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APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE

SU TU NAU PROJECT-DNV RP-F105 FREE SPANNING PIPELINE



Project_info
"SU TU NAU FIELD DEVELOPMENT"
"As-Laid Case "
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Pipeline_Description "12inch Production Pipeline from STN-N (KP0) to STN-S (KP6.55)" :=


1.0 INTRODUCTION
This Mathcad sheet has been written in order to calculate in-line and cross flow vortex induced vibration onset and screening lengths of pipelines in accordance with
DNV-RPF105
Free Spanning Pipelines 2006 (Reference [1]). The sheet calculates the following span limits:
- VIV onset
- Fatigue screening
- ULS criterion (according to Reference [2]) considering both static and dynamic loading
On-bottom wave and current velocities are calculated using methodology contained within both Reference [1] and Reference [2]. The sheet is set up to perform calculations on
an untrenched pipeline configuration. Screening data is always 1 year return period wave data, and 100 year return period current data.
Onset lengths can be based upon 1, 10 or 100 year data depending upon the loadcase under consideration. ULS check should consider 100 year current for operating
conditions, and 10 year for temporary conditions, it is a project decision whether maximum wave height and period should be used. Cyclonic conditions will require careful
evaluation of overall velocities and dissemination of these into suitable wave and current components.
Sheet performs calculations for the length of the pipeline route of the above for the as-laid, flooded, hydrotest and operating loadcases.
For VIV calculations, operating pressures and temperatures are used.
- Half of any corrosion allowance should be considered - Guidance Note in Section 2.2.5 Reference [1]. NOTE THAT THIS MAY VARY ON A PROJECT BASIS.
Corrosion not considered for calculation of effective axial force [and hence frequencies, onset and screening lengths] but is included for stress calculations - Section 6.2.2
Reference [1].
- For ULS criterion check, corrosion allowance is conservatively EXCLUDED when calculating pipeline loading, but INCLUDED when considering pipeline capacity.
- For ULS criterion check, MAXIMUM wave height and associated period is considered for static loading. Dynamic loading uses SIGNIFICANT values. Design temperatures
and pressures are used.
- Simplified soils damping criteria are used for this calculation
- It is currently assumed that functional loading does not reduced the combined loading effect, refer to Note 1 of Table 4-4 Reference [2].
- Sheet is set up for single, non-interacting spans only - interacting spans require FE Analysis to determine natural frequencies.
- Sheet assumes pipe is fully restrained. If this is not the case, an effective axial force may require to be manually input for the operational loadcase.
References
1. Det Norske Veritas, DNV-RP-F105 - Free Spanning Pipelines, 2006.
2. Det Norske Veritas, DNV-OS-F101 - Submarine Pipeline Systems, 2012
3. Det Norske Veritas, DNV-RP-F109 - On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipelines, 2007.
4. Det Norske Veritas, DNV-GL-14 - Free Spanning Pipelines, 1998.
5. Det Norske Veritas, DNV-RP-C205 - Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads April 2010
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 1/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
General Functions / Unit Definition
Find largest value in a column of a matrix
max_find matrix col , ( ) match max matrix
col
( )
( )
matrix
col
( )
,
( )
0
:=
Matrix trim function trim_rows matrix max_rows , ( ) submatrix matrix 0 , max_rows , 0 , cols matrix ( ) 1 , ( ) return :=
0 2
Li stbox state savi ng functi ons Effective Axial Force Pipe Roughness
1 2
Equation to use for Seff Span Definition
0 2
Loadcase Duration Span Boundary Conditions
val_find val vec , ( ) lst_vec last vec ( )
0 0 ( ) return val vec
0
s if
lst_vec lst_vec ( ) return val vec
lst_vec
> if
if val vec
ii
= ii , ii 1 , ( ) ii ( ) return

val vec
ii
s if
ii 1 lst_vec .. e for otherwise
:=
Value finder - finds the relative position of a value in a vector
of values in terms of which values it lies between.
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 2/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
2D Linear Interpolation linear_interp X Y , XYs , Xs , Ys , ( ) y_min y_max ( ) val_find Y Ys , ( )
x_min x_max ( ) val_find X Xs , ( )
xvals
Xs
x_min
Xs
x_max
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yvals
Ys
y_min
Ys
y_max
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x_inter x yv , ( ) linterp xvals


XYs
x_min yv ,
XYs
x_max yv ,
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, X ,

(
(

y_inter xv y , ( ) linterp yvals


XYs
xv y_min ,
XYs
xv y_max ,
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, Y ,

(
(

XYs
x_min y_min ,
return x_min x_max = if
x_inter X y_min , ( ) return otherwise
y_min y_max = if
y_inter x_min Y , ( ) return x_min x_max = if
linterp xvals
y_inter x_min Y , ( )
y_inter x_max Y , ( )
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, X ,

(
(

return otherwise
otherwise
:=
3D Linear Interpolation multi_interp X Y , Z , XYss , Xs , Ys , Zs , ( ) z_min z_max ( ) val_find Z Zs , ( )
zvals
Zs
z_min
Zs
z_max
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xy_1 linear_interp X Y , XYss


z_min
, Xs , Ys , ( )
xy_2 linear_interp X Y , XYss
z_max
, Xs , Ys , ( )
xy_1 return z_min z_max = if
linterp zvals
xy_1
xy_2
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, Z ,

(
(

return otherwise
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 3/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Modified Parameter Interpolation for G
c
G_param_inter M N , table , ( ) mvals table
0
( )

m_min m_max ( ) val_find M mvals , ( )


n_min n_max ( ) val_find N
0.003
0.006
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(
(

min_offset ii 4 n_min + 1 +
max_offset ii 4 n_max + 1 +
p_1 table
m_min min_offset ,

p_2 table
m_min max_offset ,

m_min m_max = if
p_1 linterp mvals table
min_offset
( )
, M ,
( )

p_2 linterp mvals table


max_offset
( )
, M ,
( )

otherwise
rm
ii
p_1 n_min n_max = if
rm
ii
linterp
0.003
0.006
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p_1
p_2
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, N ,

(
(

otherwise
ii 0 3 .. e for
rm
:=
Fl oati ng-Poi nt Compari son Operators Less than fp_lt x y , ( ) if round x 6 , ( ) round y 6 , ( ) < 1 , 0 , ( ) :=
Less than or equal to fp_lte x y , ( ) if round x 6 , ( ) round y 6 , ( ) s 1 , 0 , ( ) :=
Equal to fp_eq x y , ( ) if round x 6 , ( ) round y 6 , ( ) = 1 , 0 , ( ) :=
Greater than or equal to fp_gte x y , ( ) if round x 6 , ( ) round y 6 , ( ) > 1 , 0 , ( ) :=
Greater than fp_gt x y , ( ) if round x 6 , ( ) round y 6 , ( ) > 1 , 0 , ( ) :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 4/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
General Functions / Unit Definition
2.0 INPUT SUMMARY
2.1 Pipeline Properties
Interval for calculations KPStep 100 m :=
2.1.1 Pi pel i ne Mechani cal Properti es
pipe_inputs
Pipe
Section
Start KP
(km)
End KP
(km)
Steel OD
D
0
(mm)
Steel Wall
Thickness
t
nom
(mm)
Internal
Coat
Thickness
t
int
(mm)
Internal
Coat
Density

int
(kg/m
3
)
Corrosion
Allowance
t
cor
(mm)
Corrosion
Coat
Thickness
t
cc
(mm)
Corrosion
Coat
Density

cc
(kg/m
3
)
Concrete
thickness
t
wc
(mm)
Concrete
Coat
Density

wc
(kg/m
3
)
Marine
Growth
Thickness
t
ma
(mm)
Marine
Growth
Density

ma
(kg/m
3
)
1 0 6.55 323.9 9.5 0 0 3 35.3 200 55 3040 0 1500
:=
2.1.2 Seabed Properti es
2.1.3 Safety Cl ass Defi ni ti on
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 5/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Seabed
KP From KP To Soil Type
Soil Type Integer
for Calculations
Seabed
Roughness
Associated
Roughness
Poisson's
Ratio
0 6.55 Medium Sand 1 Medium sand 4.00E-05 0.35
:=
Safety
KP From KP To Safety Class
Integer for
Calculation
0 6.55 Low 0
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 6/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
2.1.4 Axi al Fri cti on Coeffi ci ens
Soil Type: Table 7.3 - 7.4 Section 7.3.1 Page 35 Ref. [1]
Seabed Roughness: Table 3.1, Section 3.2.6 Page 19 Ref. [1]
White cells are protected, as they calculate the values required by the sheet based
on the selected drop down option.
Axial
KP From KP To
Axial Friction
Coefficient
0 6.55 0.5
:=
2.2 Pipeline Mechanical Properties
Young's modulus of Steel E 207000 MPa :=
Turbulence Intensity I
c
5% := Section 3.2.12 Page
20 Ref. [1]
Steel density
s
7850kg m
3
:=
Poisson's Ratio of Steel 0.3 :=
Field joint infill density
fj
1025 kg m
3
:= Percentage of Pipeline Diameter
used to Calculate Min. Span Gap
e
0
30% :=
Nominal pipe joint length L
pj
12.2m :=
Residual Lay Tension H
eff
0kN :=
Concrete cutback length FJ 470mm :=
Tide and Surge T
surge
4.09m :=
SMYS SMYS 450MPa :=
Design Pressure P
des
0bar :=
SMTS SMTS 535MPa :=
Operating Pressure P
oper
0bar :=
Young's Modulus of Concrete E
c
30242.52MPa :=
Reference Elevation for Pressure (LAT) elev 20.19m :=
Linear Thermal Expansion coefficient
e
11.7 10
6
C
1
:=
Structural Damping
str
0.01 := Section 6.2.11 Page
31,Ref. [1]
Hydrodynamic Damping Section 4.1.8
h
0 := Section 4.1.9 Page 23 Ref. [1]
Steel loss during Operation CA 0% :=
Redefinition of dimension of user input vectors - Do not modify
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 7/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Function to convert a distance to a matrix integer
KP x ( )
x
KPStep
:=
Redefinition of vector dimensions - sheet extracts a large column of data for each variable; this process ensures only the required data set remains, and all the
extra zeros on the end are removed.
Set case counter - find number of rows containing data for
pipe / headings / bathy data
n_pipe max_find pipe_inputs 0 , ( ) := n_pipe 0.00 =
i
p
0 n_pipe .. :=
n_SF max_find Safety 0 , ( ) := n_SF 0.00 =
Trim each matrix such that they are the same size as the
actual data set
pipe_inputs trim_rows pipe_inputs n_pipe , ( ) :=
Safety trim_rows Safety n_SF , ( ) :=
2.2.7 Pi pe Secti on Data Al l ocati on and Val i di ty Checks
pipe_sec pipe_inputs
0
( )
:=
Pipe Sections
pipe_start_kp pipe_inputs
1
( )
km :=
KP Start Points
KP End Points pipe_end_kp pipe_inputs
2
( )
km :=
Steel OD pipe_OD pipe_inputs
3
( )
mm :=
Steel WT
tnom pipe_inputs
4
( )
mm :=
Internal Coat thickness tint pipe_inputs
5
( )
mm :=
Internal Coating Density int pipe_inputs
6
( )
kg m
3
:=
Corrosion Allowance tcorr pipe_inputs
7
( )
mm :=
Corrosion Coating Thickness tcc pipe_inputs
8
( )
mm :=
Corrosion Coating Density cc pipe_inputs
9
( )
kg m
3
:=
Conctete Coating Thickness twc pipe_inputs
10
( )
mm :=
Concrete Coating Density wc pipe_inputs
11
( )
kg m
3
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 8/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Marine Growth Thickness
tmar pipe_inputs
12
( )
mm :=
Marine Growth Density mar pipe_inputs
13
( )
kg m
3
:=
KP_input_check kps kpe , ( ) result 1
result result kps
ii
kpe
ii 1
=
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ii 1 last kps ( ) .. e for last kps ( ) 0 > if
"Section KP points incorrectly specified"
"KP inputs OK"
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result
return
:=
General function for checking KP input validity
KP_pipe_input_check KP_input_check pipe_start_kp pipe_end_kp , ( ) :=
KP_pipe_input_check "KP inputs OK" =
2.2.8 Pi pe Properti es Data Al l ocati on and Functi on Defi ni ti on
Index values for vectors created x_v 0 1 ,
pipe_end_kp
last pipe_end_kp ( )
KPStep
.. := Length of the Pipe
Length pipe_end_kp
last pipe_end_kp ( )
:=
KP values to run calculation for KP_v
x_v
x_v KPStep :=
Length 6550.00m =
Function to find the index of the section which contains x
Used to transform section data into functions - i.e.
replaces an interpolation function to find the value of a
variable at any point along the route
x_find x end_val , ( ) ii 0
lst_val last end_val ( )
ii ii 1 +
ii last end_val ( ) < x end_val
ii
> . while
ii return
:=
pipe_find x ( ) x_find x pipe_end_kp , ( ) :=
Pre-allocate row indices for the pipe section properties KP_index
PI
x_v
pipe_find KP_v
x_v
( ) :=
Steel OD D
o
x ( ) pipe_OD
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 9/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Steel WT t
nom
x ( ) tnom
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Internal Coat thickness
t
int
x ( ) tint
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Internal Coating Density
int
x ( ) int
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Corrosion Allowance t
corr
x ( ) tcorr
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
t
cc
x ( ) tcc
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Corrosion Coating Thickness

cc
x ( ) cc
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Corrosion Coating Density
t
wc
x ( ) twc
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Conctete Coating Thickness

wc
x ( ) wc
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Concrete Coating Density
Marine Growth Thickness
t
mar
x ( ) tmar
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Marine Growth Density
mar
x ( ) mar
KP_index
PI
KP x ( )
:=
Safety Class
Safety_start_kp Safety
0
( )
km :=
Safety_end_kp Safety
1
( )
km :=
Safety_find x ( ) x_find x Safety_end_kp , ( ) :=
KP_index
SC
x_v
Safety_find KP_v
x_v
( ) :=
Safety Class
safetyclass Safety
2
( )
:= safety_class x ( ) safetyclass
KP_index
SC
KP x ( )
:=
Integer Safety Class
S_C Safety
3
( )
:= SC x ( ) S_C
KP_index
SC
KP x ( )
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 10/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Seabead properties
n_SB max_find Seabed 0 , ( ) :=
n_SB 0.00 =
last Safety_end_kp ( ) 0.00 =
Seabed trim_rows Seabed n_SB , ( ) :=
sea_start_kp Seabed
0
( )
km :=
Safety_end_kp
0
6550.00m =
sea_end_kp Seabed
1
( )
km :=
Seabed 0.00 6.55 "Medium Sand" 1.00 "Medi ( =
x_v 0 1 ,
sea_end_kp
last sea_end_kp ( )
KPStep
.. :=
KP_v
x_v
x_v KPStep :=
sea_find x ( ) x_find x sea_end_kp , ( ) :=
Seabed 0.00 6.55 "Medium Sand" 1.00 " ( =
KP_Sea_index
SB
x_v
sea_find KP_v
x_v
( ) :=
zo Seabed
5
( )
:= z
o
x ( ) zo
KP_Sea_index
SB
KP x ( )
:=
Soil Seabed
3
( )
:=
Soil x ( ) Soil
KP_Sea_index
SB
KP x ( )
:=
Poisson's Ratio soil Seabed
6
( )
:=

soil
x ( ) soil
KP_Sea_index
SB
KP x ( )
:=
Remove inputs from memory pipe_inputs 0 := Safety 0 := Seabed 0 :=
Redefinition of dimension of user input vectors - Do not modify
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 11/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 12/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
2.3 Operational Data
2.3.1 Water Depth 2.3.2 Trench depth 2.3.3 Internal Pressure Profi l es
water_depth
KP
[km]
Water Depth
[m]
0 37.71
0.01 37.7
0.02 37.7
0.03 37.7
0.04 37.69
0.05 37.69
:= trench_depth
KP
[km]
Trench Depth
[m]
0 0
6.55 0
:= OpPres
KP
[km]
Operating
Pressure
[bar]
Design
Pressure
[bar]
0 0 0
6.55 0 0
:=
2.3.4 Temperature Profi l es 2.3.5 Densi ty Profi l es 2.3.6 Empi ri cal KC Section 6.2.5 Page 30. Ref. [1]
Temp
KP
[km]
Operating
Temperature
[
0
C]
Design
Temperature
[
0
C]
0.00 0.00 0.00
6.55 0.00 0.00
:=
Den
KP
[km]
Contents
Density- Op
[kg/m
-3
]
Contents
Density- De
[kg/m
-3
]
0 0 0
6.55 0 0
:= Emp_KC
KP
[km]
Empirical KC
0 0.25
6.55 0.25
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 13/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Effective Axial Force 2.3.7 Seawater Data 2.3.8 Manual Input - Effecti ve Axi al Force
Seff
input
Calculated (Fully Restrained)
Manual Input
SaveSEFF "" 0 , ( )
:=
SWTemp
KP
[km]
Ambient
Seawater
Temperature
[
0
C]
Density
[kg/m
-3
]
0 19.3 1025
6.55 19.3 1025
:= Seffman
KP
[km]
Effective Axial
Force -
OPERATING
[kN]
Effective Axial
Force - DESIGN
[kg/m
-3
]
0 0 0
6.55 0 0
:=
Equation to use for effective axial force
Wall
Thick Wall
Thin Wall Approximation (DNV OS F101)
SaveWall "" 0 , ( )
:=
Loadcase Duration
LC
input
Less than 6 months
More than 6 months
SaveLC "" 0 , ( )
:=
Temperature FOR INSTALLATION - thi s i s used
i n order to cal cul ate the ful l y restrai ned axi al force
Pipe Properties Data Processing (No User Input Required)
n_WD max_find water_depth 0 , ( ) := n_WD 655.00 =
Water depth water_depth trim_rows water_depth n_WD , ( ) :=
pipe_WD_KP water_depth
0
( )
km :=
pipe_WD water_depth
1
( )
m :=
WD x ( ) linterp pipe_WD_KP pipe_WD , x , ( ) :=
Prseures n_OP max_find OpPres 0 , ( ) := n_OP 1.00 =
OpPres trim_rows OpPres n_OP , ( ) :=
pipe_POP_KP OpPres
0
( )
km :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 14/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
pop_KP OpPres
1
( )
bar :=
pdes_KP OpPres
2
( )
bar :=
Opreating Prseures P
ope
x ( ) linterp pipe_POP_KP pop_KP , x , ( ) := Design Prseures P
de
x ( ) linterp pipe_POP_KP pdes_KP , x , ( ) :=
This value is using for ULS Check
Content Density
n_Den max_find Den 0 , ( ) :=
n_Den 1.00 =
Den trim_rows Den n_Den , ( ) :=
pipe_Den_KP Den
0
( )
km :=
op_Den_KP Den
1
( )
kg m
3
:=
des_Den_KP Den
2
( )
kg m
3
:=
Content density Ope
op
x ( ) linterp pipe_Den_KP op_Den_KP , x , ( ) := Content density Des
des
x ( ) linterp pipe_Den_KP des_Den_KP , x , ( ) :=
Temperature n_Tem max_find Temp 0 , ( ) :=
Temp trim_rows Temp n_Tem , ( ) :=
pipe_Tem_KP Temp
0
( )
km :=
top_Tem_KP Temp
1
( )
C :=
tde_Tem_KP Temp
2
( )
C :=
Temperature Ope T
op
x ( ) linterp pipe_Tem_KP top_Tem_KP , x , ( ) := Temperature Des T
ULS
x ( ) linterp pipe_Tem_KP tde_Tem_KP , x , ( ) :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 15/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Seawater Temperature n_Sea max_find SWTemp 0 , ( ) :=
SWTemp trim_rows SWTemp n_Sea , ( ) :=
SWTemp
0.00
6.55
19.30
19.30
1025.00
1025.00
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=
pipe_Tamb_KP SWTemp
0
( )
km :=
tamb_Tamb_KP SWTemp
1
( )
C :=
pipe_Tamb_KP
0.00
6550.00
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m =
w_Tamb_KP SWTemp
2
( )
kg m
3
:=
Temperature of Seawater T
amb
x ( ) linterp pipe_Tamb_KP tamb_Tamb_KP , x , ( ) := Denity of water
w
x ( ) linterp pipe_Tamb_KP w_Tamb_KP , x , ( ) :=
Prseures using for ULS
Prseures Operation
p
ldULS
x ( ) P
de
x ( ) := P
op
x ( ) P
ope
x ( ) :=
Empirical constant n_KC max_find Emp_KC 0 , ( ) :=
Emp_KC trim_rows Emp_KC n_KC , ( ) :=
pipe_KC_KP Emp_KC
0
( )
km :=
KC Emp_KC
1
( )
:= Emp_KC
0.00
6.55
0.25
0.25
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=
k
c
x ( ) linterp pipe_KC_KP KC , x , ( ) :=
Axial Friction n_soil max_find Axial 0 , ( ) := n_soil 0.00 =
Trim matrix such it is the same size as the actual data set Axial trim_rows Axial n_soil , ( ) := Axial 0.00 6.55 0.50 ( ) =
Give each column of data a relevant name
Section Start Point soil_start Axial
0
( )
km :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 16/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Section End Point soil_end Axial
1
( )
km :=
soil_find x ( ) x_find x soil_end , ( ) :=
Pre-allocate row indices for soil data KP_index
SD
x_v
soil_find KP_v
x_v
( ) :=
Axial Friction nguy
ax
Axial
2
( )
:= ax x ( ) nguy
ax
KP_index
SD
KP x ( )
:=
Manual Input - Effecti ve Axi al Force
n_Seff max_find Seffman 0 , ( ) :=
n_Seff 1.00 =
Seffman trim_rows Seffman n_Seff , ( ) :=
pipe_Seffm_KP Seffman
0
( )
km :=
Seffman
0.00
6.55
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
|

\
|
|
.
=
Seffman_onset_KP Seffman
1
( )
kN :=
Seffman_uls_KP Seffman
2
( )
kN :=
Seff
man_onset
x ( ) linterp pipe_Seffm_KP Seffman_onset_KP , x , ( ) :=
Seff
man_uls
x ( ) linterp pipe_Seffm_KP Seffman_uls_KP , x , ( ) :=
Trench depth
n_trench max_find trench_depth 0 , ( ) :=
trench_depth trim_rows trench_depth n_trench , ( ) :=
pipe_trench_KP trench_depth
0
( )
km :=
depth_trench_KP trench_depth
1
( )
m :=
dtrench x ( ) linterp pipe_trench_KP depth_trench_KP , x , ( ) :=
Remove inputs from memory water_depth 0 := OpPres 0 := SWTemp 0 := Den 0 := Temp 0 := Emp_KC 0 := Axial 0 := Seffman 0 :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 17/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
trench_depth 0 :=
Pipe Properties Data Processing (No User Input Required)
2.4 Code Data - Boundary Conditions, Safety Factors from DNV RP-F105
Pipe Roughness
Table 5.1 Section 5.4.4 Page 29 Ref. [1]
Span Definition
Table 2.3, Section 2.6.2 Page 18 Ref. [1]
Span Boundary Conditions
Table 6.1 Section 6.7.8 Page 33 Ref. [1]
roughness
Steel, Painted
Steel, uncoated (not rusted)
Concrete
Marine Growth
SaveSteelRough "" 0 , ( )
:= Span_Def
Very Well Defined - Survey Data
Well Defined - FE analysis
Not Well Defined
SaveSpan_Def "" 0 , ( )
:= BC
Pinned-Pinned
Fixed-Fixed
Single Span on the Seabed
Pinned-Fixed
SaveBC "" 0 , ( )
:=

1
1.3 := fn
12
2.7 :=
Ratio between first and second
modes of crossflow vibration Mode Shape Weighting Factor Section 5.2.7 Page 28 Ref [1] Section 6.8.1 Page 34 Ref [1]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 18/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
VIV Safety Factors Table 2.3 Section 2.6.2 Page 18 Ref [1] Screening Criteria Safety Factors Table 2.1, Section 2.6.1 Page 18

IL
1.4 :=
CF
1.4 :=
f
Low Normal High
Very well defined 1 1 1
Well defined 1.05 1.1 1.15
Not well defined 1.1 1.2 1.3
Free span type
Safety Class
Table 2-3 Safety factor for natural frequencies, f
:=
Table 2.3 Section 2.6.2, Page 18 Ref [1]

f
x c , ( ) f
Span_Def SC x ( ) ,
c 0 = if
1 otherwise
:=
Safety Factors Table 2.2 Section 2.6.2, Page 18 Ref [1]
Stability parameter

onIL

onCF
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
Low Normal High
1 0.5 0.25
1 1.15 1.3
VIV
ULS
VIV
ULS
VIV
ULS
Safety Class
Table 2-2 General safety factors for fatigue
Safety Factor

s
1.3
1

on,IL

on,CF
1.1
1
1.2
1
:=

k
x c , ( ) k
0 SC x ( ) ,
c 0 = if
1 otherwise
:=
For ULS criterion f and k are equal to 1. k is also one for safety class low, i.e.
temporary loadcases. For operational spanning, they vary as above.
For screening, f is not required, and is set to one in the calculations
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 19/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Select Appropriate Safety Factors Table 6.1 Section 6.7.8, Page 33 Ref [1]
Boundary condition coefficients
Fixed-pinned values for:
- C1 and C2 taken from DNV GL14
- C3 to C6 calibrated from literature and DNV GL14
C1
1.57
3.56
3.56
2.45
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= C2
1.0
4.0
4.0
2.0
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= C3
0.8
0.2
0.4
0.5
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= C4 L Leff , ( )
4.93
14.1
max 14.1
L
Leff
|

\
|
|
.
2
8.6 ,

(
(
(

10.2

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

:= C5 L Leff , ( )
1
8
1
12
max 18
Leff
L
|

\
|
|
.
2
6

(
(
(

1
1
24
,

(
(
(

1
8

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

:= C6
5
384
1
384
1
384
2
384
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:=
C
1
C1
BC
:= C
2
C2
BC
:= C
3
C3
BC
:=
C
1
3.56 = C
2
4.00 = C
3
0.40 =
C
4
L Leff , ( ) C4 L Leff , ( )
BC
:= C
5
L Leff , ( ) C5 L Leff , ( )
BC
:= C
6
C6
BC
:= C
6
2.6042 10
3
=
2.5 Code Data - Safety Factors from DNV OS-F101
Material Fabrication Factor
fab
1 := Table 5.7, Section 5 C307
Page 45 Ref [2]
Functional Load Factor
fLC
1.1 := Table 4.4, Section 4 G201
Page 39 Ref [2]
Material Resistance Factor
m
1.15 := Table 5.4, Section 5 C205
Page 44 Ref [2]
Environmental Load Factor
E
1.3 := Table 4.4, Section 4 G201 Page
39 Ref [2]
Safety Class Factor
SC
1.04 := Table 5.5 Section 5 C206
Page 44 Ref [2]
Condition Load factor
c
1.07 := Table 4.5, Section 4, G203,
Page 40 Ref [2]
Material Strength factor
U
0.96 := Table 5.6 Section 5 C306
Page 45 Ref [2]
Ovality f
0
1.5% := Table 7.17 Section 4 G314
Page 83 Ref [2]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 20/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
2.6 Environmental Data
Sheet will calculate VIV onset lengths and ULS lengths based on the worst of the following combinations:
- 10yr wave / 1yr current and 1yr wave / 10yr current for temporary cases.
- 100yr wave / 10yr current and 10yr wave / 100yr current for the operating case.
- Should temporary cases extend beyond 6 months, then 10 year / 100 year data should be used.
- Note that the screening case considers long term current (10 yr for temporary cases less than 6 months, 100 yr otherwise) with 1 year wave. It is therefore suggested that
all three tables are filled in, to ensure all required data is present. If they are not all available it is conservative to e.g. consider 10year return period data for the 1year input.
RP_1year
KP From
[km]
KP to
[km]
Wave
Hight
H
s
(m)
Spectral
Peak
Period
T
p
[s]
Near-
bottom
velocity
U
wd
[m/s]
Mean
Zero
Up-
Crossing
Period
T
u
[s]
Wave /
Velocity
Heading

w
(
0
)
Maximum
Wave
height
H
max
[m]
Associated
Period
T
max
[m]
Near-
Bottom
Velocity
U
maxd
[m/s]
Max
Wave /
Velocity
Heading

max
(
0
)
Current
Velocity
U
c
[m/s]
Current
Heading

c
(
0
)
0 6.55 3.5 7.8 90 6.94 7.13 90 0.23 90
:=
RP_10year
KP From
[km]
KP to
[km]
Wave
Hight
H
s
(m)
Spectral
Peak
Period
T
p
[s]
Near-
bottom
velocity
U
wd
[m/s]
Mean
Zero
Up-
Crossing
Period
T
u
[s]
Wave /
Velocity
Heading

w
(
0
)
Maximum
Wave
height
H
max
[m]
Associated
Period
T
max
[m]
Near-
Bottom
Velocity
U
maxd
[m/s]
Max
Wave /
Velocity
Heading

max
(
0
)
Current
Velocity
U
c
[m/s]
Current
Heading

c
(
0
)
0 6.55 5.5 10.6 90 10.58 9.65 90 0.53 90
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 21/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
RP_100year
KP From
[km]
KP to
[km]
Wave
Hight
H
s
(m)
Spectral
Peak
Period
T
p
[s]
Near-
bottom
velocity
U
wd
[m/s]
Mean
Zero
Up-
Crossing
Period
T
u
[s]
Wave /
Velocity
Heading

w
(
0
)
Maximum
Wave
height
H
max
[m]
Associated
Period
T
max
[m]
Near-
Bottom
Velocity
U
maxd
[m/s]
Max
Wave /
Velocity
Heading

max
(
0
)
Current
Velocity
U
c
[m/s]
Current
Heading

c
(
0
)
0 6.55 8 14.1 90 14.78 12.79 90 0.73 90
:=
current_data
1 year 10 year 100 year
Height at which Velocity Given z
c
m 1 1 1
RETURN PERIOD
PARAMETER VARIABLE UNITS
:=
Data Processing (No User Input Required)
For 1 year Period
Redefinition of vector dimensions - sheet extracts a large column of data for each variable; this process ensures only the required data set remains, and all the
extra zeros on the end are removed.
Set case counter - find number of rows
containing data
n_RP1 max_find RP_1year 0 , ( ) :=
Trim matrix such it is the same size as the actual data set RP_1year trim_rows RP_1year n_RP1 , ( ) :=
KP Starts RP_start_kp1 RP_1year
0
( )
km :=
KP Ends RP_end_kp1 RP_1year
1
( )
km :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 22/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
KP index for spectral input table spec_find1 x ( ) x_find x RP_end_kp1 , ( ) :=
KP_index
spec1
x_v
spec_find1 KP_v
x_v
( ) :=
RP_1year 0.00 6.55 3.50 7.80 0.0 ( =
JONSWAP Spectral Parameters
JONSWAP Significant Wave Height HS_1 RP_1year
2
( )
m := H
S_1
x ( ) HS_1
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
JONSWAP Peak Wave Period Tp_1 RP_1year
3
( )
s := T
p_1
x ( ) Tp_1
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Near-bottom velocity Uw1_sig_input RP_1year
4
( )
m s
1
:= Uw1
sig_input
x ( ) Uw1_sig_input
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Mean Zero Up-Crossing Period Tu_1_input RP_1year
5
( )
s := T
u_1_input
x ( ) Tu_1_input
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Max Near-bottom velocity Uw1_max_input RP_1year
9
( )
m s
1
:=
Uw1
max_input
x ( ) Uw1_max_input
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Wave and Pipeline Heading: w_1_calcsig RP_1year
6
( )
deg :=
w_1_sig
x ( ) w_1_calcsig
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Extreme Wave Parameters
Expected Max Single Wave Height Hmax_1 RP_1year
7
( )
m := H
max_1
x ( ) Hmax_1
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Assoc Period of EH
max
THmax1 RP_1year
8
( )
s := T
max_1
x ( ) THmax1
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Wave and Pipeline Heading: w_1_max RP_1year
10
( )
deg :=
w_1_max
x ( ) w_1_max
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
General Current Parameters
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 23/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Redefinition of vector dimensions - sheet extracts a large column of data for each variable; this process ensures only the required data set remains, and all the
extra zeros on the end are removed.
Steady Current Uc1 RP_1year
11
( )
m s
1
:= Uc_1 x ( ) Uc1
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Current and
Pipeline Heading:
c1 RP_1year
12
( )
deg :=
c_1
x ( ) c1
KP_index
spec1
KP x ( )
:=
For 10 year Period
Redefinition of vector dimensions - sheet extracts a large column of data for each variable; this process ensures only the required data set remains, and all the
extra zeros on the end are removed.
Set case counter - find number of rows
containing data
n_RP10 max_find RP_10year 0 , ( ) :=
Trim matrix such it is the same size as the actual data set RP_10year trim_rows RP_10year n_RP10 , ( ) :=
KP Starts RP_start_kp10 RP_10year
0
( )
km :=
KP Ends RP_end_kp10 RP_10year
1
( )
km :=
KP index for spectral input table spec_find10 x ( ) x_find x RP_end_kp10 , ( ) :=
KP_index
spec10
x_v
spec_find10 KP_v
x_v
( ) :=
JONSWAP Spectral Parameters
JONSWAP Significant Wave Height HS_10 RP_10year
2
( )
m := H
S_10
x ( ) HS_10
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
JONSWAP Peak Wave Period Tp_10 RP_10year
3
( )
s := T
p_10
x ( ) Tp_10
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Wave and Pipeline Heading: w_10_calcsig RP_10year
6
( )
deg :=
w_10_sig
x ( ) w_10_calcsig
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 24/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Near-bottom velocity Uw10_sig_input RP_10year
4
( )
m s
1
:= Uw10
sig_input
x ( ) Uw10_sig_input
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Mean Zero Up-Crossing Period Tu_10_input RP_10year
5
( )
s := T
u_10_input
x ( ) Tu_10_input
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Max Near-bottom velocity Uw10_max_input RP_10year
9
( )
m s
1
:= Uw10
max_input
x ( ) Uw10_max_input
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Extreme Wave Parameters
Expected Max Single Wave Height Hmax_10 RP_10year
7
( )
m := H
max_10
x ( ) Hmax_10
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Assoc Period of EH
max
THmax10 RP_10year
8
( )
s := T
max_10
x ( ) THmax10
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Wave and Pipeline Heading: w_10_max RP_10year
10
( )
deg :=
w_10_max
x ( ) w_10_max
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
General Current Parameters
Steady Current Uc10 RP_10year
11
( )
m s
1
:= Uc_10 x ( ) Uc10
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Current and
Pipeline Heading:
c10 RP_10year
12
( )
deg :=
c_10
x ( ) c10
KP_index
spec10
KP x ( )
:=
For 100 year Period
Redefinition of vector dimensions - sheet extracts a large column of data for each variable; this process ensures only the required data set remains, and all the
extra zeros on the end are removed.
Set case counter - find number of rows
containing data
n_RP100 max_find RP_100year 0 , ( ) :=
Trim matrix such it is the same size as the actual data set RP_100year trim_rows RP_100year n_RP100 , ( ) :=
KP Starts RP_start_kp100 RP_100year
0
( )
km :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 25/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
KP Ends RP_end_kp100 RP_100year
1
( )
km :=
KP index for spectral input table spec_find100 x ( ) x_find x RP_end_kp100 , ( ) :=
KP_index
spec100
x_v
spec_find100 KP_v
x_v
( ) :=
JONSWAP Spectral Parameters
JONSWAP Significant Wave Height HS_100 RP_100year
2
( )
m := H
S_100
x ( ) HS_100
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
JONSWAP Peak Wave Period Tp_100 RP_100year
3
( )
s := T
p_100
x ( ) Tp_100
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Wave and Pipeline Heading: w_100_calcsig RP_100year
6
( )
deg :=
w_100_sig
x ( ) w_100_calcsig
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Near-bottom velocity Uw100_sig_input RP_100year
4
( )
m s
1
:= Uw100
sig_input
x ( ) Uw100_sig_input
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Mean Zero Up-Crossing Period Tu_100_input RP_100year
5
( )
s := T
u_100_input
x ( ) Tu_100_input
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Max Near-bottom velocity Uw100_max_input RP_100year
9
( )
m s
1
:=
Uw100
max_input
x ( ) Uw100_max_input
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Extreme Wave Parameters
Expected Max Single Wave Height Hmax_100 RP_100year
7
( )
m := H
max_100
x ( ) Hmax_100
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Assoc Period of EH
max
THmax100 RP_100year
8
( )
s := T
max_100
x ( ) THmax100
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Wave and Pipeline Heading: w_100_max RP_100year
10
( )
deg :=
w_100_max
x ( ) w_100_max
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
General Current Parameters
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 26/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Steady Current Uc100 RP_100year
11
( )
m s
1
:= Uc_100 x ( ) Uc100
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Angle between Current and
Pipeline Heading:
c100 RP_100year
12
( )
deg :=
c_100
x ( ) c100
KP_index
spec100
KP x ( )
:=
Height at which Velocity Given
Redefinition of vector dimensions - sheet extracts a large column of data for each variable; this process ensures only the required data set remains, and all the
extra zeros on the end are removed.
Set case counter - find number of rows
containing data
n_curr100 max_find current_data 0 , ( ) := n_curr100 0.00 =
Trim matrix such it is the same size as the actual data set current_data trim_rows current_data n_curr100 , ( ) := current_data 1.00 1.00 1.00 ( ) =
Reference Height
(for waves/ currents)
z
r_c_1
current_data ( )
0 0 ,
:= z
r_c_1
1.00 =
z
r_c_10
current_data
0 1 ,
:= z
r_c_10
1.00 =
z
r_c_100
current_data
0 2 ,
:= z
r_c_100
1.00 =
Remove inputs from memory current_data 0 := RP_100year 0 := RP_10year 0 := RP_1year 0 :=
Data Processing (No User Input Required)
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 27/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
3.0 INITIAL CALCULATIONS
Intial Calculation
3.1 Backgound Values for Calculations
L 5m := Translate distance used in functions to equivalent integer value KP x ( )
x
KPStep
:=
Guess value for span length
z 0 1 ,
Length
KPStep
.. := Two environmental conditions are considered.
This integer is used to store the values for the pair.
Integer for calculation points y 0 1 .. :=
kp
z
z KPStep := Holds the vectors for operating (VIV) and design (ULS) values c 0 1 .. :=
3.2 Submerged Weight Calculation
Wall thickness t
2
x ( ) t
nom
x ( ) CA t
corr
x ( ) := Inside Diameter D
i
x ( ) D
o
x ( ) 2 t
nom
x ( ) t
int
x ( ) + ( ) :=
Used for ULS checks
Total Diameter D
t
x ( ) D
o
x ( ) 2 t
cc
x ( ) + 2 t
wc
x ( ) + 2 t
mar
x ( ) + := Concrete Diameter D
c
x ( ) D
o
x ( ) 2 t
cc
x ( ) + 2 t
wc
x ( ) + ( ) :=
Concrete diameter is used for flow velocity calculations - velocities are calculated at the pipe centreline,
which will not be moved relative to the seabed by the addition of marine growth.
Steel Inner Diameter D
si
x ( ) D
i
x ( ) 2 t
int
x ( ) + :=
Second Moment of area
Of Steel
l
s
z

D
o
kp
z
( )
4
D
si
kp
z
( )
4

64
:= Second Moment of area
Of Concrete
l
conc
x ( )
D
c
x ( )
4
D
c
x ( ) 2 t
wc
x ( ) ( )
4

64
:=
Area of steel A
s
x ( )

4
D
o
x ( )
2
D
si
x ( )
2

|
\
|
.
:= Weight of steel W
s
x ( ) A
s
x ( )
s
g L
pj
:=
A
i
x ( )

4
D
i
x ( )
2
:=
Internal Cross Section Area Weight of Contents W
c
x c , ( )
c
x ( )
op
x ( ) c 0 = if

des
x ( ) c 1 = if

Wc A
i
x ( )
c
x ( ) g L
pj

Wc
:=
W
ic
x ( )

4
D
si
x ( )
2
D
i
x ( )
2

|
\
|
.

int
x ( ) g L
pj
:=
Weight of Internal Coating
Weight of Field Joint W
fj
x ( )

4
D
c
x ( )
2
D
o
x ( ) 2 t
cc
x ( ) + ( )
2


fj
g 2 FJ :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 28/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Weight of Corrsion Coat W
cc
x ( )

4
D
o
x ( ) 2 t
cc
x ( ) + ( )
2
D
o
x ( )
2


cc
x ( ) g L
pj
:=
Buoyancy per metre F
b
x ( )

4
D
t
x ( )
2

w
x ( ) g := Buoyancy per joint F
Buoy
x ( ) F
b
x ( ) L
pj
:=
Weight of Concrete Coating W
wc
x ( )

4
D
c
x ( )
2
D
o
x ( ) 2 t
cc
x ( ) + ( )
2


wc
x ( ) g L
pj
2 FJ ( ) :=
Weight of Marine Growth W
m
x ( )

4
D
t
x ( )
2
D
c
x ( )
2

|
\
|
.

mar
x ( ) g L
pj
:=
Span Gap e
0
x ( ) e
0
D
c
x ( ) :=
Submerged Weight
(passed into a vector)
Wsub x c , ( )
W
c
x c , ( ) W
s
x ( ) + W
cc
x ( ) + W
m
x ( ) + W
wc
x ( ) + W
ic
x ( ) + W
fj
x ( ) + F
Buoy
x ( )
L
pj
:=
W
sub
z c ,
Wsub kp
z
c , ( ) :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 29/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
0
20
40
60
80
37.2
37.4
37.6
37.8
Normal Wall Thickness
Anti-corrosion Coating Thickness
Concrete Coating Thickness
Internal Coating Thinkness
Corrosion Allowance
Water Depth
Wall Thickness
Distance Along Pipeline (km)
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

(
m
m
)
W
a
t
e
r

D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 30/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
37.2
37.4
37.6
37.8
Operating Pressure
Design Pressure
Water Depth
Pressure Profile
Distance Along Pipeline (km)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
b
a
r
g
)
W
a
t
e
r

D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 31/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
0
5
10
15
20
37.2
37.4
37.6
37.8
Operating Temperature
Design Temperature
Ambient Temperature
Water Depth
Temperature Profile
Distance Along Pipeline (km)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
W
a
t
e
r

D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 32/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
987
987.417
987.833
988.25
988.667
989.083
989.5
Submerged Weight (VIV)
Submerged Weight (ULS)
Submerged Weight
Distance Along Pipeline (km)
S
u
b
m
e
r
g
e
d

W
e
i
g
h
t

(
k
N
)
3.3 Required Values
Section 6.2.5 Page 30 Ref. [1]
Concrete Stiffness Enhancement Factor CSF x ( ) k
c
x ( )
E
c
l
conc
x ( )
E l
s
KP x ( )

\
|
|
|
.
0.75
:=
Effective Mass m
e
Ca x , c , ( )
W
sub
KP x ( ) c ,
F
b
x ( ) +
g
Ca

4
D
t
x ( ) ( )
2

w
x ( ) + :=
P
cr
L x , ( )
1 CSF x ( ) + ( ) C
2

2
E l
s
KP x ( )

(
(

L
2
:= Section 1.14.1 Page 11 Ref. [1]
Critical Buckling Load
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 33/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Leff L K , x , ( ) L
log
K 30 D
o
x ( ) ( )
4

1 CSF x ( ) + ( ) E l
s
KP x ( )

(
(
(
(

L 30 D
o
x ( ) < if
log
K L
4

1 CSF x ( ) + ( ) E l
s
KP x ( )

(
(
(

L 30 D
o
x ( ) > if

4.73
0.066
2
1.02 + 0.63 +
2.7 > if
4.73
0.036
2
0.61 + 0.63 +
2.7 < if
BC 2 = if
1 BC 2 = if
:= Section 6.7.9 Page 33 Ref. [1]
Function for Effective Span Length
Euler (Bar) buckling length limit Eulerlimit K x , Seff , ( ) 200 D
o
x ( ) ( ) P
op
x ( ) 0 = if
root P
cr
Leff L K , x , ( ) x , ( ) Seff + L , ( ) otherwise
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 34/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
3.4 Effective Axial Force

ax
z
ax kp
z
( ) :=
Axial Friction
Sfr x c , ( ) Pi x ( ) P
op
x ( )
T x c , ( ) max 0 C T
op
x ( ) T
amb
x ( ) , ( ) c 0 = if
max 0 C T
ULS
x ( ) T
amb
x ( ) , ( ) c 1 = if

Seff H
eff
1 2 ( ) Pi x ( )

4
D
i
x ( )
2

e
T x c , ( ) E A
s
x ( ) Seff
input
0 = Wall 1 = . if
H
eff
Pi x ( )

4
D
i
x ( )
2
2 Pi x ( )
A
s
x ( )
4

D
si
x ( )
t
nom
x ( )
1
|

\
|
|
.
+
e
T x c , ( ) E A
s
x ( ) Seff
input
0 = Wall 0 = . if
Seff
man_onset
x ( ) c 0 = if
Seff
man_uls
x ( ) otherwise
Seff
input
1 = if

Seff return
:=
Limiter to ensure no negative
temperature assumed for temporary
cases
Section 6.4.3 Page 31 Ref. [1]
Return a vector for fully restrained
force along the line
S
fr
z c ,
Sfr kp
z
c , ( ) :=
Pipeline Section from KP 0 to KP 2.18
z1 0 1 , round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
.. :=
Total Friction Force available from left hand end
lH1
z1 c ,
if z1 0 >
ax
z1
W
sub
z1 c ,
KPStep
|
\
|
.

lH1
z1 1 c ,
+ , 0 ,

:=
Total Friction Force available from right hand end

rH1
c
( )
fC
y
if y round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
= 0 ,
ax
y
W
sub
y c ,
KPStep fC
y 1 +
+
|
\
|
.
,

(
(

y round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
1 , 0 .. e for :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 35/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
F
ff1
z1 c ,
max
lH1
z1 c ,

rH1
z1 c ,
,
|
\
|
.
:=
Pipeline Section from KP 2.18 to KP 4.36
z2 round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
1 + , round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
.. :=
Total Friction Force available from left hand end
lH2
z2 c ,
if z2 round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
>
ax
z2
W
sub
z2 c ,
KPStep
|
\
|
.

lH2
z2 1 c ,
+ , 0 ,

(
(

:=
Total Friction Force available from right hand end

rH2
c
( )
fC
y
if y round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
= 0 ,
ax
y
W
sub
y c ,
KPStep fC
y 1 +
+
|
\
|
.
,

(
(

y round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
1 , round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
.. e for :=
F
ff2
z2 c ,
max
lH2
z2 c ,

rH2
z2 c ,
,
|
\
|
.
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 36/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Pipeline Section from KP 4.36 to KP 6.55
z3 round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
1 + ,
6550m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
.. :=
Total Friction Force available from left hand end
lH3
z3 c ,
if z3 round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
>
ax
z3
W
sub
z3 c ,
KPStep
|
\
|
.

lH3
z3 1 c ,
+ , 0 ,

(
(

:=
Total Friction Force available from right hand end

rH3
c
( )
fC
y
if y round
6550m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
= 0 ,
ax
y
W
sub
y c ,
KPStep fC
y 1 +
+
|
\
|
.
,

(
(

y round
6550m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
round
6550m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
1 , round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
.. e for :=
F
ff3
z3 c ,
max
lH3
z3 c ,

rH3
z3 c ,
,
|
\
|
.
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 37/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Total Friction Force
F
ff
z c ,
F
ff1
z c ,
0 z s round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
s if
F
ff2
z c ,
round
2180m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
z < round
4360m
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
s if
F
ff3
z c ,
otherwise
:=
Effective axial force is the lesser of friction force or full restraint force. S
eff
z c ,
max F
ff
z c ,
S
fr
z c ,
,
|
\
|
.
:=
0 2 4 6
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Fully Restrained Effective Axial Force
Actual Effective Axial Force
Effective axial force
Effective axial force (kN)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
b
a
r
g
)
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 38/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
WDt x ( ) WD x ( ) T
surge
+ :=
Total Water depth
P
e
x ( ) WDt x ( ) g
w
x ( ) :=
External Pressure
Pipe Surface Roughness k
pipe
x ( ) k
p
0.005m ( ) t
mar
x ( ) 0mm > if
kpipe m otherwise

k
p
:=
Intial Calculation
4.0 Metocean Calculations
4.1 Wave Spectra
Wave Induced Velocities - Heights and Periods
4.1.1 JONSWAP Spectrum
Angular Spectral Peak Frequency
p
Tp ( )
2
Tp
:= JONSWAP Peak
Enhancement Factor

unit
Hs Tp , ( )
Tp
Hs
m
0.5
sec
:= Section 3.3
Peak Enhancement Factor Hs Tp , ( ) if
unit
Hs Tp , ( ) 3.6 s 5 , if 3.6
unit
Hs Tp , ( ) < 5 < e
5.75 1.15
unit
Hs Tp , ( )
, 1 ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
,

:= Section 3.3.3 Page 20 Ref. [1]


Generalised Phillips' Constant
p
Hs Tp , ( )
5
16
Hs
2

p
Tp ( )
4

g
2
1 0.287 ln Hs Tp , ( ) ( ) ( ) :=
Section 3.3.3 Page 20 Ref. [1]
Spectral Width Parameter sigma Tp , ( ) if
p
Tp ( ) s 0.07 , 0.09 , ( ) :=
Wave Number Start value k 1 m
1
:= k x , ( ) root k WD x ( )

2
WD x ( )
g
coth k WD x ( ) ( ) k ,
|

\
|
|
|
.
:= Section 3.3.5
Frequency Transfer Function G x , ( )
cosh k x , ( ) D
c
x ( ) e
0
x ( ) + ( )

sinh k x , ( ) WD x ( ) ( )
k x , ( ) WD x ( ) 707 < if
0 otherwise
:= Section 3.3.5 Page 21 Ref. [1]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 39/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Spectral Density Function S

Hs , Tp , ( )
p
Hs Tp , ( ) g
2

5
e
5
4

p
Tp ( )
|

\
|
|
.
4
Hs Tp , ( )
e
0.5

p
Tp ( )
sigma Tp , ( )
p
Tp ( )
|

\
|
|
.
2

:= Section 3.3.3
Wave induced velocity spectrum S
UU
Hs , Tp , x , ( ) G x , ( )
2
S

Hs , Tp , ( ) :=
Section 3.3.5
Spectral Moments
Section 3.3.6 Page 21 Ref. [1] M0 Hs Tp , x , ( )
0s
1
s
1

S
UU
Hs , Tp , x , ( )
(
(
(
]
d := M2 Hs Tp , x , ( )
0s
1
s
1

S
UU
Hs , Tp , x , ( )
2

(
(
(
]
d :=
Significant Flow Velocity at
Pipe Centreline
Us Hs Tp , x , ( ) 2 M0 Hs Tp , x , ( ) := Section 3.3.6 Page 21 Ref. [1]
Zero Up Crossing Period Tu Hs Tp , x , ( ) 2
M0 Hs Tp , x , ( )
M2 Hs Tp , x , ( )
:= Section 3.4.4 Page 21 Ref. [1]
Wave energy spreading function k
w
s ( )
1

1
s
2
+
|

\
|
|
.

1
2
s
2
+
|

\
|
|
.
:= w s , ( ) k
w
s ( ) cos ( )
s


2
< if
0 otherwise
:=
Wave directionality and
spreading reduction factor
for each wave direction
Section 3.4.3 Page 21 Ref. [1]
R
D

w
x , ( ) RD 0
rd

2
w s , ( ) sin
w
( ) ( )
2

(
(
(
(
]
d
RD rd rd RD > if
s 2 3 , 8 .. e for
:=
1 Year significant wave velocity Uw
1_sig_calc
x ( ) R
D

w_1_sig
x ( ) x , ( ) Us H
S_1
x ( ) T
p_1
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 40/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
1 Year significant wave velocity
T
u_1_sig
x ( ) Tu H
S_1
x ( ) T
p_1
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
10 Year significant wave velocity
Uw
10_sig_calc
x ( ) R
D

w_10_sig
x ( ) x , ( ) Us H
S_10
x ( ) T
p_10
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
10 Year zero up-crossing period T
u_10_sig
x ( ) Tu H
S_10
x ( ) T
p_10
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
100 Year significant wave velocity Uw
100_sig_calc
x ( ) R
D

w_100_sig
x ( ) x , ( ) Us H
S_100
x ( ) T
p_100
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
100 Year zero up-crossing period T
u_100_sig
x ( ) Tu H
S_100
x ( ) T
p_100
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
4.2 Short term wave conditions - Linear Wave Theory
Wave length Tmax x , ( ) root
g
2
tanh
2 WD x ( )

\
|
|
.

\
|
|
.
1
2
Tmax , 1m , 1000m ,

(
(
(
(

:=
Section 3.2.2.3, Page 25 Ref. [5]
Wave Number k Tmax x , ( )
2
Tmax x , ( )
:=
Maximum Wave Induced Water Particle
Velocity - calculated at the top of pipe.
Uwmax Hmax Tmax , x , ( ) 0m s
1

Hmax
Tmax
cosh k Tmax x , ( ) D
t
x ( ) ( )

sinh k Tmax x , ( ) WD x ( ) ( ) [ ]
on error := Table 3-1 Section 3.5.2.6, Page 32 Ref. [5]
1 Year maximum wave velocity Uw
1_max_calc
x ( ) R
D

w_1_max
x ( ) x , ( ) Uwmax H
max_1
x ( ) T
max_1
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
10 Year maximum wave velocity Uw
10_max_calc
x ( ) R
D
.
w_10_max
x ( ) x , ( ) Uwmax H
max_10
x ( ) T
max_10
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
100 Year maximum wave velocity Uw
100_max_calc
x ( ) R
D

w_100_max
x ( ) x , ( ) Uwmax H
max_100
x ( ) T
max_100
x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
Wave Induced Velocities - Heights and Periods
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 41/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Wave - Induced Velocities - Input at Given Reference Height
4.3 Wave-Induced Velocity Directional Calculation
Collapse this section if wave heights and periods are input. It is not required, and nor are the results used.
Significant Wave Velocity Maximum Wave Velocity
1 Year Uw
1_sig_dir
x ( ) R
D

w_1_sig
x ( ) x , ( ) Uw1
sig_input
x ( ) := Uw
1_max_dir
x ( ) R
D

w_1_max
x ( ) x , ( ) Uw1
max_input
x ( ) :=
10 Year Uw
10_sig_dir
x ( ) R
D

w_10_sig
x ( ) x , ( ) Uw10
sig_input
x ( ) := Uw
10_max_dir
x ( ) R
D

w_10_max
x ( ) x , ( ) Uw10
max_input
x ( ) :=
100 Year Uw
100_sig_dir
x ( ) R
D

w_100_sig
x ( ) x , ( ) Uw100
sig_input
x ( ) := Uw
100_max_dir
x ( ) R
D

w_100_max
x ( ) x , ( ) Uw100
max_input
x ( ) :=
Significant Wave Velocity Zero Up-Crossing Period
1 Year U
w_1
z
Uw
1_sig_dir
z KPStep ( ) H
S_1
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
Uw
1_sig_calc
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:= T
u_1
z
T
u_1_sig
z KPStep ( ) T
u_1_input
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
T
u_1_input
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:=
10 Year U
w_10
z
Uw
10_sig_dir
z KPStep ( ) H
S_10
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
Uw
10_sig_calc
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:= T
u_10
z
T
u_10_sig
z KPStep ( ) T
u_10_input
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
T
u_10_input
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:=
100 Year U
w_100
z
Uw
100_sig_dir
z KPStep ( ) H
S_100
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
Uw
100_sig_calc
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:= T
u_100
z
T
u_100_sig
z KPStep ( ) T
u_100_input
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
T
u_100_input
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:=
Maximum Wave Velocity
1 Year U
w_max_1
z
Uw
1_max_dir
z KPStep ( ) H
max_1
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
Uw
1_max_calc
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 42/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
10 Year U
w_max_10
z
Uw
10_max_dir
z KPStep ( ) H
max_10
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
Uw
10_max_calc
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:=
100 Year U
w_max_100
z
Uw
100_max_dir
z KPStep ( ) H
max_100
z KPStep ( ) 0 = if
Uw
100_max_calc
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
:=
Wave - Induced Velocities - Input at Given Reference Height
Current Velocities
4.4 Current Velocity Directional Calculation
Reduction Factor R
c

c
( ) sin
c
( ) := Elevation above
seabed
zed x ( )
e
0
x ( ) 0.5 D
c
x ( ) +
m
:= Section 3.4.1 Page 21 Ref. [1]
For current in the inner zone, assuming logarithmic profile - refer to Section 3.2.6 Page 19 Ref. [1]
Average current velocity across the pipe
assuming a total pipe diameter D
t
:
Uc U
c
, z
r
, x , ( ) R
c

c
( ) U
ln zed x ( ) ( ) ln z
o
x ( ) ( )
ln z
r
( ) ln z
o
x ( ) ( )
:= Section 3.2.6 Page 19 Ref. [1]
1 Year Current U
c_1
z
Uc Uc_1 z KPStep ( )
c_1
z KPStep ( ) , z
r_c_1
, z KPStep , ( ) :=
10 Year Current U
c_10
z
Uc Uc_10 z KPStep ( )
c_10
z KPStep ( ) , z
r_c_10
, z KPStep , ( ) :=
100 Year Current U
c_100
z
Uc Uc_100 z KPStep ( )
c_100
z KPStep ( ) , z
r_c_100
, z KPStep , ( ) :=
Current Velocities
5.0 SOIL PARAMETERS
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 43/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Soil Calculation
5.1 Definition of Dynamic and Static Soil Stiffnesses
Crossflow added mass coefficient
C
V
0
( )
C
L
0
( )
K
V
0
( )
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
C
V
C
L
K
V,S
(kN/m
5/2
) (kN/m
5/2
) (kN/m/m)
Loose 10500 9000 250
Medium 14500 12500 530
Dense 21000 18000 1350
Very Soft 600 500 50 - 100
Soft 1400 1200 160 - 260
Firm 3000 2600 500 - 800
Stiff 4500 3900 1000 - 1600
Very Stiff 11000 9500 2000 - 3000
Hard 12000 10500 2600 - 4200
Sand
Clay
Table 7-5 and Table 7-6 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness
for pipe-soil interaction in sand and clay.
Soil Type
:=
Section 4.5.1 Page 27 Ref. [1]
Coeff
CFRES
2
2.5
8
8.5
10
1
5.5
0
0.5
0.5
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:=
KvSTAT x ( ) K
V
Soil x ( )
kN m
2
:=
C
aCF
Vrxf ( ) linterp Coeff
CFRES
0
( )
Coeff
CFRES
1
( )
, Vrxf ,
|
\
|
.
:=
5.2 Modal Damping Ratios NB Simplified soils damping criteria is used for this calculation
soil x ( ) if Soil x ( ) 2 s Soil x ( ) , if Soil x ( ) 4 s 3 , if 4 Soil x ( ) < 6 s 4 , if 6 Soil x ( ) < 8 s 5 , "error" , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) :=
Create correct soil type reference integer
L/D Ratio - to reduce size
of below matrices
R L x , ( )
L
D
t
x ( )
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 44/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Table 7-3 Modal soil damping ratios (in %) for sand.
L/D L/D
<40 100 >160 <40 100 >160
Loose 3.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.4 0.8
Medium 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8
Dense 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8
Horizontal (in-line)
direction
Vertical (cross-flow)
direction
Type
Table 7-4 Modal soil damping ratios (in %) for clay.
L/D L/D
<40 100 >160 <40 100 >160
Very Soft - Soft 4.0 2.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 1.0
Firm - Stiff 2.0 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.8
Very Stiff - Hard 1.4 1.0 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5
Horizontal (in-line)
direction
Vertical (cross-flow)
direction
Clay Type
The values given in Table 7-3 and Table 7-4 above are interpolated below to give accurate soil damping values

s.in
L x , c , ( )
if R L x , ( ) 40 < 3 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 1 , 3
R L x , ( ) 40
60

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

1.5
1.5
if R L x , ( ) 40 < 4 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 1 , 4
R L x , ( ) 40
60

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

if R L x , ( ) 40 < 2 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 0.8 , 2


R L x , ( ) 40
100

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

if R L x , ( ) 40 < 1.4 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 0.6 , 1.4


R L x , ( ) 40
150

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

% :=

s.xf
L x , c , ( )
if R L x , ( ) 40 < 2 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 0.8 , 2
R L x , ( ) 40
100

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

if R L x , ( ) 40 < 1.2 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 0.8 , 1.2


R L x , ( ) 40
300

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

if R L x , ( ) 40 < 1.2 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 0.8 , 1.2


R L x , ( ) 40
300

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

if R L x , ( ) 40 < 3 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 1 , 3


R L x , ( ) 40
60

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

if R L x , ( ) 40 < 1.2 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 0.8 , 1.2


R L x , ( ) 40
300

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

if R L x , ( ) 40 < 0.7 , if R L x , ( ) 160 > 0.5 , 0.7


R L x , ( ) 40
600

\
|
|
.
,

(
(

(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

% :=
Total damping ratios
Section 4.1.9 Page 23 Ref. [1]
Inline
T.inline
L x , c , ( )
str

s.in
L x , c , ( )
soil x ( )
+
h
+ :=
Crossflow
T.xflow
L x , c , ( )
str

s.xf
L x , c , ( )
soil x ( )
+
h
+ :=
Soil Calculation
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 45/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
6.0 ONSET SPAN LENGTHS
6.1 Onset Reduced Velocities
Current flow ratio - Section 4.1.7

t
z
U
c_10
z
U
c_10
z
U
w_1
z
+
:=
o
z
U
c_100
z
U
c_100
z
U
w_1
z
+
:=
Temporary Screening Operating Screening
Screening Current : wave ratio Guidance Note, Section 2.3.1, Page 15 Ref. [1]
Screening Current Uc
scr
z
U
c_10
z
LC
input
0 = if
U
c_100
z
otherwise
:=
scr
z

t
z
LC
input
0 = if

o
z
otherwise
:=
Temporary Onset Operating Onset
Check both 10yr wave / 1yr current and 1yr wave / 10yr current Check both 100yr wave / 10yr current and 10yr wave / 100yr current

oia
z
U
c_1
z
U
c_1
z
U
w_10
z
+
:=
oib
z
U
c_10
z
U
c_10
z
U
w_1
z
+
:=
oa
z
U
c_10
z
U
c_10
z
U
w_100
z
+
:=
ob
z
U
c_100
z
U
c_100
z
U
w_10
z
+
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 46/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Selection of correct wave and current velocities, along with current:wave ratio.
Wave induced velocities Current velocities Current : wave ratio
Uw
onset
z y ,
U
w_10
z
y 0 = if
U
w_1
z
y 1 = if
LC
input
0 = if
U
w_100
z
y 0 = if
U
w_10
z
y 1 = if
LC
input
1 = if
:= Uc
onset
z y ,
U
c_1
z
y 0 = if
U
c_10
z
y 1 = if
LC
input
0 = if
U
c_10
z
y 0 = if
U
c_100
z
y 1 = if
LC
input
1 = if
:=
on
z y ,

oia
z
y 0 = if

oib
z
y 1 = if
LC
input
0 = if

oa
z
y 0 = if

ob
z
y 1 = if
LC
input
1 = if
:=
1 year / 10 year data if
duration less than 6 months
10 year / 100 year data if
duration longer than 6 months
Buoyancy ratio
sratio
x c , ( )
W
sub
KP x ( ) c ,
F
b
x ( ) +
F
b
x ( )
:= Inline Added Mass Coefficient C
a
x ( ) 0.68
1.6
1 5
e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
+
+
e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
0.8 < if
1 otherwise
:= Section 6.9.1 Page 34 Ref. [1]
Also Section 3.2.15
Page 20 Ref. [1]
6.2 Reduced Velocities
Inline Stability Parameter Cross-Flow Onset Vibration Reduced Velocity
Section 4.4.6 Page 26 Ref. [1]
K
sin
L x , c , ( )
4 m
e
C
a
x ( ) x , c , ( )
T.inline
L x , c , ( )

w
x ( ) D
t
x ( ) ( )
2

k
x c , ( )
:=
proxi
x ( )
1
5
4 1.25
e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
+
|

\
|
|
.

e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
0.8 < if
1 otherwise
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 47/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
In-line Onset Vibration Reduced Velocity Section 4.3.5 Page 24 Ref. [1] Section 4.4.7 Page 26 Ref. [1]
V
RILon
L x , c , ( )
1.0

onIL
c
K
sin
L x , c , ( ) 0.4 < if
0.6 K
sin
L x , c , ( ) +

onIL
c
0.4 K
sin
L x , c , ( ) < 1.6 < if
2.2

onIL
c
otherwise
:= ID x ( ) dD min
1.25 dtrench x ( ) e
0
x ( )
D
o
x ( )
1 ,
|

\
|
|
.
dtrench x ( ) 0m > if
dD 0 dtrench x ( ) 0m s if
:=

trench
x ( ) 1 0.5 ID x ( ) + :=
V
RCFon
x c , ( )
3
proxi
x ( )
trench
x ( )

onCF
c
:=
Crossflow Stability Parameter Section 4.1.8 Page 23 Ref. [1]
K
scf
L x , c , ( )
4 m
e
C
aCF
V
RCFon
x c , ( ) ( ) x , c , ( )
T.xflow
L x , c , ( )

w
x ( ) D
t
x ( ) ( )
2

k
x c , ( )
:=
Section 7.4.10 Page 37 Ref. [1]
Modified Soil Stiffnesses
Inline K
IL
x c , ( ) C
L
Soil x ( )
kN m
2.5
1
soil
x ( ) + ( )
2
3

sratio
x c , ( )
1
3
+
|

\
|
|
.
D
t
x ( ) := Crossflow K
CF
x c , ( )
C
V
Soil x ( )
kN m
2.5

1
soil
x ( )
2
3

sratio
x c , ( )
1
3
+
|

\
|
|
.
D
t
x ( ) :=
6.3 Inline Vibration Onset Span Lengths
Simplify formulae m
e_IL
z
m
e
C
a
kp
z
( ) kp
z
, 0 , ( ) := L
eff_IL
L x , ( ) Leff L K
IL
x 0 , ( ) , x , ( ) := Eul
IL
z
Eulerlimit K
IL
kp
z
0 , ( ) kp
z
, S
eff
z 0 ,
, |
\
|
.
:=
The frequency is a function of the loadcase (represented by x), the span length (L) and the environmental conditions (y). Static deflection ignored for inline direction
Inline Structural Frequency Section 6.7.2 Page 32 Ref. [1] Inline Onset Frequency Section 4.1.5 Page 23 Ref. [1]
IL1 L x , ( ) C
1
1 CSF x ( ) +
E l
s
KP x ( )

m
e_IL
KP x ( )
L
eff_IL
L x , ( )
4

1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 0 ,
P
cr
L
eff_IL
L x , ( ) x , ( )
+
|

\
|
|
|
.
:= IL2 L x , y , ( )
f
x 0 , ( )
Uc
onset
KP x ( ) y ,
Uw
onset
KP x ( ) y ,
+
V
RILon
L x , 0 , ( ) D
t
x ( )
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 48/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
At the onset of VIV the two frequencies are equal. The other boolean expressions assist in making the calculation robust
Given Im L ( ) 0 = L 0m > L Eul
IL
KP X ( )
< IL1 L X , ( ) IL2 L X , Y , ( ) = LILon L X , Y , ( ) Find L ( ) :=
Find the minimum span length from the two environmental conditions for each loadcase
LILon
err
z y ,
1000m Lil 30m z 0 = if
Lil LILon
err
z 1 y ,
otherwise
Lil2 LILon Lil z KPStep , y , ( ) return
on error :=
IL2 15m 0.5km , y , ( )
1.52
1.27
|

\
|
|
.
s
1.00
=
L
ILon_mat
z y ,
LILon
err
z y ,
0.999 Re
IL1 LILon
err
z y ,
kp
z
,
|
\
|
.
IL2 LILon
err
z y ,
kp
z
, y ,
|
\
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
< 1.001 < if
1000m LILon
err
z y ,
+ otherwise
:= L
ILon
z
min L
ILon_mat
z 0 ,
L
ILon_mat
z 1 ,
,
|
\
|
.
:=
Due to the nature of the equations specified by DNV, a solution is not always attainable. The Find command may not therefore always return a solution.
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 49/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
20.5
20.65
20.8
Inline Span Length (Onset Criteria)
Inline Vibration Onset Span Lengths
KP (km)
M
i
n
i
m
u
m

A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

S
p
a
n

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
Represent above results in graphical form
6.4 Crossflow Vibration Onset Span Lengths
Deflection Load per unit length, taken as weight per unit length q
z c ,
W
sub
z c ,
:= Section 6.7.2 and Section 6.7.7 Page 32-33 Ref. [1]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 50/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Simplify formulae m
e_CF
x ( ) m
e
C
aCF
V
RCFon
x 0 , ( )
( ) x , 0 , ( ) := L
eff_CF
L x , ( ) Leff L K
CF
x 0 , ( ) , x , ( ) := Eul
CF
z
Eulerlimit K
CF
kp
z
0 , ( ) kp
z
, S
eff
z 0 ,
, |
\
|
.
:=
Crossflow Structural Frequency
CF1 L x , ( ) C
1
1 CSF x ( ) +
E l
s
KP x ( )

m
e_CF
x ( ) L
eff_CF
L x , ( )
4

1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 0 ,
P
cr
L
eff_CF
L x , ( ) x , ( )
+ C
3
C
6
q
KP x ( ) 0 ,
L
eff_CF
L x , ( )
4

E l
s
KP x ( )
1 CSF x ( ) + ( )

1
1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 0 ,
P
cr
L
eff_CF
L x , ( ) x , ( )
+
|

\
|
|
|
|
.

D
t
x ( )

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

2
+

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

:=
Crossflow Onset Frequency CF2
z y ,

f
kp
z
0 , ( )
Uc
onset
z y ,
Uw
onset
z y ,
+
V
RCFon
kp
z
0 , ( ) D
t
kp
z
( )
:= Section 4.1.5 Page 23 Ref. [1]
At the onset of VIV the two frequencies are equal. The other boolean expressions assist in making the calculation robust
Given L 0m > CF1 L X , ( ) CF2
KP X ( ) Y ,
= L Eul
CF
KP X ( )
< Im L ( ) 0 =
L
CF1 L X , ( )
d
d
0 < LCFon L X , Y , ( ) Find L ( ) :=
Solve to find onset length
LCFon
err
z y ,
1000m Lcf 30m z 0 = if
Lcf LCFon
err
z 1 y ,
otherwise
LCFon Lcf z KPStep , y , ( ) return
on error :=
L
CFon_mat
z y ,
LCFon
err
z y ,
0.999 Re
CF1 LCFon
err
z y ,
kp
z
,
|
\
|
.
CF2
z y ,
|

\
|
|
|
.
< 1.001 < if
1000m LCFon
err
z y ,
+ otherwise
:= L
CFon
z
min L
CFon_mat
z 0 ,
L
CFon_mat
z 1 ,
,
|
\
|
.
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 51/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
26.6
26.75
26.9
CrossFlow Span Length (Onset Criteria)
Crossflow Vibration Onset Span Lengths
KP (km)
M
i
n
i
m
u
m

A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

S
p
a
n

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
6.0 SCREENING
Screening Criteria
6.1 Inline
Compare Frequency calculation for effective span length and actual span length Section 2.3.3 Page 15 Ref. [1]
ILscr L x , ( )
Uc
scr
KP x ( )
V
RILon
L x , 0 , ( ) D
t
x ( )
1
L
250 D
t
x ( )

\
|
|
.

scr
KP x ( )

IL
:= Range of Applicability Table 1.1
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 52/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Given Im L ( ) 0 = ILscr L X , ( ) IL1 L X , ( ) = 0m L
eff_IL
L X , ( ) < 200 D
o
X ( ) s L 0m >
L
IL1 L X , ( )
d
d
|

\
|
|
.
0 < L Eul
IL
KP X ( )
< Lilsc L X , ( ) Find L ( ) :=
LILscr
err
z
1000m Lil 25m z 0 = if
Lil LILscr
err
z 1
otherwise
Lilsc Lil z KPStep , ( ) return
on error := L
ILscr
z
LILscr
err
z
0.999 Re
ILscr LILscr
err
z
kp
z
,
|
\
|
.
IL1 LILscr
err
z
kp
z
,
|
\
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
< 1.001 < if
1000m LILscr
err
z
+ otherwise
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 53/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
22.3
22.35
22.4
22.45
22.5
Inline Span Length (Screening Criteria)
Inline Vibration Screening Span Lengths
KP (km)
M
i
n
i
m
u
m

A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

S
p
a
n

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
6.2 Crossflow
Crossflow screening requirement CFsrc
z
Uc
scr
z
U
w_1
z
+
V
RCFon
z KPStep 0 , ( ) D
t
z KPStep ( )

CF
:= Section 2.3.4 Page 15 Ref. [1]
Given CFsrc
KP X ( )
CF1 L X , ( ) = L 0m >
L
CF1 L X , ( )
d
d
|

\
|
|
.
0 < L Eul
IL
KP X ( )
< Im L ( ) 0 = Lxfsc L X , ( ) Find L ( ) :=
LCFscr
err
z
1 m Lcf 30m z 0 = if
Lcf LCFscr
err
z 1
otherwise
Lxfsc Lcf z KPStep , ( ) return
on error := L
CFscr
z
LCFscr
err
z
0.999 Re
CF1 LCFscr
err
z
z KPStep ,
|
\
|
.
CFsrc
z
|

\
|
|
|
.
< 1.001 < if
1000m LCFscr
err
z
+ otherwise
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 54/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
25.8
25.838
25.875
25.913
25.95
Crossflow Span Length (Screening Criteria)
Crossflow Vibration Screening Span Lengths
KP (km)
M
i
n
i
m
u
m

A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

S
p
a
n

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
Screening Criteria
7.0 SIMPLIFIED ULS CRITERION CHECK
ULS Criteria
7.1 Current Conditions
Dynamic stress calculations consider significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. Static (or instantaneous) stresses, are found using maximum wave
velocities and associated periods. Code requirement is that the worse of 100yr wave / 1yr current or 1yr wave / 100yr current is considered for the operating case
(Section 2.5.5). 100 year return period can be reduced to 10 year if duration of loadcase is less than 6 months.
Currents Significant Wave velocity Significant Wave Heading
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 55/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Uc
ULS
z y ,
U
c_1
z
y 0 = if
U
c_100
z
LC
input
1 = if
U
c_10
z
otherwise
y 1 = if
:= Uw
sigULS
z y ,
U
w_1
z
y 1 = if
U
w_100
z
LC
input
1 = if
U
w_10
z
otherwise
y 0 = if
:=
rel_sig
z y ,

w_1_sig
z KPStep ( ) y 1 = if

w_100_sig
z KPStep ( ) LC
input
1 = if

w_10_sig
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
y 0 = if
:=
Spectral Peak Periods Maximum Wave Heading
Tu
ULS
z y ,
T
u_1
z
y 1 = if
T
u_100
z
LC
input
1 = if
T
u_10
z
otherwise
y 0 = if
:=
rel_max
z y ,

w_1_max
z KPStep ( ) y 1 = if

w_100_max
z KPStep ( ) LC
input
1 = if

w_10_max
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
y 0 = if
:=
Single Wave Associated Period
Uw
maxULS
z y ,
U
w_max_1
z
y 1 = if
U
w_max_100
z
LC
input
1 = if
U
w_max_10
z
otherwise
y 0 = if
:= Tw
maxULS
z y ,
T
max_1
z KPStep ( ) y 1 = if
T
max_100
z KPStep ( ) LC
input
1 = if
T
max_10
z KPStep ( ) otherwise
y 0 = if
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 56/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Combined Current Velocity Utot
ULS
z y ,
Uc
ULS
z y ,
Uw
sigULS
z y ,
+ :=
Flow Regime Velocity ratio
ULS
x y , ( )
Uc
ULS
KP x ( ) y ,
Utot
ULS
KP x ( ) y ,
:= KC No. KC
uls
x y , ( )
Uw
sigULS
KP x ( ) y ,
D
t
x ( )
Tu
ULS
KP x ( ) y ,
:=
Limiting span for which
results can be found
Euler
limit
x ( ) min 200 D
o
x ( ) Eulerlimit KvSTAT x ( ) x , S
eff
KP x ( ) 1 ,
,
|
\
|
.
, |
\
|
.
:=
Unit Diameter Stress Amplitude
A
IL
L x , ( ) C
4
L Leff L KvSTAT x ( ) , x , ( ) , ( )
1 CSF x ( ) + ( ) D
t
x ( ) D
o
x ( ) t
nom
x ( ) ( ) E
L
2
:= Section 6.7.5 Page 33 Ref. [1]
Inline
Cross - flow A
CF
L x , ( ) C
4
L Leff L KvSTAT x ( ) , x , ( ) , ( )
1 CSF x ( ) + ( ) D
t
x ( ) D
o
x ( ) t
nom
x ( ) ( ) E

L
2
:=
7.2 Cross Flow Response Model Section 4.4.4 RP F105
Simplify Formulae me
CFULS
x ( ) m
e
C
aCF
V
RCFon
x 1 , ( )
( ) x , 1 , ( ) := Leff
CFULS
L x , ( ) Leff L K
CF
x 1 , ( ) , x , ( ) :=
CFULS L x , ( ) C
1
1 CSF x ( ) +
E l
s
KP x ( )

me
CFULS
x ( ) Leff
CFULS
L x , ( )
4

1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 1 ,
P
cr
Leff
CFULS
L x , ( ) x , ( )
+ C
3
C
6
q
KP x ( ) 1 ,
Leff
CFULS
L x , ( )
4

E l
s
KP x ( )
1 CSF x ( ) + ( )

1
1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 1 ,
P
cr
Leff
CFULS
L x , ( ) x , ( )
+
|

\
|
|
|
|
.

D
t
x ( )

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

2
+

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 57/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Reconstructing Figure 4-4 Section 4.4.3 Page 25 Ref. [1] Plateaux definition
Az1 x y , ( )
az1 0.9 fn
12
15 < if
az1 0.9 0.5 fn
12
1.5 ( ) + 1.5 fn
12
s 2.3 s if
az1 1.3 2.3 fn
12
< if

ULS
x y , ( ) 0.8 > if
az1 0.9 KC
uls
x y , ( ) 30 > if
az1 0.7 0.01 KC
uls
x y , ( ) 10 ( ) + 10 KC
uls
x y , ( ) s 30 s if
az1 0.7 KC
uls
x y , ( ) 10 < if

ULS
x y , ( ) 0.8 s if
az1 D
t
x ( )
:=
V
Rx
L z , y , ( ) 0
Utot
ULS
z y ,
CFULS L z KPStep , ( ) D
t
z KPStep ( )

f
z KPStep 1 , ( )
( ) on error :=
V
RCF1
x y , ( ) 7
7 V
RCFon
x 1 , ( )
1.15
1.3
Az1 x y , ( )
D
t
x ( )

\
|
|
.
:=
V
CFR2
x y , ( ) 16
7
13
|

\
|
|
.
Az1 x y , ( )
D
t
x ( )
:=
Reduced velocity Section 4.1.5 Page 23 Ref. [1]
AyCF1 x y , ( )
2.0
V
RCFon
x 1 , ( )
V
RCF1
x y , ( )
V
CFR2
x y , ( )
16
0
0.15
Az1 x y , ( )
D
t
x ( )
Az1 x y , ( )
D
t
x ( )
0
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:=
Vector representing five 'points'
of Figure 4.4 Page 25 Ref. [1]
Translate the function into a matrix Ay
CF1
z y ,
AyCF1 z KPStep y , ( ) :=
Obtain a point along the 'curve' on
Figure 4-4 Page 25 Ref. [1] for each
wave/current velocity
AyCF L z , y , ( ) 0 V
Rx
L z , y , ( ) 2 < if
max 0 linterp Ay
CF1
z y ,
|
\
|
.
0
( )
Ay
CF1
z y ,
|
\
|
.
1
( )
, V
Rx
L z , y , ( ) ,

(
(

(
(

otherwise
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 58/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
7.3 Inline Response Model Section 4.3.5 Page 24 Ref. [1]
Correction for unsteadiness of flow Section 5.4.5 Page 29 Ref. [1] Correction for proximity to fixed boundary Section 5.4.6
Page 30 Ref. [1]

KC
x y , ( )
0.85 0.15 +

ULS
x y , ( )
2

ULS
x y , ( ) 0.5 s if
0.6 0.15 + otherwise
KC
uls
x y , ( ) 40 > if
0.85
6
KC
uls
x y , ( )
+

ULS
x y , ( )
2

ULS
x y , ( ) 0.5 s if
0.6
6
KC
uls
x y , ( )
+ otherwise
40 KC
uls
x y , ( ) > 5 > if
KC
uls
x y , ( )
5
1.05

ULS
x y , ( )
2
1 +
|

\
|
|
.

ULS
x y , ( ) 0.5 s if
KC
uls
x y , ( )
5
0.8 1 + otherwise
otherwise
:=

prox_CD
x ( ) 0.9
0.5
1 5
e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
+
+
e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
0.8 < if
1 otherwise
:=
Correction for trenching effects Section 5.4.7
Page 30 Ref. [1]

trench_CD
x ( ) 1
2
3
ID x ( ) :=
Correction for crossflow vibrations Section 5.4.8
Page 30 Ref. [1]

VIV_CD
L z , y , ( ) 1 1.043 2 AyCF L z , y , ( ) ( )
0.65
+ :=
Basic coefficient for steady flow Section 5.4.4
Page 29 Ref. [1]
C
dkD
x ( ) 0.65
k
pipe
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
10
4
< if
0.65
29
13
4
13
log
k
pipe
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
+
|

\
|
|
.
10
4 k
pipe
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
< 10
2
< if
1.05
k
pipe
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
10
2
> if
:=
Total Drag Coefficient Section 5.4.3 Page 29 Ref. [1]
C
D
L x , y , ( ) C
dkD
x ( )
KC
x y , ( ) ( )
prox_CD
x ( )
trench_CD
x ( )
VIV_CD
L KP x ( ) , y , ( ) :=
Translate the function into a matrix
Structural frequency, Section 5.4.3
Page 29 Ref. [1]
ILULS L x , ( ) C
1
1 CSF x ( ) +
E l
s
KP x ( )

m
e
C
a
x ( ) x , 1 , ( ) Leff L K
IL
x 1 , ( ) , x , ( )
4

1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 1 ,
P
cr
Leff L K
IL
x 1 , ( ) , x , ( ) x , ( )
+
|

\
|
|
|
.
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 59/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Design Reduced Velocity,
Section 4.1.5 Page 23 Ref. [1] V
Rd
L x , y , ( ) 0
Utot
ULS
KP x ( ) y ,
ILULS L x , ( ) D
t
x ( )

f
x 1 , ( )
( )

(
(
(

on error :=
Reduction Factor, Section 4.3.7
Page 25 Ref. [1]

IL
x y , ( ) if
ULS
x y , ( ) 0.5 < 0 , if 0.5
ULS
x y , ( ) s 0.8 <

ULS
x y , ( ) 0.5
0.3
, 1 ,
|

\
|
|
.
,
|

\
|
|
.
:=
Reconstructing Figure 4-2 Page 25 Ref. [1]
Reduction Factors
0 R
I
s 1 s R
I1
x y , ( ) RI min 1
2
2
2
rel_sig
KP x ( ) y ,
|
\
|
.

(
(

I
c
0.03 ( ) 1 ,

(
(

RI1 max RI 0 , ( )
:= R
I2
RI min 1
I
c
0.03
0.17
1 ,
|

\
|
|
.

RI2 max RI 0 , ( )
:=
Normalised VIV
Amplitudes
A
y2
L x , ( ) 0.13 1
min 1.799 K
sin
L x , 1 , ( ) , ( )
1.8

\
|
|
.
R
I2

(
(

D
t
x ( ) := A
y1
L x , y , ( ) D
t
x ( ) max 0.18 1
K
sin
L x , 1 , ( )
1.2

\
|
|
.
R
I1
x y , ( )
A
y2
L x , ( )
D
t
x ( )
,

(
(

:=
Cut-off Velocities V
RIL1
L x , y , ( ) 10
A
y1
L x , y , ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
V
RILon
L x , 1 , ( ) + := V
RILend
L x , ( ) if K
sin
L x , 1 , ( ) 1 < 4.5 0.8 K
sin
L x , 1 , ( ) , 3.7 , ( ) :=
V
RIL2
L x , ( ) V
RILend
L x , ( ) 2
A
y2
L x , ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
:=
Vector representing four
'points' of Figure 4.2
Page 25 Ref. [1]
A
YOD
L x , y , ( )
V
RILon
L x , 1 , ( )
V
RIL1
L x , y , ( )
V
RIL2
L x , ( )
V
RILend
L x , ( )
0
A
y1
L x , y , ( )
D
t
x ( )
A
y2
L x , ( )
D
t
x ( )
0
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= Obtain a 'curve' on Figure 4-2 Page 25 Ref. [1] for each wave/current velocity
AyOD L x , y , ( ) max 0 linterp A
YOD
L x , y , ( )
0
( )
A
YOD
L x , y , ( )
1
( )
, Re V
Rd
L x , y , ( ) ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
,
|
\
|
.
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 60/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
7.4 Stress Calculations
Crossflow damping
reduction factor
R
k
L x , ( ) 1 0.15 K
scf
L x , 1 , ( ) K
scf
L x , 1 , ( ) 4 s if
3.2 K
scf
L x , 1 , ( )
1.5
K
scf
L x , 1 , ( ) 4 > if
:= Section 4.4.8 Page 26 Ref. [1]
Maximum inline unit diameter stress amplitude S
IL
L x , y , ( ) 2 A
IL
L x , ( ) AyOD L x , y , ( )
IL
x y , ( )
s
1
:= Section 4.3.3 Page 24 Ref.[1]
Maximum crossflow unit diameter stress amplitude S
CF
L x , y , ( ) 2 A
CF
L x , ( ) AyCF L KP x ( ) , y , ( ) R
k
L x , ( )
s
1
:= Section 4.4.3 Page 25 Ref. [1]
7.4.1 Inerti a Force Coeffi ci ents
Basic Inertia Coefficient for
free concrete coated pipe
f ( ) 1.6 2 0.5 s if
0.6 otherwise
:= Section 5.4.10
Page 30 Ref. [1]
C
MO
x y , ( ) f
ULS
x y , ( ) ( ) 5
2 f
ULS
x y , ( ) ( ) ( )
KC
uls
x y , ( ) 5 +
+ :=
Correction for Pipe Roughness
Section 5.4.11 Page 30 Ref. [1]

k_CM
x ( ) 0.75 0.434 log
k
pipe
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
:= Correction for Trench
Effects

trench_CM
x ( ) 1
1
3
ID x ( ) :=
Correction for Seabed Proximity Section 5.4.13 Page 30 Ref. [1] Total Coefficient of Inertia Section 5.4.9 Page 30 Ref. [1]

proxi_CM
x ( ) 0.84
0.8
1 5
e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
+
+
e
0
x ( )
D
t
x ( )
0.8 < if
1 otherwise
:= CM x y , ( ) C
MO
x y , ( )
k_CM
x ( )
proxi_CM
x ( )
trench_CM
x ( ) :=
Translate the function into a matrix
Section 5.4.9 Page 30 Ref. [1] C
M
z y ,
CM z KPStep y , ( ) :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 61/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
7.4.2 Peak Combi ned Drag and Inerti a Loadi ng This calculates the static load, and therefore considers the maximum wave and associated period
Horizontal Acceleration Amplitude
Awave z y , ( )
2
Tw
maxULS
z y ,
Uw
maxULS
z y ,
|
\
|
.
:=
Wave Induced Velocity wrt
Wave Phase Angle
Wave Induced Acceleration wrt
Wave Phase Angle
A
wave
z , y , ( ) Awave z y , ( ) ( ) sin ( ) :=
U
wave
z , y , ( ) Uw
maxULS
z y ,
|
\
|
.
cos ( ) :=
Drag Force wrt Wave Phase Angle F
draguls
L z , y , , ( )
1
2

w
z KPStep ( ) D
t
z KPStep ( ) C
D
L kp
z
, y , ( ) U
wave
z , y , ( ) Uc
ULS
z y ,
+ U
wave
z , y , ( ) Uc
ULS
z y ,
+
|
\
|
.

(
(

:=
Inertia Force wrt Wave Phase Angle
FM z y , , ( )

4

w
z KPStep ( ) D
t
z KPStep ( ) ( )
2
C
M
z y ,
|
\
|
.
A
wave
z , y , ( ) :=
Horizontal Force (Drag + Inertia)
FH L , z , y , ( ) F
draguls
L z , y , , ( ) FM z y , , ( ) + :=
The maximum horizontal hydrodynamic
force occurs when the first derivative is
equal to zero.
FH
max
L z , y , ( ) fd
1
2

w
z KPStep ( ) D
t
z KPStep ( ) C
D
L kp
z
, y , ( )
fm

4

w
z KPStep ( ) D
t
z KPStep ( ) ( )
2
C
M
z y ,
|
\
|
.

fh
i
fd U
wave
z , y , ( ) Uc
ULS
z y ,
+ U
wave
z , y , ( ) Uc
ULS
z y ,
+
|
\
|
.

fm A
wave
z , y , ( ) ( ) +
i i 1 +
0deg 2deg , 90deg .. e for
max fh ( ) return
:=
Static Span effective Length
Leff
ULS
L x , ( ) Leff L KvSTAT x ( ) , x , ( ) :=
Resultant Moment M
wave
L x , y , ( ) C
5
L Leff
ULS
L x , ( ) , ( )
FH
max
L KP x ( ) , y , ( ) Leff
ULS
L x , ( )
2

1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 1 ,
P
cr
Leff
ULS
L x , ( ) x , ( )
+
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
.
:=
Section 6.7.6 / 6.7.10 Page 33 Ref. [1]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 62/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Associated Stress
FM_MAX
L x , y , ( )
M
wave
L x , y , ( ) D
o
x ( ) t
2
x ( ) ( )
2 l
s
KP x ( )

:= Section 2.5.8 Page 17 Ref. [1]

dynIN
L x , y , ( )
1
2
max 0.4 S
CF
L x , y , ( ) ( )
A
IL
L x , ( )
A
CF
L x , ( )
S
IL
L x , y , ( ) ,

(
(


FM_MAX
L x , y , ( ) + :=
Dynamic Inline Bending Stress Section 2.5.12 Page 18 Ref. [1]
Dynamic Crossflow Bending Stress
dynCF
L x , y , ( )
1
2
S
CF
L x , y , ( ) ( ) :=
Section 2.5.8 Page 17 Ref. [1]
7.4.3 Peak Combi ned Drag and Inerti a Loadi ng
Calculates the static load, and therefore considers the maximum wave and associated period
Static, Functional [Vertical] Bending
Moment due to Submerged Weight
M
func
L x , ( ) C
5
L Leff
ULS
L x , ( ) , ( )
W
sub
KP x ( ) 1 ,
Leff
ULS
L x , ( )
2

1
S
eff
KP x ( ) 1 ,
P
cr
Leff
ULS
L x , ( ) x , ( )
+
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
.

fLC

c
:= Section 6.7.10 Page 33 Ref. [1]
Environmental [Horizontal] Bending
Moment due to in-line VIV
Section 2.5.7 / Section 2.5.8 Page 17 Ref. [1]
M
DILVIV
L x , y , ( )
dynIN
L x , y , ( )
2 l
s
KP x ( )

D
o
x ( ) t
nom
x ( )
|

\
|
|
|
.

(
(
(

E
:=
Environmental [Vertical] Bending
Moment due to cross-flow VIV
M
DCFVIV
L x , y , ( )
dynCF
L x , y , ( )
2 l
s
KP x ( )

D
o
x ( ) t
nom
x ( )
|

\
|
|
|
.

(
(
(

E
:= Section 2.5.7 / Section 2.5.8 Page 17 Ref. [1]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 63/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
7.5 Preliminary Load-Controlled Combined Loading Check Calculations
Operating Temperature for Stress De-Rating (Valid for Toper < 200
o
C)
Yield strength temperature de-rating Taken from Section 5, B604 if no other information exists
Yield Stress Temperature De-rating f
y_temp
x ( ) if
T
ULS
x ( )
C
50 < 0 , if
T
ULS
x ( )
C
100 s
T
ULS
x ( )
C
50
|

\
|
|
.
0.6 ,
T
ULS
x ( )
C
100
|

\
|
|
.
0.4

(
(

30 + ,

(
(

(
(

MPa :=
Tensile Stress Temperature De-rating f
u_temp
x ( ) if
T
ULS
x ( )
C
50 < 0 , if
T
ULS
x ( )
C
100 s
T
ULS
x ( )
C
50
|

\
|
|
.
0.6 ,
T
ULS
x ( )
C
100
|

\
|
|
.
0.4

(
(

30 + ,

(
(

(
(

MPa :=
Characteristic Yield Strength f
y
x ( ) SMYS f
y_temp
x ( ) ( )
U
:= Equation 5.5 Section 5 C302 - Page 44 Ref. [2]
Characteristic Tensile Strength f
u
x ( ) SMTS f
u_temp
x ( ) ( )
U
:= Equation 5.6 Section 5 C302 - Page 44 Ref. [2]
Design Moment M
Sd
L x , y , ( ) M
func
L x , ( ) M
DCFVIV
L x , y , ( ) + ( )
2
M
DILVIV
L x , y , ( )
2
+ := Equation 4.5 Section 4 G201 - Page 39 Ref. [2]
Design differential effective axoiavle froprrceessure S
Sd
x ( ) S
eff
KP x ( ) 1 ,
|
\
|
.

fLC

c
:= Equation 4.7 Section 4 G201 - Page 39 Ref. [2]
Design differential overpressure p
d
x ( ) p
ldULS
x ( ) P
e
x ( ) ( ) :=
Characteristic plastic
moment resistance
M
p
x ( ) f
y
x ( ) D
o
x ( ) t
2
x ( ) ( )
2
t
2
x ( ) := Equation 5.21 Section 5 D605 - Page 48 Ref. [2]
Characteristic plastic axial
force resistance
S
p
x ( ) f
y
x ( ) D
o
x ( ) t
2
x ( ) ( ) t
2
x ( ) := Equation 5.20 Section 5 D605 - Page 48 Ref. [2]
f
cb
x ( ) min f
y
x ( )
f
u
x ( )
1.15
,
|

\
|
|
.
:=
Limit strength Equation 5.9 Section 5 D202 - Page 38 Ref. [2]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 64/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
p
b
x ( )
2 t
2
x ( )
D
o
x ( ) t
2
x ( )
f
cb
x ( )
2
3
:=
Yield Limit State Equation 5.8 Section 5 D202 - Page 38 Ref. [2]
Plastic Collapse Pressure p
p
x ( ) f
y
x ( )
fab

2 t
2
x ( )
D
o
x ( )
:= Equation 5.11 Section 5 D401 - Page 46 Ref. [2]
7.6 Internal Overpressure
Equation 5.24 - Section 5 D605 Page 48
Ref. [2]
Flow stress parameter Account for effect of D/t ratio

io
x ( ) beta 0.5
D
o
x ( )
t
2
x ( )
15 < if
beta
60
D
o
x ( )
t
2
x ( )

90
15
D
o
x ( )
t
2
x ( )
s 60 s if
beta 0
D
o
x ( )
t
2
x ( )
60 > if
:=
c_io
x ( ) 1
io
x ( ) ( )
io
x ( )
f
u
x ( )
f
y
x ( )
+ :=
p2
x ( ) 1
io
x ( )
p
ldULS
x ( ) P
e
x ( )
p
b
x ( )
0.7 < if
1 3
io
x ( ) 1
p
ldULS
x ( ) P
e
x ( )
p
b
x ( )

\
|
|
.
otherwise
:=
Equation 5.22 - Section 5 D605
Page 48 Ref. [2]
Equation 5.23 - Section 5 D605 Page 48 Ref. [2]
Interaction Ratio Equation 5.19(a) -
Section 5 D607 Page 47 Ref. [2] UC
io
L x , y , ( )
m

SC

M
Sd
L x , y , ( )

c_io
x ( ) M
p
x ( )


m

SC
S
Sd
x ( )

c_io
x ( ) S
p
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
2
+

(
(
(

p2
x ( )
p
ldULS
x ( ) P
e
x ( ) ( )

c_io
x ( ) p
b
x ( )

(
(

2
+ :=
Design Moment for
Internal Overpressure MDio x ( )
1
p2
x ( )
p
ldULS
x ( ) P
e
x ( ) ( )

c_io
x ( ) p
b
x ( )

(
(


m

SC
S
Sd
x ( )

c_io
x ( ) S
p
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
2

m

SC


c_io
x ( ) M
p
x ( ) ( ) :=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 65/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
7.7 External Overpressure
Elastic Collapse Pressure
Characteristic Collapse Pressure Equation 5.10 - Section 5 D401 Page 46
Ref. [2] Equation 5.11 - Section 5 D401
Page 46 Ref. [2]
guess pc 1barg :=
p
el
x ( )
2 E
t
2
x ( )
D
o
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
3

1
2

:=
p
c
x ( ) root pc p
el
x ( ) ( ) pc
2
p
p
x ( )
2

|
\
|
.
pc p
el
x ( ) p
p
x ( ) f
0

D
o
x ( )
t
2
x ( )
pc ,

(
(

:=
Interaction Ratio Equation 5.28(a) - Section 5 D607
Page 48 Ref. [2]
UC
eo
L x , y , ( )
m

SC

M
Sd
L x , y , ( )

c_io
x ( ) M
p
x ( )


m

SC
S
Sd
x ( )

c_io
x ( ) S
p
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
2
+

(
(
(

m

SC
P
e
x ( ) 0 ( )
p
c
x ( )

(
(

2
+ :=
Design moment for
external overpressure
MDeo x ( )
1

m

SC
P
e
x ( ) 0 ( )
p
c
x ( )

(
(


m

SC
S
Sd
x ( )

c_io
x ( ) S
p
x ( )
|

\
|
|
.
2

m

SC


c_io
x ( ) M
p
x ( ) ( ) :=
7.8 Results
Select internal or external overpressure UC L x , y , ( ) if p
ldULS
x ( ) P
e
x ( ) > UC
io
L x , y , ( ) , UC
eo
L x , y , ( ) , ( ) :=
and associated moment M
d
x ( ) if p
ldULS
x ( ) P
e
x ( ) > MDio x ( ) , MDeo x ( ) , ( ) :=
Solve to find Given Im Lu ( ) 0 = UC Lu X , Y , ( ) 1 = Lu 1m > M
func
Lu X , ( ) 0 > LlimULS Lu X , Y , ( ) Find Lu ( ) :=
LULS
z y ,
1 m LU L
CFon
0
z 0 = if
LU LULS
z 1 y ,
otherwise
luls LlimULS LU z KPStep , y , ( )
luls
on error := L
ULS
z
min LULS
z 0 ,
LULS
z 1 ,
,
|
\
|
.
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 66/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
0 2 4 6
47.5
47.6
47.7
47.8
47.9
48
Span Length (ULS Criteria)
Span Lengths Following ULS Criterion
KP (km)
M
i
n
i
m
u
m

A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

S
p
a
n

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
ULS Criteria
8.0 VALIDITY CHECKS / RESULT PROCESSING
Validity Checks / Result Collation / Data Saving
8.1 Validity Checks
Maximum length for response model validity MaxmODL x ( ) 140 D
o
x ( ) := Section 6.7.1 Page 32 Ref [1]
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 67/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
Crossflow deflection
CF
x z , ( ) C
6
W
sub
z 0 ,
L
CFon
z
|
\
|
.
4

E l
s
KP x ( )
1 CSF x ( ) + ( )
1 C
2
S
eff
z 0 ,
L
CFon
z
|
\
|
.
2

1 CSF x ( ) + ( )
2
E l
s
KP x ( )

(
(
(
(

1
:= Section 6.7.7 Page 33 Ref [1]
Max allowable deflection
check
x z , ( ) if
CF
x z , ( ) 2.5 D
t
x ( ) > "Invalid" , "" , ( ) := Section 6.7.1 Page 32 Ref [1]
Section 6.7.1 Page 32 Ref [1]
Check that Euler buckling is not influencing EulerIL x z , ( ) "" if
S
eff
z 0 ,
P
cr
L
ILon
z
x ,
|
\
|
.
0.5 > "" , "Influenced by Euler limit" ,
|

\
|
|
|
.
on error :=
EulerCF x z , ( ) "" if
S
eff
z 0 ,
P
cr
L
CFon
z
x ,
|
\
|
.
0.5 > "" , "Influenced by Euler limit" ,
|

\
|
|
|
.
on error :=
Bar buckling influence
on screening spans
eulils x z , ( ) if
S
eff
z 0 ,
P
cr
L
ILscr
z
x ,
|
\
|
.
0.5 > "" , "Influenced by Euler limit" ,
|

\
|
|
|
.
:= eulcfs x z , ( ) if
S
eff
z 0 ,
P
cr
L
CFscr
z
x ,
|
\
|
.
0.5 > "" , "Influenced by Euler limit" ,
|

\
|
|
|
.
:=
Model length validity limit
on onset spans
mlilo x z , ( ) if L
ILon
z
200 D
o
x ( ) > ">200Do limit" , "" , |
\
|
.
:= mlcfo x z , ( ) if L
CFon
z
200 D
o
x ( ) > ">200Do limit" , "" , |
\
|
.
:=
Model length validity limit
on screening spans
mlils x z , ( ) if L
ILscr
z
200 D
o
x ( ) > ">200Do limit" , "" , |
\
|
.
:= mlcfs x z , ( ) if L
CFscr
z
200 D
o
x ( ) > ">200Do limit" , "" , |
\
|
.
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 68/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
If current flow ratio less
than 0.5 inline VIV can be
ignored
ILVIV
o
z ( ) if
on
z 0 ,
0.5 < "a<0.5 - IL VIV may be ignores" , "" , |
\
|
.
:=
Section 1.9.1 Page 10 Ref [1]
ILVIV
s
z ( ) if
scr
z
0.5 < "a<0.5 - IL VIV may be ignores" , "" , |
\
|
.
:=
If D/t > 45, Load Controlled Check not Valid
Determine which combination of environmental loading has been used bb z ( ) 0 L
ULS
z
LULS
z 0 ,
= if
1 otherwise
:= zz z ( ) 0 L
ILon
z
L
ILon_mat
z 0 ,
= if
1 otherwise
:=
Include in results table z 0 1 ,
Length
KPStep
.. := KP
z
z KPStep := Dt
v
z
if
D
o
KP
z
( )
t
nom
KP
z
( )
45 < "OK" , "Invalid D/t ratio" ,
|

\
|
|
.
:=
lilon
z
if concat mlilo KP
z
z , ( ) EulerIL KP
z
z , ( ) , ILVIV
o
z ( ) , ( ) "" = "OK" , concat mlilo KP
z
z , ( ) EulerIL KP
z
z , ( ) , ILVIV
o
z ( ) , ( ) , ( ) :=
lilscr
z
if concat mlils KP
z
z , ( ) eulils KP
z
z , ( ) , ILVIV
s
z ( ) , ( ) "" = "OK" , concat mlilo KP
z
z , ( ) EulerCF KP
z
z , ( ) , ILVIV
s
z ( ) , ( ) , ( ) :=
lcfon
z
if concat mlcfo KP
z
z , ( ) EulerCF KP
z
z , ( ) ,
check
KP
z
z , ( ) , ( ) "" = "OK" , concat mlcfo KP
z
z , ( ) EulerCF KP
z
z , ( ) ,
check
KP
z
z , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) := aa
z
KP
z
:=
lcfscr
z
if concat mlcfs KP
z
z , ( ) eulcfs KP
z
z , ( ) , ( ) "" = "OK" , concat mlcfs KP
z
z , ( ) eulcfs KP
z
z , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) :=
Create large matrix to pass to output table
results augment KP L
ILon
, L
CFon
, lilon , lcfon , L
ILscr
, L
CFscr
, lilscr , lcfscr , L
ULS
, Dt
v
, ( ) :=
Validity Checks / Result Collation / Data Saving
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 69/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
9.0 RESULTS
Location for Detailed Span results Location 5km :=
Extract Data for Desired Location
loc round
Location
KPStep
|

\
|
|
.
:=
SpanVIV
loc
stack L
ILon
loc
L
CFon
loc
, L
ILscr
loc
, L
CFscr
loc
, "NA" , |
\
|
.
:=
M
env
L x , y , ( ) M
DCFVIV
L x , y , ( )
2
M
DILVIV
L x , y , ( )
2
+ :=
SpanULS
loc
stack "NA" "NA" , "NA" , "NA" , L
ULS
loc
, |
\
|
.
:=
Spans
loc
augment SpanVIV
loc
SpanULS
loc
, ( ) :=
VIV
loc
stack
S
eff
loc 0 ,
kN
Uc
onset
loc zz loc ( ) ,
m s
1

,
Uw
onset
loc zz loc ( ) ,
m s
1

,
on
loc 0 ,
,
W
sub
loc 0 ,
kN m
1

, CSF loc KPStep ( ) , V


RILon
L
ILon
loc
loc KPStep , 0 , |
\
|
.
, V
RCFon
loc KPStep 0 , ( ) ,

CF
loc KPStep zz loc ( ) , ( )
m
,
2.5
,
|

\
:=
ULS
loc
stack
M
func
L
ULS
loc
loc KPStep ,
|
\
|
.
kN m
M
env
L
ULS
loc
loc KPStep , bb loc ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
kN m
,
M
Sd
L
ULS
loc
loc KPStep , bb loc ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
kN m
,
S
eff
loc 1 ,
kN
,
Uc
ULS
loc bb loc ( ) ,
m s
1

,
Uw
maxULS
loc bb loc ( ) ,
m s
1

,
Eulerlimit K
CF
loc KPS ( |
\
,
|

\
:=
SaveLC LC
input
1 , ( ) 0.00 = SaveBC BC 1 , ( ) 2.00 = SaveSEFF Seff
input
1 , ( ) 0.00 =
SaveSteelRough roughness 1 , ( ) 2.00 = SaveSpan_Def Span_Def 1 , ( ) 2.00 = SaveWall Wall 1 , ( ) 1.00 =
Extract Data for Desired Location
9.1 Tabulated Span Lengths
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 70/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
freespan
INLINE CROSSFLOW INLINE CROSSFLOW
0 22.45 25.92 OK OK 47.91 OK
100 22.45 25.91 OK OK 47.89 OK
200 22.45 25.91 OK OK 47.91 OK
300 22.46 25.92 OK OK 47.93 OK
400 22.47 25.93 OK OK 47.96 OK
500 22.46 25.92 OK OK 47.93 OK
600 22.44 25.91 OK OK 47.88 OK
700 22.45 25.91 OK OK 47.89 OK
800 22.45 25.92 OK OK 47.91 OK
900 22.44 25.90 OK OK 47.87 OK
1000 22.42 25.88 OK OK 47.82 OK
1100 22.42 25.88 OK OK 47.82 OK
ULS
RESULTS
CHECK
KP
SCREENING SPAN LIMITS
SCREENING RESULTS
CHECK ULS SPAN
LIMITS
:=
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 71/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
results
9.2 Charted Span Lengths
0 2 4 6
0
10
20
30
40
Inline Screening Span Lengths
Crossflow Screening Span Lengths
ULS Span Lengths
Summary of Allowable Spans Lengths
Distance Along Pipe (km)
M
i
n
i
m
u
m

A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

S
p
a
n

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
L
ILscr
z
L
CFscr
z
L
ULS
z
kp
z
km
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 72/73
APPENDIX 1 - FREE SPAN ANALYSIS - 12INCH PRODUCTION PIPELINE
9.3 Detailed Results at Specified Location
SU TU NAU FIELD DEVELOPMENT
As-Laid Case
12inch Production Pipeline from STN-N (KP0) to STN-S (KP6.55)
VIV ULS
m 22.35 NA
m 25.81 NA
m NA 47.59
0.50
V
RILon
m/s 1.18
Crossflow Onset [Reduced] Velocity
Concrete Stiffness Factor
V
RCFon
m/s 2.19
CSF
0.21
Maximum Allowable Span Length at Location Specified Symbol
Inline Onset [Reduced] Velocity
-----
Submerged Weight
Crossflow Screening Allowable Span Length
ULS Allowable Span Length
----
W
sub
PROJECT
LOADCASE
PIPELINE DESCRIPTION
Onset Steady Current Velocity U
c
m/s
Effective Axial Force
0.99
Onset Wave Induced Velocity U
w
m/s 0.62
Onset current flow ratio 0.25
kN/m
Unit
VIV Onset Allowabe Spans
L
ULS
Load Case
Value Symbol Unit
Inline Screening Allowable Span Length L
ILscr
L
CFscr
S
ef f op
kN 0.00
MPa 15.92
CF
m 0.04
Allowable Deflection
Crossflow Onset Deflection
Crossflow Soil Stiffness K
V
MPa 21.04
Inline Soil Stiffness
max
m 1.26
K
L
0.99
-4.16
Submerged Weight
Pressure Difference
3.51
2.82
Drag Coefficient
Inertia Coefficient
Euler Buckling Limit
ULS Allowabl Spans
Value Unit Symbol
Functional moment
357.09
0.00
0.48
0.30
Environmental moment
Design moment
Effective Axial Force
Steady Current Velocity
Maximum Wave Velocity
64.78
kN.m
kN.m
kN.m
kN
m/s
m/s
m
193.24
210.21
M
f
M
e
M
d
S
ef f ULS
U
c
U
w
----
C
D
C
m
W
sub
P
----
----
kN/m
bar
Detailed_Results "Updated Successfully" =
Appendix 1: Free Span Analysis - 12inch Production Pipeline(As-Laid Case) Page 73/73