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A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.

A vaccine typically
contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or
killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the
body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the
immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later
encounters.
Vaccination (=immunization) is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate the
immune system of an individual to develop adaptiveimmunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or
ameliorate the effects of infection by many pathogens.

Types

Vaccines are dead or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them.
There are several types of vaccines in use.
[6]
These represent different strategies used to try to reduce
risk of illness, while retaining the ability to induce a beneficial immune response.
[edit]Killed
Some vaccines contain killed, but previously virulent, micro-organisms that have been destroyed with
chemicals, heat, radioactivity or antibiotics. Examples are the influenza vaccine, cholera vaccine, bubonic
plague vaccine, polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, and rabies vaccine.
[edit]Attenuated
Some vaccines contain live, attenuated microorganisms. Many of these are live viruses that have been
cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties, or which use closely related but less
dangerous organisms to produce a broad immune response; however, some are bacterial in nature. They
typically provoke more durable immunological responses and are the preferred type for healthy adults.
Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, rubella, and mumps and the bacterial
disease typhoid. The live Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine developed by Calmette and Gurin is not
made of acontagious strain, but contains a virulently modified strain called "BCG" used to elicit an
immune response to the vaccine. The live attenuated vaccine containing strain Yersinia pestis EV is used
for plague immunization. Attenuated vaccines have some advantages and disadvantages. They have the
capacity of transient growth so they give prolonged protection, and no booster dose is required. But they
may get reverted to the virulent form and cause the disease.
[7]

[edit]Toxoid
Main article: Toxoid
Toxoid vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-
organism. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Toxoid vaccines are known
for their efficacy. Not all toxoids are for micro-organisms; for example, Crotalus atrox toxoid is used to
vaccinate dogs against rattlesnake bites.
[edit]Subunit
Protein subunit rather than introducing an inactivated or attenuated micro-organism to an immune
system (which would constitute a "whole-agent" vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune
response. Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the
surface proteins of the virus (previously extracted from the blood serumof chronically infected patients,
but now produced by recombination of the viral genes into yeast), the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine
against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein, and
the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits of the influenza virus. Subunit vaccine is being used for
plague immunization.
[edit]Conjugate
Conjugate certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats that are poorly immunogenic. By linking
these outer coats to proteins (e.g. toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide
as if it were a protein antigen. This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.
[edit]Experimental
A number of innovative vaccines are also in development and in use:
Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the
body's white blood cells, thus stimulating an immune reaction. These vaccines have shown some
positive preliminary results for treating brain tumors.
[8]

Recombinant Vector by combining the physiology of one micro-organism and the DNA of the other,
immunity can be created against diseases that have complex infection processes
DNA vaccination in recent years
[when?]
a new type of vaccine called DNA vaccination, created from
an infectious agent's DNA, has been developed. It works by insertion (andexpression, triggering
immune system recognition) of viral or bacterial DNA into human or animal cells. Some cells of the
immune system that recognize the proteins expressed will mount an attack against these proteins
and cells expressing them. Because these cells live for a very long time, if the pathogen that normally
expresses these proteins is encountered at a later time, they will be attacked instantly by the immune
system. One advantage of DNA vaccines is that they are very easy to produce and store. As of 2006,
DNA vaccination is still experimental.
T-cell receptor peptide vaccines are under development for several diseases using models of Valley
Fever, stomatitis, and atopic dermatitis. These peptides have been shown to
modulate cytokine production and improve cell mediated immunity.
Targeting of identified bacterial proteins that are involved in complement inhibition would neutralize
the key bacterial virulence mechanism.
[9]

While most vaccines are created using inactivated or attenuated compounds from micro-
organisms, synthetic vaccines are composed mainly or wholly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates or
antigens.
[edit]Valence
Vaccines may be monovalent (also called univalent) or multivalent (also called polyvalent). A monovalent
vaccine is designed to immunize against a single antigen or single microorganism.
[10]
A multivalent or
polyvalent vaccine is designed to immunize against two or more strains of the same microorganism, or
against two or more microorganisms.
[11]
In certain cases a monovalent vaccine may be preferable for
rapidly developing a strong immune response.
[12]

Dup mecanismul de aciune
Vaccinuri care acioneaz prin activarea mecanismelor imunitii umorale (producerea activ
de anticorpi specifici de ctre organismul vaccinat). Din aceast categorie fac parte majoritatea
vaccinurilor.
Vaccinuri care acioneaz prin activarea mecanismelor imunitii celulare: vaccinul BCG
(mpotriva tuberculozei).
[modificare]Dup coninutul biologic
Vaccinuri care conin microorganisme vii atenuate
Vaccinuri care conin microorganisme inactivate
Vaccinuri care conin componente microbiene purificate, proteice sau polizaharidice conjugate
proteic
Vaccinuri care conin proteine recombinate
Vaccinuri care conin anatoxine
[modificare]Dup specia int
Vaccinuri de uz uman
Vaccinuri de uz veterinar
CE SE NTMPL CU VACCINUL ODAT INTRAT N ORGANISM?
Odat ajuns n organism, elementele componente ale vaccinului se disociaz. Pe de-o parte,
substana salin, histidina etc. sunt absorbite n snge i eliminate prin urin. n schimb
antigenul vaccinului (bacterii ori virui modificai) este preluat de celule ale sistemului
imunitar, absorbit de acestea, mrunit, iar apoi rmiele sunt transportate la suprafaa
celulelor care cltoresc prin sistemul limfatic ctre nodulii limfatici. Aici multe celule
specializate ale sistemului imunitar vor recunoate "ameninarea" i vor ncepe producerea
de anticorpi specializai mpotriva acesteia. ntregul proces dureaz n jur de 2 sptmni.
Aceasta nseamn c dac avei deja virusul n organism cel mai probabil vaccinul nu va avea
nici o aciune asupra acestuia, cci perioada n care acesta i produce efectele este, aa cum
am spus, de 2 sptmni.

History
Vaccination (Latin: vaccacow) is so named because the first vaccine was derived from a virus affecting
cowsthe relatively benign cowpox viruswhich provides a degree of immunity to smallpox, a
contagious and deadly disease.
Prior to vaccination, inoculation was practised, and brought to the West in 1721 by Lady Mary Wortley
Montagu, who showed it to Hans Sloane, the King's physician.
Sometime during the 1770s Edward Jenner heard a milkmaid boast that she would never have the often-
fatal or disfiguring disease smallpox, because she had already had cowpox, which has a very mild effect
in humans. In 1796, Jenner took pus from the hand of a milkmaid with cowpox, inoculated an 8-year-old
boy with it, and six weeks later variolated the boy's arm with smallpox, afterwards observing that the boy
did not catch smallpox.
[18][19]
Further experimentation demonstrated the efficacy of the procedure on an
infant.
[19]
Since vaccination with cowpox was much safer than smallpox inoculation,
[20]
the latter, though
still widely practiced in England, was banned in 1840.
[21]
Louis Pasteur generalized Jenner's idea by
developing what he called a rabiesvaccine, and in the nineteenth century vaccines were considered a
matter of national prestige, and compulsory vaccination laws were passed.
[18]

In an attempt to eliminate the risk of outbreaks of some diseases, at various times several governments
and other institutions have instituted policies requiring vaccination for all people.

In Romania exista un Program National de Imunizare care include obligatoriu si gratuit urmatoarele vaccinuri
pentru copii si adolescenti
Vaccinuri obligatorii
0-7 zile (in maternitate): Vaccin anti-tuberculos (BCG - bacil Calmette Guerin), vaccin anti-virus hepatitic
B (Hep B)
2 luni (administrate simultan): Vaccin anti-diftero-tetano-pertussis (DTP), Vaccin anti-polio oral
trivalent (VPOT), Hep B
4 luni (administrate simultan): DTP, VPOT
6 luni (administrate simultan): DPT, VPOT, Hep B
9-11 luni: Vaccin anti-rujeolic (Ruj)
12 luni (administrate simultan): DTP, VPOT
30-35 luni: DTP
7 ani (clasa I - campanii scolare): DT, Ruj
9 ani (clasa a III-a - campanii scolare): VPOT, Hep B
14 ani (clasa a VIII-a - campanii scolare): DT, BCG
24 ani si la fiecare 10 ani, ulterior: DT

Vaccinuri obligatorii:
HEP-B vaccinare anti-hepatita B;
BCG vaccinare anti-tuberculoasa;
DTP vaccinare anti-diftero-tetano-pertussis;
VPi vaccinare anti-poliomielitica;
Hib vaccinare anti-haemophilus influenzae de tip b;
ROR vaccinare anti-rubeola, anti-rujeola si anti-oreion;
HPV vaccinare anti-papiloma virus;
BCG vaccinare anti-tuberculoasa;
DT vaccinare antidifterica si antitetanica pentru adulti.


Vaccinuri opionale
Exist variaii de la o ar la alta: unele vaccinri, care sunt obligatorii n unele ri, pot fi
opionale n alte ri. Un exemplu este vaccinarea mpotriva Haemophilus Influenzae de tip B, care
este obligatorie la copii n majoritatea rilor din Uniunea European, dar face parte din categoria
vaccinrilor opionale n Romnia. Vaccinrile din categoria celor cu obligativitate selectiv sunt
opionale pentru populaia care nu corespunde criteriilor de selecie (de ex. vaccinarea
antigripal, obligatorie n Romnia pentru persoanele cu anumite boli cronice i persoanele peste
65 de ani, dar opional pentru celelalte grupe de populaie).

1. Vaccinul contra varicelei (Varilrix) cost n jur de 160 de Ron i se administreaz copiilor ntre 1 an i
12 ani prin injecie subcutanat. El figureaz n lista vaccinrilor obligatorii n multe ri si este posibil s
intre n aceast list i n Romnia curnd. Ca i reacii adverse s-au raportat durere la locul injectrii,
febr (1 copil din 10), erupie de tip varicelos care poate apare pn la o lun de la vaccinare (1 copil din
25). Foarte rar s-au raportat convulsii febrile post-vaccinare. Se poate administra mpreun cu alte
vaccinuri.

2. Vaccinul contra Rotavirus care cauzeaz diaree sever la copil (Rotarix, Rotateq). Acesta cost cam
350 de Ron, se administreaz oral i sunt necesare dou sau trei doze n funcie de tipul vaccinului. Se
va incepe cu o prim administrare la 6 sptmni urmat de a doua administrare la 4 luni i la 6 luni dac
e nevoie. Acest vaccin poate produce iritabilitate, diaree uoar sau vom (rar). El se recomand n
general copiilor care stau la cre sau n alte instituii i nu este o necesitate pentru copilul mic ngrijit
corespunztor acas. i el figureaz n lista vaccinrilor obligatorii din anumite ri.

3. Vaccinul antigripal. Exist mai multe tipuri de vaccin antigripal, la diverse preuri (Vaxigrip costa 30 de
Ron). Este un vaccin injectabil care se administreaz nainte de nceperea sezonului rece i protejeaz
copilul mpotriva virusurilor care circul n anul curent. Ca i reacii adverse poate da durere la locul
injectrii i simptome uoare care sunt similare unei rceli i care dispar n 1-2 zile. Vaccinul se poate
administra de la vrsta de 6 luni.

4. Vaccinul pneumococic conjugat (Prevenar, Synflorix), este un vaccin injectabil care cost n jur de
300 Ron doza. Acesta protejeaz copilul mpotriva infeciei cu pneumococ, 13 dintre cele mai virulente
tulpini. Pneumococul poate cauza otite, pneumonii i chiar meningit (rar) cei mai expui fiind copiii sub 2
ani. n funcie de vrsta copilului n momentul nceperii vaccinrii pot fi necesare 4 doze, 3, 2 sau una
singur pentru copiii mai mari. Ca i reacii adverse pot apar oboseal, durere la locul injectrii,
scderea poftei de mncare (jumtate dintre copii), febr uoar (1 din 3 copii), febr nalt ( 1 din 20 de
copii) , iritabilitate (8 din 10 copii).

5. Vaccinul contra hepatitei A (Havrix Junior) cost n jur de 100 Ron doza, se administreaz injectabil
de la 1 pn la 15 ani i sunt necesare dou doze la interval de 6 luni ntre ele. Hepatita A este relativ
rspndit n Romnia ceea ce face acest vaccin o soluie bun pentru eventualele neplceri ale bolii.
Reaciile adverse pot fi oboseala, durerea de cap (1 copil din 25) scderea apetitului (1 copil din 12).
Acest vaccin are potenial alergizant uor mai ridicat de aceea e bine s fii n preajma unui serviciu
medical n timpul imediat ulterior administrrii vaccinului.


Vaccinuri

Va trebui sa mergi la doctori i sa faci ceva vaccinuri inainte de a pleca in locuri ceva mai exotice.
Ce vaccinuri sunt necesare? Indiferent de destinaie n rile mai putin dezvoltate sunt necesare vaccinuri contra: febrei
tifoide (protecia dureaza 3 ani), meningitei (A+C), difteriei, hepatitei A, Polio, Tetanus si febra galbena dac drumurile te
duc in America de Sud sau Africa. E cinstit s fii avertizat c te vei simi puin ametit dup unele din aceste injecii.

Toate vaccinurile trebuie evaluate de ctre Food and Drug Administration (FDA) din SUA, Agenia
European a Medicamentului (European Medicines Agency, EMA) din Europa, dar i de ctre
ageniile naionale de reglementare din domeniul medical, cum ar fi National Institute for Health
and Clinical Excellence (NICE) din Marea Britanie sau Agenia Naional a Medicamentului i a
Dispozitivelor Medicale (ANMDM) din Romnia. n afara rilor menionate, vaccinurile trebuie
aprobate de ctre autoritile naionale de reglementare competente din rile respective.

VACCINURILE AU REACII ADVERSE, DAR NICI UNA DINTRE ELE NU ESTE LA FEL DE SEVER CA
BOALA IN SINE
VACCINURILE POT CAUZA AUTISM.


ADEVR

NU EXIST DOVEZI TIINIFICE CARE S SUSIN
LEGTURA DINTRE VACCINURI I AUTISM
Nu exist dovezi tiinifice c vreuna dintre formulele de
vaccin determin tulburri de dezvoltare neurologic
precum autismul. Studiile ample din Marea Britanie nu au
identificat dovezi ale efectelor nocive, inclusiv autismul. i
Comitetul Global Consultativ asupra siguranei vaccinurilor
(Global Advisory Committee on Vaccines Safety, GACVC) al
Organizaiei Mondiale a Sntii a recenzat acest aspect i
a conchis n 2002, c nu exist dovezi de toxicitate la
persoanele expuse la coninutul de tiomersal existent n
unele vaccinuri. Oricum, n prezent, vaccinurile moderne nu
contin tiomersal.
Boli care pot fi prevenite prin vaccinare
Tuberculoza
Difteria
Tetanosul
Tusea convulsiva
Poliomielita
Bolile cauzate de Haemophilus influenzae tip B (Hib)
Hepatita B
Hepatita A
Gastroenterita cu rotavirus
Meningita pneumococica
Septicemia
Pneumonia pneumococic
Otita medie
Rujeola
Rubeola
Oreionul
Varicela
Cancerul de col uterin
Gripa sezonier
Febra tifoid
List of vaccines for all countries:
http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/en/globalsummary/ScheduleSelect.cfm

Opposition to vaccination, from a wide array of vaccine critics, has existed since the earliest vaccination
campaigns.
[22]
Although the benefits of preventing suffering and death from serious infectious
diseases greatly outweigh the risks of rare adverse effects followingimmunization,
[23][24]
disputes have
arisen over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, and safety of vaccination. Some vaccination critics say that
vaccines are ineffective against disease
[25]
or that vaccine safety studies are inadequate.
[24][25]
Some
religious groups do not allow vaccination,
[26]
and some political groups oppose mandatory vaccination on
the grounds of individual liberty.
[22]
In response, concern has been raised that spreading unfounded
information about the medical risks of vaccines increases rates of life-threatening infections, not only in
the children whose parents refused vaccinations, but also in other children, perhaps too young for
vaccines, who could contract infections from unvaccinated carriers (see herd immunity).
[27]