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Complete each sentence with the correct auxiliary verb.

1. What you done?


2. I not like this song.
3. she know that you are here?
4. The lesson not started yet.
5. you drink milk?
6. Who eaten my biscuits?
7. It not matter.
8. They not want to play outside.
9. We not seen you for a long time.
10. My friend sent me some photos
Auxiliary Verbs "Be," "Do," "Have"
An auxiliary verb helps the main (full) verb and is also called a "helping verb." With auxiliary verbs,
you can write sentences in different tenses, moods, or voices. Auxiliary verbs are: be, do, have, will,
shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, must, ought, etc.


I think I should study harder to master English.
I am having a cup of coffee.
You have been practicing hard.
It was written by a petitioner.
You may choose what you like.
The verb forms of be, do, and have can be used either as a main (full) verb or an auxiliary verb. The
following examples show these verbs used as auxiliary verbs.

1. "Be" as an auxiliary verb

a. Used in progressive sentences:


I am taking a bath.
She is preparing dinner for us.
They have been studying all night.
b. Used in passive sentences:


I was given a free meal.
He was seen by fans at the airport.
This song has been sung by all nations.
2. "Do" as an auxiliary verb

a. Used in negative sentences:


I do not know the truth.
She doesnt agree with me.
They didnt arrive here yet.
b. Used in questions:


Do you want to have another one?
Did he finish his homework?
Do we need to keep going straight?
3. "Have" as an auxiliary verb

a. Used in perfect sentences:


I have been following you for a mile.
We have done a lot so far.
She had been queen of the town.

[Quiz 19.1]

Identify all auxiliary verbs in the following paragraph.

I have just heard that you didnt attend the meeting yesterday. Did you have a conflict with that
time? I must ask that you explain the reason.


[Quiz 19.2]

Which of the following sentences does not show any auxiliary verbs?

1) I didnt have any reason to go there.
2) Have we practiced this song enough?
3) Three seats have been reserved for us.
4) I am a professor in the economics department.

View Answers
[19.1]
I have just heard that you didnt attend the meeting yesterday. Did you have a conflict with that
time? I mustask that you explain the reason.

[19.2]
Sentence 4 (the verb am is used as the main verb)
Auxiliary verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of a sentence. Here are a few examples of
auxiliary verbs:
Tom has lived in Boston for twenty years.
They didn't come to the party last night.
I was cooking dinner when you telephoned.
What are you doing tomorrow afternoon?
Knowing correct auxiliary verb usage is key to tense usage. Every tense takes an auxiliary form of the
verb. There are three exceptions to this rule:
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1. Simple present positive: She works at a bank.
2. Simple past positive: He bought a new TV last week.
3. Positive imperative statements: Hurry up!
There are also a number of short forms that take ONLY the auxiliary form of the verb:
Yes / No answer short forms:
Do you live in England? - No, I don't.
Has she been to Paris? - Yes, she has.
Question tags:
They enjoy learning English, don't they?
He won't agree with me, will he?
Positive agreement / inclusion:
I went to the beach last weekend. - So did I.
I'm working very hard at the moment. - So is she.
Negative agreement / inclusion:
They haven't worked here long. - Neither have I.
We won't be able to come next week. - Neither will I.
Here is a quick overview of auxiliary verb usage:
DO / DOES
Used simple present question and negative forms:
What time does he get up?
They don't drive to work. They take the bus.
DID
Used in simple past question and negative forms:
When did they arrive yesterday?
He didn't finish his homework last week.
IS / ARE / AM
Used in present continuous and for the future with 'going to':
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They are working hard at the moment.
She is going to study medicine at university.
WAS / WERE
Past continuous:
I was watching TV when you arrived.
What were they doing while you were cooking dinner?
HAVE / HAS
Present perfect and present perfect continuous:
How long have you lived here?
I've been working since seven this morning.
HAD
Past perfect and past perfect continuous:
He had eaten by the time I arrived.
She had been studying for two hours when he finally telephoned.
WILL / WON'T
Future with 'will':
What will the weather be like tomorrow?
He won't understand.
If you don't understand all of these tenses, don't worry. This overview chart shows the positive,
negative and interrogative (question) forms of all the principal tenses in English with a brief
description of the principal usage. The timeline tenses chartprovides a handy visual reference sheet to
English tenses and their relationship to the past, present and future. Included you will find active,
passive, simple and continuous forms positioned according to their occurrence in time.
Continue to the next page for a quiz testing your understanding of auxiliary verbs.
PREVIOUS
NEXT
Auxiliary verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of a sentence. Here are a few examples of
auxiliary verbs:
Tom has lived in Boston for twenty years.
They didn't come to the party last night.
I was cooking dinner when you telephoned.
What are you doing tomorrow afternoon?
Knowing correct auxiliary verb usage is key to tense usage. Every tense takes an auxiliary form of the
verb. There are three exceptions to this rule:
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ESL
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English Town
1. Simple present positive: She works at a bank.
2. Simple past positive: He bought a new TV last week.
3. Positive imperative statements: Hurry up!
There are also a number of short forms that take ONLY the auxiliary form of the verb:
Yes / No answer short forms:
Do you live in England? - No, I don't.
Has she been to Paris? - Yes, she has.
Question tags:
They enjoy learning English, don't they?
He won't agree with me, will he?
Positive agreement / inclusion:
I went to the beach last weekend. - So did I.
I'm working very hard at the moment. - So is she.
Negative agreement / inclusion:
They haven't worked here long. - Neither have I.
We won't be able to come next week. - Neither will I.
Here is a quick overview of auxiliary verb usage:
DO / DOES
Used simple present question and negative forms:
What time does he get up?
They don't drive to work. They take the bus.
DID
Used in simple past question and negative forms:
When did they arrive yesterday?
He didn't finish his homework last week.
IS / ARE / AM
Used in present continuous and for the future with 'going to':
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They are working hard at the moment.
She is going to study medicine at university.
WAS / WERE
Past continuous:
I was watching TV when you arrived.
What were they doing while you were cooking dinner?
HAVE / HAS
Present perfect and present perfect continuous:
How long have you lived here?
I've been working since seven this morning.
HAD
Past perfect and past perfect continuous:
He had eaten by the time I arrived.
She had been studying for two hours when he finally telephoned.
WILL / WON'T
Future with 'will':
What will the weather be like tomorrow?
He won't understand.
If you don't understand all of these tenses, don't worry. This overview chart shows the positive,
negative and interrogative (question) forms of all the principal tenses in English with a brief
description of the principal usage. The timeline tenses chartprovides a handy visual reference sheet to
English tenses and their relationship to the past, present and future. Included you will find active,
passive, simple and continuous forms positioned according to their occurrence in time.
Continue to the next page for a quiz testing your understanding of auxiliary verbs.
PREVIOUS
NE
Test your Understanding of Auxiliary Verbs
In each of the following sentences an auxiliary verb is missing. Write the missing auxiliary
verbs on a piece of paper and then check the following page for the answers.
1. He _____ come to school yesterday because he was ill.
2. She _____ been working in the garden since two this afternoon.
3. He _____ finished his homework by the time arrived.
4. I'm afraid I _____ be able to come to the party. I have to study.
5. You've visited London, _____ you?
6. They _____ going to attend a meeting in Chicago next week.
7. Why _____ you buy that?! It's ugly!
8. She _____ often go to the movies.
9. He _____ watching TV. He's doing his homework at the moment.
10. They _____ been playing tennis for two hours.
11. I don't like country music. - Neither _____ I.
12. They won't come to the party, _____ they?
13. Mom _____ been working for two hours when I telephoned.
14. I think they are fantastic! - So _____ she.
15. What _____ they doing?
16. Mary hasn't enjoyed herself so much for a long time. - Neither _____ I.
17. Mike _____ go on vacation last summer. He was too busy.
18. He's studying Russian this semester, _____ he?
19. I _____ just been to the bank.
20. How long _____ you been working for this company?
Answers: Auxiliary Verb Quiz
1. He didn't come to school yesterday because he was ill.
2. She has been working in the garden since two this afternoon.
3. He had finished his homework by the time arrived.
4. I'm afraid I won't be able to come to the party. I have to study.
5. You've visited London, haven't you?
6. They're going to attend a meeting in Chicago next week.
7. Why did you buy that?! It's ugly!
8. She doesn't often go to the movies.
9. He isn't watching TV. He's doing his homework at the moment.
10. They've been playing tennis for two hours.
11. I don't like country music. - Neither do I.
12. They won't come to the party, will they?
13. Mom had been working for two hours when I telephoned.
14. I think they are fantastic! - So does she.
15. What are they doing?
16. Mary hasn't enjoyed herself so much for a long time. - Neither have I.
17. Mike didn't go on vacation last summer. He was too busy.
18. He's studying Russian this semester, isn't he?
19. I've just been to the bank.
20. How long have you been working for this company?
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