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Chapter 9

Deflections of Beams

9.1 Introduction
in this chapter, we describe methods for determining the equation of the
deflection curve of beams and finding deflection and slope at specific points
along the axis of the beam

9.2 Differential Equations of the Deflection Curve


consider a cantilever beam with a
concentrated load acting upward at the free
end
the deflection
in the

is the displacement

direction

the angle of rotation

of the axis

(also called slope) is the angle between the


x

axis and the tangent to the deflection

curve
point m1 is located at distance x
point m2 is located at distance x + dx
slope at

m1

is

slope at

m2

is

denote O'

+d

the center of curvature and

the radius of curvature, then


d

ds

and the curvature

is

1
C =

d
C
ds

the sign convention is pictured in figure


slope of the deflection curve
dv
C
dx
for

tan

or
ds j dx

small

dv
tan-1 C
dx

cos j 1

1
C =

d
C
dx

and

1
C =

d
C =
dx

d 2v
CC
dx2

tan
=

j ,

then

dv
C
dx

if the materials of the beam is linear elastic


=

1
C =

M
C
EI

[chapter 5]

then the differential equation of the deflection curve is obtained


d
C
dx

d2v
= CC
dx2

M
C
EI

it can be integrated to find

dM
CC
dx

then

d 3v
CC
dx3

V
= C
EI

and v
dV
CC
dx

-q

d 4v
CC
dx4

q
-C
EI

sign conventions for M,

and

q are shown

the above equations can be written in a simple form


EIv"

EIv"' =

EIv""

-q

this equations are valid only when Hooke's law applies and when the
slope and the deflection are very small
for nonprismatic beam [I = I(x)], the equations are
d 2v
EIx CC
dx2

d
d 2v
C (EIx CC)
dx
dx2

dM
CC
dx

d 2v
d2
CC (EIx CC)
dx2
dx2

dV
CC
dx

-q

the exact expression for curvature can be derived


=

1
C =

v"
CCCCC
[1 + (v')2]3/2

9.3 Deflections by Integration of the Bending-Moment Equation


substitute the expression of M(x)

into

the deflection equation then integrating to


satisfy
(i) boundary conditions
(ii) continuity conditions
(iii) symmetry conditions
to obtain the slope

and the

deflection

v of the beam

this method is called method of


successive integration

Example 9-1
determine the deflection of beam

AB

supporting a uniform load of intensity


also determine

and

max

A,

flexural rigidity of the beam is

EI

bending moment in the beam is


M

qLx
CC
2

q x2
CC
2

differential equation of the deflection curve


EI v" =

qLx
CC
2

q x2
CC
2

EI v' =

qLx2
CC 4

q x3
CC
6

Then

the beam is symmetry,

qL(L/2)2
CCCC
4

C1
= v' =

at

q (L/2) 3
CCCC
6

C1

x=L/2

then

C1

q L3 / 24

the equation of slope is


q
- CCC (L3
24 EI

v' =

6 L x2

4 x 3)

integrating again, it is obtained


q
- CCC (L3 x
24 EI

2 L x 3 + x 4)

boundary condition : v =

at

v =

thus we have

C2

C2

= 0

then the equation of deflection is


q
- CCC (L3 x
24 EI

v =

maximum deflection
=

max

max

L
- v(C)
2

2 L x 3 + x 4)

occurs at center
5 q L4
CCC
384 EI

(x =

L/2)

()

the maximum angle of rotation occurs at the supports of the beam

and

v'(0)

v'(L)

q L3
- CCC
24 EI

( )

q L3
= CCC
24 EI

( )

Example 9-2
determine the equation of deflection
curve for a cantilever beam AB

subjected

to a uniform load of intensity q


also determine

and

flexural rigidity of the beam is

at the free end


EI

bending moment in the beam

q L2
- CC
2

qLx

EIv" =

q L2
- CC
2

EIy' =

qL2x
- CC +
2

boundary condition
C1
v' =

qx
- CC
6EI

q x2
- CC
2

q x2
CC
2

qLx2
CC 2

q x3
CC
6

qLx

v' =

C1

at x =

0
(3 L2 -

3Lx

x 2)

integrating again to obtain the deflection curve


v =

qx2
- CC
24EI

boundary condition
C2

(6 L2 -

v =

4Lx

x 2)

at x =

+ C2
0

then
qx2
- CC
24EI

v =

max

max

(6 L2 -

v'(L)

4Lx

q L3
- CC ( )
6 EI

- v(L) =

q L4
CC ()
8 EI

Example 9-4
determine the equation of deflection
curve,

A,

B,

max

and

flexural rigidity of the beam is

EI

bending moments of the beam


M

Pbx
CC
L

(0 x a)

Pbx
M = CC - P (x - a) (a x L)
L
differential equations of the deflection curve
EIv"

x 2)

Pbx
CC (0 x a)
L

Pbx
EIv" = CC - P (x - a) (a x L)
L
integrating to obtain

Pbx2
EIv' = CC +
2L

C1 (0 x a)

Pbx2
P(x - a)2
EIv' = CC - CCCC
2L
2

C2

(a x L)

2nd integration to obtain


EIv

Pbx3
= CC +
6L

EIv

Pbx3 P(x - a)3


= CC - CCCC + C2 x
6L
6

C1 x +

(0 x a)

C3

(a x L)

+ C4

boundary conditions
(i)

v(0)

= 0

(ii)

y(L) =

continuity conditions
(iii)

(i)
(ii)

(iii)

v'(a-)

v(0)

v(L)

v'(a+)

C3 =

=>

PbL3 Pb3
CC - CC + C2 L + C4
6
6

v'(a )

C1

C2

(iv) v(a ) =
C3

v(a )

v(a+)

=>

v'(a )

v(a-) =

(iv)

0
=

=>

Pba2
CC
2L

=>

Pba3
Pba3
CC + C1a + C3 = CC + C2a +
6L
6L

C4
8

C1

Pba2
CC
2L

C2

C4

then we have
C1

C2

Pb (L2 - b2)
- CCCCC
6L

C3

C4

thus the equations of slope and deflection are


v' =

Pb
- CC (L2 - b2 - 3x2)
6LEI

(0 x a)

v' =

Pb
- CC (L2 - b2 - 3x2) 6LEI

P(x - a )2
CCCC
2EI

v =

Pbx
- CC (L2 - b2 - x2)
6LEI

(0 x a)

v =

Pbx
- CC (L2 - b2 - x2)
6LEI

(a x L)

P(x - a )3
CCCC
6EI

(a x L)

angles of rotation at supports

Pab(L + b)
- CCCCC
6LEI

v'(0)

v'(L)

Pab(L + a)
= CCCCC
6LEI

is function of a (or b), to find


=

( )

( )

( A)max,

set

/ db = 0

L/ 3

Pb(L2 - b2)
- CCCCC
6LEI

/ db =

=> L2 - 3b2

=> b

PL2 3
- CCCC
27 EI

( A)max =
for maximum
dv
C
dx

at

max

x =

occurs at x1,
=>

x1 =

if a

>

L2 - b2
CCC
3

Pb(L2 - b2)3/2
- v(x1) = CCCCC
9 3 LEI

L/2

- v(L/2)

b,

x1

<

(a

b)

()
Pb(3L2 - 4b2)
CCCCCC
48 EI

()

the maximum deflection always occurs near the midpoint,


gives a good approximation of the

max

in most case, the error is less than 3%


an important special case is

v'

= b

= L/2

v' =

P
CC (L2 - 4x2)
16EI

v =

P
CC (3L2 - 4x2) (0 x L/2)
48EI

and v

max

(0 x L/2)

are symmetric with respect to

PL2
= CC
16EI

PL3
CC
48EI

10

L/2

9.4 Deflections by Integration of Shear-Force and Load Equations


the procedure is similar to that for the bending moment equation except
that more integrations are required
if we begin from the load equation, which is of fourth order, four
integrations are needed

Example 9-4
determine the equation of deflection curve
for the cantilever beam

AB

supporting a

triangularly distributed load of maximum


intensity q0
also determine

and

flexural rigidity of the beam is

EIv""

EI

q0 (L - x)
CCCC
L
=

-q

q0 (L - x)
- CCCC
L

the first integration gives


EIv"'

thus

v"'(L)

EIv"'

q0 (L - x)2
- CCCC +
2L
= V

C1

=> C1

q0 (L - x)2
- CCCC
2L
11

2nd integration
EIv"

v"(L)

thus

q0 (L - x)3
- CCCC +
6L
=

EIv"

M
=

C2
=>

C2

q0 (L - x)3
- CCCC
6L

3rd and 4th integrations to obtain the slope and deflection


q0 (L - x)4
EIv' = - CCCC +
24L
q0 (L - x)5
- CCCC +
120L

EIv =

boundary conditions : v'(0)


the constants

C3

C3

q 0 L3
- CC
24

and

C3

C3 x +

= v(0) =

C4
0

C4 can be obtained
C4

q0L4
CC
120

then the slope and deflection of the beam are


v' =

q 0x
- CCC (4L3
24LEI

v =

q 0x 2
- CCC (10L3 120LEI

6L2x

10L2x +

q0L3
v'(L) = - CCC
24 EI

( )

12

4Lx2

- x 3)

5Lx2 - x3)

q 0 L4
- v(L) = CCC
30 EI

( )

Example 9-5
an overhanging beam
concentrated load

ABC

with a

applied at the end

determine the equation of deflection


curve and the deflection

at the end

flexural rigidity of the beam is

EI

the shear forces in parts AB and BC are


V =

P
-C
2

(0 < x < L)

V =

3L
(L < x < C)
2

the third order differential equations are


EIv'"

P
- C (0 < x < L)
2

EIv'"

3L
(L < x < C)
2

bending moment in the beam can be obtained by integration


M

EIv"

EIv" =

Px
-C +
2
Px

C1
C2

13

(0 x L)
3L
(L x C)
2

boundary conditions : v"(0) = v"(3L/2)


we get

C1

C2

= 0

3PL
- CC
2

therefore the bending moment equations are


M

EIv"

Px
-C
2

EIv"

P(3L - 2x)
- CCCCC
2

(0 x L)
3L
(L x C)
2

2nd integration to obtain the slope of the beam


Px2
EIv' = - CC
4

Px(3L - x)
EIv' = - CCCCC
2
continuity condition :
PL2
- CC
4
then

C4

C3

C3 +

(0 x L)

C3

3L
C4 (L x C)
2

v'(L-) =

v'(L+)

- PL2 +

C4

3PL2
CC
4

the 3rd integration gives


EIv =

Px3
- CC
12

EIv =

Px2(9L - 2x)
- CCCCC +
12

C3 x

C4 x

14

(0 x L)

C5

C6

3L
(L x C)
2

v(0) = v(L-) = 0

boundary conditions :
we obtain
C5

and then

C3

C4

5PL2
CC
6

PL2
CC
12

the last boundary condition : v(L+)


then

C6

PL3
- CC
4

the deflection equations are obtained


v =

Px
CC (L2
12EI

x 2)

(0 x L)

P
- CC (3L3 - 10L2x + 9Lx2
12EI
P
= - CC (3L - x) (L - x) (L - 2x)
12EI

v =

deflection at
C

-2x3)

3L
(L x C)
2

C is
3L
- v(C) =
2

PL3
CC
8EI

()

9.5 Method of Superposition


the slope and deflection of beam caused by several different loads acting
simultaneously can be found by superimposing the slopes and deflections
caused by the loads acting separately

15

consider a simply beam supports two


loads : (1) uniform load of intensity
and

(2) a concentrated load P

the slope and deflection due to load

are
5qL4
= CCC
384EI

( C)1

( A )1

= ( B)1

qL3
CC
24EI

the slope and deflection due to load

are
PL3
= CC
48EI

( C)2

( A )2

= ( B)2

PL2
= CC
16EI

therefore the deflection and slope due to the combined loading are

( C)1

5qL4
= CCC
384EI

( C)2

( A)1

( A)2

PL3
CC
48EI

qL3
PL2
CC + CC
24EI
16EI

tables of beam deflection for simply and cantilever beams are given in
Appendix

superposition method may also be used for distributed loading


consider a simple beam ACB

with a

triangular load acting on the left-hand half

16

the deflection of midpoint due to a


concentrated load is obtained [table G-2]

substitute
d

Pa
CC (3L2 - 4a2)
48EI

q dx

for P and x for a

(qdx) x
= CCC (3L2 - 4x2)
48EI

the intensity of the distributed load is

then
d

thus

2q0x
CC
L

due to the concentrated load q dx

q0 x 2
= CCC (3L2 - 4x2) dx
24LEI

due to the entire triangular load is


q0 x2
= CCC (3L2 - 4x2) dx
0
24LEI
L/2

similarly, the slope

due to

acting on

x is

q 0 L4
CCC
240EI

P acting on a distance a

from left

a with

(L - x)

end is
d

replacing

Pab(L + b)
= CCCCC
6LEI
P

with

2q0x dx/L,

17

x,

and b with

2q0x2(L - x)(L + L - x)
q0
d A = CCCCCCCCC dx = CCC (L - x) (2L - x) x2 dx
6L2EI
3L2EI
thus the slope at A
L/2

throughout the region of the load is

q0
CCC (L - x) (2L - x) x2 dx =
3L2EI

41q0L3
CCC
2880EI

the principle of superposition is valid under the following conditions


(1) Hooke's law holds for the material
(2) the deflections and rotations are small
(3) the presence of the deflection does not alter the actions of applied
loads
these requirements ensure that the differential equations of the deflection
curve are linear

Example 9-6
a cantilever beam
uniform load

AB

supports a

and a concentrated load

as shown
determine
EI

and

constant

from Appendix G :
for uniform load
( B)1

qa3
= CC (4L - a)
24EI

( B )1

for the concentrated load P

18

qa3
= CC
6EI

PL3
= CC
3EI

( B)2

PL2
= CC
2EI

( B )2

then the deflection and slope due to combined loading are


=

( B)1

( B )1 +

qa3
PL3
CC (4L - a) + CC
24EI
3EI

( B)2

( B)2

qa3
= CC
6EI

PL2
CC
2EI

Example 9-7
a cantilever beam
load

with uniform

acting on the right-half

determine
EI

AB

and

constant

consider an element of load has magnitude


q dx

and is located at distance x

from the

support
from Appendix G, table G-1, case 5
by replacing
d

with

q dx

(qdx)(x2)(3L-x)
CCCCCC
6EI

and
d

a with x

(qdx)(x2)
= CCCC
2EI

by integrating over the loaded region


L

L/2

qx2(3L-x)
CCCC dx =
6EI

19

41qL4
CCC
384EI

qx2
CC dx
2EI

L/2

7qL3
= CC
48EI

Example 9-8
a compound beam
concentrated load
load

supports a

and an uniform

as shown

determine
EI

ABC

and

constant

we may consider the beam as composed


of two parts : (1) simple beam AB,

and

(2) cantilever beam BC


the internal force

F = 2P/3

is obtained

for the cantilever beam BC

qb4
= CC
8EI

for the beam


parts : (1) angle

AB,

Fb3
CC
3EI

= C
a

the angle due to


G

with replacing a

2Pb3
CC
9EI

consists of two

BAB' produced by

(2) the bending of beam AB


( A )1

qb4
CC +
8EI

B,

and

by the load

qb4
= CCC
8aEI

2Pb3
CCC
9aEI

is obtained from Case 5 of


by 2a/3

and

20

by a/3

table G-2, Appendix

P(2a/3)(a/3)(a + a/3)
= CCCCCCCCC
6aEI

( A )2

note that in this problem,


continuous,

( B)L

i.e.

4Pa2
CCC
81EI

is continuous and

does not

( B )R

Example 9-9
an overhanging beam ABC
determine
EI
C

supports a uniform load

q as shown

constant

may be obtained due to two parts

(1) rotation of angle

(2) a cantilever beam subjected


to uniform load

firstly, we want to find

then

qL3
- CC
24EI

qL3
- CC +
24EI

MBL
CC
3EI

qa2L
CC =
6EI
=

qaL(4a2 - L2)
CCCCCC
24EI

bending of the overhang BC

qL(4a2 - L2)
CCCCC
24EI

produces an additional deflection

qa4
CC
8EI

21

therefore, the total downward deflection of C


=

for

large,
0

a > 0.4343 L,
point

qa4
CC
8EI

qa
CC (a + L) (3a2 + aL - L2)
24EI

for

qaL(4a2 - L2)
CCCCCC
24EI

is

is downward; for

3a2 + aL - L2

L( 13 - 1)
CCCCC
6

is upward

0.4343 L

is downward;

small,

a < 0.4343 L,

is upward

is the point of inflection, the curvature is zero because the

bending moment is zero at this point


d2y/dx2 =

at point D,

9.6 Moment-Area Method


the method is especially suitable when the deflection or angle of rotation
at only one point of the beam is desired
consider a segment
denote
B

and

B/A

AB of the beam

the difference between

B/A

consider points

m1

and

m2

22

ds
C =

Mdx / EI
strip of the

Mdx
CC
EI

is the area of the shaded


Mdx / EI

diagram

integrating both side between A


B M
C dx
A EI

B/A

and B

area of the M/EI diagram between A

and B

this is the First moment-area theorem


next, let us consider the vertical offset
between points

tB/A

and

B1 (on

the tangent of A)

dt =

x1 d

Mdx
x1 CC
EI

integrating between A
B

dt
A

i.e. tB/A
A and

and

B
Mdx
= x1 CC
A
EI

1st moment of the area of the M/EI

B, evaluated w. r. t. B

this if the Second moment-area theorem

Example 9-10
determine
cantilever beam

and
AB

of a

supporting a
23

diagram between

concentrated load
sketch the

PL2
- CC
2EI

1 PL
-CLC =
2 EI

B/A

Q1

at

M/EI diagram first

A1 =

PL3
- CC
6EI

2L
A1 C =
3

A1 x

- Q1

PL3
= CC
6EI

()

Example 9-11
determine

cantilever beam

and
AB

of a

supporting a

uniform load of intensity

acting

over the right-half


sketch the

M/EI diagram first

A1 =

1 L qL2
C C (CC)
3 2 8EI

A2 =

L qL2
C (CC)
2 8EI

A3 =

1 L qL2
C C (CC)
2 2 4EI

PL2
- CC
2EI

qL3
CC
48EI

qL3
CC
16EI
qL3
= CC
16EI

24

B/A

A1 + A2 + A3

7qL3
= CC
16EI

tB/A

A 1 x1 +

qL3 1 3L
1 3L
1 5L
CC (C C + C C + C C)
EI 48 8
16 4
16 6

A 2 x2

+ A 3 x3

Example 9-12
a simple beam ADB supports a
concentrated load
determine
A1 =

as shown

and

L Pab
C (CC)
2 LEI

Pab
CC
2EI

L+b
Pab (L + b)
tB/A = A1 CCC = CCCCC
6EI
3
A

BB1
CC
L

to find the deflection


D

( )

DD1
D 2D 1

DD1
= a

Pab (L + b)
CCCCC
6EIL
at

- D 2D 1
A

Pa2b (L + b)
CCCCCC
6EIL

tD/A = A2 x2

A Pab a
C CC C
2 EIL 3

Pa3b
CCC
6EIL

25

41qL4
CCC
384EI

()

Pa2b2
CCC
3EIL

to find the maximum deflection


x1 Pbx1
C CC
2 EIL

A3 =
=

E/A

Pbx12
CCC
2EIL

Pab (L + b)
= CCCCC
6EIL

then

x1 =

and

max

or

max

- A3 =

x1

x1
- A3 C =
3

offset of point

max

2 x1
A3 CC
3

EI d /dx

v =

- Pbx12 / 2EIL

Pb
3/2
CCCC (L2 - b2)
9 3 EIL

from tangent at E

Pb
3/2
CCCC (L2 - b2)
9 3 EIL

Integrating
=

[(L2 - b2) / 3]2

max

we set

Pbx12
CCC
2EIL

Conjugate Beam Method


EIv"

at E,

M
C dx
EI
M
C dx dx
EI

26

beam theory
dM / dx
V

= V

dV / dx

-q dx

= -q
- q dx dx

suppose we have a beam, called conjugate beam, whose length equal to


the actual beam, let this beam subjected to so-called "elastic load" of
intensity M/EI,

then the shear force and bending moment over a portion

of the conjugate beam, denoted by V and


V =

M
-C dx
EI

M,

can be obtained

M
- C dx dx
EI

then
(1) the slope at the given section of the beam equals the minus shear
force in the corresponding section of the conjugate beam
(2) the deflection at the given section of the beam equals the minus
bending moment in the corresponding section of the conjugate beam
i.e.

-V

-M

the support conditions between the actual beam and conjugate beam can
be found
Actual Beam

Conjugate Beam

fixed end

= 0, v = 0

V = 0,

free end

g 0,

V g 0, M g 0

fixed end

simple end

V g 0, M = 0

simple end

vg0

0,

v=0

M=0

free end

interior support

g 0,

v=0

V g 0, M = 0

interior hinge

interior hinge

g 0,

vg0

V g 0, M g 0

interior support

27

Example 1
1 PL
PL2
B = - VB = - C CC L = - CC
2 EI
2EI

( )

PL2 2L
PL3
B = - MB = - CC C = - CC
2EI 3
3EI

()

Example 2
1 2L wL2
wL3
A = - VA = - C C CC = - CC
2 3 8EI
24EI

( )

wL3 L wL2 L L
C = - MC = - CC C - CC C C
24EI 2 8EI 2 4
1 wL2 L 3L
1 1
1
wL4
+ C CC C C = - (C - C + CC) CC
48 64 128
EI
3 8EI 2 8
=

5 wL4
CCC
384EI

()

28

Example 3
A

= - VA = -RA

1 M 2L
ML
= - C C C = - CC ( )
2 EI 3
3EI

1 M L
ML
B = - VB = RB = C C C = CC
2 EI 3 6EI

( )

ML L 1 L M L
C = - MC = - (CC C - C C CC C)
6EI 2 2 2 2EI 6
1 1 ML2
= - (C - C) CC =
12 48 EI

ML2
- CC
16EI

()

Example 4
B

- VB

ML
= CC
EI

ML L
B = - MB = CC C =
EI 2

(
ML2
CC
2EI

()

Example 5
qL3
L qL2
B = - VB = - C CC = - CC
3 2EI
6EI

( )

qL3 3L
qL4
B = - MB = - CC C = - CC
6EI 4
8EI

()

29

Example 6
1 L PL
PL2
A = - VA = - C C CC = - CC
2 2 4EI
16EI

( )

PL2 L 1 L PL L
C = - MC = - (CC C - C C CC C)
16EI 2 2 2 4EI 6
PL3 1 1
PL3
= - CC (C - C) = - CC
EI 32 96
48EI

()

9.7 Nonprismatic Beam


EI

g constant

Example 9-13
a beam ABCDE is supported a
concentrated load P at midspan as
shown
IBD

2 IAB

2 IDE =

determine the deflection curve,


M

then

Px
C
2

and

L
(0 x C)
2

EIv" = Px / 2
E(2I)v" = Px / 2

2I

(0 x L/4)
(L/4 x L/2)

30

thus

Px2
v' = CC + C1
4EI

(0 x L/4)

Px2
v' = CC + C2
8EI

(L/4 x L/2)

v' =

C2

at x =

PL2
- CC
32EI

continuity condition v'(L/4)C1

therefore

= v'(L/4)+

5PL2
- CCC
128EI

v' =

P
- CCC (5L2
128EI

v' =

P
- CC (L2
32EI

the angle of rotation

L/2 (symmetric)

v'(0)

32x2)

- 4x2)

(0 x L/4)

(L/4 x L/2)

is

5PL2
- CCC
128EI

( )

integrating the slope equation and obtained


v =

P
- CCC (5L2x
128EI

32x3
- CC)
3

v =

P
- CC (L2x 32EI

4x3
CC)
3

C4

31

C3

(0 x L/4)

(L/4 x L/2)

boundary condition

v(0) =

we get

C3

0
0

continuity condition v(L/4)- =


we get

C4

v(L/4)+

PL3
- CCC
768EI

therefore the deflection equations are


v =

Px
- CCC (15L2 384EI

v =

P
- CCC (L3
768EI

32x2)

24L2x -

(0 x L/4)

32x3)

(L/4 x L/2)

the midpoint deflection is obtained


=

- v(L/2)

3PL3
CCC
256EI

()

moment-area method and conjugate beam methods can also be used

Example 9-14
a cantilever beam
concentrated load
IBC =

2 IAB

determine
denote

ABC

supports a

at the free end

2I

the deflection of A due to C fixed


P(L/2)3
= CCC
3EI

PL3
CCC
24EI
32

and

P(L/2)3
(PL/2)(L/2)2
5PL3
CCC + CCCCC = CC
3E(2I)
2E(2I)
96EI

P(L/2)2 (PL/2)(L/2)
= CCC + CCCCC
2E(2I)
E(2I)

addition deflection at A due to


=

L
CC
2

and

PL2
= CC
16EI
C

5PL3
CC
48EI

5PL3
CC
16EI

moment-area method and conjugate beam


methods can also be used

9.8 Strain Energy of Bending


consider a simple beam

AB

subjected

to pure bending under the action of two


couples M
the angle
=

is
L
C =

ML
CC
EI

if the material is linear elastic, M

and

has linear relation, then


W =

M
CC
2

M 2L
EI 2
CC = CC
2EI
2L

33

for an element of the beam


d

dU

dx

d 2y
= CC dx
dx2
Md
CC
2

= dW =

M 2dx
CCC
2EI

EI(d )2
CCC
2dx

by integrating throughout the length of the beam


U

M 2dx
CCC
0
2EI
L

EI d 2y 2
C (CC) dx
0
2 dx2
L

shear force in beam may produce energy, but for the beam with

L/d > 8,

the strain energy due to shear is relatively small and may be disregarded
deflection caused by a single load
U

W =
2U
CC
P

P
C
2

or

W =
2U
CC
M0

Example 9-15
a simple beam

AB

of length

supports a uniform load of intensity q


evaluate the strain energy
M

qLx
CC
2

qx2
- C =
2

q
C (Lx - x2)
2

34

M0
CC
2

M2dx
CC =
0
2EI
L

1
q
L
2
CC [C(Lx - x2)] dx
2EI 0 2

q2
L
CC (L2x2 - 2Lx3 + x4)dx
8EI 0

q2L5 / 240EI

Example 9-16
a cantilever beam AB

is subjected to

three different loading conditions


(a) a concentrated load P at its free end
(b) a moment
(c) both

M0 at its free end

P and

M0

acting simultaneously

determine

due to loading (a)

determine

due to loading

(a)

M
U

2
M2dx
L (-Px) dx
= CC = CCC =
0
0
2EI
2EI

M
U

- Px

P A P2L3
CC = CC
2
6EI

W=U

(b)

(b)

W=U

PL3
A = CC
3EI

- M0

M2dx
= CC =
0
2EI
L

P 2 L3
CC
6EI

(-M0)2dx
CCCC
0
2EI
L

M 02L
M0 A
CC = CC
2
2EI

35

M 02L
CC
2EI

M0L
= CC
EI

(c)

- Px

M2dx
U = CC
0
2EI
L

(-Px - M0)2dx
P 2 L3
PM0L2 M02L
= CCCCC = CC + CCC + CC
0
2EI
6EI
2EI
2EI
L

P A
CC
2

W=U

M0

M0 A
CC =
2

1 equation for two unknowns

P2L3
CC
6EI

and

PM0L2
CCC
2EI

M02L
CC
2EI

9.9 Castigliano's Theorem (Energy Method)


dU

= Pd

dC =

where

dP

dU
CC
d

dC
CC
dP

is complementary strain energy

for linear elastic materials C


then we have

dU
CC
dP

similarly

dU
CC
dM

for both P

and

CC
P

acting simultaneously, U
U

CC
M

in example 9-16 (c)

36

U(P, M)

P 2 L3
CC
6EI

PL3
CC
6EI

M 0 L2
CC
2EI

PL2
CC
2EI

M 0L
CC
EI

CC
P

CC

M 02L
CC
2EI

PM0L2
CCC
2EI

in general relationship
U

CC

Castigliano's Theorem

P i
U

CC

M2dx
M M
CCCC = (C)(CC)dx
P i
2EI
EI P i

P i

this is the modified Castigliano's Theorem


in example 9-16 (c)
M

CC
P

- Px
=

-x

M0
U

CC
M

-1

1
C(-Px - M0)(-x)dx
EI

1
C (-Px - M0)(-1)dx =
EI

37

PL3
CC +
6EI

M 0 L2
CC
2EI

PL2
CC
2EI

M 0L
CC
EI

Example 9-17
a simple beam
uniform load

concentrated load

AB
=

20 kN/m, and a
= 25 kN

2.5 m

31.2 x 102 cm4

determine
M

supports a

E =

210 GPa

Px
CC
2

qLx
CC
2

qx2
CC
2

method (1)
U

M2dx
= CC
2EI

P2L3
= CC +
96EI
U
C

CC
P

1
Px
2 CC(CC
0
2EI 2

qLx
+ CC
2

L/2

5PqL4
CCC
384EI
PL3
= CC
48EI

qx2 2
CC) dx
2

q 2 L5
CCC
240EI

5qL4
CCC
384EI

method (2)
M / P =

x/2

M M
= (C)(CC)dx =
EI P
=

PL3
CC
48EI

1 Px qLx
qx2 x
2 C(C + CC - CC)(C) dx
0
EI 2
2
2
2
L/2

5qL4
CCC
384EI

= 1.24 mm +

1.55 mm

38

2.79 mm

Example 9-18
a overhanging beam

ABC

supports a

uniform load and a concentrated load as


shown
determine

and

the reaction at A

due to the loading is

qL
RA = C 2

P
C
2

qx12
RA x1 - CC
2

MAB

qLx1
CC
2

Px1
CC
2

qx12
CC (0 x1 L)
2

= - Px2 (0 x1 L/2)

MBC

then the partial derivatives are


MAB / P

- x1/2

(0 x1 L)

MBC / P

- x2

(0 x2 L/2)

(M/EI)( M / P)dx
L

= (MAB /EI)( MAB / P)dx


0

L/2

+ (MBC/EI)( MBC / P)dx


0

1 L qLx1 Px1
qx12 x1
1 L/2
= C (CC - CC - CC)(- C)dx1 + C (-Px2)(-x2)dx2
EI 0 2
2
2
2
EI 0
=

PL3
CC
8EI

qL4
- CC
48EI

39

to determine the angle


qL
RA = C
2
MAB

C,

P
C
2

qLx1
CC
2

= - Px2

MBC

MC

at C

MC
- CC
L

qx12
RA x1 - CC
2
-

we place a couple of moment

Px1
CC
2

qx12
CC
2

MC x 1
- CC L

(0 x1 L)

(0 x1 L/2)

- MC

then the partial derivatives are


MAB / MC

- x1/L

(0 x1 L)

MBC / MC

-1

(0 x2 L/2)

(M/EI)(M/ MC)dx
L

= (MAB /EI)(MAB / MC)dx


0

L/2

(MBC /EI)(MBC / MC)dx

1 L qLx1
Px1
MC x1
= C (CC - CC - CC EI 0
2
2
L
1 L/2
+ C (-Px2 - MC)(-1)dx2
EI 0
since

MC is a virtual load,

set MC = 0,

obtained

7PL2
= CC 24EI

qL4
CC
24EI

40

qx12
x1
CC)(- C)dx1
2
L

after integrating

is

9.10 Deflections Produced by Impact


9.11 Temperature Effects

41