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# Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

## 1 STRAIGHT LINE GRAPHS /

LINEAR LAW
 Express y in terms of x for a given graph of a straight line by writing New Additional Mathematics 2 weeks
1.1 Express y in terms of x
Y = mX + c. Chapter 8
 Determine the X and Y terms in the equation Y = mX + c. Chapter 8
1.2 Determination of Unknown
Constants From the Straight  Tabulate values and draw the line of best fit to determine the gradient
Line and Y-intercept of the graph.
 Determine unknown constants by calculating the gradient and intercept
of the transformed graph.

1.3 Equations of the Type y = axn  Transform equations which require the use of lg x or ln x and
and y = Abx determine the unknown constants by calculating the gradient or
the Y-intercept of the transformed graph.

2 MATRICES 2 weeks

2.1 Represent Information as a  Display information in the form of a matrix. New Additional Mathematics
Matrix  Interpret the data in a given matrix. Chapter 6
 Know the terms order, elements or entries, row and column of a matrix. Additional Mathematics
 Recognise a row matrix, column matrix, zero or null matrix, square Chapter 14
matrix and identity matrix.
 Know that two matrices are equal if they have the same order and if their
corresponding elements are equal.

2.2 Addition, Subtraction and Scalar  Add matrices of the same order by adding their corresponding elements;
Multiplication of Matrices  Know properties of matrix addition:
If A, B and O are of the same order, where O is a null matrix,
1. A + O = A

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

## 2.2 Addition, Subtraction and Scalar 2. A + B = B + A (commutative)

Multiplication of Matrices 3. A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C (associative).
 Subtract matrices of the same order by subtracting their corresponding
elements.
 Calculate the product of a scalar quantity and a matrix by multiplying
each element in the matrix by the scalar quantity
a b ka kb
k .
c d kc kd

## 2.3 Multiplication of Matrices  Find the product of two matrices.

 Know the properties of matrix multiplication:
1. AB BA (not commutative)
2. A (BC) = ( AB )C (associative);
a b a b a2 b2
3. .
c d c d c2 d2
 solve problems involving the calculation of the sum and product of two
matrices.

a b
2.4 Determinant and Inverse of a  find the determinant of a 2x2 matrix M = , denoted by det M or
c d
2 2 Matrix
a b
M or .
c d
 Know that a matrix with zero determinant is called a singular matrix and
it does not have an inverse.
 Find the inverse of a non-singular matrix.
 Know the properties of inverse matrix and identity matrix:
MM-1 = I and M-1M = I
IA = A and AI = A.
 Use the above properties to solve a matrix equation.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

2.5 Solving Simultaneous Equations  Write a given pair of simultaneous equations in the form of matrix
by a Matrix Method equation and solve using the matrix method.

2.6 Word Problems Involving  Form matrices to represent the information given in a table or from the
Matrices description of a real life situation.
 Solve related problems and interpret the results.

3 DIFFERENTIATION

3.1 The Gradient Function  Define the gradient at any point on a curve as the gradient of the tangent New Additional Mathematics 2 weeks
to the curve at that point. Chapter 15
 Understand a limiting process through an example. Additional Mathematics
 Find the gradient function of a curve. Chapter 15 and 16
 Understand the idea of a derived function.
 State that the derivative of ax n is nax x-1 .
dy
 Use the notations f ' x , .
dx
dy
 Know that if y = k ( a constant), = 0.
dx
http://www.mathsnet.net/asa2/20
3.2 Function of a Function  State that the derivative of composite function is given by the Chain Rule
04/c15tanmethod02.html
(Composite Function) dy dy du
, and solve problems related to composite functions.
dx du dx

3.3 Product of Two Functions  Differentiate the product of two functions using the product rule
d du dv
(uv) v u .
dx dx dx

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

3.4 Quotient of Two Functions  Differentiate the quotient of two functions using the quotient formula
du dv
v u
d u dx dx .
dx v v2

3.5 Equations of Tangent and  Apply differentiation to gradients, tangents and normals.
Normal  State that the normal is perpendicular to the tangent and the gradient of
1 dy
the normal is m2 where m1 is the gradient of the tangent
m1 dx
at a given point.
 Find the equation of the tangent and the normal to a curve at a given
point.
 Solve problems related to tangent and normal to a curve.

4 APPLICATIONS OF
DIFFERENTIATION &
HIGHER DERIVATIVES

4.1 Rates of Change  Calculate the rate of change of variables with respect to time.
New Additional Mathematics 4 weeks
Chapter 16 and 17
4.2 Connected Rates of Change  Determine the connected rates of change using the Chain Rule
dy dy dx Chapter 16
.
dt dx dt

y dy
4.3 Small Increments and  Determine small changes x and y using the rule .
Approximations x dx
 Calculate the approximate change and percentage change in y or x.
y
Percentage change in y 100 % .
y

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

dy
4.4 Stationary Points and The  State that at stationary / turning points, 0.
Second Derivative dx
 Know that as x increases across a minimum point, the gradient changes
from negative to zero to positive which results in a positive rate of
dy
change in gradient, .
dx
 Know that as x increases across a maximum point, the gradient changes
from positive to zero to negative which results in a negative rate of
dy
change in gradient, .
dx
d dy d2y
 Recognise ( ) as the rate of change of gradient with respect
dx dx dx2
to x and is called the second derivative of y , and
d2y
if 0 , then it is a minimum point,
dx 2
d2y
if 0 , then it is a maximum point.
dx 2
 State the relationship between the sign of the second derivative and the
nature of stationary points.
 Solve problems on finding the coordinates of stationary or turning points
and determining the nature of the stationary points.
4.5 Practical Maxima and Minima  Solve application problems on maximum and minimum values e.g.
Problems physical quantities such as area and volume.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

5 DIFFERENTIATION OF
TRIGONOMETRIC,
LOGARITHMIC AND
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS

5.1 Differentiation of Trigonometric  State the derivative of the basic trigonometric functions: New Additional Mathematics 2 weeks
Functions d d d Chapter 18 and 19
(sin x) cos x , (cos x) sin x and (tan x) sec 2 x . Additional Mathematics
dx dx dx
Chapter 18
 Find the derivatives involving multiple angles:
d d
(a sin bx) ab cos bx, (a cos bx) absin bx and
dx dx
d
(a tanbx) ab sec 2 bx .
dx
 Obtain the derivatives of sin(ax b) , cos(ax b) and tan(ax b) ;
sin n x , cosn x and tann x where a, b and n are constants.

## 5.2 Differentiation of Logarithmic d 1

Functions  State the derivative of the logarithmic function, (ln x) .
dx x
 Differentiate logarithmic functions using the general result:
d f ' ( x) d a
[ln f ( x)] ,in particular, [ln(ax b)] .
dx f ( x) dx ax b

## 5.3 Differentiation of Exponential

 Differentiate exponential functions using the general result:
Functions
d f ( x) d x d ax
(e ) f ' ( x)e f ( x) , in particular, (e ) ex , (e ) ae ax ,
dx dx dx
d ax b
(e ) aeax b
.
dx

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

5.4 Application of Differentiation  Apply the concept of differentiation of trigonometric, logarithmic and
Involving the above Functions exponential functions to problems on small increment and
approximation, rate of change, stationary point and coordinates
geometry.

6 INTEGRATION

6.1 Indefinite Integrals  Understand integration as the reverse process of differentiation. New Additional Mathematics 3 weeks
 Find indefinite integrals. Chapter 20
(Note: Stress on the need to write the arbitrary constant c.) Additional Mathematics
 Integrate axn and sum of terms in powers of x, excluding n = −1. Chapter 17
 Integrate functions of the form (ax + b)n where n -- 1.
 Perform integration to get the equation of the curve and determine the http://www.mathsnet.net/asa2/20
arbitrary constant in the equation of the curve. 04/c16int.html

## 6.2 Definite Integrals  Evaluate definite integrals of algebraic expressions. http://www.mathsnet.net/asa2/20

 Know the results of the following definite integrals: 04/c27notation.html
a
(i) f x dx 0
a
b a
(ii) f x dx f x dx
a b
b c c
(iii) f x dx f x dx f x dx .
a b a

6.3 Integration of Trigonometric  Integrate functions of the form sin ax b , cos ax b and
Functions sec2 ax b , where a 0 .
 Evaluate the definite integrals of trigonometric functions.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

## 6.4 Integration of Exponential  Integrate functions of the form e ax b , where a 0 .

Functions  Evaluate the definite integrals of exponential functions.

7 APPLICATION OF 2 weeks
INTEGRATION

## 7.1 Plane Area

 Find the area enclosed by a curve (consider both cases: above x – axis New Additional Mathematics
and below x – axis), the x – axis and the lines x = a and x = b. Chapter 21
 Find the area enclosed by a curve, the y – axis and the lines y = a and Additional Mathematics
y = b (consider the positive and negative area). Chapter 17 and 18
 Find the area enclosed by a curve and a line.
 Find the area enclosed by two curves. http://www.mathsnet.net/asa2/20
04/c27area_2.html

8 KINEMATICS 3 weeks

8.1 Displacement, Velocity and  Know that for a particle moving in a straight line with displacement x, New Additional Mathematics
Acceleration velocity v and acceleration a: Chapter 22
dx dv d 2x Additional Mathematics
v and a Chapter 19
dt dt dt 2
x v dt and v a dt .
 Know that when a particle is at instantaneous rest, v = 0 and this will be
followed by a change in direction of motion.
 Use a number line to denote the positions of a particle at the start of the
motion, at the time t1 when v = 0 (if 0 < t1 < T) and at time T seconds, to
find the total distance travelled in the first T seconds of the motion.
total distance travelled
 Use the formula Average speed = .
total time taken

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

8.1 Displacement, Velocity and  Apply the differentiation and integration to kinematics problems that
Acceleration involve displacement, velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a
(Continued) straight line with variable or constant acceleration.
(Suggestion: For motion with constant acceleration teachers may
introduce the equation v = u + at based on the definition of acceleration
v u
as rate of change of velocity with respect to time, a ).
t

8.2 Displacement-Time and Velocity-  Describe briefly the motion of the particle by observing the x-t or the v-t
Time Graphs graph given.
 Sketch the x-t or the v-t graph for the motion described.
 Know that for an x-t graph,
(a) a straight line shows motion of uniform (constant) velocity,
(b) the velocity at any instant is given by the gradient of the graph at
that point.
 Know that for a v-t graph:
(a) a straight line shows motion of uniform acceleration,
(b) the acceleration at any instant is given by the gradient of the graph
at that instant,
(c) both the change in displacement and the distance travelled may be
found by considering the appropriate areas under the graph.
(Suggestion: For motion with constant acceleration, derive the equation
1
s (u v)t by using the area under the v-t graph which is
2
represented by a trapezium with parallel sides u and v and width t ).
 Solve related problems.

9 SETS  Use set language and notation to describe sets and represent
New Additional Mathematics 2 weeks
relationships between sets as follows:
9.1 Introduction to Sets Chapter 1
A = { x : x is a natural number}
B = { (x, y) : y = mx + c} Chapter 1
C = { x : a x b}
D = { a, b, c, …}.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

9.1 Introduction to Sets  Define the terms finite and infinite sets, empty/null set, equal sets,
(Continued) subsets, universal sets and complement of a set.
 Understand and use of the following notation:
Number of elements in set A n(A)
“…is an element of…”
“…is not an element of…”
Complement of Set A A’
The empty set
Universal set
A is a subset of B A B
A is a proper subset of B A B
A is not a subset of B A B
A is not a proper subset of B A B

9.2 Intersection and Union of Sets  Use Venn diagram to show the relationship between sets.
 Know the terms intersection of sets and union of sets.
 Use the following notation:
Union of A and B A B
Intersection of A and B A B

 Shade the region defined by the set notations and vice versa.
 Describe set notations in words.
(Caution students on correct use of terms and the necessity to write
statements in detail especially in cases involving the and symbols
e.g. If M = {set of students studying mathematics} and P = {set of
students studying physics},
(i) M P is the set of students studying mathematics or physics or both
mathematics and physics,
(ii) P M means all students studying physics also study mathematics.)
 Solve related Set problems including the maximum and minimum
possible value.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

10 PERMUTATIONS
AND COMBINATIONS

10.1 The Basic Counting Principle  Determine the number of ways of performing several tasks in succession New Additional Mathematics 2 weeks
by using the basic counting principle. Chapter 13
10.2 Notation of n Factorial, (n!)  Use the notation of n! = n (n-1) (n-2) x . . . x 3 x 2 x 1 or n (n-1)! Chapter 11
[Note: 0! =1].
http://www.themathpage.com/aP
10.3 Permutation of n Different  Recognise a permutation as an arrangement of objects in a definite reCalc/permutations-
Objects order. combinations.htm#perm
 Determine the number of permutations of n different objects as n!.

10.4 Permutation of r Objects From  Evaluate n Pr n! and apply the rule that the number of
n Different Objects ( n r )!
permutations of r objects from n different objects is n Pr n! .
( n r )!

10.5 Permutation with Restrictions  Solve simple problems on arrangements/permutations with restrictions
such as the arrangement of letters in a word beginning with a vowel, the
number of 4-digit odd numbers, etc.
http://www.themathpage.com/aP
10.6 Combinations  Recognise a combination as any selection of objects where the order of
reCalc/permutations-
the objects is of no concern.
combinations-2.htm#Cfactorial

##  Evaluate n C r n! and apply the rule that the number of

10.7 Combination of r Objects From Relate to the use of nCr in the
n Different Objects (n r )! r!
Binomial Expansion.
combinations of r objects from n different objects is nCr .
n
 Know the relation, n
Cr
Pr .
r!
 Solve miscellaneous problems.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

## (Note: Stress on the need to distinguish between permutations and

combinations. Cases with repetition of objects or with objects arranged
in a circle or involving both permutations and combinations are
excluded).

11 VECTORS IN TWO
DIMENSIONS
11.1 Basic Concepts  (Revision on vectors). Define a vector as a directed line segment which New Additional Mathematics 2 weeks
has magnitude and direction. Give examples of vector quantities: Chapter 23
displacement, velocity and acceleration. Additional Mathematics
2 2 Chapter 13
 Know vector notation: AB , a or a .
3 3
 Define equal vectors and zero vector. Remark: Students have
 Define a negative vector as a vector having the same magnitude but prerequisite knowledge on
Vectors from Mathematics
opposite in direction i.e. BA AB . Syllabus D.
11.2 Operations on Vectors  Perform addition of vectors by using the Triangle Law and Parallelogram
 Use vector diagram to show AB BC AC .
 Perform subtraction of vectors a – b as – (b – a) using vector diagrams.
 Perform scalar multiplication of a vector.
(Show students that vector ka has a magnitude k times that of vector a,
by using examples that vector 3a is actually a + a + a, etc.)
 Know that vector ka is parallel to vector a and is in the same direction as
a if k is positive but is opposite in direction if k is negative.

11.3 Magnitude of Vectors, Unit  Use Pythagoras Theorem to find the magnitude of a vector.
Vectors and Parallel Vectors x
(If AB then AB x 2 y 2 .)
y

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

11.3 Magnitude of Vectors, Unit  Define unit vector as a vector with a magnitude of 1 unit.
Vectors and Parallel Vectors
(Continued) (If OP is a unit vector, then OP 1. )
 Find the unit vector in the same direction as a given vector a.
1
(Required unit vector, â .a .)
a
 Define parallel vectors as two non-zero vectors a and b having the same
or opposite direction and that a = kb.
 Know that if a = k b , then a k b .
 Know that for two non-parallel vectors a and b:
pa qb ra sb p r and q s .
 Solve related problems.

11.4 Position Vectors  Know position vectors as vectors which are described relative to the
origin O.
(e.g. the position of a point P with respect to an origin O is indicated by
the directed line segment OP . Thus the vector OP or p is called the
position vector of P relative to O and OP xi + yj where i and j are unit
vectors in the positive direction along the x – axis and the
x
y – axis respectively. In column vector form, OP .)
y

##  Find the unit vector in the direction of OP using the formula

OP xi yj 1 x
or .
OP x2 y2 x2 y2 y

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

 Know that if a and b are the position vectors of points A and B with
respect to the origin, then AB b – a .
 Express given vectors in terms of given position vectors and solve
problems including finding
(i) the position vector of the midpoint M of the line segment AB as
1
OM (a + b),
2
2
(ii) the position vector of point R given e.g. AR RC ,
3
(iii) the unit vector in the direction of AB .
 Know the term collinear points: If A, B and C are three points lying on a
straight line, then A, B and C are collinear points.
 Use one of the equations AB k BC or AB k AC or AC k BC to
show that points A, B and C are collinear.

## 11.5 Miscellaneous Problems on  Solve miscellaneous problems related to vectors.

Vectors
12 RELATIVE VELOCITY 3 weeks

12.1 Composition of Velocities  Understand that velocity is a vector quantity and so the composition of New Additional Mathematics
two velocities results in a resultant velocity that has the same effect as Chapter 24
the two velocities combined and the resultant velocity can be found by Additional Mathematics
using the Parallelogram or Triangle Law of Addition. Chapter 13
 Find the resultant velocity , v R of two given velocities v 1 and v 2 where
(i) v 1 is parallel to v 2 by using the i or j direction, http://webphysics.davidson.edu/p
(ii) v 1 is perpendicular to v 2 e.g. 3i and 4j by using Pythagoras’ hyslet_resources/bu_semester1/
Theorem to find the magnitude and tangent ratio to find the c4_relv1D.html
direction/bearing of the resultant velocity,
(iii) v 1 and v 2 are in any direction by using trigonometry e.g. v 1 is 6 ms-1
on a bearing of 060 and v 2 is 8 ms-1 due north-east.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

12.2 Resolution of Velocities  Understand that the reverse process of combining two velocities(vectors) http://www.saburchill.com/physic
is resolving a velocity i.e. “splitting” it into two perpendicular s/chapters/0083.html
components, usually in the i – j directions.
 Show that a velocity of magnitude V making an angle of with the
vertical can be resolved into the components V sin i and V cos j.
 Resolve given velocities into the i – j components.
 Obtain the resultant of the two velocities e.g. given in (iii) above, v 1 is 6
ms-1 on a bearing of 060 and v 2 is 8 ms-1 due north-east by
- resolving each velocity as components v 1 = 6 sin 60 i + 6 cos 60 j and
v 2 = 8 sin 45 i + 8 cos 45 j ,
- adding the components giving v R = 10.853 i + 8.657 j ,
- then finding the magnitude of v R and the direction.
(Suggestion: The method of resolution of velocities into the i – j
components to find the resultant velocity is an alternative method for
students who have difficulty dealing with the direction of arrows using
trigonometry.)

12.3 Introduction to Relative  Understand the concepts involving relative motion of a moving object
Velocity and a stationary object e.g. a boy in a moving car looking at a tree, and
relative motion of two moving objects e.g. two cars approaching each
other, etc.
 Know the term true (actual) velocity, e.g. v A , the true velocity of a
moving object A relative to the Earth.
 Know the term relative (apparent) velocity, e.g. v A/B , the velocity of a
moving object A relative to a moving object B (observer).

## 12.4 Relative Motion  Use relative velocity equation, v A / B v A v B to solve problems

involving motion along a straight line and non parallel motion.
 Use the alternative equation, v A v A / B v B .

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

12.5 Relative Velocity - Motion in a  Know the terms actual path, track, actual speed, ground speed, course,
Current and Motion in the Air speed in still water, speed in still air, air speed and speed of current.
(Teachers may use the examples of a man rowing a boat on a river and
an aircraft flying in the wind. Show, using vector diagrams, the
composition of the velocities and use the parallelogram law to get the
resultant velocity.)
 Use the relative velocity equation:
v A /W + v w = v A
where v A / W is the velocity of aircraft relative to the wind or the velocity
of boat relative to water current, v w is the velocity of the wind or water
current, and v A is the true velocity of the aircraft or boat.
 Solve problems involving motion in the water such as river crossing
problems, like finding:
- the actual velocity across the river,
- the time taken to cross the river,
- the angle of motion,
- the resultant speed of the boat on return journey, etc.
 Solve problems involving motion of aircraft in the air:
- find the true velocity and direction (ground speed and track),
- find the course and time taken for the journey,
- find the course of outward and return journey,
by drawing vector diagrams and using the trigonometry method.
(Caution: Students must be aware that the wind velocity is usually given
from the direction it is blowing from, e.g. if the wind is blowing from east,
then the direction of the vector is towards west.)

12.6 Relative Motion of Two Moving  Define the apparent path of A relative to B as the path that would be
Objects taken by A as observed by B if B is assumed to be stationary.
(Suggestion: Plot actual positions at regular time intervals to show the
apparent path of A relative to B.)

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

12.6 Relative Motion of Two Moving  Know that for interception or collision to occur, the apparent path of A
Objects relative to B must be parallel to AoBo where Ao and Bo are the given initial
(Continued) positions of A and B i.e. v A / B is parallel to AoBo.
 Solve problems on relative motion of two moving objects.
 Solve problems involving interception (collision) of two moving objects
(but not closest approach).

Text books
1 New Additional Mathematics (Ho Soo Thong & Khor Nyak Hiong)
2 Additional Mathematics (H H Heng, JF Talbert)

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