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ABSTRACT

Use solid waste as a source of alternative energy in Pakistan




Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a system of solid waste from waste collection to
its proper disposal. Generally, the waste is used to produce electricity or for recycling. Recently,
in Europe and the United States (USD) is the recycling of approximately 41 % and 32 %. China
is also investing US$ 6.3 billion to reach 30 % recycling of its waste in 2030 the problems of
solid waste can be solved by using innovative technologies. Today different types of waste to
energy (WTE) plans are available through which energy can be efficiently retrieved and used.
Different types of benefits could be achieved if energy recovery and natural resources are
considered job creation, reduction of environmental impacts and the provisions of economic
opportunities. According to the Agency of Environmental Protection in Pakistan (2005) that 51-
69 % of the waste generated is collected and the rest is in the streets or collection points.

Organic wastes include food, garden waste, street cleaning, textiles, wood and paper products.
Most landfill gas when organic waste is decomposed by bacteria naturally present in the waste
and soil used to cover the landfill. Treatment and disposal of solid waste are connected
challenge. The treatment is applied to retrieve useful substance or energy, to reduce the volume
of waste or stabilize waste remains dumped or disposal in landfills. Disposal site where solid
waste, such as paper, glass and metal, is buried between layers of dirt and other materials in
order to reduce the contamination of the surrounding land. A ton of waste can produce 150-
200m3 gas. The greater the amount of organic waste present in the discharge, the discharge gas
further (for example methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide) is produced by
bacteria during the decomposition.

Production of landfill gas and the use and consumption of mass incineration is the most realistic
in the first and second position respectively for solid waste treatment technology in Pakistan.
This is because these two facilities have sufficient capacity to handle the waste generated power
at a lower cost per ton. Both technologies also having the capacity to develop their capacity if
necessary to treat more waste in the future. However, the processing cost per ton decreases with
increase in the amount of waste per day. It's a good way to fight against the solid waste generated
in Pakistan.