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250289723.

xls
DESIGN OF LUG
The pin hole diameter, d. should be 1/8 greater than the selected shackle pin
The main plate radius is approximately R = 3 Rh.
Cheek plate radius is approximately r = R - 1.5t
20 ton
981000 N
Load
25 ton WLL
Shackle load
1.75 inch shackle
Use G-2130 Crosby
Shackle pin size diameter
51 mm
Shackle jaw width
73 mm
Total plate thickness:
Minimum
Maximum
Diameter of hole

44 mm
62 mm
55 mm

INPUT
Thickness
Diameter of hole
Dimension a
Dimension e
Ultimate steel strength

t=
d=
a=
e=
Fu=

30
60
30
45

mm
mm
mm
mm

490

N/mm2

Yeild strength

Fy= 355

N/mm2
a

Geometric Guidelines:
There are some geometric guidelines to be considered as recommended in Ref 1. They
will be called Rule 1 and Rule 2.
Rule 1: The dimension "a" must be greater than or equal to half the hole diameter, d.
Rule 1:
OK
Rule 2: The dimension "e" must be greater than or equal to 0.67 times the hole
diameter, d
Rule 2:
OK
Evaluation based on Failure Mode:
Failure Mode 1:
This failure mode involves tension failure on side of the hole.
Ultimate tensile load
Factor of safety
Pw1=Pu/FS

Pu=2.a.t.Fu
FS=
Pw1=

882000 N
5
176400.000 N

LUG (2)

250289723.xls

Failure Mode 2:
This Failure mode involves bearing failure at the pin/lifting lug interface. Often the pin
diameter is much less than the hole diameter. Let us assume a pin diameter 12.7 mm
(1/2 inches) less than the hole diameter. Using a bearing stress of 0.9F y, and a "factor"
of 1.8

diameter of pin

dpin=

Pw2=0.9.Fy.t.dpin/1.8

Pw2=

51 mm
271575.000 N

Failure Mode 3:
This Failure mode involves shear failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel
through the edge of the lug plate. The shear area is twice the cross-sectional area
beyond the hole for the pin.

Pw3=2x0.4.Fy.e.t/1.8

Pw3=

213000.000 N

Failure Mode 4:
This failure mode involves tensile failure as the pin tries to push out of a block of steel
through the edge of the lug plate. Assume a block of steel 0.8d in length.
Pw4=1.67x0.67Fy.e2.t/1.8d

Pw4=

223430.344 N

Failure Mode 5:
This failure mode involves the out-of-plane buckling failure of the lug. Per Ref. 1, this
failure is prevented by ensuring a minimum thickness of lug of 12.7 mm (1/2 inches)
and 0.25 times the hloe diameter d. These are refered to as Rule 3 and Rule 4 here.

Rule 3: The thickness of lug is greater than or equal to 12.7 mm (1/2 inches)

Rule 3:

OK

Rule 4: The thickness is greater than or equal to 0.25 times the hole diameter

Rule 4:

OK

AISC Code Checks per Section D3.2:


The D3.2 section of AISC code has three separate geometry checks that can be
applied to the lifting lug. If these requirements are not met, a smaller value for "a"
should be used for the calculation of tensile capacity.

LUG (2)

250289723.xls

Requirement 1:
This requirement states that the minimum net area beyond the pin hole, parallel to the
axis of the member (A1), shall not be less than 2/3 of the net area across the pin hole
(A2).

Compare A1 and A2

Reduced dimension 'a'

A1=t.e

1350 mm2

A2=2.a.t

1800 mm2

A1>=2/3xA2

OK

aeff=

30 mm

Requirement 2:
This requirement states that the distance transverse to the axis of a pin-connected plate
from the edge of the pin hole to the edge of the member, that is dimension 'a' shall not
exceed 4 times the thickness at the pin hole.
4xt>a
OK

aeff

30 mm

Requirement 3:
This requirement states that the diameter of the pin hole shall not be less than 1.25
times distance from the edge of pin hole to the edge of plate 'a'.

d>1.25.a
OK

Reduced dimension 'a'

aeff=

30 mm

LUG (2)

250289723.xls

Tensile capacity based on these 3 requirements


Use minimum aeff

aeff

Pw5=2.aeffx0.45.Fy.t/1.8

Pw5

30 mm
159750.000 N

Weld between Lug and Base Plate:

Load
Length of weld along lug thickness
Lever arm
Length of weld along lug width

W=
tw=

111176.4546848 N

lz=
bplt=

30 mm
105 mm
284 mm

lx=

30 deg
142 mm

g
a

5 deg

5 deg
sen a

0.087 cos a

sen b

0.087 cos b

0.9961947

Minimum Fillet Weld Size

8 mm

0.9961947
W X=F*cos *cos

Fillet Weld Throat

a=

6 mm

W Y=F*cos *sen

Weld electrode Ultimate Strength


Shear on effective throat Aw
Shear per mm of Fillet Weld throat
factor of safety
fmax (for 6 mm throat weld)

Fexx
Fw=0.6*Fexx

Torque

T=

480
288
204
1.8
679

N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm
N/mm

15787056.56524 N*mm

LUG (2)

W Z=F*sen
Sw(x)=bplt*tw+tw^2/3
Sw(y)=bplt*tw+bplt^2/3
Aw=2*(bplt+tw)
Jw=(bplt+tw)^3/6

250289723.xls

f1=(W z/Aw)+(W y*lz/Sw(x))+(W x*lz/Sw(y))

457.550095266 N

f2=(W y/Aw)+T*bplt*0.5/Jw

449.8327101945 N

f3=(W x/Aw)+T*tw*0.5/Jw

221.581685076 N

Resultant of f1, f2 and f3

678.8225099391 N

Difference resultant and f max

0 N

Ref. 3 Using the Line Method (Omer Blodgett, Design of Welded Structures, pages 7.46).
In order to find Pw6, the difference between the resultant and f max should be zero. To get
this, go to Tools menu and click on Goal Seek. You will get the following window. Fill in
as shown below and click OK

Pw6=

111176.455 N

Lug Base Material:


The analysis is similar to the weld above except that there is no interaction between
tension and shear. The capacity is based on the maximum tensile stress at the base of
the lug.

Load
fmax=0.75.Fy/1.8

W=
fmax=

Lug width

bplt=

f1

306486.9259507 N
147.917 N/mm2
284 mm
147.917 N/mm2

Difference between f1 and fmax

In order to find Pw7, the difference between f1 and fmax should be zero. To get this, go to
Tools menu and click on Goal Seek. You will get the following window. Fill in as shown
below and click OK
Pw7

306486.926 N

LUG (2)

T*bplt*0.5/Jw 434.462019
T*tw*0.5/Jw

45.8938752

250289723.xls
CONCLUSION:
Pw1=

176400.000 N

Pw2=

271575.000 N

Pw3=

213000.000 N

Pw4=

223430.344 N

Pw5=

159750.000 N

Pw6=

111176.455 N

Pw7=

306486.926 N
111176.455 N

Capacity will be minimum of these

If additional capacity is desired, the angles a and b can be restricted as needed to


increase the capcity of the lug.

References:
1. David T. Ricker, "Design and Construction of Lifting Beams", Engineering Journal, 4th
Quarter, 1991.
2. AISC Manual of steel Construction (ASD), 9th edition, 1989.
3. Omer Blodgett, "Design of Welded Structures", 1966.
4. CISC Handbook of Steel Construction, 1997.
Notes:
1. As discussed in Ref. 1, using a factor of 1.8 on AISC allowables results in a factor of
safety of 5 for A36 steel. This is in line with ASME B30.20 which required a design
factor of 3 on yield strength and ANSI N14.6 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield
strength and 5 on ultimate strength. This is also in line with the load ratings for other
components of the lifting assembly such as slings, shackles, etc.

LUG (2)

CAPACITY

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40.2

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N
N

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