation

You must know what conjugation a verb


belongs to, to conjugate it properly.

laudemus ______________________

that we may praise _____________________

parant _________________________________________

_________________________________________________

portat __________________________________________

_________________________________________________

moneo _________________________________________

_________________________________________________

tenetis _________________________________________

_________________________________________________

movemus ______________________________________

_________________________________________________

sustinent _______________________________________

_________________________________________________

ducis ___________________________________________

_________________________________________________

gerunt _________________________________________

_________________________________________________

defendit _______________________________________

_________________________________________________

instruis _________________________________________

_________________________________________________

mittit __________________________________________

_________________________________________________

vincitis _________________________________________

_________________________________________________

petunt _________________________________________

_________________________________________________

pellit ___________________________________________

_________________________________________________

pono____________________________________________

_________________________________________________

contendit ______________________________________

_________________________________________________

agunt __________________________________________

_________________________________________________

muniunt _______________________________________

_________________________________________________

venit ___________________________________________

_________________________________________________

conveniunt ____________________________________

_________________________________________________

audimus _______________________________________

_________________________________________________

collocamus_____________________________________

_________________________________________________

adjuvimus _____________________________________

_________________________________________________

perturbamus __________________________________

_________________________________________________

servant_________________________________________

_________________________________________________

incendunt _____________________________________

_________________________________________________

continet _______________________________________

_________________________________________________