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Dr B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, JALANDHAR

PROJECT BRIEF



1. Title of the Project : Indivisual Control Home Automation System

2. Nature of the Project : Hardware & Software

3. Area of Application : Real Estate Instrumentation

4. Number of Students allotted above : 4
project

5. Faculty Member/Guide Associated : Dr. Dilbag Singh

6. Problem Definition : To design an automatic curtain using
microcontroller

7. Technical Specifications :
This is the hit point for us to go through. Basically you need a knowledge of
mensuration and trigonometry. With these you have to go through with couple of
sensors and circuit analysis ability to perform best in this field.
Knowledge of circuit analysis gives the basic information about Dos and Don'ts of
the field. Apart from this installation and commissioning two three projects gives
perfection to your work.


8. Block diagram & description in brief :
Description:
This hybrid circuit uses a mixture of transistors, an IC and a relay and is used to
automatically open or close a pair of curtains. Using switch S3 also allows manual
control, allowing for curtains to be left only partially open or closed. The circuit controls
a motor which is attached to a simple pulley mechanism, to move the curtains. I first
started this circuit over 20 years ago and apart from now using metal gears, very little
has changed.



Notes
Automatic Operation
The circuit can be broken down into three main parts; a bistable latch, a timer and a
reversing circuit. Toggle switch S3 determines manual or automatic mode. The circuit as
shown above is drawn in the automatic position and operation is as follows. The bistable
is built around Q1 and Q2 and associated circuitry and controls relay A/2. S1 is used to
open the curtains and S2 to close the curtains. At power on, a brief positive pulse is
applied to the base of Q2 via C2. Q2 will be on, and activate relay A/2.

The network of C3 and R4 form a low current holding circuit for the relay. Relay A/2 is
a 12V relay with a 500 ohm coil. It requires slightly less current to keep a relay
energized than it does to operate it. Once the relay has operated, the current through the
coil is reduced by R4, saving power consumption. When Q2 is off, C3 will be
discharged, but when Q2 becomes active (either at switch on or by pressing S1)
capacitor C3 will charge very quickly via the relay coil. The initial charging current is
sufficient to energize the relay and current flow through R4 sufficient to keep it
energized.

Q1 bias is applied via R3 which is tied to Q2 collector. As Q2 is on, the collector
voltage will be low, close to 0v and therefore Q1 and LED L1 will be off. As Q1 is off,
its collector voltage will be high, and Q2 bias voltage is applied via the chain L1, R1
and R2. The curtains should already be fully open.

If now S2 is pressed, the base voltage of Q2 will become 0 and Q2 will switch off. In
switching off, its collector voltage will rise to the supply voltage and Q1 will now be
forward biased via the relay coil A/2, R4 and R3. LED L1 will now be lit, relay A/2 will
be de-energized and as Q1 collector will be low, Q2 will be off and the circuit latched in
this condition.

At the same time as S2 is pressed, the trigger input of IC1, a 555 timer (normally held
high via R7 will be taken low. A timing sequence now commences. Duration is
controlled by preset P1 and C6 and the timing is adjustable between about 1 and 12
seconds. This delay is adjusted so that the motor will run for sufficient time to fully
open or close the curtains. The output of the 555 turns on Q3, fed via R8 which now
applies power to the motor via relay contacts A1 and A2.

At any time the motor is in operation, and for any direction, LED L2 will always be lit.
Contacts A1 and A2 reverse the polarity of the voltage appearing at the motor terminals,
for more help on relays and switch contacts, visit this page in my practical section. A
running motor generates a back EMF and D4 and D5 prevent this voltage from
destroying the IC and transistors.

Transistor Pinout


The medium power transistor BD139, Q3 is the workhorse in this circuit providing drive
current to the motor. The case style is TO126, which is shown left. Note that the
terminals are if E, C, B order.

All transistors are like having two diodes back to back. The BD139 can be tested with a
digital meter set to read resistance in range 2k. Between E-B in forward bias (red lead
base, black lead emitter) you will get a reading, my test BD139 showed 1.284k. The
opposite way should be a very high reading, greater than 2Meg. Testing between C-B
also gave a reading of 1.274k, testing between B-C gave no reading. A shorted transistor
will be approximately the same reading across the E-B or C-B junctions.
Manual Operation
If the toggle switch S3 is changed to manual mode, operation is slightly different as
outlined below. The bistable latch formed around S1, S2, Q1, Q2 and associated
circuitry operates the same way as in automatic mode.

S1 and S2 set or unset the bistable circuit which control relay A/2 and determine the
direction of the motor. In addition, as long as either S1 or S2 is held pressed, a bias
current will flow through either D1 or D2 and R6 into the base of PNP transistor Q4.
This small base current results in a larger collector current flowing via R9 into the base
of Q3. The BD139 will now be fully switched on and drives the motor as long as either
S1 or S2 is pressed. Hence it is now possible to partially open or partially close the
curtains. If you prefer a manual control then the following simpler electrical circuit is
available.

The close switch applies power to the motor via the relay contacts. The 1N4001 diode
prevents the relay from operating. When the open switch is pressed, the relay is operated
and power is again applied to the motor, though this time the contacts have changed and
the motor will turn in the opposite direction



9. Important aspects of the Project :
From our point of view there is need of Home automation because:
It makes a luxurious statement with use of few tools of instrumentation
It increases the quality of real estate market
It makes an user to save energy and operate electrical gadgets more easily
Its our coming future



10. Organizational aspects :
When we talk regarding this point, I have a researched view that home automation in
India is still in the villas and bungalows of .01% people residing in the sub continent.
So we can say that it still need introduction to common men so that it can grow and
enriched to new heights like as It industry in India.
Home Automation facility providers in India
1. Somfy Automation Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai
2. GEA Ludhiana
3. Aristeco Jigar Gala venture Mumbai



11. Review Meetings (Monitoring) :
This mechanical design relies on one important property and that is friction. If there is
too much friction the motor may not move the curtains at all and the pulleys may just
slip. If there is not enough friction in the loop applied by the tension spring, the motor
will drive the pulleys which will just turn and not move the loop at all. To overcome
this, I use a silicone based furniture polish on the plastic rail, this reduces friction greatly
and allows easy movement of the curtains along the loop. To tension the loop of string,
fasten one end first to the spring then pull the free end of the string to tension the spring
and fix it with cable fasteners or glue, see below


This may require some adjustment to get right. To answer the heading friction in this
case is both friend and foe, as the spring requires friction, the motor does not. The motor
with drive engaged is shown below.


Depending on the length and weight of the curtains, the motor may have to be changed.
I used a 12V hobby motor from Maplin electronics, I had to slightly enlarge the motor
shaft with some brass tubing available from most hobby shops. The torque of the motor
was not great, but if the output speed is reduced with gears, the torque (twisting force) is
increased by the same amount. A worm gear has 1 tooth, and I used a 57 tooth gear,
giving a reduction speed of 57:1. The torque of the motor (at the 57 tooth gear) is now
increased 57 times. A light grease or machine oil may be applied to the gears, too much
and it will splatter all over the walls and curtains!




12. Test parameters and methodology :
In designing a home automation system, one or more suitable platforms areused in order to
build a reliable and flexible system that can be easily operated andadapted for a new household appliance.
Therefore, for the purpose of this projectsome specific deliberate choices were made on the type of
platforms, hardwarecomponents and mode of operation of the home automation system.
PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS
Before the actual design of the project work, specific deliberate choices inselection of
appropriate implementation platforms and hardware components weremade. Priority was given to low cost
availability, reliability, flexibility and simplicityin all these selections.


Selection of implementation platform
As already explained in the previous chapter, there are many platformsover which a home
automation system can be implemented. Of the currently availableplatforms Powerline, RS232, Ethernet,
Bluetooth, Infrared, GSM andMicrocontroller; RS232, GSM and Microcontroller were found most
appropriate dueto their low cost availability, reliability and simplicity when used for an individualcontrol
home automation system which my project work is on. Powerline andEthernet is too expensive and complex
for this kind of home automation system,while Bluetooth and Infrared are unreliable.
Selection of hardware components
Each platform has a set of hardware components over which it isimplemented. For
RS232, there are DB-9 and DB-25 connection cables, but DB-9cable was found most appropriate because it
is cheaper, more readily available, lessbulky and just sufficient for the designed system when compared with
DB-25. ForGSM, there are GSM modems and phone brands, but Nokia 6021 was chosen due toits low cost
availability, ability to understand AT commands and availability of itsRS232 DB-9 cable. Finally, for
Microcontroller, the popular ones are those producedby Microchip, ATMEL, Motorola and Texas
Instruments, of all these Microchipmanufactured PIC microcontroller was found most suitable due to its low
costavailability, and readily available programmers, compilers and flexibility.
TESTING THE COMPLETE DESIGN AND CASING
After the completion of the hardware coupling, several tests were done onthe design.
Some observations and corrections were made as follows:
1. The system would not work when the phone is connected afterpowering it, even after a reset. This was
due to the fact that the signalssent at first by the system to the phone do not die of the line immediatelyand
affects subsequent signals sent even after connecting and resetting thesystem. This can be prevented by
connecting the phone first beforepowering the system. Much concern was not given to this
shortcomingbecause the system was designed to have a permanently connected phone,making it impossible
for this shortcoming to arise.
2. It was also observed that the system would not respond after aboutfour loop cycles (this

16
corresponds to four concurrent switch toggle). Thiswas due to buffer overflow on the
microcontroller which makes it notprocess new data sent it by the phone after those cycles. The
attemptedsolution was to find a way of flushing the buffer after each cycle, but dueto little help found from
books, internet and fellow PIC programmers, itssolution could not be implemented.
Other than in the above stated situations, the system worked very well and reliably.
In designing the case for the system, utmost concern was given to guardingthe system
from physical strain and stress during carriage and project presentation. Atransparent plastic material was
used for the casing as against glass material which may easily break, a paper material which may give in to
strain and stress, or even ametallic material which will make the project work quite uneconomical, clumsy
andheavy. The casing was made in a manner that permits the whole circuit board to bedetached from the
system.
The complete home automation system circuit controlling curtains, and the designed
system are shown in figure 4.4

Figure 4.4: The complete home automation system circuit (controlling curtains)



13. Background :
Final Words
Should you have problems with this circuit, you first need to determine if its mechanical
or electrical. Mechanical problems will happen on both manual and automatic settings,
and be related to the opening or closing mechanism in general.

If electrical, check the power supply first, then L1 and L2 indications. If nothing works
at all build the single manual relay circuit above and once perfected, return to the
automatic version.

I am not mechanically minded so any suggestions or improvements towards a better
mechanism can be included here; or if any of you have also made electric curtains, I will
be happy to display your work.






14. References :


Byte Craft (2002). First Steps with Embedded Systems. Byte Craft Limited, Canada.
B & B Electronics (2003) RS-232 connections that work! DTE & DCE FAQ. From
http://www.bb-elec.com Retrieved on 29/03/2003
Collins, T. J. (2008). A project report on the design and construction of a low voltage power line
communication system. Project Report, FUTAAkure.
Intersil (2008). HIN232 datasheet. Intersil Inc, USA.
Martin Bates (2006). Interfacing PIC Microcontrollers Embedded Design by
Interactive Simulation. Newnes, London.
Microchip (2007). PIC 18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Data Sheet. Microchip Technology.Inc, USA
Nigel Gardner (1998). An Introduction to programming the Microchip PIC in C.Character Press, UK.
Wikipedia (2013). Automation. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation.Retrieved on 7/12/13
Wikipedia (2013). GSM. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GSM. Retrieved on8/7/2013
Wikipedia (2013). Home Automation. From
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_automation. Retrieved on 7/8/2013Wikipedia (2013).
Wikipedia (2013). Microcontroller. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcontroller. Retrieved on
8/10/2013






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