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introduction

Dalam laporan ini, kami akan menjelaskan setiap perkara yang mungkin berkaitan
dengan perintang asas. Kami ini supaya kita boleh mendapatkan pengetahuan untuk
memperbaiki diri kita dalam hal ini dan berkongsi pengetahuan di kalangan rakan-rakan.

Resistor adalah komponen pasif yang sering digunakan. Perintang tidak mempunyai
kutub. Ia boleh didapati dalam pelbagai bentuk dan saiz. Dua ciri-ciri utama perintang rintangan
(R) dalam ohm dan tahap kuasa dalam watt.

Perintang digunakan untuk membatasi arus dalam litar atau untuk mendapatkan voltan
yang turun merentasinya.
perlawanan adalah rendah, arus yang besar boleh melaluinya. Dua kesan berlaku apabila arus
melalui perintang. Panas yang dihasilkan b. Voltan jatuh











TITLE
Measurement of resistor value

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this experiment, studentshould be able to
I. Determine the resistance value using colour code table
II. Calculate the tolerance value for given resistor
III. Measure the resistor value using multimeter

EQUIPMENT
I. Analog multimeter and digital multimeter
II. Variable DC power supply
III. Bread board
IV. Resistor
V. Calculator
VI. Wire clips

THEORY
The resistor is a component that limits the flow of current in a circuit. There is a large selection
of resistor depends on its suitability in the circuit. Resistor can be categorized into two type
which are fixed and variable. The value of the fixed resistor is determined by the colour code or
the value printed. Resistor commonly has four bands. Table 1 shows the value of colour band for
a resistor. To calculate and enter the percentage error, we need to use the following formula :
Percentage error = [(nominal value measured value) / nominal value] 100%



Table 1

Resisitor colour code
Resistor colour code used in small resistor. Resisitor value is found by reading the line on the
resistor colour code. The table shows the resistor colour code table. Most resistors have four
band. The first three lines give the reading of a nominal value of the resistor, while the fourth
band indicates the tolerance.



Factor affecting resistance

The value of resistance is influenced by several factors as follows;

a) The length of the conductor (wire) (L)

Unit of length is meter (m).
The resistance is proportional to the length of conductor.



b) Cross-sectional area of conductor (A)

Unit of Cross-sectional area is in square meters (m
2
).
The resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area (A) of conductor R .




Which is the smaller cross-sectional area (A) of conductor, may effect the higher
resistance value.

c) Type of substances/material

or resistivity is representing the nature or type of conducting material.





d) Temperature (T)


R
R
R L
A
R L


PROCEDURE :






















DATA AND RESULT :

R1
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Ungu
7
Hijau
5
Merah
100
Emas
5 %
7875 7125
1.3 %
1.2 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
7500 7400 7410

Ungu Hijau Merah Had terima
7 5 100 = 7500
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 7500 0.05
= 375
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 7500 + 375 ) = 7875
Hingga ( 7500 - 375 ) = 725


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 7500 - 7400 ) / 7500 ] 100 = 1.33 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 7500 - 7410 ) / 7500 ] 100 = 1.2 %


R2
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Hijau
5
Biru
6
Hitam
1
Emas
5 %
58.8 53.2
4.4 %
1.43 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
56 53.5 55.2

Hijau biru hitam had terima
5 6 1 = 56
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 56 0.05
= 2.8
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 56 + 2.8 ) = 58.8
Hingga ( 56 - 2.8 ) = 53.2


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 56 - 53.5 ) / 56 ] 100 = 4.46 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 56 - 55.2 ) / 56 ] 100 = 1.43 %

R3
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Coklat
1
Hitam
0
Kuning
10k
Emas
5%
105 k 95 k
0 %
10 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
100 k 100 k 90 k

coklat hitam kuning Had terima
1 0 10 k = 100 k
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 100 k 0.05
= 5 k
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 100 k + 5 k ) = 105 k
Hingga ( 100 k - 5 k ) = 95 k


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 100 k - 100 k ) / 100 k ] 100 = 0 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 100 k - 90 k ) / 100 k ] 100 = 10 %

R4
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min. value
Oren
3
Hitam
0
Coklat
10
Emas
5 %
315 285
- 3.33 %
- 0.3 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
300 310 301

oren hitam coklat Had terima
3 0 10 = 300
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 300 0.05
= 15
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 300 + 15 ) = 315
Hingga ( 300 - 15 ) = 285


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 300 - 310 ) / 300 ] 100 = - 3.33 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 300 - 301 ) / 300 ] 100 = - 0.3 %

R5
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Kuning
4
Ungu
7
Oren
1k
Emas
5%
49 350 44 650

4.6 %
1.9 %

Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
47 000 44 800 46 100

Kuning ungu oren Had terima
4 7 1000 = 47 000
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 47 000 0.05
= 2350
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 47 000 + 2350 ) = 49350
Hingga ( 47 000 - 2350 ) = 44650


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 47 000 - 44 800 ) / 47 000 ] 100 = 4.6 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 47 000 - 46 100 ) / 47 000 ] 100 = 1.9 %

R6
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Oren
3
Putih
9
Oren
1000
Emas
5%
40 950 37 050
2.6 %
1.8 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
39 000 38 000 38 300

oren putih oren Had terima
3 9 1000 = 39 000
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 39 000 0.05
= 1950
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 39 000 + 1950 ) = 40 950
Hingga ( 39 000 - 1950 ) = 37 050


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 39 000 - 38 000 ) / 39 000 ] 100 = 2.6 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 39 000 - 38 300 ) / 39 000 ] 100 = 1.8 %

R7
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Merah
2
Merah
2
Hitam
1
Emas
5 %
23.1 20.9
1.8 %
0.4 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
22 22.4 21.9

Merah merah hitam Had terima
2 2 1 = 27
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 22 0.05
= 1.1
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 22 + 1.1 ) = 23.1
Hingga ( 22 - 1.1 ) = 20.9


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 22 - 22.4 ) / 22 ] 100 = -1.8 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 22 - 21.9 ) / 22 ] 100 = 0.4 %


R8
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Kelabu
8
Merah
2
Hitam
1
Emas
5%
86.1 77.9
2.4 %
1.5 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
82 80 83.3

Kelabu merah hitam Had terima
8 2 1 = 82
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 82 0.05
= 4.1
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 82 + 4.1 ) = 86.1
Hingga ( 82 - 4.1 ) = 77.9


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 82 - 80 ) / 82 ] 100 = 2.4 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 82 - 83.3 ) / 82 ] 100 = -1.5 %

R9
Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Coklat
1
Hitam
0
Kuning
10 000
Emas
5%
105 000 95 000
0 %
0.03 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
100 000 100 000 99 700

Coklat Hitam kuning Had terima
1 0 10 000 = 100 000
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 100 000 0.05
= 5000
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 100 000 + 5000 ) = 105 000
Hingga ( 100 000 - 5000 ) = 95 000


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 100 000 - 100 000 ) / 100 000 ] 100 = 0 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 100 000 - 99 700 ) / 100 000 ] 100 = 0.03 %


Resistor Colour Band
Tolerances
(%)

Percentage Error
( % )

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Max.
value
Min.
value
Oren
3
Biru
6
Merah
100
5 % 3 780 3 420
0 %
0.5 %
Nominal Value
Measured Value by
Analog Multimeter
Measured Value by
Digital Multimeter
3 600 3 600 3 580

Oren biru Merah Had terima
3 6 100 = 3 600
Jalur had terima ialah emas iaitu 5%
Had terima = 3 600 0.05
= 180
Oleh itu, julat nilai rintangan = ( 3 600 + 180 ) = 3780
Hingga ( 3600 - 180 ) = 3420


Percentage error by analog multimeter
= [( 3 600 - 3 600 ) / 3 600 ] 100 = 0 %
Percentage error by digital multimeter
= [( 3 600 - 3 580 ) / 3 600 ] 100 = 0.5 %



DISCUSSION :

1. List four factor when selecting resistor.
I. Determine the resistance
II. Determine the Watts to be dissipated by the Resistor
III. Determine the proper Watt Size (physical size) as controlled by
watts, volts, permissible temperatures, mounting conditions and
circuit conditions.
IV. Choose the most suitable kind of unit, including type, terminals and
mounting.


2. The resistor value for resistor can be determine by the four colour bands. how do you
interpret four color bands.





3. resistor can be categorized into two type : fixed and variable. Explain it.
a) Fixed resistor
Fixed resistor - the value of a resistor can be obtained from the color code

Tolerance is the relief of actual value. The smaller of tolerance value, the more
accurate reading of the resistor.

Rated power is the maximum power that can be accepted by the resistance
without incurring damage. If the power is exceeded, the resistor will be damaged
by excessive heat.
Stability is the ability of a resistor to maintain the resistance value even the
ambient temperature are change.

b) Variable resistor

Variable resistor is a resistor that can be changed by moving the contact
resistance elements. Variable resistor is used in circuits that require changes in
current and voltage.