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Patricia Andrea Chua

Body Positions

Anatomical Position
1. Standing erect
2. Face directed forward
3. Upper limbs hanging on the side
4. Palms of the hand facing forward

Supine face upward
Prone face downward

Always refer to the anatomical
position

Directional terms

Superior up
Inferior down

Anterior front
Posterior back

Ventral belly
Dorsal back

Proximal nearest
Distal distant

Medial toward the midline
Lateral away from the midline

Superficial near the body surface
Deep toward interior of the body

ANTERIOR VIEW

1. Cephalic (Head)

Frontal forehead
Orbital eyes
Nasal nose
Oral mouth
Otic ear
Buccal cheer
Mental chin

2. Cervical (Neck)

Clavicular - collarbone

3. Trunk

a. Thoracic (Thorax)

Mediastinum divides the thoracic
cavity

Pectoral chest
Sternal breastbone
Mammary breast

Abdominal abdomen
Umbilical navel
Pelvic pelvis
Inguinal groin
Pubic genital

4. Upperlimb

Axillary armpit
Brachial arm
Antecubital front of elbow
Antebrachial forearm
Carpal wrist
Palmar palm
Digital fingers

5. Lowerlimb

Coxal hip
Femoral thigh
Patellar kneecap
Crural leg

a. Pedal (Foot)
Talus ankle
Dorsum top of foot
Digital toes


POSTERIOR VIEW

1. Cranial (Skull)

Occipital base of skull
Nuchal back of neck

2. Trunk

a. Dorsal (back)

Scapular shoulder blade
Vertebral spinal column
Lumbar loin / lowerback

Sacral between hips
Gluteal buttocks
Perineal perineum

3. Upperlimb

Acromial point of shoulder
Olecranon point of elbow
Dorsum back of the hand
Deltoid upperarm

4. Lowerlimb

Popliteal back of the knee
Sural calf
Plantar sole
Calcaneal heel


Axis imaginary line that will pass
through a certain point

a. Longitudinal
- Superior and inferior

b. Transverse
- Side to side

c. Sagittal
- Anterior and posterior

Plane 2 axes imaginary surface
- Divide the body into different
regions and sections

a. Transverse
- Transverse and sagittal
- Cross section

b. Coronal / Frontal
- Transverse and longitudinal

c. Sagittal
- Sagittal and longitudinal

Median sagittal divide the
body into two equal halves

Parasagittal any plane parallel
to the median sagittal

DORSAL BODY CAVITY

Cavity spaces in the body

3 meninges that protects the dorsal
body cavity:

1. Durameter outermost
2. Arachnoid web like
3. Pia mater innermost
- penetrates the substance of the
brain

VENTRAL BODY CAVITY

Viscera organs inside the
ventral cavity

Diaphragm divides the ventral
body cavity into:

a. Upper thoracic


b. Lower abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity
Pelvic cavity

THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL
CAVITY MEMBRANE

Serous membrane
- Parietal (outermost) and visceral
(innermost) layers
Serous fluid
- Found between parietal and
visceral layer

HEART

Pericardial cavity
- Surrounds the heart
Visceral pericardium
- Covers the heart
Pericardial Fluid
- Located between visceral and
parietal pericardium
Parietal pericardium

LUNGS

Pleural cavity
- Surrounds the lungs
Visceral pleura
Pleural fluid
Parietal pleura

PERITONEUM

Peritoneal cavity
- Surrounds the abdominopelvic
cavity
Visceral peritoneum
Peritoneal fluid
Parietal peritoneum

INFLAMMATIONS

Pericarditis
- Inflammation of the pericardium

Pleurisy
- Inflammation of the pleura

Peritonitis
- Inflammation of the peritoneum

ABDOMINAL LINES

1. Subcostal line
- Under the ribs

2. Transtubercular line
- Tubercle of pelvis to the other


3. Midclavicular lines
- Middle of the clavicle

DRAWING:














9 REGIONS

1. Umbilical region
- Centremost, deep, surrounds the
umbilicus
2. Epigastric region
- Superior to tge umbilical region
3. Hypogastric region
- Pubic, inferior to the umbilical
region
4. Right and left iliac
- Inguinal, lateral to the hypogastric
region
5. Right and left lumbar
- Lateral to the umbilical region
6. Right and left hypochondriac
- Overlie the lower ribs

Chondron cartilage

DRAWING:













4 QUADRANTS









Techniques:
Palpitation
Percussion
Auscultation