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WILLIAM

SHAKSPEEE

BIOGRAPHY.

CHARLES

BY

KNIGHT
1

REVISED

"

that

All

npou-Avon
and
"

plays"
Along

some

time;

is

with

sense

of the

one

has

remember,
term,

made

ours

understand

we,

from

him,

this

differ

to

grown

to

such
s

perhaps

wide

and

his

ct

CO.,

CITY

without

even

in

distance,

can

What

other
put

doings

he

buried.''"

was

question:

therefrom?

sayings,

and

LONDON

VIRTUE

Shakspere
where

London,

to

will, died,

information,
other,

or

before

his

went

"

AUGMENTED.

certainty concerning

there

children

tomb-stone
way

of

degree

an}'

had

Stratford,

to

that
in

wherein
and

with
and

returned

answer,

fancy

known

married

"

AXD

that

he

much

words:
ourselves

how
What
in

of

it, we

was

could

Stratford

at

and

have

English

wrote

things
Shakspert's

have

we

place

Carlvxe.

AXD

IVY

LANE.

liked
in

life

ROAD

born

was

actor,

poems

Steevens.

and

?""

is"

commenced

to

; and

forget,
so,

to

gain

Shakspere't

in

what
the

tc

fuir

This

is

has

been

long

two

has

My

the
of

that

all

form

the

do

the

believe

that

English

Literature,

truth,

in

That

1843.

book
it

reproduce

to

me

have
which

with

moved,
could

he

are

in

social

was

not

not

have

written

by

of

reached

"

than

than

the

but

fancy,
by

"

mere

of

an

to

which

information

with

this
of

know

most

difference,
of

most

reasoning,
the

for

and

Diaries

defined

approximation
documentary
a

still
in
and

stances,
circum-

temporary
so

his

time

first
of

absence

on

which

but

of

as

interest.

sound

one

jectural.
con-

other,

manner

in

local

which

state

the

in

part

any

the

make,

to

be

extent,

endeavoured

in

want

we

this

-with

amidst

freak

been

instance

which,

facts

relations

in

respect,

ventured

known

the

to

Shakspere

great

been

Iris

exciting

regard

Biography

in

are

him,

of

certain

has

it

around

for

to

conjectural

Admitting

which

the

been

Shakspere

class.

write

must,

this

self-evident

Life

which

upon

with

for

him

which

this

Spenser

shows,

materials

more

by

with

is,

"

same

to

far

reader

the

Hunter,

attempt

the

have

concerning

the

the
of

principle

Steevens

circumstances

of

poets

surround

should

and
must

the

Life

assumes

that

more

of

are

so

the

express

scanty

only

the

Mr.

Shakspere,

know

it

mind

with

agree

contemporaries

Letters,

grounded

matter,

gratificationto

from

that

is

with

contemporary
we

additional

published

is

That

every

Lives

which

in

them

of

life
his

Indeed,

Shakspere

fully

how

'Biography'

the

fix
I

its author,

and

conjectural;

may

it

title-page

written.

called.

so

associate

been

of

exaggeration

regards

E.

and

volume

and

the

in

mottoes
'

Biography

properly

of

print"

revised.

thoroughly
The

of

out

alterations

large

information,

recent

more

upon

edition, with

new

position
to

the

norrative.

PREFACE.

of

name

the

end

same

facts.

and

clear

to

the

of

of

to

that

accessions

to

ascribed

of

light
the

have

during
merit

Stage,

made

the

theories,

The

rests

of

course

and

by

"c.

"c.

essentially

these

to

are

availed

whose

of

last

any

and

with

form

upon

Shakspere
successful

some

any

real

to

1843,
for

others

are

always

not

information

years,
its

in

materials

are

two-and-twenty

discovery

volume

valuable;

results

of

this

of

documentary

curious

myself

the

the

edition

proper

CHARLES

"8fe

accompanied

narrative

have

original

the

of

antiquarianism,

diligent
labour.

its

brought

case

Many

Shakspere.

the

accomplished

prejudices.

publication

considerable

been

have

the

substitute

to

have

Shakspere,
of

extravagant

any

received

long

that

think

to

without

consistent,

resistance

Since

therefore,

venture,

might

M/.

from

motto,

ventured

of

but

second

having

Johnson."

"

History

fanciful,

appear

may

notice

short

Customs,

and

adopted

have

of

that

for

writing

by

Manners

of

History

"

Shakspere

"

the

in

Johnson,

Dr.

on

shown

is

do

to

article

admirable

Carlyle's
the

thus

proposed

What

and

the

have

author.

KNIGHT.

Life

memorials

proportior
which

there

has

in

ate

been

every

CONTENTS

ILLUSTKATIONS

AND
TO

BIOGRAPHY.

THE

Original Drawings

From

by

W.

Fac-similes

the

Harvey;

BOOK

and

Autographs

by

F.

W.

Fairhol*.

I.
Page

Half-tit.'e

Visions

Youthful

I." Shakspere's

to Book

ANCESTRY.

I."

CHAPTER
Page

of John

Arms

Shakspere

Ancient

Font,
of

Church

in

formerly
baptismal

Stratford

register

Church

of W.

Shakspere...

Avenue

Court

Chapel

of the

Note

School,

Grammar

John

Stratford

of Aston

and

GrammarSchool,

street

Confession

Shakspere's

Boundary

May-day
Bidford

at

V."

Elm,

Stratford

in

Gatehouse

at

Kenilworth

Elizabeth

Gascoigne
The

Merry

to

Corporation

Dend

1C

Church,

east

end,

Shakspere's

House

in

Stratford

24

John

with

charnel-house

Henley

28

Street

82

of

Martyrdom

34

front

SCHOOL.

THE

painting

in

4 Becket,

Thomas
the

chapel

of the

from

Holy

an

ancient

Cross

18

47

SCHOOLBOY'S

THE

VI."

The

WORLD.

Fair

57

HOLIDAYS.

62

Clopton

6S

The

House

Clopton

75
Monument

in

Stratford

Churcfc

70

71

Bridge

CHAPTER

Queen

autographs

REGISTER.

23

51

Cantlow

Shottery

Chimney-piece

of

of Faith

CHAPTER
The

Fac-simile

47

CHAPTER
Village

IV."

School

Grammar

Guild,

on

12

27

of the

of the

0
Cantlow

STRATFORD.

III. -THE

CHAPTER
Inner

of Aston

13

CHAPTER

Interior

of

II."

C'lopton's Bridge

The

Village
Church

CHAPTER

Fnc-simile

Wilmecote

Head-piece

Ornamental

Marriage"

Kenilworth

Gate

VII."

KENILWORTH.
Earl

79

Ruins

S2

Entrance

S4

85

of Leicester

77

of

..

Kenilworth
to

the

Hall

in the

17th

Century

..

89

90

CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS.

AND

CHAPTER

-PAGEANTS.

VIII.

Page
Coventry

Cross

Coventry

Churches

Note

and

the

on

Church

From

of House

on

the

Stratford

Note

on

the

alleged Poverty

Note

on

the

School

Life

Henley

in

Note

Street

Sidney's

on

Guy's

at

King

of

Tomb

X."

Bridge

of

Battle

Field

Entrance

to

Warwick

from

128

XII."

[G.

F.

151

Warwick

153

Beauchamp

YORK

Charlcote
Deer

House,

Note

the

on

Lucy.

Meadows

near

Near
Old

XIII."

from

the

Avenue

Shaksperian

A
Old

From

Peep

at

Road

near

Lucy

Avon
on

tie

158

Warwick

160

Scenery

street front

171

NOT

Old

179

Bengeworth

OF

Bell

TIME.

Evesham

Houses,

189

Church,

seen

through

the

Arch

Tower

SOCIAL

of the

Avon

Alvcston

of the
187

HOURS.

1S8

Charlcote

195

House

197

Charlcote

198

Fulbrooke

201

Hampton

204

Daisy

Hill

224

205

IngonHill

223

209

Snitterfield

211

Map

House,

from

in Charlcote

of th

from

House,

the

Avon

212

Garden

219

Village
the

213

221

Lucy

Church

223

230

neighbourhood

of Stratford

232

Localities

Charlcote

Town,
Note

Hampton

Mary's Hall,

RUINS,

XIV."

"

Welford

of

157

Island

LANCASTER.

AND

177

181

Alveston
Church

the

176

Gateway

CHAPTER
Hampton

155

172

Fulbrooke

Barn,

Cliff

Leicester

Church

Charlcote

Chapel,

Guy's

167

Bidford

Grange

Castle, from

at

front

Tewkshury

Bidford

Bidford

Guy

court

165

Hillborough

Crab-tree..

Mary's Hall,

St.

Evesham

Bidford

of

101

"".

Cliffs,near

PAST.

Statue

168

CHAPTER

Marl

144

THE

St.

Tower

Church

Great

IN

147

Hill

Bell

Churches,

Sackville

Ancient

Sargent]

CHAPTER

Ancient

STRATFORD.

AT

Thomas

1-10

Castle

Lodge

Evesham.

120

154

Warwick

The

Welford

LIVING

Interior

Evesham.

Parish

121

XL"

Worcester

Shrewsbury

at

Street

145

Century

CHAPTER
Mary's Hall,

Henley

Poesy

Mill at Guy's Cliff

gt.

116
in

119

Evesham

at

End

Kitchen

113

PLAYERS

Buss]

Defence

at

West
of

111

THE

Cliff

John

Corner

Shakspere

CHAPTER

Chapel

Church"

Chimney

Shakspere

William

of

Seventeenth

Cliff in the

Guy's

Stratford

113

of John

Play

Players [It.W.

Itinerant

of
105

CHAPTER
Bailiff's

drawing

HOME.

IX."

Registers

Note

The

103

101

last century

Kitchen

Fire-side.

The

Mill.

of the

beginning

the

1842..

Coventry,

Pageants

Coventry

and

of

Gate

97

Pageants

CHAPTER
Stratford

Ancient

93

23]

XV."

SOLITARY

HOURS.

233

Spenser

237

Below

243

Near

Alveston

244

Near

Ludington

245

The

Mill, Welford

215

The

Marl

"

Charlcote

Cliff.

24t
250
253
"Ci
256
257
254

ILLUSTRATIONS.

AND

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

XVI."

DAY

WORCESTER.

AT

Page

TaffO

Worcester

253

Nunnery

Sliottery Cottage

267

Pershore

269

Worcester

Church

Clifford

on

Christening

on

Shakspere's Marriage

in the

Ha'.iol College

Note

XVII."

Sixteenth

THE

Century

ditto
Life

Aubrey's

on

FIRST

Visions

of

Play

of

279

Chtistchurch
Ancient

291

London

on

the

Note

on

Marlowe

date

The

I."
299

of Nash's

Epistle prefixed

II."

Account

of the

to

of

NEW

at

Thomas

Greene

027

COURT
330

Queen

332

Sir Walter

Elizabeth

III."

THE

MIGHTY
Procession

Sir

Philip Sidney

341

Sir F.

342

Spenser

Tilbury

HOW

Palace....,

St. James's
Hunsdon

Somerset
Note

Globe

Entry

Shakspere's occupations

of Hamnet

Falcon

Ben

Jonson

353

Ancient

355

Merry

V."

THEY

View
Wives

THE

371

Register

of

Stratford

of the

Shakspere

Seal

Burial

at

TRAVEL,

of

Cambridge

of

Windsor,

359

performed

Windsor

before

Queen
368

and

VI."

Richard

Michael

389

Samuel

George Chapman

393

John

Jchn

395

Taylor
Fletcher
'

Malecontcnt

Autograph
of Judith

Burbage

of Susanna

Shakspere

Hall

37ft
378
382

WIT-COMBATS.
John

Marston's

370

GLOBE.

Autograph
377

Tavern

on

352

Elizabeth

3S7

Note

316

IT

383

John

345

Drake

CHAPTER
The

344

in 1593

Theatre

in Parish

St. Paul's

Effingham

357

CHAPTER
The

to

of

CHANCES

356

House
on

335

HEART.

Howard

IV."

333

Raleigh

337

340

CHAPTER

GREENWICH.

AT

338

Lord

295

SOI

Greenwich

Sidney

Richmond

Cen'ury

PLAY.

of Leicester

at

Sixteenth

II.

Earl

Camp

the

294

Menaphon

THE

Court

CHAPTER
Funeral

Blackfriars, in

Westminster

323

Hentzner's

on

293

Century
and

297

Bacon
Note

from

Sixteenth

of St. James's

Maturity

of Arthur

Misfortunes

in the

View

206

CHAPTER

SirF.

LONDON.

TO

Shakspere

Blackfriars

at the

Note

277

292

CHAPTER
A

RIDE

281

BOOK
Shakspere's

275

"

(fac-similes)

Register

Schools

Divinity

279
277

of Woodstock
in Stratford

Cathedral

Licence

CHAPTER

Entries

274

Customs

Note
Note

Palace

Salford

at

'
....

Donne

Drayton
Daniel
Lowin

397
399

400
407

407

ILLUSTRATIONS.

AND

CONTENTS

VII. "EVIL

CHAPTER

Earl

*13

Cecil

Robert

416

VIII. -DID

CHAPTER
Seventeenth

Edinburgh

in the

Perth, and

Vicinity

Dunsinane
Castle

Glamis
James

First

and

of Scotland,

Sixth

the

England

of

Carlisle

Note

the

on

CHAPTER

Interior

Church

of 'William

Fac-simile

Combe

Combe

of John

Ditto

of Conveyance

Harefield
Note

the

on

The

Garden

The

Patent

the

to

acting

Company

Stirling

457

4S0

Falkland

453

431

Aberdeen

4G0

449

Berwick

453

Alnwick

in the
from

Place,

New

ancient

in

drawing
made

the

order

by

of

margin
Sir

of

the

of

copy

Letter

H.

signed

467

Funeral

of Queen

Elizabeth

468

William

Herbert,

Earl

468

Philip Herbert,

468

Wolsey's Hall, Hampton

470

Banqueting-House,

The

at

Stratford

Earl

X."

Fac-simile

Signature

494

House

ofrDr.

in the

Foot-bridge
Stratford

OF

Drummond

Alexander,

Thomas

Dekker

Conveyance

to

Shakspere

XII."

Church

Monument

of John

Leicester's

Hospital,

Combe
Warwick

Church
of entry

of Thomas

in Parish

Quiney

of Thomas

Register

501

504

Beaumont

513

Nathaniel

514

Thomas

520

Field

521
522

Middleton

and

Judith

523

THE

Shakspere...

Quiney

LAST

BIRTHDAY.

524

Fac-simile

530

of Anne

of entry in Parish

of the

burial

of Susanna

532

Ditto

of the

burial

of Judith

of Eliza

Barnard

Autograph
533

Autographs

533

Shakspere

539

Shakspere's

of

on

some

on

Autographs

Points

lu

Shakspere's

burial

Hall

543

Quiney

544
544
547

Shakspere

from
bust

Roubiliac's
from

the

Monument
Monument

649
at

Stratford

551
539

"

Note

of the

543

Ditto

Will

Note

Register

Shakspere

532

riage
Mar-

of the

Stratford

Shakspere's

8tratford

500
Mill

in 1613

CHAPTER
of Stratford

at

499

517

the

Monument

499

Street, Stratford

JI'J

William

Signature

498

LONDON.

William

Fac-simile

riage
Mar-

502

Philip Massinger

Weston

of the

Shakspere

House

Francis

...

Register

Susanna

Church

Bridgewater

GLIMPSES

and

the

above

511

Chancel

477

Hall

High

509

on

476

Chapel

Bishopton

at

in Parish

Hall

Garden

Note

475

Court

Whitehall

of entry

of John

493

3., preserved

Stirling

474

Montgomery

REST.

Alleyn
of

of

47S
Pembroke

of

480

Edward

Earl

471

Globe

George

XL"

CHAPTER

REWARDS.

AND

497

Bear

464

Tenement

an

Care
on

463
Castle

400

College

Survey,

Note

456

465

481

Lucy

College
Hall

SCOTLAND?

427

the

at

Place

of New

of Sir Thomas

Ancient

VISIT

Linlithgow

CHAPTER

Monument

418

419

LABOURS

IX."

Temple

Temple

of the

AutogTaph

of John

Elphen

of

Queen

Middle

of the

Hall

Burial

the

4.05

House

Hoiyrood

cf

SHAKSPERE

Century

Register

the

of

Shakspere

"

Essex

of

Page
Fac-simile

409

House

ssex

DAYS.

Pa"je

111

542
545

,."

Registers

548

Note

on

the

Portraits

Note

on

the

Shakspere

of

549

Shakspere
House

and

New

Place

552
"

'"^

^^"4

1m.

-^2"

BOOK

I.

CHAPTER

I.

ANCESTRY.

On

the

22nd

of

of EngAugust, 1485, there was a battle fought for the crown


land,
short battle ending in a decisive victory. In that field a crowned
a
king,
in
the
middle
his
of
slain
and
enemies, was
manfully fighting
brought to his
the
which
death;" and a politicadventurer
the
immediate
scendants
deon
crown,
put
"

of his
was

mortal

house

Bosworth.
he

enemy,

thanks, with

devout

for

wore

"When
kneeled

the
down

earl
and

had

unto

them
and

he
his

not

only

praised and

heartythanks,

valiant

facts."*

with

Two

lauded

promise

months

to

and

Which
up

to

Hall's. Chronicle

the

finished, he,

prayer

the top of

little mountain,

soldiers, but

condign recompense

afterwards

field
battle-

victoryand slain his


his hearty
Almighty God

his valiant
of

The

quarter.

obtained

thus

rendered

godly orisons.
replenishedwith incomparablegladness,ascended
where

and

nearly a century

Earl

of

also

for their
Richmond

gave
lity
fidewas

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

anointed

and

solemnly crowned

more

his

friends
especial
and

his desert and

merit."*

of

name

to

goods,every

King

remember

began to

he advanced

some

and
possessions

with

honour

and

nity,
dig-

accordingto

man

mond,
there in that victorious army of the Earl of Richof
thieves,outlaws,
traitors,
as
a
company

Was

denounced

Richard

which

"

enriched

he

some

the

chronicler, "he

the

fautors, of whom

and

by

Westminster

at

Henry VII.; and "after this," continues

"

of Chacksper,
or
Shakespeyre,
runagates,"an Englishmanbearingthe name
or
or
or
or
or
Shakspere,!
Schakspere,
Shakespere,
Schakespeire,
Schakespere,
a
nd
the like,have
martial
?
however
a
Shakespear,
Breakespear,
name,
spelt
been surnames
imposed upon the first bearers of them for valour and feats of
arms." X
Of the warlike achievements of this Shaksperethere is no record: his
and

"

"

"

name

would

his deeds

or

eightyvears

interest for

no

us

after this battle -day,a direct descendant


"

Whose
Doth

have

of
Shakspere,

muse,

him

had

been

born,

"

high thought'sinvention,
sound;" ""
heroically
"

also said

"He
brandish'd

As

from

there

full of

like himself

it was

whom

unless

"

shrikea lance

to

seems

at the eyes

of

ignorance."il

of
Shakspere,the paternalancestor
Earl
of
littlemountain
when
the
the
nigh

William

Shakspere,
who,
promised
friends
those
his
valiant
to
w
as
soldiers,
especial
condign recompense
amongst
and goods. A public
and fautors whom
Henry VII. enriched with possessions
affirms
of
John
document
the
date
of
1596
Shakspereof Stratford-upon
bearing
that his "parent and late antecessors
Avon, the father of William
Shakspere,
Certainlythere

was

if he stood not

for their valiant and

were,

faithful services,advanced

prudent princeKing Henry


which

time

and
1599,

continued

they have

credit."

VII.

Another

of famous
at

document

those
of

rewarded
and

memory;"

parts
a

and

Richmond

of the most

it adds,

"

sithence

in good reputa[Warwickshire]
tion

similar character,bearingthe date of

also affirms upon "creditable report,"of "John


of Stratford-upon-A
now
Shakspere,
in the county of Warwick, gentleman,"that his "parent and

late antecessor,
for his faithful and
great-grandfather,
approved service to the
late most
VII.
advanced
of
famous
was
prudent princeKing Henry
memory,
and rewarded
wickshire,
with lands and tenements,
given to him in those parts of Warand
descents in good reputation
where they have continued
by some
Such are the recitals of two several grants of arms
credit."
John
to
Shakspere,
in
said that
made
him
and
let
it
be
to
not
a
1569;
confirming previousgrant
these statements
the rhodomontades
of heraldry, honours
bestowed, for
were
There was
mere
to gentleblood.
considerations,upon any pretenders
mercenary
strict inquiryif they were
centuries and a half ago
Two
unworthilybestowed.
"

Hall's Chronicle.

t A list of tho brethren

Knowle, near Rowington,in Warwickshire,


from
about
1480 to 1527;
name
Shakspere
fraternity,
the names
are
speltwith the diversityhere given,Shaksperebeing the latest.
X Verstegan's Restitution/Sec.
" Spenser.
|1Ben Joneon.

exhibits
/led

great number

'

and sisters of the Guild

of

the

of

of

in that

BIOGRAPHY.

honours

such

with

connected

was
philosophy,

high

kingdoms the record


of worthy men
dispositions

and

in all nations and

and

virtuous

have

certain shields of

then, lived and


"unknown

died, we

Welshman,"

as

known

made

and

call

ye that
facts and

divulgedby

those parts of Warwickshire,

faithful and

called him, who

Richard

Know

of

tone
we

of the valiant

remembrance
been

the

what

"

the

assume,

may

provoke a smile from


principles
generous

chivalry." In

of

tokens

and

arms

solemnityin

it may

which, however

documents

these very

there is

and

importance;

of grave

were

of

approvedservant
for himself

won

the

the

more

probablyadvanced

in
the most
of
prudent prince." He was
equivocalname
Henry ascended the throne ; for in the first year of Queen Elizabeth,
years when
of
a
John
burgess of the corporation
1 558, his great-grandson,
Shakspere,was
of
John
1530.
born about
Shakspere was
in all probability
Stratford,and was
of Henry VII.
The
family had
the third generationsucceedingthe adherent
but how
descents ;
occupied in
continued
in those parts, by some
they were
branched
in
how
out
their station
the business
of life,what
society,
they
was
have no distinct record.
we
into other lines of Shaksperes,
They were
probably
small proprietors.The
be
traced
name
cultivators of the soil,unambitious
may
Warwickshire
but
learn
from
of
in
we
a
parishes
;
by legal documents
many
the
maternal
Robert
of
in 1550
Arden,
deed of trust, executed
grandfather
by
the occupierof land in SnitterWilliam
Shakspere,that Richard Shaksperewas
this
Arden.
At
Robert
field,the property of
parishof Snitterfield lived a Henry
"

"

*'

Shakspere,who,

learn

we

as

the brother

Stratford, was

from

of John

declaration

Shakspere.

in

It is

the

Court

of

Record

at

and very reason-*


conjectured,
the paternalgrandfather
of

Snitterfield,was
ably,that Richard
Snitterfield
is
William
only three miles distant from Stratford.
Shakspere.
who
has de
to the times of John
A painterof manners,
near
comes
Shakspere,
his
immediate
those
condition
of
"Yeomen
ancestors:
scribed the probable
are
born English.
The truth is,
which by our law are called legales
homines, free men
which signifieth
that the word is derived from the Saxon term zeoman,
or geoman,
(as
I have read) a settled or staid man.
This sort
of people have a certain preeminence

Shakspere,of

and
and

these

They

live

commonly
also

are

estimation

more

and

for the

than

labourers

and

the

part farmers

to

sort

common

wealthily,
keep good houses,

most

and

travel

gentlemen, or

of
to

artificers,
get riches.

the leastwise artificers

at

with

grazing,
frequentingof markets, and keeping of servants
(not
but
such
do,
both
their
gentlemen
as
and part of
own
get
their masters' living),
do come
to great wealth, insomuch
that many
of them
are
able and do buy the lands of unthrifty
their sons
gentlemen, and often, setting
to
;

idle servants

as

the

the schools, to the universities,


and
them
those

sufficient lands
means

to

France

afraid."

middle

of the

to

the inns of the court,

whereupon they may live


gentlemen these were

become

Plain-speaking Harrison,

reign of Elizabeth, tells

could
of the yeoman
of the realm, whoso

professethphysicand

be

without

changed

abideth
the

in

us

who

how

make

in times

this

leaving
them

by
all

past made

descriptionin

the

the yeoman
and the descendants
Whosoever
studieth the laws
;

into

gentlemen

the

university
givinghis

liberal sciences,or

otherwise

labour, do

they that
wrote

or

"

mind

to

his book,

beside his service in the

room

of

or
a

WILLIAM

captainin

the

port, charge, and


bestowed

so

good cheap,
he

reputed

their

in

say

for

charter, of

truly,that

he

rewarded

by Henry

VII.

condition

on
or

his

bend

Dethick,

at

mantells

and

is the
ever

in 1568

or

heralds
and

"honour

for

so

yeoman,

Arms

Master

his

of

the

of

first,the

them,

who

had

was

no

grant of

coat

or

Arms,

of

and
been

and

arms

point steeled,

speare

gould

as

aforesaid, sett

tassells."

[Anr.a

("f John

Shakapcral

and

change

Robert

Cook,

confirmed by

follows

proper

no

to

doubt

spere,
Shak-

wings displayed,argent, standing on


Steele

they were
he

goodman

was
as

and

coat

advanced

by

arms

in 1596,

Shakspere,
"a

this short

more

Shakspere ;

of

shield

principalKing

speare

after he

ever

virtue

which

one

esquiresand

to

things"

"gay
told

and

made

being

have

to

coat

the

of custom

John

so

desired

the

to

as

same

give

And

do

thereunto

men

after."

service," he

but

of the

title that

great-grandsonto
And

charter

1569,

will bear

have

shall for money

things),and

gay

gentleman
the

to

was

cognizance,a faulcon,
coullors
supporting a

with

Stratford

Garter,

sable and

many

produced by

was

King

Clarencieux
"William

for

Shakspere,

John

or

his

(who

which

master,

instruction

told them

in

by

in the

is

his commonwealth

is able and

thereto

gentleman, he

service, and

bailiff of

was

;" and

arms

him

be called

gentlemen, and
whilst

of

heralds

antiquityand

pretend

labour, and

manual

countenance

upon

good counsel given at home, whereby

live without

benefited, can

arms

or

wars,

SHAKSPERE

"

and
a

uppon

Gould,

his crest,
wrethe
a

of

helmet

there

Bul

other

were

arms

BIOGRAPHY.

day

one

In

the poynt steeled,proper."


first,
Collegeof Arms, and, producinghis
"

married

and

the

daughterand

one

then the heralds take the

1599
"

own

impaled with the


speare
John
Shakspereagain goes
"

ancient coat

of the heirs of Robert

of arms,"

speare

to

the

says that he has

We

"

say
the ancient

on

escutcheon

the

:"
Arden, of Wellingcote

of the first,"
and

"

of

"

have

likewise

with
of the said
arms
impaled the same
of Wellingcote."They add that John
Arden
and his children,issue,
Shakspere,
and posterity,
bear
and
shield
the
of
use
same
arms,
singleor impaled.
may
The familyof Arden
in
of the highest
was
one
antiquity Warwickshire.
Dugdale traces its pedigreeuninterruptedly
Confessor.
the
time
of
Edward
the
to
up
Under
the head of Curdworth, a parishin the hundred
of Hemlingford, he says
In this placeI have made
choice to speakhistorically
ancient and
of that most
in this
their residence
first assumed
from
was
worthy family,whose surname
upon

other

be

to

"

"

part of the country, then


old Britons

and

invasion

power"

and

Gauls

there

of

"

and

yet called Arden, by

using the

resided

at

word

in that sense."

Warwick,

Turchil, "a

great possessions."In the

of

reason

its woodiness, the

At the time
of

man

Book

of the Norman

note
especial

and

his father,Alwyne,

Domesday
Turchil, as well as his father,received favour at the hands
styledvice comes.
retained the possession
of the Conqueror. He
of vast lands in the shire,and he
Warwick
Castle
thence called Turchil
He was
as
a
occupied
military
governor.
de Warwick
But Dugdalegoes on to say
He was
of the
one
by the Normans.
firsthere in England that, in imitation of the Normans, assumed
for
a surname,
it appears that he did, and wrote
himself
Turchillus de Eardene, in the days
so
of King William
Rums."
The history
of the De Ardens, as collected with wonderful
seldom
six centuries.
Such
records
industryby Dugdale,spreads over
much
of
however
and
be
the familyto
incident,
variety
present
wealthy
great
which
attainder varies the
or
an
they are linked. In this instance a shrievalty
out
birth
of
but
a
fter
and marriage,
register
generation
generation
passes away withFuller has
leaving any enduring traces of its sojourn on the earth.
illustrious
the name
of a singleDe Arden
not
men
amongst his "Worthies"
for something more
with
who
birth or
of
those
than
the
riches,
exception
swell the lists of sheriffs for the
The
Dugdale
pedigree which
county.
in the direct line to the mother
gives of the Arden family bringsus no nearer
the
of Shakspere than to Robert
he was
Arden, her great-grandfather
third son
of Walter
Arden, who married Eleanor, the daughterof John Hampden,
brother
of Buckinghamshire
and
he was
Sir John
to
Arden,
squire
;
for the body to Henry VII.
has continued
Malone, with laudable industry,
the pedigreein the younger
branch.
Robert's
also called Robert, was
son,
favourite ;
of the chamber
He
to
Henry VII.
groom
appears to have been a
for he had a valuable lease granted him by the king of the manor
of Yoxsall, in
His
also made
Staffordshire,and was
keeper of the royalpark of Aldercar.
The
benefits.
Sir
John
showed
him
the
these
road to
uncle,
Arden, probably
of the
for
the
ancient
the
officer
of
court
was
a
high
squire
body
; and the groom
is

"

"

"

chamber

was

an

inferior officer,
but

correspondentoffices of
ncss

of

are
etiquette,

modern

one

who

had

times, however

relieved from

the

old

The
responsibilty.

service and
encumbered

duties,which

with the wearisomeare

now

intrusted
7

tc

WILLIAM

hired servants.

The

squirefor

SHAKSPERE

the

body had to array the king and unarray ; no


else was
the king. The groom
to set hand
of the robes was
man
on
to present
the squirefor the body "all the king'sstuff,as well his shoon
his other
as
If the sun
of majesty
gear;" but the squirefor the body was to draw them on.
the outer
to enlighten
world, the squirehumbly followed with the cloak ;
was
needed
when
refection,the squireduly presented the potage. But at
royalty
all
to presideover
nightit was his duty,and much watchfulness did it require,
fenced round
that once
those jealous
a
safeguards
king from a traitorous
sleeping
in
In
the
with
the
same
room
a
palletbed,
king,rested the gentleman
subject.
lord of the bedchamber
chamber;
ante-room
or
sleptthe groom of the bed; in the
in the privychamber
two
were
gentlemenin waiting;and,
adjoining
in
the
for
the
the body under the cloth
presence-chamberreposed
squire
lastly,
bolts upon
every door defended each of these approaches,
mounted
and the sturdy yeomen
guard without, so that the pages, who made
probable
their pallets
threshold,might sleepin peace.* It is not imat the last chamber
Locks

of estate.

and

out,
Shaksperemight have guardedthe door withhad
Arden
each
whilst Sir John
sleptupon the liaut pas within. They
but
could
littleforesee
that
their relative importancein their own
in
day ;
they
would
descend
from
the next
century their blood would mingle,and that one
their
world
make
to forget
the
would
own
who
them
names,
agree not utterly
indifferent that future world might be to the comparativeimportance
however
the Shakspere. Robert Arden, the groom
of the court servitude of the Arden
or
left the court
of the bedchamber
to Henry VII., probably
upon the death of his
of John

that the ancestor

Their

married, and he had

He

master.

The

"

called

in

huge-grown wood, and

of Arden,"

by that genericname

This information

Malone' s 'Life
t From

of

given in

is

has

of these
assumed

fro have
had

Arden

Robert

It

many

seems

shady grove,"

towns,

manuscript in the

Webbe.

f
Shakspere.
the personification
of

forest with many

long extract from

Agnes

Herald's

Office,
quoted

Shakspeare.'

the connection

Henry VII., Malone


in the grants of arms
Because

Many

married

of William

mother

of poetry.

breathes

name

also Robert, who

son,

Mary, the

youngest daughterwas

Mary Arden
some
Dryad of

been
a

that

they

advanced

lease of the

the

were

and

royal

Shakspere'smother

of

ancestors

immediate

"

antecessors

with

of John

the

of

of

court

Shakspere declared

of Bosworth
by the conqueror
in
Malone
Staffordshire,
Yoxsall,

rewarded
manor

"

have

Field.

also

begrant
beneficial
lease
Arden.
to Robert
the
means
really
Shakspere
stowed upon
been
have
called the grandfather
would
He holds that popularly the grandfather of Mary Arden
The
is
called him.
have
answer
would
so
himself
that
and
John
of John
Shakspere
Shakspere,
had
of
John
been
Shakspere
The
recites that the ^reai-grandfather
grant of arms
very direct.
had
ried
marand
rewarded
advanced
by Henry VIL, and then (joes on to say that John Shakspere

contends

that

ancestor

of John

the

the

the

reward

of lands

daughter

of

Robert

Arden

and

tenements

of

stated

Wellingcote :

He

of

the

in

has

an

ancient

to

arms

coat-of-arms

been

of his

own

arms.
impaled with these his own
from
bis ancestor, and
derived
arms
is the
Arden's
that
be
grandfather
then
person
Mary
document
of
this
the
Can
interpretation
that, having an ancient coat-of-arms
; and
Shakspere's r/rmi-grandfather
pointed out as John

the

of

his wife

that of his wife,whose


himself,his ancestry is really
8

are

arms

to

be

are

different
totally

"

la her
That

Her

That

of

name

of his

Mary
"

The
Some

sounds

other

ground,
height of pride,

with

he

describes

of Arden

had

shrill

(some hid

trees,

in the

the

in the taller

the

blandlyas

as

the house

softer

found,

are

any

in her

even

country,"when

solitudes amongst which


"

than

touching Trent, the other Severn's side."

Arden

native

footstepsyet
more

held

Arden

hand

one

Whose

woodlands

rough
mighty

BIOGRAPHY.

some

verse

the

High

as

of her

was

her

His

descent, wealthyand
her

their mother
will is dated

himself

"Robert

we

native

Arden,

"

the

leaves,
greaves)

among

lower

powerfulas

doubt

not, led

forest hamlet.
survived

Agnes,
the 24th

seated

run,

creeps

t
gentle shade, this while that sweetly sleeps."

family,Mary Arden,
within

with

kiss the

of this fine old gyrist


paneof
birds
in
those
songs

for ages been

Thus
sing away the morn, until the mounting sun
Through thick exhaled fogs his golden head hath
And
through the twisted tops of our close covert

To

She

had

their father,who

the

branches

numerous
as

well

sisters,and

three

nocence,
in-

they all,

in December,

died

as

1556.

same
year, and the testator styles
Wylmcote, in the parycheof Aston Cauntlow."

of November
of

were

life of usefulness

in the

[Village of Wilmccote.]

The

face of the

canal,with

lock

country

have

must

risingupon

Drayton.

been

lock, now

greatly
changed in
crosses

13th Song.
Polyolbion,

the

three

hill upon

centuries.

which

f- Ibid.

the

village

WILLIAM

stands

but

traffic has

SHAKSPERE

robbed

not

place of

the

its

pastures and

its green

shady nooks, though nothing is left of the ancient magnificenceof the great
is very slightappearance
forest. There
about
the present village,
of antiquity
and certainly
house
conceive
that
Robert
in
Arden
not
which
a
we
can
resided.
It

in the

was

therefore

reignof Philipand Mary

be

Robert

that

died

Arden

and

that the

sure

wording of his will is any absolute


First,I bequeath my soul to Almighty God

we

not
can-

proof of his

and to our
religious
opinions:
Saint
blessed Lady
of heaven, and my body
Mary, and to all the holycompany
in Aston aforesaid.'
be buried in the churchyardof Saint John the Baptist
to
who
had
conformed
One
to the changes of religion
might even have begun his
self
himwith this ancient formula ; even
will
of Henry VIII.
the
last testament
as
from
is so worded.
(See Rymer's Fcedera.') Mary, his youngest daughter,
of her father's confidence, occupiesthe
of mind, or some
other cause
superiority
will
I give and bequeath to my youngest
i
n
the
most
prominentposition
daughterMary all my land in Wilmecote, called Asbies, and the crop upon the
and fourpence
and tilled as it is,and six pounds thirteen shillings
ground,sown
his
divided."
To
be
of money
to be paidover
ere
daughter Alice he
my goods
bequeathsthe third part of all his goods,moveable and unmoveable, in field and
of his children,six pounds thirteen shillings
to his wife Agnes,the step-mother
town;
"

"

'

"

and

copyholdat Wilmecote,

Stratford.
and

the condition that she should

under
fourpence,

half of

Mary

remainder

The

made

are

daughterhas

the

"

and

estate

bequeathedto her, it is evident


thus bequeathedto
estate

pasture, and

It

house.

goodsis divided amongst


"

full executors

small

daughterAlice

to

occupy

his other children.


thus

Alice

that the youngest

see

the crop beingalso


of money
; and, from
able
continue
considered
the tillage.
to

was

consisted

her

was

his will. "We

to

sum

that she

The

allow his

inSnitterfield,"
near
havingher "jointure

the widow

of his

undivided

an

"

sixtyacres

of about
for

fortune

of arable

descendant

of the

county of Warwickshire,* but it was

and

lord

of

for

enough
piness.
happaternalroof. The house of
would
indeed
be a well-timbered
Wilmecote
house, being in a woody country.
such
made
the Spaniardin that
and
of
be
house
It would not
as
a
splints clay,
These
Englishhave their houses made of sticks and
very reign of Mary say,
some
dirt,but theyfare commonly as well as the king." It was
twenty years
in the

manors
forty-seven
ever
Luxury had scarcely

under

come

her

"

after the death

of Robert

that Harrison

Arden

luxury in England, saying,"There


where

which

I remain,

England
multitude

within
of

their

of the straw

See

the head:

an

A rden.
10

old

are

three

account

in the hall,where
of

be

thingsto
One

remembrance."

he dined

the

of

the

dressed

iu

Dugdale

of the

"

the
pillows,

possessions,recited in

'

enormities
made

one

his meat

in

is the
his fire

the second

stead
beds, the sheets, in-

lodging
the rough mat, the good round logor
pallet,
the third thingis the exchange of vessels,as
amendment

village

altered
marvellously
these

formerlyeach
and

of domestic

growth

yet dwellingin the

men

erected, whereas
chimneys lately

againsta reredosse
thingis the great
under

have
sound

noted

described

Domesday

the

sack

of treen

Book,' of

of chaff

platters

T archil

do

BIOGRAPHY.

into pewter, and

wooden
He then describes the altered
spoons into silver or tin.
"
substantial
of
fair
the
farmer
A
:
garnishof pewter on his cupboard,
splendour
with
beds

so

and
a

much

so

mansion

his

vessels

and

goingabout

carpets of tapestry;

after his death


in his hall

chamber

three

four

or

silver salt,a bowl

featherfor wine,

not
certainly
inventoryof

find table-boards, forms, cushions, benches,

we

there

cupboard
;
of
five
seven
sheets,
pair
;

one

the house

of spoons to furnish up the suit."


Robert
Arden
had
filled with needless articles for use
In the
ornament.
or
taken

goods

and

coverlids

many

dozen

in odd

more

board-cloths, and

hall and

in the

paintedcloths

are

three towels

in the

there is

one

vasses,
sundry coverlets,and articles called cankitchen
four
The
four
boasts
one
pots,
pillow.
pans,
and
cauldrons, a frying-pan,
four candlesticks,a basin, a chafing-dish,
a
two
gridiron.And yet this is the grandson of a groom of a king'sbedchamber, an
elevated station
office filled by the noble and the rich, and who, in the somewhat
and
of a gentleman of worship,would
probablypossess as many conveniences
There was
rude state of society
comforts
could command.
as
a
plentyoutdoors
in the barns,
wheat
bullocks, kine, weaning calves, swine, bees, poultry,
oxen,
in the yard,horses, colts,carts, ploughs. Robert
oats, hay, peas, wood
barley,
little accumulation, and
had lived throughunquiettimes, when
there was
Arden
rather
the
of
than
of
at
were
:
men
indulgence
days of security
thought
safety

feather-bed

and

mattresses,

two

with

bolsters, and

three

"

Then

hand.

and
And

so

of Asbies

Mary
"

church

looked

to

was

lived in

was

much

with

upon

another

occupy

of Aston

ment
astonish-

had

now

heard

guidanceof a

therefore

roof-tree of her

property at Wilmecote

the

mass

father.

later that with the land

fortyyears

with

own.

the widow.

strange thingsaround

some

Cantlow, she

the

left without

hamlet ; but there were


peaceful
incomprehensible
thingsto a very young woman.

Arden

her,

When

sung, and

saw

she went
the beads

the

to

bidden

another form of worshipwithin those walls.


years before there was
and intolerance, of neighbourwarring
learnt,perhaps,of mutual persecutions

whereas
She

there

Mary Arden
in Chancery some
a proceeding
went
a messuage.
Mary Arden

sister Alice

Her

that Harrison

littleheartburning.

some

in the winter of 1 556

learn from

We

the luxuries

came

few

of child opposedto father, of wife to husband.


She might have beheld
neighbour,
against
of her county and vicinity
houses
had been
rich religious
these evils. The
their
fair
chambers
their
and
desecrated,
chapels
property scattered,
suppressed,
The
their very walls demolished.
restore
to
them, but,
new
was
trying
power
if it could have brought back the old riches,the old reverence
was
even
passed
mused
solitude
she
anxious
with
In that
an
probably
things
upon
many
away.
wealthier Ardens
of Kingsburyand Hampton, of Rotleyand RodThe
heart.
her good cousins ; but bad roads and bad times
Park
burne
and
Hall, were
she lived a somewhat
them
so
lonelylife,till a
perhaps kept
separate. And
father's tenants,
her
of Stratford, whose
family had been
young
yeoman
came

to

substantial
due
in

and

sit oftener
yeoman,

oftcner

burgess

upon
of the

benches

those wooden
in
corporation

perhaps in the very year when


dyingwith
England,and a queen was

Romanism

season,

"

Calais

"

1557

or

was

written

in the old hall

"

1558

and

then

in

its last fires


lighting
her heart, Mary
on
11

SHAESPERE:

WILLIAM

and

John

parish

church

Arden
the

administered

by

no

of

register
the

according

of
one

abided

thenceforward

after

Shakspere

the

father's
to

the

Cantlow,

Aston
who
for

half

Stratford

and

"

Joan

the
"

in

century

discovered
for

likelihood,

possession

took

marriage
death

all

in

were,

but

by
the

the

good
date

the

Shakspere,

register, baptized

house

MSB

[' Church

of

Aston

and

right

Cantlow.'!

the

lands
of

to

the

Asbies
said

John

been

of

became
who
is

There
about

Shakspere

September,

altar

Mary,"

Stratford.

have

must

15th

of

the

of

town

daughter

on

before

standing

1558.

year

"

was,

BIOGRAPHY.

k.

"C;':f$m

[Clopton'sllii'J'je.J

CHAPTER

II.

STEATEOED.

place is this quiettown of Stratford a placeof ancient traffic


the ford or passage
"the
occasioned
from
orer
name
having been originally
towards
the water
upon the great street or road leadingfrom Henley in Arden
London.55*
of
rivers
asserted
not
bridges
England was
always a country
bestrid by domineering man.
If the
their own
natural rights,
and were
not
travel towards
the Avon
would
London,
might
people of Henley in Arden
invite or
his
will
river
their
the
own
and, indeed,
so
good
;
oppose
passage at
often swelled into a rapid and
dangerous stream, that the honest folk of the one
bank
less intercourse with their neighbours
somewhat
to hold
might be content
the other than Englishmen now
hold with the antipodes. But
on
the days
of improvement were
There
charters for markets, and
to arrive.
sure
were
charters for fairs,
obtained from
King Richard and King John ; and in process
of time Stratford rejoiced
in a wooden
bridge,
though without a causey, and
in
of London,
exposed to constant
damage by flood. And then an alderman
A

pleasant

"

"

Dug"liJc.
13

WILLIAM

SIIAKSPERE

magnificentthingsfor public
vain prideand luxury, built a stone
benefit,and did less for their own
bridge
the Avon, which has borne the name
of Clopton'sBridge,even
the
from
over
numerous
days of Henry VII. until this day. Ecclesiastical foundations were
days when

the

rich

very

slow

not

were

do

to

"

Stratford

at

The
and

there

and

such

was

an

in every case,

were,

parishchurch

was

the centres

guildand chapelof

ancient

of civilization and

with

collegiate
one,

perity.
pros-

chantryof five

priests
;
Holy Cross, partlya religious

the

A
with
connected
the
grammar-school was
partlya civil institution.
settled in a corpowas
guild; and the municipal government of the town
ration
VI., and the grammar-school especially
maintained.
by charter of Edward
liberal
Here
then
accumulation,
such
was
a
as
belongs only to
succession
old country, to make
of thriving
communities
Stratford ;
an
at
a
and
they did thrive,accordingto the notion of thrift in those days. But
infer that when
John
not
to
the daughter and
we
are
Shakspere removed
heiress of Arden
from the old hall of Wilmecote
tial
substanhe placed her in some
and

mansion

in his corporate town,

convenient, fitted
spacious,
had, in all likelihood,no
scattered

ornamental

well

as

with taste, if not

up

such

houses

doubt

with

offer ;

to

it was

solid in

as

with

its architecture,

splendour. Stratford
of wooden

town

houses,

gardens separatingthe low and irregular


the properties,
and
intersecting
stagnant pools
has discovered that John Shakspere
exhalingin the road. A zealous antiquarian
inhabited a house in Henley Street as earlyas 1552 ; and that he, as well as two
other neighbours,
fined for making a dung-heapin the street.* In 1553, the
was
jurorsof Stratford present certain inhabitants as violators of the municipallaws :
from which presentment we
learn that ban-dogswere
not to go about unmuzzled
;
than an hour each day ; nor swine to
nor
sheeppasturedin the ban- croft for more
feed on the common
land unringed,f It is evident that Stratford was
a rural town,
surrounded
with'common
o
f
mixed
a
nd
fields,
a
population agriculturists
containing
and craftsmen.
The same
retained as late as 1618, when
the privy
character was
council representedto the corporation
loss
of Stratford that great and lamentable
had
late
of
hath
been
that
o
f
to
town
which,
happened
by casualty fire,
years,
stacks
occasioned
of
thatched
of straw,
means
frequently
by
cottages,
very
a

tenements,

town,

no

"

sleepingditches

"

furzes, and
made

such-like

If such
house

were

the

"

is not

the

unreasonable

to

in Stratford

run

of combustible

his

to

sister for her

held

have

been

stuff; and

Henrietta

have

part of

the

erected

the

Maria

resided

country in

earlier the

and

restraint." J
best

for three

triumph,

greater number

"

it

of

which
been

thatched
buildings,
cottages
Street
which
John
Henley
his son
inherited and bequeathed
an
importanthouse, a house fit

house

in

"

Ilimter

vol. i. p. 18.
: 'New
Illustrations,'
proceedings of the court aro given in Mr. Ilalliwell's Life of Shakspeare,'a book which
be fairlyheld
of this life which
has been disall the documentary evidence
to contain
covered.

+ The
may

be

timber

mean

that

to

without

Shakspereoccupied the

sixtyyears

purchased,and
life,must

William

Queen
that

that

suppose

must

Shakspereoccupied and

familyof

in which

royalist
army

houses
up

the

house

suffered

are

principal
parts of the town

of the

when

case

in Stratford,

weeks, when

stuff,which

combustible

in most
confusedly

'

J Chalmers's
14

'Apology,'
p.

618

for

of substance,

man

of
majority

of the

BIOGRAPHY.

of

some

space and comfort, compared with those,

surrounding
population.

the

populationof the

That
rich

house

corporate

would
superiority,
appear
of
number
census.
baptismsin
average
of burials in the same
was
fifty-five;
year fortytwo : these numbers,
received principles
would
of calculation,
give us a total populationof

endowments

1564

framework

all the

and

in a
insignificant

civil

of

annual

The

modern

upon
about

thousand

one

four
of

thirty-seventh
year

hundred.

In

VIII,

Henry

the

which

machineryby

and
local affairs,

own

of

number

This

"

obtained

houselyng people"

in

with all

furnished

populationwas

early times,managed their

in very

Englishmen,even

thus

in the

certificate of charities,
"c,

Stratford is stated to be fifteen hundred.


the

itself

of Stratford,containingwithin

town

good
aptitudefor practical

that

government
The
many.

the

of
or
equallyrejectsthe tyranny of the one
and
aldermen
of
fourteen
consisted
of John
Shakspere
of the aldermen
fourteen
one
being annuallyelected to the office of
burgesses,
for the trial of all
bailiff held a court
of record every fortnight,
bailiff. The
the debt and damages
of the borough in which
within the jurisdiction
causes
court-leet also,which
did not amount
to thirty
appointed
a
pounds. There was
of
wholesome
and
the just measure
its ale-tasters,who
quality
presidedover
which

in the time
corporation

beer, that necessary of life in ancient times ; and which court-leet chose also,
of summary
in their hands
four affeerors,
who had the power
ment
punishannually,
for offences
the

was

burgessesof
of

course

1557,

affeeror

to

in

1561,

have

the

Court

been

endless

he

was

John

an

Stratford

been, in the

hands

was

an

high

in 1568,

contradictions,
affirmations,

new,

Shakspere. There
of
Hall, proceedings
have

or
nothing,

alderman

aldermen, and

authorityof

us

court-leet; in

constable; in 1560,

alderman; and

an

whole

the

juryof

Shakspere
regular

John

through the

magistrate.

Record, writs, which

victuallers,
mercers,

gone
the
on

stable
con-

for the
importance,

office.

the

The

statute.

of

man

burgess; in 1559,

of the Common

elected

was

his brother

have

to

he

theories,old and

worldlycallingof
of

was

chamberlain; in 1565,

and yet they tell


diligence,
When

1556

borough,the chief

Stratford,minutes
the

In

ale-taster; in 1558,

There
as

of Stratford

the records

bailiffof the

he

served
invariably
corporation

municipalduty.

an

prescribedby

penaltywas

no

and
great policeofficer,
the

from

appears

for which

been
next

in 1565,

come
readily

to

vested, as

we

of substantial tradesmen,

can

may

in
registers
Court-leet,pleas of
with

over

of
nothing,

to

we

the

hunted

the

ancient

are

trace

out

conclusion

unwearied

Shakspere.
of
occupations
the municipal

John
the

that

it to

naturally
suppose

have

brewers, bakers, butchers, grocers,

woollen-drapers.*
Prying into the secrets
of
notion of the literary
some
acquirements

time,

of

we

this

worshipful
occasions, the aldermen
body.
burgesses constituting
rare, very rare
the town
order
council affixed their signatures,
to
for greater solemnity,
some
of the court ; and on
of Elizabeth,
the 29th of September,in the seventh

are

enabled

to

form

On

jpon

an
names

and

order that John

Wheler

subscribed,aldermen
*

See

Malone'a

'

Life of

should
and

take the office of bailiff,


we

burgesses.

Out

have

of the nineteen

teen
nine-

six

Shakspeare,'Boawell's Malone, vol. ii..p. 77.


15

only

WILLIAM

can

name,"
was

"

say,

not

There

I thank

were

I have

been

brought up that

some

stock of

who

had

at the

been

SA*?*"#

'*: *

and
grammar-school,

S3

io

well

so

can

literary
acquirementamongst the magnates
large. And why should that stock of literature have

The
very

God

SHAKSPERE:

Henry VI., Fait II.,Act

!?.

write

my
of Stratford

been

larger?

theyperhapswere

BIOCrRAPIIY.

they kept him straight. But there had been


enough turmoil about learningin those days to make goodman Whetely, and
and Latin. They were
shy of writing
goodman Cardre, and their fellows,somewhat
of the readers had openlylooked upon Tyndalc's
not quitesafe in reading. Some
as

learned

Bible

in dark

It

write.

reluctant

were

father had

mark

marks

common

Even

cross.

by persons

of

half

Decker's

pretension. In
placebetween

some

qualitiesare

What

Gen.
Buz.

My

Gen.

has

education

Have
As

you

like

skill in song

any

gentleman ought

Wonder

name

held
a

used

other, the

the

"

of

Buzardo

each

fact that he

not

was

Shakspere's

to

indispensable
Kingdom,' the

instrument]

or

be;

to

to

with?

all but

As

Buz.

not

gentleman.

gentleman should have; I know


Gen. Barber ! no, sir,I think it. Are you

Buz.

'

Gentili and

furnished

you
been

that

affixed
distinctly

not

are

assertion

century later,to write

dialoguetakes
following
"

Malone's

might

tell what

nourish.

subsequentdiscoveries establish the


something like an open pair of compasses

one,

"

to

marks

The

they could

be

to

was

less troublesome

much

was

could

who

But

in this document.
two

It

himself.

to

read.

to

the Bible

then

again,but

out

good penman
yieldour assent

was

to

before, and

years

come

was

safer not

was

town-clerk

The

We

twelve

It

corners.

againhappen.

Bible

Coverdale's

and

hidden

town-clerk

the

as

play
linguist?

tongue

one

serves

none

on

; I

head

one

am

barber.

no

am

pedlar,lu

no

travel countries.

We

Gen.

What

Buz.

As

Gen.

Can

Buz.

As most

must

skill ha' you

other

write and

you

horsemanship ?

have

read

; I ha'

who

one

ignorantof all literature.


in the

languageof

character,and
of

these

Jack

almost
like

are

Cade,

rid

beasts in my

some

"

gave
It was
a

has been taken with my

bond

; my

his bond
very

mark

for

himself,"

to

marks

merchants'

his mark

with

common

heraldically
alludingto

ancient

time.

then ?

of your gentlemen do

infer that

not

in

gentlemen

his

name

and

mark

at

at it."

it,was

individual

an

sarily
neces-

adopt,

to

possessingdistinctness of
or
occupation. Many
old

some

on

deeds

the

described
in
with the mark
alienating
property corresponds
fields.
unenclosed
of
in
the
the conveyance
cut
turf,or upon boundary stones,
as
instances of
Lord Campbell says,
In my own
experienceI have known
many
documents
of persons who could write well."*
bearinga mark as the signature
mark

of

landowner

"

One

of Stratford

of the aldermen

He
have
must
yeoman.
ordered
that he was
to take the

town

records

have

seen
a

as

and

near

in
away

Shakspereto

in

house

from
have

it.

been.

it

dwellingin Stratford, for

been

office of

We

the

town
a

In

of

can

Stratford

an
high bailiff,

as

in

the year

as

the

consider
father

veniently
con-

several

solitary
grange

that Robert,

'Shakespeare's
Legal Acquirements,'
p.

landed

land, seated

we

we

manding
office de-

moderate

imagine a

cultivator,
proprietor,
yeoman,
1556,

in the

Wheler, is described

soil,rentingperhaps other

own

Such

"

Lwz.

residence.

constant

his
proprietor
cultivating

miles

in 1565, John

of

15.
17

John

Mary

WILLIAM

SIIAKSPEItE

admitted
at the court-leet to two
copyhold
Shakspere was
had
Tumor
that
of
leet
the
The
George
Stratford.
in
present
estates
jurors
with
a
tenement,
garden and
alienated to John
Shakspere and his heirs one

died, John

Arden,

premises,in Grenehyll Street, held of the lord at an annual


is
does
and
fealty,
John
and
Shakspere,who is present in court
quit-rent
;
ated
has alienWest
The
same
admitted
to the same.
jurorspresent that Edward
and a garden adjacentin Henley Street,
to John
Shakspereone tenement
then is
Here
admitted, upon fealtydone to the lord.
is in the same
who
way
ford,
John
Shakspere,before his marriage, the purchaser of two copyholdsin Stratother

croft,and

John

1570

fourteen

This

house.

fortypounds

appurtenance
forms

part of

Ingon

Shakspere to two
October, 1556, the lease of a house

Greenhill

Street

the

Mr.

assigned to
Stratford, and kept

the

printed

documents,

was

spere'sfather
property.

The

roll says

said

John

the

knows

that this

writes

"It.

We

Avon.

Vis

fra

quod

croft,

cum

It.

"

street

Henley
We
give a
the

"

dno

of

this

second

God, "c, the third

with

garden

suit of court, and

annum,
t See

garden
suit

the

extracts

t Ingon

is

to

of

not,

from

George

has

as

Malone

the
'

cur.

Shak-

for

lord

same."

the

fee

in

simple,

Shakspere

to

Every

and

houses

two

occupy

one

yet Malone
in

:
"

ide

et

court-roll

in the

die

Octo-

hered.

et

suis

tent,

unum

libe pr cart. pr redd, inde

cum

dno

pr

pr eisdem.
tent,

unu

Johes

gardin.adjacen. in

cum

in

pd.

fecit

cur.

fidelitatem."

"

the
of

year

Rot.

alienated

has

Tumor
their
the

in the

and

court
the

from

rent

to

him,

Street, for the

said John

to
in

appurtenances,

aforesaid

alienated

Henley

BUak?pero purchased in 1002.


18

that

marriage, a purchaser of
fidelitatem
pr eisdem," that is,

estate

Shakespere

sect.

the

October

roll,for

the

the

Johe

eo

Frankpledge with

of
of

croft, with

court, and

pd.

vid et

ann.

said John

adjacent, in

and

them

from

his

session
of

reign

of

the

Philip and

held

peace

Mary, by

the

fourth.

and

West

Edward

Item, that
a

the

pr

day

and

according

delivered

and

with

copyhold

fidelitatem
fecit_dno

cur.

entry upon

View

Avon.

the

and

"

alienavit

inde

Item, they present that

tenement

dno
the

to

in

Shakspeare, by
or
victuallinghim, by Edward

et Session
cur.
Fleg. cum
pais tenit. ibm. secundo
gratia,"c. tertio et quarto (October 2, 155G).

pd. in

Johes

West

redd,

upon
on

same

of

grace

et ide

cur.

translation

Stratford

"

of

pr

fealty

alienavit Johe
Shakespere
Georgius Tumor
pertinent in Grenehyll stret,tent, de Df o

Edwardus

quod

to

fecit

cur.

did

missions
ad-

court-leet,held

Philippi et Marie, Dei

regnorum

pre.

in

pd.
court

before

John
through to enable
subjoin the documents

gone

were

substance

clearlythe

are

been
frequently
that, Malone
having

equally wonderful
Shakspere has deduced

some

of admission

lease.

vid et sect.

annu

Johes

aforesaid

mode

forms

super

gardin.et

ide

et

the

streets, under

"Stratford
bris annis

"
"

in

is the

if these

as

distinct

two

necessarilya person

was

"and

of

eight

Asbies

estate of

John

is

It

about

writes

who

one

no

Stratford."

of

bridge

of the

wardens

of

a
good
very
known
by that
largeproperty

the burgesses of
of
tavern
a
who
one
was
George Tumor,
the
in
on
to
and
Street,
same
day,
assigned
Henley
another,
was,
there;
who
of Edward
the
VI.
had
of
consideration,
during
reign
some
a
West,
person
of

of

rent

house

one

meadow

and

"

"

in

In

present money,

our

house,

Shaksperemarried, the

John

When

of

before
him, which
Malone, with these documents
copyhold estates, should say : " At the

that

John

of

least

at

annual

the

Ingon, at

included

of

meadow

is marvellous

It

the

Clopton-house.J

near

name

that

This

equivalentto

rent,

indicate

field.*

Clopton,a

under. William

tenant

enclosed

small

croft, or

its appurtenance, called

with

acres,

pounds.
would

with

gardens,and one
Shakspereis holding,as

with

both

in the

did

the

to the

lord
the

aforesaid

John

thence

court

did

Claus.,'23 Eliz.,given in Malono's

states,

situated

at

Clopton lies between

small

distance

the two

from

his heirs

and

street, held

fealtyto

aforesaid
from

Shakspere

Greenhill

thence

court

rent

John

the

the

sixpence per

of
lord

for the

Shakspere,
to

of

lord

annum,

same.

tenement,

one

of

one

lord,

sixpence

per

fealty."
'

Life,'p. 95.
the

properties.

estate

which

William

BIOGRAPHY.

within

property at Snitterfield.

landed

also into his

short ride of Stratford,came

With

and
possession,

facts before

these

that John

so

did

some

scanty as theyare,
land,
livingupon his own
us,

Shakspere
actively
engaged in the business of cultivation,in an
that men
much
of wealth
so
so
was
becoming rapidly
profitable,
tillage
age when
share
with the
take
direct
than
them
often
it
better
the
to
to
thought
profits
very
of
A Briefe Conceiptetouching the Commonweale
of this Realme
In
?
tenant
attributed to William
spere,
Shaka
Englande,'publishedin 1581,
Dialogueonce
enforced either
the Knight says, speakingof his class, Many of us are
lands when
to keep piecesof our
to puror
own
theyfall in our own possession,
chase
farm of other men's
other
lands, and to store it with sheep or some
some
and to maintain our
old estate
cattle,to helpmake up the decayin our revenues,
can

doubt
reasonably

we

was

the land of others,


renting

"

'

"

"

"

withal,and yet all is littleenough."


belief that the

The

father

of

out

of

the

occupationof land,

of the
than

those

circumstances

offers

connected

would

stories which

small

Shaksperewas a
and
capitalin

cultivator,employing his labour

make

landed

various

better, because
with

him

the

which

birth and

grew

natural,

more

earlylife of

of obscure

and
proprietor

modes

the

planation
ex-

great poet

servile

ments.
employAubrey's story, the shrewd learned gossipand antiquary,
who
survived
Mr. William
Shaksperesome
eightyyears :
Shakespearwas
in the county of Warwick.
born at Stratford-upon-Avon,
His
father was
a
of the neighbours
butcher, and I have been told heretofore by some
that when
he was
a
boy he exercised his father's trade ; but when he killed a calf he
would do it in highstyle,
and make
a speech. There
at that time
another
was
Take

old

"

"

butcher's

wit, his

son

in this town

that

acquaintanceand

in heroic
prolific

and

held

was

not

but

coetanean,

poeticalbutchers

at

died

all inferior to him

young."

for

natural

Oh, Stratford !

it not

town

that there

;
was
one
enough
prodigyborn in your bosom, who, when he killed a calf,he would do it in a
and make
have been another
a
high style,
speech,"but that there must even
butcher's son
fed with thy intellectual milk,
that was
held not at all inferior
Wert
thou minded
for a natural wit ?
to him
to rival Ipswichby a double
not
one
the lightof
rivalry? Was
Shakspere-butcher
enough to extinguish
but
thou
have
"his
must
one
another,
a
nd
coetanean?''
Wolsey,
acquaintance
believe thee in all after-time ; for did not Farmer
must
aver
Aubrey,men
that,
was

"

"

"

when

he that killed the calf wrote


"

"

's a divinitythat shapes our


Rough hew thern how we will,"

There

ends,

the

poet-butcherwas

he who, when

with
calf-killing

thinkingof

boy,exercised
an

skewers?

And

did

his father's trade, has


which

accuracy

"

nothing but

not

Malone

hold

described

profound

give?"
"

And

as

And

binds

the butcher
the

takes away the calf,


it strays,
beats it when

wretch, and

Bearing it to the bloody slaughter-house


;
Even so, remorseless,
have they borne him hence.

__L

^ 2

.i

Hamlet,

19
Act

v., Scene

n.

that

the process of
experiencecould

WlLLtAM

And

And

do

can

1G93,

clerk of the

William

when

of

member

this town

London.""]"

His

Anthony-a-Wood

down,

wail her

went,

one

young

darling'sloss,

variation.

There

Stratford,in the yeai


three years
that is,he was
at

was

"

that he

of the Inns

of

apprenticeto

father

butcher, says the

but

nought

and

up

harmless

was

the

was

Court

"

that

best of his

family,"
proclaimedto
"this Shakespeare
was
formerlyin

butcher, but

he

ran

butcher, says Aubrey ;

he

parishclerk.

Aubrey

in 1680, and

it is not

that

this matter

to

apprentice a
gossipfor his friend
tical
imaginethat the idento

was

very difficult to
That honest chronicler,old

his authority.
parish clerk was
fortyyears of tradition to deal with in

his master

from

his

pickingup

was

of the

the monument

"

one

bound

her

parishchurch, eightyyears old,


Shaksperedied, and he, pointingto

pithyremark

poet, with, the

lowing

runs

way

so,""c*

story, however, has

The

dam

the

Even

old

the

as

Looking

SIIAKSPERE:

he was,

as

of the butcher's

and

son

had
the

butcher's

the result of such glimpsesinto the thick nightof


apprentice
; and
"What
do
sensiblyenough stated by Aubrey himself:
uncertainty
find in printedhistories ! They either treadingtoo near
the heels of
we
on
else
for
of intelligence
want
truth,that they dare not speak plain; or
(things
and
dark!"
become
obscure
Obscure
dark
too
and
indeed
is
being antiquated)
this story of the butcher's son.
If it were
luminous, circumstantially
true, palpable
all
writes
it
should
to
knot
down, we
as
sense,
Aubrey
onlyhave one more
which
to cut, not
to untie, in the matters
William
to
belong
Shakspere. The
of the butcher of Ipswichwas
the boy bachelor of Oxford
son
at fifteen years of
miracle in his
there was
no
earlyescape from the calf-killing;
age; he had an
If
receive
also
with
its
it
take
must
we
contradictions,
case.
Aubrey'sstory we
and that perhapswill get rid of the miraculous.
When
he was
a boy he exercised
his father's trade"
Good:
"This
to
William, being inclined naturally
and
I
Good
He
to
about
came
London,
derstood
unacting,
eighteen."
poetry
guess
the past is

"

"

"

"

Latin

pretty well, for he had been iri his younger


country." Killer of calves, schoolmaster,poet, actor,

in the
crowded

into

wherein

there

Akin

Honest

eighteenyears !
are

no

knots

to the butcher's

to

cut

Warwickshire

journey into

Rowe

tells us

in

to

of sand

collect anecdotes
dealer

dealer

in

though he was his eldest


own
employment." We
is
daylight

not

as

are

mentioned

wool, had
son,

he

are

now

yet.

as

in

wool

"

"

gentlemen.

His

father,who

was

largea family,ten
give him no better education than his
peeping through the blanket of the dark.'
children

so

in all,that,

could

"

Malone

Henry VI.,Part II, Act m., Scene


-0

rope

to
relating
Shakspere,that
His
Shaksperewas a
:
family,as appears
and the publicwritings
that
t
o
of
register
were
relating
town,
good

considerable

But

occupations

It is upon
the authority
of
the
last
made
beginning
century,

the

that John

by the
and fashion there, and
figure
a

is

trade is that of the dealer in wool.

of Betterton, the actor, who,


a

all these

"

Aubrey,trulythine
untie !

to

or

schoolmaster

years

"

I.

was

believer

Anecdote
Traditionary

in Rowe's

account;

of

and

he

Shakespeare.

BIOGRAPHY.

a
pieceof stained glass,bearingthe
by possessing
which
had been removed
from a window
the niti'chants of the staple,
of
arms
for the credibility
John Shakspere's
house in Henley Street.
But, unfortunately
it
is
usual
Malone
made
of Rowe, as then held,
to term
such
as
a
discovery,
obtain
of
able
to
I
certain
of
the
to
ever
despair
being
began
glimpses
past :
any
concerninghis trade ; when, at length,I met with the following
intelligence
of the proceedings
in
account
an
containing
entry, in a very ancient manuscript,
with the long-sought-for
information, and
the bailiff'scourt, which furnished
me
Thomas
that of a glover
ascertains that the trade of our great poet'sfather was
;"
Johm
de
Siche de Arscotte
in com.
versus
Stretford,
Shakyspere
Wigorn. querit1
This Malone
"c."
in com.
Warwic.
Glover, in plac.quod reddat ei oct. libras,

In his belief

confirmed

was

"

"

held to be decisive.
We
seen

and
is

givethis record
the original,
we
Mr.

Halliwell

glover;

and

belief that he

court

maintained

in 1556,

was,

as

he

as

Halliwell

emblematical

authority,
have no
for fair fingers.We
the treasures of Autolycus,
was

Collier

Mr.

second

the

contracted,
syllable
to our
original
occupierof land; one

still hold

we
an

of that year,

the 17th June


in

Glover.

not

was

Glo, with

was

suitor in the

de
pleaagainsta neighbourfor unjustly

still refuse to believe that John

barley. We

of

is described
Mr.

word

correctly
; and having

very

and
proprietor

landed

gloveron

eighteenquarters
taining
retail trade," as

the

But
interpretation.

accept their

we

printedit,not

that

the 19th November,

on

spere, when

Malone

as

affirm that the word

who, althoughsued
same

above

in after years,
that his mark,

yeoman

judges; or
used
glove-sticks

for

of the

confidence

he

that

had

Shak-

had

his
relinquished
the
to
same
according
the cheveril
stretching
"

in

stores

Henley Street of

"

"

We

Gloves

as

sweet

its

roses."

damask

think, that butcher, dealer in wool, glover,may

all be

reconciled

with

our

landed proprietor,
that he was
a
occupyingland. Oar proofsare not
position,
purelyhypothetical.
Harrison, who mingles laments at the increasing
luxury of the farmer, with
of the oppressionof the tenant
denouncements
somewhat
by the
contradictory
His
the
tenant's
is
landlord
holds
the
plaints
comthat
landlord,
profits.
monopolizing
scribed
the social condition of England,dethe natural commentary
are
upon
Most sorrowful
:'
in A Briefe Conceiptetouchingthe Commonweale
"

'

"

of all to understand, that


their
suffering
graziers,

farmers

enrich

thereby

to

which

arms,

may
shall enforce,have

any

gain

countenance

are

and

woodmen,

commonalty weak,
of peace have
heavy and bitter

as

or

the

find recorded

and, what

glover is reconcilable with

become

deniquequid non

an

of the country into their


idol with broken
feeble
or

show, but, when


plausible
sequel." Has not Harrison
a

mystery of the butcher ;


John Shakspere,
the woodman, naturally
sold
we

far from

all,that they themselves

the tradition of the wool-merchant


explained

which

so

bringall the wealth

in time
an

at

sheepmasters,

themselves, and

hands, leavingthe

own

have

tanners,

butchers,
to

of great port and

men

is most

all these

pieceof

timber

to

the

necessity
solved

; shown

corporation,

difficultof credence, indicated

employments?

We

open

the
how

an

21

how

authentic

WILLIAM

this

of

record

Strype's
1558,

did

that

and
of

skins

and

the

that

the

round

generic

At

Coventry,

leather

skins

by

the

by

leather

white
old

Of

of

air,

free

land,

the

"

was

and
in
small

on

wood,

or

carcases,

hereafter,
and

were

labourers

the

large

and

and

such

process

the

especial leather

of

for

is

in

we

far

"

hands.
are

we

who

sheep

liming,

be

the

one

rural

readily

carried

bear

mind

in
as

and

softening
in

use

pares
pre-

skins

and

husbandly furniture,"

"

that

of which

from

might

examples

common

occupation,

gloves

coarse

agricultural operations, especially when

tradition, in drawing

in

such

so

whittawer

scraping, and

exists,

now

few

coverings

soaking, and

"

it

are

from

chieflydressed

reasonably persist,therefore,

may

the

of

one

round

board,

slightlydifferent,

so

is

leather

the

great

circular

There

and

sheep-master

as

(the period

craft.

manufacturer

wear

be

made

who

century,

formed

leather

process

him

sixteenth

the

Whittawers

simple

to

names

two

leather-dresser,

upon

derived

the

one

the

was

Glover"

"

at

same

on

that

described

Tusser.

We

in

English

of

trade,

each.

early writers.

"

in

engaged

one

of

to

knew

been

not

fell monger's

applied

merely appiied

untanned

amongst

even

any

peltry

he

is shaved

glover's trade, would

be

or

glover

Does

"

The

day.

the

the

fellmongers."

of the

use

of

they

coadjutor

man,

The

universal

the

and

salt.

and

alum

in

middle

the

tawed

district,

by

in

this

"

the

that

implies

leather, the

if it

Glovers

writing) the

by

of

than

common

to

for

of

date

suffered

two

or

have

to

passage

natural

Slender's

of

glover, might

term,

one

more

lamb

knife,

"

himself

one

glovers

two

skins
the

with

the

Home

testify that

were

this

prepares
hide

knife ?

fellmonger"

"

become

it has

asks

untanned

in

trade

word

the

of

the

glover's paring

great

a.

who

from

they

from

appear

is he

Quickly

him

did

and

burnt,

burn

Shakspere

Dame

like

with

wool

wool-man.

the

beard

glover

the

by separating

there

fire to

fellmonger

The

same.

him
the

and

fellmonger

Deighton

Edward

one

spake

and

been,

I,' under

Mary

that

John

In

difficultyis palpable:

the

Queen

certain

is

had

of

under

It

passage:

see

made

that

persons

solution

the

"

this

where

parish

A.

this

find

we

and

Ecclesiastical

Memorials

'

Newcnt,

period,

very

8HAKSFEUE

an

the
his
or

with

horse,

wool,

or

his

rural

the

division

team,

skins, his
in

of

capitalistsstrove

at

peculiar

produce.

He

turn

their

advantage.

Vol

v"p.

277 -edit

of

state

1816.

was

own

"

time
fair

employments
to

the

at

at

market,

own

with

accord

portrait of Shakspere's father,

agriculturist,living

which

in

even

"

and

of his

marriage,

and

yet

was

society, as

fell

"

flesh

dealer

proprietor
shall

we

see

imperfectly established,
products

to

the

greatest

BIOGRAPHY.

*7

Font, formerlyin
[Ancient

Stratford

In

eleventh

the

Conqueror commanded

Norman

England,with

the lands of

completedof

REGISTER.

the

century

the

their

possessors, and
In

slaves.

be
the

the sixteenth

for ecclesiastical

VIII.

of
the vicegerent

Registerto

of their

names

and
of their free tenants, their villains,

number

Clmrch.^J

III.

CHAPTER

THE

rj-^

Henry
amongst other matters,
Injunctions
Clergy,ordaining,
that every officiating
minister shall,for every Church,
keep a Book, wherein
he shall register
Burial.
In
the different
or
every Marriage,Christening,
character of these two
read what five centuries of civilization had
we
Registers
effected for England. Instead of beingrecorded
in the gross as cotarii or servi,
century Thomas

Cromwell,

as

issued
jurisdiction,

The

historyof

of Stratford

show

beautiful relic of
was,

after many

kicked into
trough
and

of

from

the
pump

his

the
that

an

the

to

old

font

about

older

years,

middle

time, from

found

churchyard
at his

represented above

the

in

; and

cottage.

possessioncame

into

the

half
Of

of

which
old
a

the

the

is somewhat

seventeenth

William

Shakspere had

charnel-house.

century

ago

was

When

new

The

parochialaccounts

font

was

received

that

was

set^ up.

Tha

the

baptismal water,
pulled down, it was

by the parish clerk to form the


bought by the late CaptainSaunders ;

removed

parish clerk it was


Heritage,a builder

that of Mr.

curious.

century

at

Stratford.

23

siiakspere:

WILLIAM

writes to him,

mean,

parishthat they should make


of as many
the names
as
specified

vicars of every

wherein

be

to

charges;

"

But

they might dread.

well

and

be

Thomas

the shires
the

King's

the parsons
surelyto be kept,
to

book, and

wedded, and

christened."*

of all those that be

that be buried, and

them

mistrust,what

givein commandment

to

the

between

sundry placeswithin

in great fear and

be

should

his Council

family.

well
friend of Crom-

injunction.A

several communications

in

of them,

his

preserved. But
carefully

and

and

secret

[some]

and

Devonshire,

and

Highness and
and

"

is much

There

"

King's subjects;
Cornwall

of

as

book

children of their

become

the highestlord and

the intent of this wise and liberal

peopledoubted
the

in

inscribed

be

to

were

names

much

as
religion,
country's

their

country and
Their

his children, had

labourer, his wife, and

the meanest

They

Cromwell

the

of

names

dreaded
had

new

not

first imperfectly
kept;

regal

but the

Registers
enforced in the first year of Elizabeth ; and then
strictly
that is,in 1558.
of the Parish of Stratford-upon-Avon
commences,
the Register
life is a solemn document.
book !
Venerable
Every such record of human
whole
historyof the sojournupon earth of
Birth, Marriage,Death ! this is the
in
these
inscribed
mouldy, stained,blotted pages. And after
nearlyevery name
mind.

in his

exactions

regulation of 1538

The

at

were

was

"

interest,even

years what is the


With
the most
annals ?

few

?"

of property necessary
"

there

But

entries in this

are

seek their merits to disclose."

of
Register-book

universal

that

Stratford

mankind.

We

have

Englishmen
legacyfrom one whose progress from the cradle to
all,and for all who
recorded
a bequestlargeenough for us

us

all

to

"

to

"

we

Thus

the

on

far the

questionthen
*

entry of that book

one

information
arises.

On

the

conveyed by
what day was
the

Correspondence in

Cromwell's

which

most

are

to
interesting

all received
the
will

"

Pause

their possession

legalverification of

some

"

further

No

descendants, of these brief

own

the last entry is stillto be made, the

Is

they leave property?

questionis,Did

their

to

of those for whom

grave

race

is precise.-fBut
register

born William, the

of John

son

Chapter-House. Quoted in Hickman's

cious
preis here
after

come

the human

concerns

us.
:

"

natural

Shakspere

Preface

to

Population

Returns, 1831.
"f The

being

attested

The

date

the

of the

fourth

2i

the

registeredin that

thickness,the
by the vicar and

above

and

year,

is therefore

leaves

not

four
a

word

month.

formed

of

three lines above


April, occur
The
registerof Stratford is a
very

churchwardens,

fac-simile of the

fine vellum.
on

every

page

original
entry.

the baptism
book, of considerable
is only a transcript,
But this book
1558 to 1600t
of the registersfrom
the

tall

entry

narrow

"

A. BIOGKAPHY.

who

baptizedon the 26th of April,1564 ? The want of such information is


a defect in all parish
registers.In the belief that baptismvery quicklyfollowed
birth in those times, when
infancywas surrounded with greater dangersthan in
of
own
our
to receive
days
improved medical science,we have been accustomed
of April as the day on
the 23rd
which
William
first
the light.
saw
Shakspere
We
to assist in disturbing
the popularbelief,
but it is our
are
duty
very unwilling
the
facts
it.
We
have before us
to state
An Argument on the assumed
opposedto
This privately-printed
Birthdayof Shakspere:reduced to shape a.d. 1864.'
tract
by Mr. Bolton Corney, is one of the many evidences of the industryand
with which
acuteness
that gentleman has approached the solution of
logical
doubtful
to the force of his arguliterary
questions. It is to do injustice
many
ment
that we
here onlypresent the briefest analysis
of the pointswhich he
can
edition of this Biography,
stated that there
we
fullysets forth. In the original
direct evidence that Shaksperewas
added
born on the 23rd of April. We
was
no
that there was
probablya tradition to that effect ; for some
years ago the Rev.
of the Grammar
School
at Stratford,in an
extract
Joseph Greene, a master
from the register
which
he made
in
the
of Shakspere's
wrote
baptism,
margin
The labours of Mr. Bolton
Born
the 23rd."
on
Corney furnish the means
the value of this memorandum.
of testing
It was
first givento the world in the
was

'

"

edition of Johnson
editor.

After
with

favoured
edition

in

and

Steevens

in 1773,

givingGreene's
it by the Hon.

1709,

the

James

writers

Stratford-upon-Avon."Rowe
Warwickshire, in April,1564"
birth Rowe
says nothing. The

the

West.
mention

who

"

he was
says
a fact never
"

"

the sole

was

he says that he was


register,
of Rowe's
Up to the publication
born
at
Shakspere merely say,
in
born at Stratford-upon-Avon

from

extract

edition Steevens

of which

before

stated.

Of

the date of the

life of the poet, prefixed


of Rowe's
particulars
furnished by Betterton, the actor, who, to follow up
to the edition of 1709, were
which he might have derived from the traditions of the theatre,
the information
materials for his scanty stock of biographical
made
a journeyto Stratford to glean new
birth were
not a tradition in Shakspere's
If the day of Shakspere's
facts.
native place ninety-three
very credible that a
years after his death, it is not
his memoGreene
wrote
tradition had survived until 1773, when
randum
trustworthy
and
first published. In the second edition of Johnson
Steevens
which
Rowe's
makes this note upon
that
statement
in 1778, Malone
Steevens' Shakspere,
his
died
his
He
of
died
in
the
on
1
616,
birthday,
fifty-third
Shakspere
year
age :
edition
of Shakspere
the
In
his
and had exactly
completed
fifty-second
year."
first
here
given,doubts
by Boswell, in 1821, Malone, whose posthumous life was
I have said
born three days before Aprilthe 26th.
the fact that Shakspere
was
from the register
the extract
this on the faith of Mr, Greene, who, I find,made
"

"

which

Mr.

this fact ?
died

on

gave Mr. Steevens


there arises the
Lastly,

West
"

his

is to
birthday
OBIIT

Mr.

qusere how
questionwhether

but

be traced to the
AN.

KOil.

1616.

supports the

opinionthat

he

was

bom

on

the

on
inscription

53.

.ETATIS

Collier has said,in his edition of 1844

did Mr.

"

DIE

The

the 23rd

23.

Greene

ascertain

theory that Shakspere

the tomb

"

AP.

his monument
on
inscription
April. Without the eontrac25

WILLIAM

tions

it

thus:

runs

'

Obiit

SHAKSPERE

Domini

Anno

iEtatis

1G1G.

die

53,

Aprilis.'

23

pieceof evidence upon the point." Mr. Bolton


this interpretationThe inscription
triumphantlymeets
Corney thus
in favour of the assumed
contains no evidence
birthday. It refutes the assertion
-third year, lie
As
!
sa?is
Shakspere died on the 23 April,in \m fifty
replique
have been born beforethe 23 April, 1564."
Oldys (who died in 1761),
must
of the English
in his manuscript annotations
Langbaine's 'Account
upon
British
in the Libraryof the
Museum),
Dramatic
Poets
to be seen
(a book now
which
he finds
the
monument
the
has an
on
inscription
interpretation
upon
Bolton
in Langbaine.
Mr.
Corney thus disposesof the worthy antiquary's
die 23 Apr.
non-lucid
underscores
moment,
Oldys, in some
theory:
this, in truth, is the onlv

And

"

somewhat

'

"

subtracts

"

53

from

atatis 53

anno

refer to

1616

"

writes

and

visit

to
equivalent

are

down

He

1563.

Such

atatis,instead of being the objectof Obiit.

anno

die 23

that the words

53, and

annos

that the words

assumes

Aprilis

is the

process,

I"
Shakspere
the first year of the
back
1558, for other records of
We
to
turn
egistry,
John
Shakspere'sfamily;and we find the baptism of Joan, daughter to John
Shakspere,on the 15th of September. Again,in 1562, on the 2nd of December,
Margaret,daughter to John Shakspere,is baptized. In the entry of burials in
1563
find, under date of April 30, that Margaret closed a short life in five
we

beforedescribed,by

never

The

months.
1566

elder

which

the

birthdayof

also died

daughter Joan

find the birth of another

discovered

was

look

We

young.

in

of John

Shakspere,
is the registry

Gilbert, son
:
registered

son

forward, and

"

In 1569 there
baptizedon the 13th of October of that year.
of
John
of the baptism of a daughter,Joan, daughter
Shakspere,on the 15th of
reasonable
leaves no
doubt that the
of a second Joan
April. Thus, the registry
first died, and that a favourite name
was
preservedin the family. In 1571 Anne
In
another son
is baptized;she died in 1579.
1573-4
was
baptized Richard,
March.
The
the
John
of
of Master
11th
on
son
{Magister)
Shakspere,
determines
last entry, which
of John
the extent
family,is that of
Shakspere's
of
Master
John
Edmund,
son
Shakspere,baptized on the 3rd of May, 1580.
find that two
sisters of William
removed
were
Here, then, we
by death, probably
was

"

his

before

birth.

In two

he was
playmate; and when
who
sister,
was
granted,a
boy
he
came

had

another
another

brother

a
strength,
boy

of

Shaksperewas

five

to

up

another

old
with

that

by the hand
untimely; and

youngest

constituted
his

the

means

brother
whole
of

Gilbert, came

son,

When

into

was

the green

when

he

was

the

existence.

ten

loving

years

meadows.

grown

born.

was

of

he

be his

to

preciousgiftto

most

him.

lead

faded

share

half

years

grew

sixteen,his

Joan, Richard, Edmund,


John

to

who
sis'ier,

and

years

into

Then

youthful

William, Gilbert,

family amongst
Rowe,

old

we

children

have

whom

already

in all."

MaShakspere,
into which
Rowe
lone has established
the originof this error
very satisfactorily
John
in
another
has fallen.
In later years there was
Shakspere Stratford. In
of John
the books
of the corporationthe name
Shakspere,shoemaker, can be
find him married
traced in 1580 ; in the register
in 1584 we
to Margery Roberts,

seen,

mentions

26

the

largefamilyof

John

"

ten

who

dies in 1587;

is,without

he

1590, and

1591, Ursula,

that these

are

entered

Humphrey, and

can

be

doubt

was

Mary Arden;

that

the

mother

for in

of all the children

proceedingsin
forth

set

Churuh

doubt

that the
the

born

children

honourable

before

addition

unquestionable

for they are


Shakspere,
without
the
Shakspere,
Magister." There
"

"

1597,

John
which

his wife

Shakspere
we

shall

Mary, in the

Avenue.]

Elizabeth, 1577, mortgaged her inheritance

without

It is

of Master

Chancery in
Shakspereand

that John

[The

20th

born.

as
register
of John
or
daughter,
sons,
John Shaksperealways bore after 1569

our

notice hereafter,it is

Philipare

time, for in 1589,

second

the

stylewhich
no

doubt, married

the children of the father of William

not

in the

BIOGRAPHY.

1569, when

of Master,

were

of Asbies.
he

is

Nor

can

styledJohn

there

be

Shakspere,

also her children; for in 1599,

is made
to the College
opulentman, application
shield
of Arms, that John
might use a
Shakspere,and his issue and posterity,
This application
of Shakspere and Arden.
of arms/' impaled with the arms
by Dethick
(which appears also to have been made in 1596, as the grant of arms
have
all
would
in
the fact of John
states
probability
Shakspere'smarriage)
The historyof
and heir.
been at the instance of John
eldest 9on
Shakspere's
clear as can
is
manhood
the familyup to the periodof William
as
Shakspere's
be expected.
reasonably
William
Shaksperehas been carried to the baptismalfont in that fine old church
of Stratford. The
alley that leads through the churchyardto the
thick-pleached
porch is puttingforth itsbuds and leaves.* The chestnut hangs Us white blossoms
sunshine.
All is joyousin th% spring
of that resting-place.
the grassy mounds
over

when

William

Shakspereis

an

"

"

"

It is

trees

supposed that such


having taken the place of

green
more

avenue

ancient

was

an

old

appendage

to

the

church, tho present

ones.

27

WILLIAM

SHAKSPEEE:

and matrons
smilingupon the happy father ; maidens
in
life
snatch a kiss of the sleeping
of
on
everything"
boy. There is "a spirit
Stratford.
to
not
this 26th of April,1564.
Summer
it
but
joy
brings
comes,
tells
The death-register
There
in her houses.
is wailingin her streets and woe
and
hundred
two
fearful
a
history. From the 30th June to the 31st December,
carried to the grave.
are
inhabitants,a sixth of the population,
thirty-eight
and
with the red cross,
marked
The plagueis in the fated town
are
; the doors
the
us."
It
is
the terrible inscription,
same
Lord, have mercy
epidemic
upon
had
desolated
which
in
the
in
that
which
previousyear
ravaged Europe
year ;
The
London, and still continued there ; of which sad time Stow pithily
says
threefold
with
of
London
this
a
were
lence,
plague,pestiyear plagued
poor citizens
whereof
of
the
dearth
of
victuals
and
too
were
misery
;
scarcity money,
into
it ; the rich by flight
Jong here to write : no doubt the poor remember
dearth
of
of
and
shift for themselves."
the countries made
Scarcity money
and the ministers of pestilence.
victuals are the harbingers
Despairgathersup
duties.
itselfto die.
Labour
Shops are closed.
goes not forth to its accustomed
Kind

neighboursare

"

"

"

The

in the
are

fields.

thinned

At

such

are

marriage. A

hum

no

is

left to
of

year

Charnel-house

"

but

soon

share

the

earth's

the

lies almost

bounty.

old

then

to

the

"

'

the adult rush

.Malum*

or.

of

and
The

Stratford

oisbones
fearfully
heaps of unhonoured
red
The
heard
again the wedding peal.

its

tower

iStretford Church

Soo

Then

chancel

"lfc

28

ungathered

is followed by a year of weddings;*


pestilence
history does the Stratford registertell.

appendage
mekncholy-looking

Church, (now removed,) had


turbed:

harvest

"

strange eventful

"

The

"

more

fewer

of trade.

The labourers
destroying
angel has gone on his way.
victuals" are
dant,
abundemand
not more
for labour;

last the

there

but there
into

hears

market-cross

East End, with

Charuol-housie.]

boci ii.,
Popular in,'
12.
cliap.

BIOGRAPHY.

cross

probablynot

was

the

on

door

for mankind,"

says Malone,
for not one
of that

Shaksperelay;
enthusiast

will find

and

secure

whom

to

of John

Shakspcre'sdwelling.

it did not

"

name

reach

appears

the house

where

the

list.

on

in believing
difficulty
that,

no

fearless in the midst

his future life was

of

the infant

'

poetical
reposed

A
he

Horace,

contagion and death, protectedby

be devoted

to

dead

like

nately
Fortu-

"

the Muses

"

sacra,

Lauroque, collataquemyrto,
Non

There

real

laurel and

sacred

"

But

be

said,without

Shaksperewas

Spiritsare

to fine

guarded this

instrument, and

an

of mankind.

The

watchfulness.

The

considered,must

than

sine diis"

"won

the

mean

averted

by the

the serpent and

the

unconscious
in the

great one,

placedaround

that He

guards

William

intellectual advancement

that threshold

"

of Stratford,

"

is

guardianship.Each

same

child.

cleanliness,abundance, free air, parental


the "protectedby the Muses,"
rightly

secondary ministers, were

as

finelytouch'

not

be

issues,"

offence,to have

be

to

could

dangers around
"

bear of the Roman

may

infans.' ''

diis animosus

Shaksperethan
the myrtle somethingmore
fearful
whom
He,
poet.*
by

more

were

sine

of
recognition

thing
some-

laws.
higherthan accident and mere
physical
The parishof Stratford,then, was
of William
the birth-place
unquestionably
Shakspere. But in what part of Stratford dwelt his parents in the year 1564?
It

ten

was

houses

after this that his father became

years

in

Street

Henley
England have agreed to preserve
years before William Shaksperewas
in Stratford

tenements

house

in

one

"

which
as

in the

purchaserof

relic of
precious

which

freehold

two

the

peopleof

their greatestbrother.

Nine

born, his father had also purchasedtwo copyhold


Street,one in Henley Street. The copyhold

in Greenfield

street,

same

the

stillexist"houses

Henley Street,purchased in 1555,

freehold houses
of

houses

"

statingthat in 1555

was

not
unquestionably

purchased in 1574:

the lease of

House

yet, from

in

of the

one

Malone's

loose

was
Henley
assigned
conjecturedthat he purchased in 1574 the
house
he
As he purchasedtwo houses in 1555
years.
many
in different parts of the town, it is not likely
that he occupiedboth ; he might
have
not
in Henley
Before
he purchased the two
houses
occupiedeither.
Street, in 1574, he occupied fourteen acres
of meadow-land, with appurtenances,
meadow
in
at a
is
called
the
the
rent
high
Ingon
;
very
property
Close Rolls."
situated
Dugdale calls the place where it was
Inge;" saying
that it was
in oul
member
of the manor
of Old
a
Stratford, and
signifyeth
old Englisha meadow
low ground, the name
well agreeingwith its situation."
or

way

to

John

Shakspere,it has
had occupied for

Street

been

"

"

"

It is about

mile

William

and

at

quarter from

the town

then, might
Shakspere,

copyhold houses, in
born

Ingon;

or

Greenhill
his

Street,or

father

might
"

Hor.

have
in

have

of Stratford,on
been

born

at

Henley Street
occupiedone

lib. iii.,
car, iv.

wick.
the road to War-

either of his father's


he

might have bee*

of the

freehold

two
29

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

houses in

Henley Street at the


Shaksperewas

Whether

property
from

in which

room

he

Shaksperewere
the

was

Edmund

Hall

and

his

the fine levied

the
Stratford),

two

orchards, with

the

situation

one

not,

or

It

boyhood.

of

define

here,

Emma

Mr.

Wheler,

in

points

tradition

of these

houses

there

be little doubt

can

John

purchased by

was

In

wife, for fortypounds.

this occasion

on

Tradition

son.

born.

was

chirographof
gardens,and

born

born

of his

home

birth of his eldest

time of the

says that William


out the very

(which

Shakspere,
of

copy

into the

came

property is described
their appurtenances.

this

that

the

possessionof

two

as

two

messuages,
document
does

This

not

property, beyond its being in Stratford-upon-Avon


;

of the

but in the deed

of sale of another

situate between

the houses

property in 1591,
Johnson

that property is described

as

John

Shakspere; and in 1597


John
sells
a "toft, or
Shaksperehimself
parcelof land," in Henley Street,to the
The
be traced, and leave no
can
purchaser of the property in 1591.
properties
doubt of this house in Henley Street being the residence of John
Shakspere. He
retained the property duringhis life; and it descended, as his heir-at-law,to his
William.
In the last testament
of the poet is this "bequest
sister
to his
son
of Robert

and

"

Joan

:"

I do will and

"

"

Stratford,wherein

she

twelve-pence." His
there in 1639, and
The

house

one

devise

dwelleth, for her

sister Joan, whose

she

that formed, twenty years

ago,
known

for the

other

part of

will he
Shakspere's

eldest

Hart

Mrs.

was

daughter,Susanna

the
as

house, with the appurtenances, in


life,under the yearlyrent of

the

natural

residing

was

reside there till her death

to

resided

Hart,

by marriagewas

name

probablycontinued

in which

house

her

unto

in 1646.

doubtless the half of the building

was

butcher's

shop

the Maidenhead

the

Inn

to

adjoining;

tenement

in

the bulk

bequeaths,amongst

Hall, with remainder

and

In

1642.

another

of his property, to

her male

issue,

"

two

his

messuages

beingin Henley Street,


within the borough of Stratford."
There were
s
existingettlements of this very
; and
property in the familyof Shakspere'seldest daughter and grand-daughter
this grand-daughter,
Elizabeth Nash, who was
married a second time to Sir John
left
both
the
houses,
Barnard,
inn, called the Maidenhead, and the
namely,
Thomas
and
adjoininghouse and barn," to her kinsmen
George Hart, the
These
left descendants,
grandsonsof her grandfather's sister Joan."
persons
this property remained
with whom
until the beginningof the present century.
But
it was
The
orchards
and
graduallydiminished.
originally
gardens were
extensive : a century ago tenements
had been built upon
them, and they were
alienated by the Hart
then in possession.The
the
Maidenhead
Inn became
with

tenements,

or

the appurtenances, situate,lying,


and

"

"

"

"

Swan

Inn, and

other

side of the

and

gardens.

into two
a

afterwards

butcher's

account

house
;

and

Maidenhead.

extended,

in which
at

and

the end

Mrs.

so

Hart

as

to

had

White

The

include
lived

Lion,

on

the

remainingorchards
divided
long became

the
so

of the last century the lower

part of

one

was

believed
shop. According to the Aubrey tradition, some
persons
the original
his
where
John
calf-killing
shop
Shaksperepursued
with the aid of his illustrious son.
Mr. Wheler, in a very interesting
of these premises,
and their mutations, publishedin 1824, tells us that

this to have
vocation

property,was

The

tenements

the Swan

30

been

"

BIOGRAPHY.

the

butcher- occupant,

wrote
attraction,

thirtyyears

some

Shakspeare

William
N.B."

be

to

used

butcher's

trade

window-board

for

as

in

Horse

lower

was

room

born

shop,but
the

"

House.

this

in

Cart

Taxed

and

butcher's

the

made

we

familyof

of the

gainful

every

Let."

to

there

beams

cross

the arrangements for

were

with

hooks, and

the

joints.

In 1823, when
out

to

eye

up,
"

It ceased

having an

ago,

the

first pilgrimage
to Stratford,the house

our

Harts, and

the

last

allegeddescendant

had

gone

recently

was

the old
gainfultrade to her for some
years to show
When
the poor old
bed-room.
behind
the shop, and the honoured
kitchen
herited
the last of the Harts, had to quit her vocation (sheclaimed to have inwoman,
of
if she had lost the possessions, her great ancestor,
of the genius,
some
the Battle of Waterloo), she set up
for she had produceda marvellous
on
poem
the other side of the street, filled with all sorts of trumpery
a rival show-shopon
In a fit
in illodour.
relics pretendedto have belongedto Shakspere.But she was
the
of resentment, the day before she quitted
the ancient house, she whitewashed
with which they
walls of the bed-room, po as to obliterate the pencilinscriptions
her
the
the work
of
It was
covered.
to remove
successor
plaster;and
were
house had a
obscure
the light. The
manifold
or
renowned, again saw
names,
few ancient articles of furniture about it ", but there was
nothingwhich could be
it
William
considered as originally
the home
of
as
belongingto
Shakspere.
houses
in Henley Street under
The engravingsexhibit John Shakspere's
two
drawingmade by Colonel Delamotte
aspects. The upper one is from an original
The houses, it will be observed, then presentedone
in 1788.
uniform
front;

ejected. It

and

there

dormer

were

plan before

been

had

windows

connected

with

in the roof.

rooms

We

have

which shows
accompanyingMr. Wheler's account of these premises,
that theyoccupieda frontageof thirty-one
feet. The
lower is from an original
We
see
now
drawingmade by Mr. Pyne,after a sketch by Mr. Edridgein 1807.
that the dormer
windows
removed, as also the gable at the east end of the
are
front.
The house has been shorn of much
of its external importance. There is
The prea
lithograph
engravingin Mr. Wheler's account, publishedin 1824.
mises,
us,

there shown,

as

half has
frame

has

had

obliterated

been

half had

western

have

pretty equallydivided. The Swan


modernized, and the continuation

been

its windows

by

divided

been

brick

into

two

casing.
tenements

that is the butcher's


premises,

shop,the kitchen

being the portioncommonly


in continuation
upon a frontage

shown

were

built.

The

nation,as well

as

whole

of this

the two

as

1807,
;

"

the

fourth

behind, and the

at

head
Maiden-

two

timber-

the

observe

we

House.
Shakspere's

of the tenement

portionof

In

and
of

that the

of the
rooms

whole
over,

Some

years ago,
the west, three small cottages

the property has been

purchasedfor

the

tenements.

then, born in the house in Henley Street which has


Shakspere,
been purchasedby the nation ?
For ourselves,we frankly
confess that the want
of absolute certainty
that Shaksperewas
there born, producesa state of mind
that is something higher and pleasanter
than the conviction that depends upon
We
content
to follow the popular faith undoubtingly.
positiveevidence.
are
Was

William

si

WILLIAM

shaksfere:

"jte"
"

isi

l712*^

"ML
"=*"":

"vn\\

.luifcnycic

auu"

..i

iirmr;

oUcuUj

BIOGRAPHY.

belief is sanctioned by long usage and universal acceptation.


traditionary
with its
The
merely curious look in reverent silence upon that mean
room,
and plastered
massive joists
walls,firm with ribs of oak, where they are told the
of
the
human
born. Eyes now
closed on the world, but who have
race
was
poet
under
let die,"have glistened
leftthat behind which the world
will not willingly
this humble
solemn, confiding,
roof,and there have been thoughtsunutterable
The autographsof
in
that
hour.
humble
their
hearts
round
grateful,
clustering
Disturb
not
inscriptions.
Byron and Scott are amongst hundreds of perishable
room.*
the belief that William
Shaksperefirst saw the lightin this venerated
The

"

"

"

The

{;

To

victor Time
doom

has stood

the fall of many


o'er Evesham's

on

Avon's

home

side

of

pride ;
Rapine
gilded fane has strode,
And
has paved the road ;
Kenilworth
gorgeous
has gently laid his witheringhands
But Time
frail House
On one
the House
of Shakspere stands ;
Centuries are gone
fallen the cloud-capped tow'rs ;
But Shakspere'
s
home, his boyhood's home, is ours !
Prologuefor the ShaJcs})ere
Night, Dec, 7, 1347, kg C. Knight.
a

"

'

'

"

"

not only of the most


postpone,until nearly the close of this volume, a description,
of the premises in Henley Street, but of the garden of New
Place, which has also
been acquired by public subscription. (SeeBook IT. chapter 10.)
"We

recent

shall

condition

Lm.

I)

SHAXSPtfBB

WILLIAM

";:-:"

;'

|]
J1|
jiff
|PijTSi^fw*,!i^

[InnerCourt

of the Grammar

School.]

CHAPTER

SCHOOL.

THE

The

poet in his well-known

IV.

'

Seven

Ages

'

life :

great boundary-marks of a human


another he has left to be imagined:

the

presented to
necessarily

has

the

from

progress

one

us

onty

stage

to

"

"

Muling

Perhapsthe

most

that in which
firstact and

and

puking in the

he learns most
the second
And
And

of

34

"

arms."

good

man's

of evil,lies in the progress

or

existence,

between

this

"

then the whining schoolboy,with his satchel,


shining morning face,creeping like snail

Unwillingly to
the

first the infant

influential,
though the least observed, part of

"

Between

At

nurse's

nurse's arms"

school."

and

the

"

school"

there is

an

important interval

BIOGRAPHY.

filled up

Let us see what the home


by a mother's education.
would
probablyhave been.
young Shakspere
There is a passage in one
of Shakspere's
Sonnets, the 89th,
the misfortune of a physical
a belief that he had
defect, which
the
of
maternal
solicitude
peculiarly object
:

"

Say

that

thou

I will

didst

forsake

comment

for

me

Speak of my
Against thy

Again in

the 37th Sonnet


"

As

To

see

So

lines have

lameness,and

decrepitfather
his active
lame

all my

the

of
representation

doubt

do

him

render

straightwill

halt ;

defence."

delight
deeds

of

thy

such

was

worth

youth,
spite,
truth."

and

that William

Shaksperewas

limit him, when

to

as

should, on

We

men.

literally

he became

actor,

an

the contrary,have

received
fitly
quoted may
in a metaphorical
there not some
net
were
sense,
subsequentlines in the 37th Sonwhich
literal meaning ; and
the
to have
thus to render
a
really
appear
lame
selfand
lameness
than
o
f
the
previous
expressive something more
general
abasement
which theywould otherwise appear to imply. In the following
lines
lame means
somethingdistinct from poor and despised:
no

whatever

the

of

dearest

mean

the parts of old

that

would

fault,

some

offence

no

fortune's

by

comfort

lame,* and that his lameness


to

takes

child

to
interpreted

been

making

reasons

induced

has

"

I, made

Take

These

that

upon

which

"

And

instruction of the

verses

have

we

be most

"

"

whether

For
Or

any

Entitled
I make
Po

then

sit,
thy parts do crowned
love engraftedto this store :
not lame, poor, nor
am
despis'd,

in
my

Whilst

beauty,birth,or wealth, or wit,


all,of all,or more,

these

of

that

this shadow

doth

such

give."

substance

that, if Shaksperewere
thing,however, we may be quite sure
him
active
for
not such as to disqualify
was
infirmity
bodilyexertion.
lame also
series of verses
that have suggestedthis belief that he was
Of

one

he

was

nature,

accidental

"

above

horseman.

with

inactive

an

rural

Malone

has

Surely many

an

adds,
or

have

any

'

It is not

exhibit

the energy

purpose.
the

kind

the

Either

The

defect

may

be

Sir

must

D2

in

natural

some

have

had

it not

been

fixed

that

Scott

or

defect, or
;

and

some

of

palpable meaning
in
and

che-

have

his power

to halt

the
sionally
occa-

Not

permanent.'

so.

in the
only
propriety,
Lord
without
Byron might,
any imhave
been
applicableto either of
as
Shakspeare'smight have been ;

skilfullyconcealed;

Walter

child

the

away

question. They would


them.
the lameness
of Lord
Indeed
Byron was
exactly such
and
I remember,
as
a
boy, that he selected those speeches for
him to the use of such
exertions
the
as
might obtrude
Life of William
the
William
Rev.
M.
A.
Harness..
Shakspeare,by
\ See Sonnets 50 and 51.
verses

same

with external
familiarity
is incompatible
with

of such

inefficiently
attempted to explain
in truth
lame, he
Shakspeare was

other

that

The
show

athletic sports,which

If

movement.

written

works

impossiblethat

modified

have

infirmityof

of hurried

entire

with
occupations,

most

lines ; and

His

boyhood.
injury,
may

for this

moments

lame, his

"

become

or

declamation
defect

which

of his person

visible

would
into

35

not

strain
con-

notice."

"

WILLIAM

fished in him
without

strength.
home,

to

that love of books, and

which

his intellect could

But

from

have

not

the firstwith

Stretch'd

The

seven

Nature,

Gray

as

School

became
the

of Stratford

and

The

age

was

education

door, we

also

his

town.

own

have

not

of

letters have

short sentences.

sent

and

that he

been
There

school.

up
would

at

comes

of Edward

answer

VI.

That

like

an

year,

assume,

be

be

had

question now
Absey-book."

his

School

own

of

into words, and


:

memory

is

at

preparationfor
givenhim at home.

was

to

being

of

chief

any
of the word

Grammar

therefore

Shakspere

education

without

just sense
to

of

shall sently
preCorporationof

of John

that

We

instruction

Free

we

the best

the Free

have grown
taught,syllables
is somethingto be committed

then

where

as

the

son

father,in

brought

was

with
the

in every
education
was

such

as

"

the first year

School,

receive

is that such
probability

And

In

school

into the

boy

resident in the town,

Grammar

the

to

earlier instruction

His
the

him

Shakspere did

scholar

assume

this school, and


The

to

of

be

to

hesitation,that William
the

admission

his
for nothing,
given,literally

alderman, should

sniil'd."

should

The

for admission

"

dauntless child
and

that he

read.

paintedhim

connected
essentially
when
that,
impossible imagine

it is

qualifiedby

time

has

for the

were,

of age, and able to


in detail,was
to show

have
Stratford

its wondrous

Shaksperea petted child, chained

forth his little arms

only qualifications
necessary
years

contemplation,

into

free air upon


his native hills,denied the boy'sprivilege
nook
of his own
river.
would
We
muning
imaginehim com-

"

Grammar

nourished

been

breathingthe

not

exploreevery

to

silent

lore,and
traditionary

imagine William

cannot

we

SHAKSPERE

words

into

"

;
*

with
publishedby authorityThe ABC,
the Pater-noster,Ave, Crede, and Ten
Commandementtes
in Englysshe,
newly
translated and set forth at the kyngesmost
But the
graciouscommandement.'
ABC
became
with systematic
connected
instruction in
soon
more
immediately
belief. The
followed by the
religious
alphabetand a few short lessons were
catechism, so that the book containing
A B C
the catechism
to be called an
came
book, or Absey-book. Towards
the end of Edward's
forth
was
thority
reign
by auput
Short
'A
Catechisme
of
or
playne instruction,conteynynge the sume
christian learninge/
which
all schoolmasters
called
after
to teach
were
upon
the
littlecatechism"
Such
books
forth.
set
were
previously
undoubtedlysuppressed
in the reignof Mary, but
the
accession
of
Elizabeth
were
they
again
upon
circulated.
A
mentary
question then arises,Did William
Shakspere receive his eleinstruction in Christianity
from the books sanctioned by the Reformed
Church
?
It has been maintained
that his father belongedto the Roman
tholic
Cathe followingfoundation.
persuasion. This belief rests upon
In the
Hart, who then inhabited one
of the tenements
in Henley
year 1770, Thomas
Street which had been bequeathedto his familyby William
Shakspere's
granddaughter,
tile the house ; and this bricklayer,
to new
employed a bricklayer
by
'

was

"

86

King John, Act

t.

Scene

BIOGRAPHY.

Mosely, found hidden between the rafters


of six leaves stitched together,
which he
consisting
name

of Stratford,who

port, vicar

This

Stratford.

of

it to

sent

Mr.

Malone,

ard

the

gave

to

the

through

paper, which

tilinga manuscript
man
Peyton,an alder-

Mr.

Rev.

Mr.

first

Devon-

Malone

in
was
publishedby
Shakspeareand in Drake's
Shakspeareand his
It consists of fourteen articles,
Times.'
purportingto, be a confession of faith of
John
member
of the holy Catholic
Shakspear,an unworthy
religion."We
in believing
hesitation whatever
this document
have
to be altogether
brication
fano
a
Chalmers
It was
the performanceof a clerk,the undoubted
says,
work of the familypriest."* Malone, when
he first publishedthe paper in his
said
I have taken some
edition of Shakspeare,
ticity
painsto ascertain the authenof this manuscript,and, after a very careful inquiry,
fied
satisam
perfectly

printedalso

1 790, is

in Reed's

'

"

"

"

"

that it is
he
not

do
nor

the

I have

"

asserts

In

genuine."
"

been

1796, however, in his work

since

obtained

documents

the

on

Ireland

that

clearly
prove
poet's family." We

the

ries,
forge-

it could

not
compositionof any of our
only
believe that it was
the compositionof any one
not
of our
poet'sfamily,"
work
the undoubted
of the familypriest,"
but we
do not believe that it is
work of a Roman
Catholic
It professes
at all.
to be the writer's
last spiritual
confession of faith."
and
will,testament, confession, protestation,
Now,

have

"

"

"

if the writer had

been

Catholic, or

Roman
his

and

it would
priest,

if it had

been

drawn

for his proval


apsuch fulness
necessarily,
professing
up

signature
by
have contained something of belief touchingthe then material
completeness,
difference between
the Roman
and the Reformed
Church.
pointsof spiritual
be
than
all
this
tedious
and conmore
Nothing,however, can
fession,
protestation
vague
with the exceptionthat phrases, and indeed
duced
introare
long passages,
for the purpose of marking the supposedwriter's opinions
in the way that
should be most
offensive to those of a contrary opinion,
if
as
by way of bravado
do protest that I
Item, I, John Shakspear,
or
seekingof persecution.Thus

and

"

will also pass out

Again

of this life armed

Item, I, John

"

with

the last sacrament

Shakspear,do

(whom

with
and

beseech
with

me

to

other

be present at

their desired

our

for fear

presence." Again :

lest by
notwithstanding

and

being the
from

"

Item, I, John

the

which

effectual

means

to

if I shall,by God's

Apology for

the

what

in like
bowels

lot will befall me,

holy sacrifice of

deliver souls from

their torments

the mass,
and

the

not

be

long
holy
as

pains;
by their virtuous
them for so
unto
ungrateful

graciousgoodness,and

works, be delivered,I do promise that I will

Shakspear,do
kinsfolks,by the

of my
sins I be to pass and stay a
assist and succour
with their
to
me

reason

with
works, especially
satisfactory

most

of sinners,

ther
togeI invoke
patrons, (SaintWinefride,)all whom
the hour of my
death, that she and they comfort

while in purgatory, theywill vouchsafe


prayers

advocate

chief executress

saints,my

dear friends, parents, and


pray and beseech my
Saviour
Jesus Christ,that, since it is uncertain

manner

of

humbly crave, that of this my


ever
Virgin Mary, mother of God, refugeand
honour
above all saints,)
be the
specially
may
these

unction."

nitely
am
willing,
yea, I do infilast will and testament
the glorious

desire and
and

of extreme

protest that I

Believers,page 199.
37

WILLIAM

great

benefit."

This

to

of its

testament

us

thus

runs

SHAKSPERE

last item, which

"

:
"

is the

spuriousness. The
I, John

of

twelfth

by this my
it shall be delivered

is demonstrati

paper,

article of this

thirteenth

pretended

last will and

Shakspear,do

bequeath

the

ment
testa-

and loosened
from
soul, as soon
as
my
of
this
in the sweet
and amorous
coffin
prison
my body, to be entombed
of the side of Jesus Christ ; and that in this life-giving
it
sepulchre may rest
and
enclosed
in that eternal habitation
of repose, there to
live,perpetually
the

bless for
a

forms

censer,

Lord

of my
of

and

ever

and

Saviour."
like the

plain

man

That

John

his

son

of

He

was

proofs.
have

become
of

statute

supposed

the

of

1st

punishablewith

is

nonsense

popularlycall

we

four

was

years
chief

the

charge

sacred
the

not
certainly

Protestant

be

old, may

in

breast

language

shown

in the

by

year
the clearest

magistrateof Stratford ; he could


Oath
of Supremacy, accordingto the
To

Elizabeth, 1558-9.*

forfeiture

within

monument

ambitious

in that year the


without
takingthe

so

lance, which, like

writer.

what

William

of the

pleasanta

This

Shakspere was

1568, when

not

and

sweet

so

direful iron

that

ever

refuse

imprisonment,with

this

oath

the

made

was

of

pains
praemunire
in
Chalmers
(speaking
conjecture,"
support of
says
of this confession
the authenticity
of faith), that Shakspeare's
familywere
Roman
Catholics, is strengthened by the fact that his father declined
to
attend the corporation
from
the corporate
meetings,and was at last removed
He
with
removed
from
in
distinct
the
was
1585,
a
body."
corporate body
and

high

The

"

treason.

and

"

of the

statement

halls.

the

for this removal

reason

According to

his non-attendance

"

when

summoned

reasoningof Chalmers, John Shakspere did


he was
chief magistrate
Supremacy when
in 1564, but retired from
the corporationin 1585, where
he
might have
remained
without
offence to his own
conscience
guage
in the lanto others, being,
or
of that day,a Popish recusant,
to be stigmatized
such,
and
as
persecuted,
subjectto the most odious restrictions. If he left or was expelledthe corporation
for his religious
he would, of course, not attend the service of the church,
opinions,
to

not

hesitate

for which

then, to

take

to

offence he would

mass

Ihe

of

be liable,in

all his kinsfolks to assist and

holy sacrifice of the


for

this

Oath

1585,

to

fine of 20/. per month

the whole, in this his last confession,spiritual


will,and

crown

he calls upon

them

the

mass," with

him

succour

promisethat he

"

will not

be

punishableby a year'simprisonment and


hearingof it by a similar imprisonment and a
was

fabrication

to

appears

discoveryof
all

and

us

as

gross

document

as

in the

can

well

State

be

fine of 200
fine of

and

testament,
"

with the

ungratefulunto

great a benefit,"well knowing that by the Act of 1581

so

"And

after his death

100

f
imagined.

the

sayingo\

marks, and
marks.
But

Paper Office,communicated

The
a

sequent
sub-

by

and
other lay or
and mhiialer,
temporal judge, mayor,
temporal officer
within
this realm, or
having your
Highness's fee or wages
any
your
the Evangelist,before
Highness's dominions, shall make, take, and receive a corporal oath upon
shall please your
such person
or
as
the great
Highness, your heirs or successors, under
persons
seal of England, to assign and name
to accept and take the same,
the
to
tenor
aud
effect
according
hereafter
following,that ia to say," "c.
*

and

other

every

f See

Note
38

every

person

at the

end

of this

Chapter.

Mr.

Lemon

to

of his

fourteen
recusants

have

as

her

accordingto

Mr.

Collier, shows

neighbours,

in

Mr.

1592,

John

Shakspere,with

certain Commissioners

by
been heretofore presented
for not coming monthly to
Majesty'slaws, and yet are thought to forbear the

or

to

church

and

for

or

other

some

capableof

another

the church
church

the

that

for

faults,or for age, sickness,

worse

Shakspereis classed amongst

solution,than

"such

as

nine who

"

father

not

came

for fear of process for debt."


We
shall have to notice this
for the recusancy in a future Chapter. But the religious
part of the

reason

is

that

returned

were

for fear of process,


impotency of body." John

debt

BIOGRAPHY.'

assigned
question

of

Shakspere had become


reconciled to the
religion.At that period the puritansection of the
church
were
acquiring
English
great strengthin Stratford and the neighbourhood;
zealous of the puritanministers,
of the most
and in 1596, Richard
Bifield, one
itsVicar*
John
became
Shakspereand his neighboursmight not have been Popish
Romish

and

recusants,

yet have

parents of William
as

avoided

the

It must

church.

be borne

in mind

that the

opinion,
Shaksperepassedthrough the great changes of religious

the greater portionof the

in their habits derived

peoplepassed,without

from

their

forefathers.

any

violent

correspondingchange

In the time

Henry VIII. the


confined to
of opinionwas
Pope ; the great
great contest
of
the
the
houses.
Under
s
tate
was
measure
suppression
religious
practical
careful compromise of all those opinions
and pracEdward
VI. there was
a very
tices
In
in which the laity
were
participant. the short reign of Mary the persecution
been
offensive even
have
must
to those who
of the Reformers
clung
the supremacy

the

fastest to

was

ancient

institutions and

fullyestablished

interfered
slightly

still very

modes

under

with.

of belief; and

Elizabeth, the

of

of the

habits

even

astoundingmajorityof

The

when

of the
the

the

formation
Re-

peoplewere
conforming

convincingproof how littlethe opinionsof the laitymust have been


We
have
disturbed.
They would naturallygo along with their old teachers.
to imagine,
then, that the father of William
Shakspere,and his mother, were, at
His father, by holding
established by law.
the time of his birth, of the religion
a
high municipal office after the accession of Elizabeth, had solemnly declared
the acknowledgment ot
his adherence
of Protestantism
the great principle
to
The
the civil sovereign as head
the
church.
of
opinionsin which
speculative
the child was
shape themselves to the creed which
brought up would naturally
to
in his capacityof magistrate
his father must
have professed
; but, according
his
father.
The
of
the
t
his
some
was
a
disguiseon
part
opinions,
profession
in
the
Roman
according to these
persuasion,
was
brought
Shakspere
young
up
of the Roman
with the practices
notions,because he intimates an acquaintance
Surelythe
church, and mentions
purgatory, shrift,confession, in his dramas. f
clergyis

"

with
poet might exhibit this familiarity
without
it

thus

Roman

"

the

speaking "from
Catholic

the
King John against

zeal
"

"

which

language of

the ancient

overflow

of

Roman

induced

him

to

Italian Priest,"and

Catholic
write

those
against

those

all Christendom,
zeal."%

strong lines io

who

'

"

Hunter

X Chalmers.

'New

vol.
Illustrations,'

See also

Drake,

who

i. p. 106.

adopts, in

Was

Apology,
t See Chalmers's
Chalmers's argument.
great measure,
S3

p. 200.

WILLIAM

it

Was

Catholic

Roman

"

prophecyof

famous

which

"

zeal

man

him

made

gloryand happinessof

the
"

"

corrupted pardon of

Purchase

"

SHAKSPERE:

"

trulyknown

shall bo

God

the

'"

introduce

reignof

these words

Elizabeth

"

into the
"

brought up, without doubt, in the opinionswhich his father publicly


solemn
affirmation of those opito his most
in holdingoffice subject
nions.
professed,
and the Popish recusant
the Protestant
distinctions between
The
were
But, such as
as
then not so numerous
or
speculative
they afterwards became.
that William
Shaksperelearnt his catechism from
they were, we may be sure
his mother
he
in all sincerity
that
frequentedthe church in which he and his
;
of
brothers and sisters were
preparedfor the discipline
baptized
; that he was
minister
the
of
church
instruction
the school in which
was
by a
religious
larly
regubecame
afforded as the end of the other knowledge there taught. He
of his after-writings,
tolerant,accordingto the manifestation
through nature
tolerance
his
life.
But
that
does not
of
and the habits and
early
friendships
Confession
of Faith
found
in himself or his family. The
insincerity
presume
He

was

'

'

in the

of his father's house

roof
the

argue

adherence
we

part of

the

on

driven

to

hypocritefor

one

be

must

It is much

easier to
it did

as

who

man

the

had

national

established

the

to

zeal, even
religious

of

extreme

hundred

two

to

by

upon

thority,
au-

his
professed
be believed,

to

were

and

Shaksperewas an
bigotfor the other part.
fell lightly
spere,
upon John Shak-

furious

laity
; and

of the

all law

would

tious
unconscien-

Reformation

the

that

bulk

If that paper

that John

part of his life,and


the

born

was

the acceptance of office

faith.

conclusion

believe

years after he
the defiance of

he

and

his wife, without

any

Prayer take the place of the


the
to be head of the church
and
Mass-book,
acknowledged
temporalsovereign
;
of
their children they dispensedwith auricular confession
that in the education
with their neighbours,
that they,in common
and penance
tolerated,and
; but
perhaps delightedin, many of the festivals and imaginativeforms of the old
looked
without
and
even
religion,
up for heavenly aid through intercession,
tanism
Purisuch
as
yieldingto an idolatrous superstition,
fancyingthat they were
denounce.
The
transition
old
from
the
came
subsequentlyto
worship
not
the new
to
was
an
ungentleone for the laity.The earlyreformers were
wise to attempt to root up habits
those deep-sunkfoundations
of the past
too
break
when
it strives to work
which
the ploughsharesof legislation
inch
an
offence

consciences,

their

to

Common

the

saw

"

yelow the earth's surface.


Pass

to

on

we

spere'smind
rival sects.

than
He

of the

reverence

He

has

Christianity
; he
do, that his
volumes

in

volumes

now

40

matters

the

controversies

escaped

their

learnt,then,

father

read.
and

their house

rarelyseen

at

His

mother

the

of doctrine,or

was
were

mother's
an

knee

very

of
persecutions
with
speaks always

He

whatever

the

name

cardinal

nated.
denomi-

doctrines

of

Yet, believing,
as
we
age of few books.
well-educated
there would
be
persons,

the
capableof exciting
and

Shak-

the mutual

highestwisdom, by
his

William

of
universality

perniciousinfluences.

of the

teachers

can

congenialto

more

interest of

precious.Some

an

inquiring
boy

of the firstbooks

"

of the

be there

TttOGRAPHY.

changesof languagein the ninetyyears


of printing
into England would almost
that had passed since the introduction
Caxton's
books
seal them
of a popular
were
essentially
againsta boy'sperusal.
the languageof his time was
character ; but, as he himself complained,
greatly
of
unsettled, showing that
we
Englishmen ben born under the domination
which
is never
steadfast."*
Caxton's
rich
in
the moon,
mantic
roCatalogue was
Confessio
and poeticallore
the
Amantis,' the
Tales,'
Canterbury
Troilus and Creseide,'the
Book
of Troy,'the
Dictes of the Philosophers,'
the
Mirror
of the World,' the
of
Book
of
the
the
Jerusalem/
Chivalry,'
Siege
Life of King Arthur.'
Here were
legendsof faith and love, of knightlydeeds
and painfulperils glimpsesof historythrough the wildest romance
enough
fill the mind
of a boy-poetwith visions of unutterable loveliness and splento
dour.
The
in the same
famous
followed
of the first printer
careersuccessors
they adapted their works to the great body of purchasers; they left the learned
Dame
have bestowed
to their manuscripts. What
a present must
Julyana Bernes
in her book
of Hunting, printedby Wynkyn
her countrymen
upon
de Worde, with other books of sports!
Master
Skelton, laureate, would rejoice
the hearts of the most
orthodox, by his slyhits at the luxuryand domination
of the priesthood Robert
Kynge Appolyne of
Copland, who translated
and perilous
ventures
adThyre,'sent perhaps the story of that^prince's malfortunes
Pericles :
into a
and
into a soil in which
to grow
they were
Stephen Hawes, in his Pass Tyme of Pleasure,'he being one of the grooms
of the most
honourable
chamber
of our
sovereignlord King Henry the
of Robert
deserve
the
of the descendant
favour
Seventh," would
especial
Arden.
of Lord
the English Froissart
Berners, and other
came
Subsequently
Englishpress might

but

the

"

'

'

"

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

'

great books
not

of

to

hereafter

be read

those

wondrous

'

'

old
book

by

be

to

the child

books
of

which
'

mentioned.

if these, and

But

undisciplined
by school, there
themselves

of

Bartholomseus

de

would

as

these,

in
pictures

were
a

open

such

world

to

him.

were
some

That

describing,and

Rerum,'
Proprietatibus

inanimate
and
in appropriate
wood-cuts, every animate
thing,and
exhibiting
social
of cooking,
the most
ablution,
life,whether
even
complex operationsof
for the destruction of beasts of
the ancient and appropriate
of the comb
use
or
its leaves with delight.
have
turned
the child Shakspere would
over
prey
Chronicle
the edition of 1527,
'The
of England,with the Fruit of Times,'
it have taken that boy into the days of
with cuts
must
innumerable, how
him
shown
the mailed
the archers, and the
fierce wars," and have
knights,
billmen
and afterwards turned their
that fought at Poitiers for a vain empery,
swords and their arrows
againsteach other at Barnet and Tewkesbury? What
dim
the quiet town
of Stratford,
to
thoughtsof earthlymutations, unknown
looked
have
he
the
the young
must
received,
as
picturesof
Shakspere
upon
and other
the boke of John
the fall of princes,
Bochas, describing
princesses,
of
John
the
he beheld
the portrait
lator,
transnobles," and especially
as
Lydgate,
"

"

"

"

"

"

kneeling in

long black

cloak,admiring the

fortune,the

being represented
divinity
by a
and
!
Rude
incongruousworks
wings
*

Boko

male

vicissitude of the wheel


in
figure,

of art, ye

were

robe, with

yet

an

of
panded
ex-

intelligible

of Eneydoi

41

WILLIAM

the

languageto
the visual
But
and

sense

there

books

were

sounding alike

in

the

those

the

and

thingsye taughtthrough

!
forgotten

touchingin

days,simple and

depths of

printedembodiments

the

be

to
readily

not

were

the uninstructed

and

young

SHAKSPERE

the

of childhood

hearts

their diction,

and

of age, which

lore that the shepherd repeated


traditionary
in
his
flocks
the uplands,and the
pasturing
recited to her companions at the wheel.
maiden
Were
there not
in every
Christmas
house
in
Carols,' perhaps not the edition of Wynkyn de Worde
but
of
number?
Did
out
the
not
scatter
1521,
same
reprints
great printer
about merry England and
dear were
such legends to the peopleof
especially
"A
counties
Geste of Robyn Hode?"
the midland
and northern
Whose
lytell
the
of
Warwickshire
did
listen
when
not
ear
some
genial
amongst
yeomen
Geste ?"
would
recite out that of
spirit
lytell
were

in

his

loneliness

of that

when

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

Lythe
That

I shall

His

old

good
in

truths

ancient

never

in

there

proud

walked
an

none

knew

yeman,
;

outlawe

ground,

on

outlawe

he

as

was

one

y fouude."

that

there

real, because

were

spiritual,

his press poured them


in
out
gestes;
songs
full devoute
and gosteleyTreatise."
That charming,

"

was

he

and

with many
A
company
and
yet withal irreverend,
mirth

was

blode,

good
llobyn Hode

was

Wynkyn,
printer,

these

fre bore
tell of

you

curteyse

Was

The

lysteu,gentylinen,

of

name

llobyu
Whyles
So

and

be

"

mery

seeing

the

and

geste of the frere and the boy," what genial


child,ill-used by his step-mother,making a
"

whole

of the frere
villagedance to his magic pipe,even
to the
reverendicity
leapingin profaneguise as the littleboy commanded, so that when he ceased
cent
pipinghe could make the frere and the hard step-motherobedient to his innowill !
seemed
and

There

wisdom

instinctivelyof the

to

the

beautiful

was

out

grow
fruit of

rich

in

these

bosom

old

tales

of

blossoms

the wild

as

intellectual soil,uncultivated,but

that

something

"

of nature,

sterile.

not

Of

the

chivalry
read, in the fair types of Richard
might
Pynson, Sir
Bevis
of Southampton ;
and
in those of Robert
Copland, Arthur of lytell
and
'Sir
Brytayne;'
Degore,a Romance,' printedby William Copland ; also
Sir Isenbrace,' and
The
miraculous
Knighte of the Swanne,' a
history,"

romances

be

'

'

'

'

'

from

the

in those

"

Nor
the dramatic form
was
press.
of
William
days
Shakspere'schildhood
same

"

in the choice
even

"

but dialogue,
which
subject,

There

now.

elements

of

'

and

wherein

'

Interlude and

of poetry
not

verse,

sometimes

may

altogether
wanting
dramatic
essentially
pass

for

dramatic

of the nature
of the i i i i
mery
lude
Magnyfycence; a goodly interlude and mery ; and an interis shewd
and
described
well the bewte of good propertes of
as
was

new

'

'

interlude
theyr vyces and euyll condicions ;
and
An
entitled
Jack
Juggelerand mistress Boundgrace;'and, most attractive of all, A newe
playe for to be played in Maye games, very plesaunteand full of pastyme,'on
the subject
of Robin
Hood
and
the Friar.
The
merry interludes of the indewomen

as

"

'

'

TSTOGIUrHY.

preservedin print,in the middle of the sixteenth


noble play that was
a
produced fiftyyears afterwards
century, whilst many
To
with its actors.
has perished
repeat passages out of these homely dialogue?,
in some
sort
solid knowledgewas
in which, however
homely theywere, much
Out of books, too, and single
printed
conveyed,would be a sport for childhood.
and
sheets, might the songs that gladdenedthe hearts of the English yeoman,
of the esquirein his hall,be readilylearnt.
hours
solaced the drearywinter
John
fatigable

What

Heywood

countryman,

at

were

market, could

fair,or

attractive

resist the

printedby the good widow Toy, of London


who presentedthe Stationers' Company, in 1560, with a
to us who
dozen of napkins titles that have melody even
There are,
words they ushered in ?
"balletts"

"

widow,
and

table-cloth

new

have

"

titles of the

munificent

lost the

pleasant

"

Who

"

As

and
lyve
mery
of
that
be
the
they

make

so

suclie sporte

poorer

sorte?''

and,
"

God

send

me

wyfe that

will do

and, very charming in the rhythm of its one


"

Songs of

the anchor

Hold

'

sailors

Whithorne,
way into every
in parts. It
for the

is from

known

line,

garden gone."

my

days England'sproper
"

songs"

such

collections of songs, too, as those of


were
gentleman,for three, four,or five voices," which found
There

was

the

house

wise

when

we

suppressed,to

the church

were

policyof the
service

earlyReformers,

direct the musical


and

when

many

were

sing
had

chantries
to
laity
adaptedto

the

of the

taste

the

their

could

people,and

musical

as

mas
Tho-

"

books

this

of portions
of the service to be chanted, and
Bassus,' consisting
whole
ments
Psalms, in four parts,which may be sung to all musical instrumetrical
version
of
the
Sternhold
The
and
Psalms,
(1563).
by
kins,
Hop-

end, such
The

fast.'

part been

most

rose

there also in those

were

yeoman's

performanceof
'

The

I say ;

as

as

'

'

first printedin 1562,


have

been

to

smile

at

the

was

for
essentially

occasional

want

the

people; and,

of refinement

in

accustomed

manly vigour,ay, and its bold harmony, may put to shame many
Sure we
that the child William
are
productions of later times.
his memory
stored with its vigorous
and
But there was
book which
it was
one

as

we

this translation,
its
of the feebler

Shaksperehad

idiomatic
the

English.
especial
happinessof

that

plative
contem-

be familiar with.

When
in the year 1537 the Bible in English
boy to
Richard
the printer,
six copiesto
Grafton,
sent
printedby authority,
Cranmer, beseechingthe archbishop
his simplegift,
to accept them
as
adding,
For your lordship,
most
moving our
graciousprinceto the allowance and
of such
work, hath wrought such an act worthy of praiseas never
a
licensing
first

was

"

One of the pleasantestcharacteristics of the present day is the revival of a love for and
a
knowledge of music amongst the people. Twenty years ago the birthplaceof Shakspere presented
church
in which
a
our
worthy examj^leto England. The beautiful
great poet is buried had beeu
recentlyrepairedand newly fitted up with rare propriety; and, most appropriatelyin this fine old
from
of both
collegiatechurch and chantry, the choir of young
sexes, voluntarilyformed
persons
the
careful
of
the
the
the
in
to
most
amongst
respectable inhabitants, was
style
equal
performance
choral parts of the service,and of those anthems
solemn
their
whose
excellence
is
harmony
highest
rather than the display of individual
voices.
43

shakspere:

WILLIAM

mentioned

was

in

exceptionof
for

were

interval

short

in
of

and

after to

ever

the

his brethren

knew

father well, the old


laid down

God

the

him

golden image
the

that

prophet
the

because

"

solemn

had

English home.
read

aloud

and
slavery,

three

his

sent

"

book,

"

him

to

into

the

honour

said,

the

would

who

men

of the

he

den

lions

of

shut

and

grew,

worship the

not

"

found

was

and

your
Samuel

or,

how

unhurt,

lions' mouths.

the

that
"

Is

"

child

burningfieryfurnace

angels and

was

the Great

"

little ones

her

times, and

three

whose

love,

With

to

the

London
to

and

awe

advanced

then

of

presses

or, how, when

holy

the midst

unjustlycast

was

God

true

the

in

about

listens with

would

time, with

That

the

called to

Lord

how

or,

walked

the

child

ye spake?

of whom

man

that

From

when, suppressinghis tears, he

not

sleep,the

to

with

was

him

realm."

reign of Mary,
printingBibles.

solace of

the

be

before her, the mother


open
beautiful story of Joseph sold into

was

in

"

Bible

how

this

part employed

most

narratives
heart-stirring

wonderful
now

the

the

chronicle

any

These

struction
inaffectingnarratives,wonderfullypreserved for our
in
the
middle
sixteenth
that
of
the
a
long antiquity,
century
But more
unclosed
that other
became
to the people of England.
was
especially
Testament
opened which most importedthem to know ; and thus, when the child
repeatedin lispingaccents the Christian's prayer to his Father in heaven, the
the Divine Author
could expound to him that, when
of that prayer first
mother
in
the
that
the
the merciful, the
it
He
meek,
to
us
spirit,
taught
us,
poor
gave
the happy and the beloved
of God ; and
pure in heart, the peacemakers,were
laid down
that comprehensivelaw of justice, All thingswhatsoever
ye would
the

were

and

from

"

that

should

men

do to you,

education

of William

Book

been

had

of passion,
pointed, but
"

well

the

as

been

even

to

so

We

them."

grounded upon
might have

Shaksperewas

his h.umour

been

have

have

not

his

as

been
his

philosophy;
grandeur,his weakness

tolerant

most

and

might

would

that he

believe

this Book

rich

as

the

been

sealed to his childhood, he

"

meanness

do ye

we

find

insightinto the

poet of nature,
it,and his wit as
most

profound

nature

of man,

would
strength,

his

home

that, if this

the

poet of the

and

that the
and

not

as

his
have

it is.

what

little preparationfor the


towards
the age of seven
a
boy advanced
be desirable.
There
would
be choice
of elementary
grammar-school would
Latino
issued
under
the
books.
The
rity
Anglicum,'
specialauthoAlphabetum
of Henry VIII., might attract
royal and considerate assurance
by its most
tender
babes
the
and
the
that
we
forgetnot
Learning,
youth of our realm."
As

the

'

"

however,

was

not

slow

then

to

put

its solemn

on

with

wooden

aspects to the
of

awful

"

tender

babes

"

sittingon a
mighty rod in his
of William
left. On the other hand, the excellent Grammar
Lillywould open a
well-known
its
of
and
in
recreation,
pictureof a huge
delight
pleasantprospect
tree, with little boys mounted
fruit-bearing
amongst its branches and gathering
in the bounteous
vision
however
to be
not
too
a
interpreted
literally.
crop
the Grammar
assured
was
Grammar, we
are
Lilly's
by certain grave reasoners,
which is a modiused by Shakspere,
because he quotes a line from that Grammar
and

so

have

we

some

grammars

high chair,pointingto

"

44

book

with

his

cut

an

righthand, but with

man

fication

or

line in Terence.

Be

BIOGRAPITY.

it so,

far

as

the Grammar

as

stronger than

The

goes.

that

017

mem

of his later

ments.
acquiremight
have
read
Terence.
ever,
howand
This,
Lilly,
yet
quoted
might
ing.
learnof
the
of
vexata
is not the placefor the opening
quccstio
Shakspere's
liam
To
then, with some
the grammar-school,
we
preparation, hold that WilHis
father is at this time, as we
Shakspere goes, in the year 1571.
is
he
of his town
have said,chief alderman
a
gentleman,now, of repute and
;
of
the worthy curate
is Master
John
Shakspere; and assuredly
authority
; he
master,
also the schoolof Luddington,Thomas
the neighbouring
Hunt, who was
village
He

have

would

left

years another

no

of

room

of his talents

or

be

them

to

of
his

kindness.

some

into

street

be

to

minister

after him, Thomas

came

honour

with
main

of the

was
learning

humble

The

memorials

master

praiseand

scholar

new

first passedout

shiningmorning face
throughwhich the upper
be opening upon
him.
"

has

his

received

have

"

All

been

have

of his school-lessons

reached,

old

that

structor
his first in-

was

acquirements
;

and

Jenkins, also unknown

for it is

court

life would

new

who
religion

his

As

in
to

few

fame.

that

impossible imagine
instructors
givingthe boy husks

to

the

evil
stead
inShakspere were
aliment.
of wholesome
structors,
They could not have been harsh and perverse inhis
for such spoil
and
the gentlest
was
natures,
always gentle:
My
in
whom
noble
is
called
but
he
one
was
a
spirit
gentle Shakspere
by rough
all honestyand
exterior.
His wondrous
ties
abiliunder
rude
a
genialfriendship
could not be spoiled
instructors.
even
by ignorant
In the seventh year of the reign of Edward
VI. a royal charter was
granted
Stratford
recites
for
to
the incorporation
of the inhabitants.
That
charter
That the borough of Stratford-upon-Avon
ancient
was
an
borough,in which a
certain guild was
theretofore
divers lands, tenewith
ments,
founded, and endowed
and possessions,
certain
out of the rents, revenues,
and profits
whereof
a
free grammar-school for the education of
there
made
and
was
supported."*
boys
The charter further recites the other publicobjectsto which
the property of the
that it was
dissolved ; and
had
that its possessions
guildhad been applied
;
into the hands
of the king. The charter of incorporation
come
then grants to
the bailiff and burgesses
certain properties
which were
parcelof the possessions
of the guild,
for the generalchargesof the borough,for the maintenance
of an
ancient almshouse,
and
that the free grammar-schoolfor the instruction and
education of boys and youth there should be thereafter kept
maintained
up and
teachers

of William

"

"

"

"

"

"

";

"

"

as

theretofore

by
ancient

the

it used

to

dissolution

establishment

be."

It may

be

of its

guild.

We

it

the last school

advantageof
objectof
in

1482,

Report of

established
a

school

not

was

althoughit is popularlycalled

one

by him.f

see

creation

of the

for instruction

doubted

for

that
of

its

the

The

peopleof

in Greek

and

of Edward

Holy

charter

Stratford

of

had

Latin, which
IV., when

Cross

fited
bene-

was

grammar-schoolwas

grammar-schoolsof that

grammar-school, from the time


"granted to the guild of the
the Commissioners

Stratford

whether

of

inquiringconcerning Charities. \

See

an

VI.,

Edward

king,and

was

possessedthe
is the

distinct

Thomas

Jolyffe,
Stratford-upon-Avon
'

Strype'a Memoi
45

ials.'

shakspere:

WILLIAM

all his lands

should

and

wick,
Dodwell, in the county of Warthat the master, aldermen, and proctors of the said guild

tenements

condition
upon
find a priest,
fitand

scholars

coming

to

the

in Stratford

able

school

in

and

in the

said town

freelyto all
him, takingnothing of the

teach

knowledge,to
to

grammar

scholars for their

speakingof
teaching."* Dugdale describes the originof guilds,
this of Stratford:
"Such
at first used
by a mutual agreement
meetingswere
of friends and neighbours,
and particular
licenses grantedto them for conferring
lands or rents
of
to defraytheir publicchargesin respect that, by the statute
would otherwise have been forfeited."
mortmain, such gifts
In the surveys of Henry VIII., previous
houses,
to the dissolution of religious
there were
four salaried priests
with
clerk,
the
of
Stratford,
to
a
belonging
guild
who was
also schoolmaster, at a salary
of ten pounds per annum.
f
They were
annual
these
which
to
for
there
all
feast,
a hospitable
was
an
body
guild-folk,
the fraternity
and farmers ; and an
resorted, with their tenants
inventoryof
their goods in the 15th of Edward
IV. shows
that they were
rich in platefor
the service of the table,as well as of the chapel. That chapelwas
partlyrebuilt
the
benefactor
Sir
and
of Stratford,
after the dissolution
by
great
Hugh Clopton;
of the guild,and the establishment
of the grammar-schoolby the charter
cf Edward
in all probability
VI., the school was
kept within it. There is an
in
the
of
"At
this hall it was
1594-5
books,
Corporation
February18,
entry
of the company
now
agreed by the bailiff and the greater number
present that
there shall be no
school kept in the chapel from
this time following."In
therefore,the schoolboydays of William
associating,
Shaksperewith the Free
"

"

of
|lu:crior

the Grammar

of Commissioners,
""c.
Lteport

SihooJ.]

f Dt:gd"lfl,

Gram

mar-

in
And

School
his

yet the

been

of Stratford, we

dailytasks
use

of the

temporary

BIOGRAPHY

chapelas

building.
The
grammar-schoolis

ancient
a

now

an

certaintyimagine him

any

is

which

room

ancient

occupied in

be

may

now

notice

the old town-hall

over

room

might onlyhave

We

from

of

both,

no

doubt, offices of the

it we

have

the oak

and

rude

antiquedesk.

roof

ancient

of the sixteenth

century.

enter

this

In

room

are

each

of

ford
Strat-

the

street

guild.
into a court, of which
side is formed
one
by the chapel of the Holy
Oppositethe chapelis a staircase,ascendingwhich we are in a plainroom,
is modern, and that
it is evident that this work of plaster
a ceiling.But
;

"

gaged
en-

school-room.

the

in 1595,

school, discontinued

little space

use.

with

cannot

the

in

Cross.
with
above

few forms

perfectspecimenof the plainer


ecclesiastical architecture of the reignof Henry VII.
of just proa building
portions
The
decoration.
elaborate
but
into
not
and
ornament,
running
some
school beyond.
engraving below exhibits its street-front, showing the grammar
The

Chapel of

is in great part

the Guild

very

WVtt"

iy^%p|
^Clapelof

The

interior

of the

now

Chapel in

discovered,

from

these

very

Grammar

School

; Street

presentsnothingvery remarkable.
of
the whitewash
1804, beneath

series of most

buildingerected
Chancel.

the Guild, and

by

Sir

remarkable

from
paintings,

series of

Front. J

But

others

drawings made

generationswas
portionof the

in

the

far

engravings has

at the

generalrepair

in that

paintings,
coloured

upon

successive
some

Hugh Clopton,and

elaborate

"

time

more

of their

ancient

published
discoveryby

been

WILLIAM

Mr. Thomas
the

Fisher.

There

that they were


paintings,

can

SHAKSPEEE

'.

be littledoubt, from

partially
destroyedby violence,and

to be obliterated in the
But
progress of the Reformation.
did not belongto the first periods
of religious
change ; and

that these
the

five

were
paintings

priestsof

the

became
from

attempted

it is most

earlyyears of Elizabeth's
driven from
their home
and

guildwere

all

of

some

that outbreak

in the
existing

maintenance, the chapelno

of

the defacement

of zeal

probable

reign.
their

When
of

means

it bably
ceased to be a placeof worship;
prodistinct
school-room, after the foundation of the grammar-school,

the

and

doubt

the

under
room
the charter of Edward
VI.
the schoolIf it was
guild,
t
hose
rude
have produceda powerful
must
Shakspere,
paintings
effect upon his imagination.Many of them in the ancient Chancel
constituted a
the history
of the Holy Cross, from
romance
its originas a tree at
pictorial
the Creation of the World
from the Pagan Cosdroy,King of Persia,
to its rescue
by the Christian King, Heraclius ; and its final Exaltation at Jerusalem, the
of which event was
celebrated at Stratford at its annual fair,held on
anniversary
the 14th of September. There were
other pictures
of Saints,and Martyrdoms;
and one,
of the murder
of Thomas
Becket, which exhibits great
especially,
a
force, without that grotesqueness which generally
belongsto our earlypaintings.
of William

"

"

"

[The Martyrdom

of Thomas

" Becket:

Chapel
43

of the

from

nn

anoient

Holy CroBSj

Paintingiu the

BIOGEAniY.

There
Sins

fearful pictures,too, of the

were

visiblyportrayed,the
"

Surrounded

as

he

with

Judgment ;

memorials

the

of

the

Seven

Deadly
just.

of the

religionwith great
it that
was
impossible

old

every side,but stillvery recent changes how


with
should
imbued
not have been thoroughly
Shakspere

changes on

the

rewards

punishments of the evil,the

with

was

last

"

"

knowledge

of all that

writers
to the faith of his ancestors
! One of the most
philosophical
pertained
of our
Shakspere.* Not so, entirely.
day has said that Catholicism
gave us
the
transition
to
Shaksperebelonged
period,or he could not have been quite
His intellect was
what he was.
the dwarfish and precocious
not
growth of the
His whole soul was
hot-bed of change,and stillless of convulsion.
permeated
with the ancient vitalities the thingswhich the changes of institutions could
touch ; but it could bourgeonunder the new
not
influences,and blend the past
winters is covered with
of five hundred
and
the present, as
the
giantoak
the foliage
of one
f
spring.
"

"

"

Carlrie
The

"

r,r" as

Life.

Revolution.'

'French

foundation

scholars

to fit them

of

for the

this

grammar-school at present receive


university, (Report of Commissioners.)

cation,
complete classical edu-

"

49

WILLI

NOTE

TnE

thirteenth
be

to
of
it

"

as

the

sixteenth

and

coffin of

amorous

CONFESSION

us, in

strange production appears to


spiritof exaggerationwhich
century,

Shakspear, do

it shall be delivered

and

in that

Item, I, John

"

SHAKSPKUE

SHAKSPERE'S

of this

item

conceived

language of

the
:

JOHN

ON

A M

by

loosened

the

side

this

from

of

rather
my

than

this my

the

prison of
Christ; and

Jesus

that

live,perpetuallyenclosed in that eternal habitation


that direfuliron of the lance,which, like a charge in a

rest and

body,

of

many

work

other

of

an

sages,
pas-

imhator

one
habituallyemploying
bequeath my soul,as soon

to be

entombed

in

the

life-giving
sepulchreit

this

in

with

of

testament

and

FAITH.

the

mark

production

the

will

last

common

would

OF

there

repose,

censer, forms

to bless

for

ever

siceel

may
and

and

pleasant a
language
my
of a plain man
iu earnest.
Who
then, can it be imagined, would fabricate this production in
held
to
1770?
in which
Mosely the bricklayerfinds it in the roof ot the house
Shakspere was
be born;
and
of
to whom,
according to the story, does he give it? Not to the descendant
John
it to
transmits
of the house, but
to Alderman
Shakspere, the then owner
Peyton, who
Malone
the farces
Jubilee
took place in 1769; but
Garrick's
through the Vicar of Stratford.
enacted
after
that occasion
on
not
or
were
to
set
searching
antiquities
fabricating
likely
people
them.
visited
But previous to the
publication of his edition of Shakspere, in 1790, Malone
Stratford
the
He
to examine
other
documents.
Registers and
exactly
appeal's to have done
what
he pleased on
He
this occasion.
with
carried off the Registersand the Corporation Records
"im
he
to London
the bust of Shakspere, so as utterlyto destroy its value
whitewashed
; and

ever

within

monument

memorial

the

of

sacred

breast

of

Lord

Surely this

Saviour."

and

sweet

so

is not

the

There

in the town
then a cunning fellow
was
by name
Jordan,
fair mark
a
for his ingenuity. He
thought
produced to him a drawing
of Shakspere's house, New
Malone
document, which
Place, copied, as he said,from an ancient
From
a
engraved as
Drawing in the Margin of an Ancient Survey, made by order of Sir George
found
at Clopton, near
the
When
elder Ireland
Carew, and
Stratford-upon-Avon, in 1786."
visited Stratford
"lost
edition
of
in 1795 the originaldrawing was
or
same
destroyed." The
this drawing
is first presented to the world
found
Shakspere in which
at Clopton
also first
of Faith
of John
in the
roof
of his house
gives the Confession
in Henley
Shakspere, found
Street.
We
doubt
Jordan
fabricated
the
the
whether
other : but there was
or
exceedingly
one
who
a
man
was
quite capable of prompting both impositions,and of carrying them
through ;
whom
the suspicion of fabricatingShaksperian documents
one
time
upon
stronglyrested in his lifewho
would
have
rejoiced with the most
; one
malignant satisfaction in hoaxing a rival
as

who

the

costume.

commentator

"

"

"

editor.
he

had

We

need

been

not

imposed

upon

allusion to this Confession


of it.

with
not
of

He

the
have

1821

tlioynever

would

sink

him.

name
:

of

it for

It is

for in

his

Faith ; he
ever

in the

evident

to

not
sea

that

us

posthumous

'

Life

only omits
of

oblivion.

Malone

subsequently discovered that


word
of
Shakspeare he has not one
all notice
print it,but he suppresses
In 1790
he produced it triumphantly

to

conviction

he

been

poet'sfamily;

the

that it was
genuine; in 1796
of the
composition of any one
of explanation,
documents
well as
as

had

50

the

been.

the

had

'

of

obtained

Confession

but
of

documents

in the
Faith

to

prove

it

posthumous
treated
are
itself,

could

edition
ae

if

BIPQRAPHY,

[_\ill. ge

not

us

when

Lexicon/

pass

over

he went
or

Cuullow.]

P T E II

V.

WOULD.

SCHOOLBOY'S

THE

Let

ul Astun

for
from

whether

time

he

The
was

Shakspereat
young
Short Dictionary forward

the

'

most

drilled in the

'

his school-desk, inquiring


the

to

Eclogues

'

use

of

'

or
Virgil,

of

Cooper's
those of

tion
Of one
good old Mantuan."
thingwe may be well assured, that the instrucvivacious mind,
of the grammar-schoolwas
the rightinstruction for the most
of
the years of
for
him
of slower capacity.To spend a considerable portion
as
not
to waste
them, as
boyhood in the acquirementof Latin and Greek was
modern
illumination would instruct us.
be acquired,
to
accurately
Something was
within
and
the
and completely,
that was
of universal application,
boy's
would
him
of
fit
for
that
The
a
knowledge
acquirement.
particular
power
attained the
chosen course
of life would
after acquirement
be an
; and, having
habit of patientstudy,and
mind
standard
to applyto
established in his own
a
all branches
branch
of knowledge by knowing one
well,he would enter upon
the race
of life without being over-weighted
arts and
with the elements of many
a
nd
intellect to bear easily
sciences,which it belongsonlv to the mature
grace.
the

"

"

51

WILLIAM

SHAKSPERE:

wise instimand to employ to lasting


fully,
profit. Our grammar-schoolswere
tions.
They opened the road to usefulness and honour to the humblest in the
land ; they bestowed
tion
of the peasant the same
advantagesof educaupon the son
the son
of the noble could receive from the most
as
accomplishedteacher in
his father's halls.
Long may they be preservedamongst us in their integrity
;
for
converted
not
cramming
by the meddlings of innovation into lecture-rooms
children with the nomenclature
of every science ; presentinglittle idea even
of the physical
of objects
world beyond that of its beinga vast aggregation
that
world
be
classified
and catalogued
unutterly
leavingthe spiritual
; and
may
estimated
cared for,as a region whose
a
be
cannot
by money
readily
products
value !
is a microcosm
the little world lying
dwelling-place
Every schoolboy's
; but
William
around
Shaksperewas something largerthan that in which boys of our
time for the most
pletely
own
part live. The division of employments had not so comlife
from
with us ; and even
the town
a town
a country life as
separated
the
town
and
the
had
town
amusements,
wonders,
more
occupations,
varietyin
them
than our
of the
own
days of systematicarrangement can present. Much
education
William
of
in the fields. A thousand
Shaksperewas unquestionably
incidental allusions manifest
his familiarity
with
all the external
aspects of
He is very rarely
nature.
called ; but images
a descriptive
so
poet, distinctively
of mead
and grove, of dale and upland,of forest depths,of quietwalks by gentle
native scenery,
reflections
of his own
rivers,
spread themselves without an
effort over
all his writings.All the occupationsof a rural life are glancedat
"

or

"

in his characters.

embodied

hamlet

secluded
with

but

presentedby

are

truthfulness

his

to
eveningflight

He

wreathes

creation

mysteriesof
do

to

appears

the wood

all the

if from

as

an

But

we

may

spontaneous

so

life,that

poet
its

was
"

was

The

in

very
have been

more

intense,and

creation
young

here

seems

ever

that he

man

would
to

was

genialand

wore

to

walked
Shr.k?pere

"

ia

in all other

to

the country
observation.

in which

the

boy-

an

him

of Duncan
We

must

gloryand

image Stratford
in

joy

"

full of

There
exhilarating.

awful.

more

be

images of

seek for the sublime.

but

present.

"

lap

the

All this he

accurate

very
the "green

beetle.
even

liness.
aspect of quietloveits gentlyswelling
its
rich
hills,
pastures,

something

the murder

and

workings.
dental,
appearingso acci-

and

nature

earlyand

they are the accompanimentsof


raised by the poet's
art to
: theyare
passions

in his great dramas,


of human

him

of its

age,

its

not

see

the

peculiarities
rook wing

the sharded

poetry in this,as

itself;we

face of creation

whole

in the heart of
with

the

see

of

circumstance

Looking on its placidstream,


sleepingwoodlands, the external world

repose : it was
has thus ever

His

very
its relations to all external

fitted to
especially

laid."

be

can

the

its foundation

it had

Stratford

in

an

nicest

we

or

Arcadian

chaplets
;
expounded by him.

instinctive power.
of nature
operations

assured, from

be

of

The

given at a touch ;
hear the drowsy hum

gardener'sart

is like the
great essentials,

in Arcadia.

found

are

we

with all the charms

of the field in his delicate

flowers
the

of the lone farm


sports,the festivals,
him

is not

that

in the habits of the lower

nicest

The

the
make
But
as

more

storms

are

terrible storms

the agony
his love of

it was,

Nature

to

see

of Lear

smiling

how

amongst his native fields.

the

Upon

tue

bank

whose

of the Avon,

pathways.

"

the

Its

orchards

mile from

flows beneath

in the time

but needful

lie all around

Its eastern

the town.

of

its grey tower


is a fine old
town
"

length

Henry VIII.,
amidst

with
bridge,

tells of inundations

in

scribed
de-

was

is reflected in the

window

is embowered

of the

oppositeend

wearisome

rise,is placeda scactered town ; a town


very slight
with
and gardens,
loftytrees growing in its

church
splendidcollegiate

lie half

to

river which
At

havinga

dwellingshave

BIOGRAPHY.

loftyelm-rows
a

whose

causeway

the .low pastures that

Barichway Hundred, in
four roads issuing
see
The one
lies throughthe street in
from
the town.
to Henley in Arden, which
which
Shaksperemay be supposed to have passed his boyhood,continues over a
of
breadth and extent, unenclosed
fields undoubtedlyin the sixteenth
valley some
The road
century, with the hamlets of Shotteryand Bishoptonamidst them.
leads into the then woody district of Arden.
At a short distance from it is the
hamlet of Wilmecote, where Mary Arden
miles aside,more
dwelt ; and some
two
in the heart of the woodland
and hard by the river Alne, is the village
district,
which

The
a

rented
with

x\nother

wooded

half

with

on

this old

overhangit,and
meadow
of Ingon

Very beautiful,even

rapid undulations, little dells which shut in


a wide
landscape. Ancient
downs

of the huntsman

hollow,

so

as

its ancient

grandmother

had

and

to

be hidden

church
her

and

which

the

wick.
Warmile

John

the

Shakspere
neighbourhood,

scattered

crab-trees and

sheep,and
hawthorns

rung to the call of the falconer or the


we
are
then, having crossed the ridge,
amongst rich

which

farm-houses

is that to
map
littleaside,some

is this part of

now,

hills openingupon

corn-lands,with
the

indicated

Stratford,is the

tell of uncultivated
horn

road

hills of Welcombe

from

in 1570.
its

sudden

We
look upon
Dugdale'sMap of
is situated,publishedin 1656, and we

Cantlow.

of Aston

and

it.

Stratford

of

have

no

till we

are

upon

its yew-tree
and

date scattered about

modern

as

and

deep

in

of Snitterfield,
it,the old village
ancient.

here it has been

poet'smaternal
his father also
conjectured
Here

the

jointure
;
in the
side of Stratford the third road runs
the opposite
direction of the Avon
of Bidford,with a nearer
to the village
pathway along
the river-bank.
ancient
the
fourth
road
We
the
cross
(which also
bridgeby
and we
to
are
on
our
diverges
Shipston),
way to the celebrated house and estate
with which
of Charlcote, the ancient seat of the Lucys, the Shaksperian
locality
of
which
traditions
of
have
familiar through
most
we
deer-stealing,
persons are
not yet to speak. A
ton
pleasantramble indeed is this to Charlcote and HampLucy, even with glimpsesof the Avon from a turnpike-road.But let the
road run
without
through meadows
hedgerows, with pathways followingthe
river's bank, now
ing
crossdivergingwhen the mill is close upon the stream, now
wooded
elevation,and then suddenlydropping under a precipitous
a leafy
rock, and we have a walk such as poet might covet, and such as Shaksperedid
enjoyin his boy rambles.
Through these pleasantplaceswould the boy William
Shaksperewalk hand in
hand with his father,or wander
free will with his school companions.
at his own
All the simple
The probe familiar to him.
fitable
processes of farming life would
his youthful
embarrass
would
not
mysteriesof modern
agriculture
expe
which compels the
rience.
He
would
witness none
of that anxious
diligence
had

possessions. On

53

WILLIAM

earth to

yielddouble

crops, and

The

of nature.

shakspere:

placeslittlereliance

seed-time

and

the

unassisted

the

upon

tions
opera-

corn-fields,the gather-

in the

harvest

the thin grass on the uplands,


and of the ranker produce of the flooded
would
of the flocks on
the folding
the. hills,the sheep-shearing,
seem

ing-inof
meadows,

dence.
Provibounteous
a
patientwaitingof man
upon
marvel
him
There would be no systematic
rotation of crops to make
at
for
the
cultivator.
the skill of the
saving
adapted
Implements most
skilfully
his
Saxon
of
be unknown
The
rude
of animal labour would
to him.
plough
of sturdy oxen
the
would
be dragged along by a powerful team
ancestors
;
to

him

sound

humble

like the

and

of the flailalone

would

be heard

in the

barn.

him

Around

ever,
would, how-

plenty. The farmer would have abundant stacks,


fail in precariousseasons,
and beeves, and kine, though the supplywould
when
would
his
beer
bake
did
brew
and
his
he
not
regulate
consumption;
price
ryebe fattening
the beech-mast
and the acorns
of the
bread ; his swine would
on
in his garden; the colewort
free wood : his skepsof bees would be numerous
would
sprout from springto winter for his homely meal, and in the fruitful
would present its much
coveted
the strawberry
season
luxury. The old orchard
ties
would be rich with the choicest apples,
graftsfrom the curious monastic varieclimates would
fruits from
southern
be almost
whollyunknown.
; the rarer
There would be no niggardeconomy
defeatingitself; the stock, such as it was,
its improvement
would be of the best, althoughno
Bakewell
had arisen to presideover
gladindications

be the

"

"

Let

carren

For

best

"William

Shakspere would

and

fields would

the

The

barley.
wax

taken

be

the hives

from

the

and

barren

is the

go

busy

apples and

In
bow.

of

the
;

be

shifted

away,

best,whatsoever

pay."

ye

out

with

his father

with

the

of

walnuts

timber

sowing
would

would

be

be

on

Michaelmas

and

rye
then

felled,sawn,

solitaryfields,then, would

stand

the

wheat

and

gathered; honey

and

stacked

soning.
sea-

and

for

birdkeeperwith

winter

his

Tusser
calls
what
the slaughterapproached would come
of sheep and bullocks for home
time," the killing
consumption; the thresher
would
be busy now
and then for the farmer's family,
but the wheat for the baker
would
lie in sheaf.
No
hurryingthen to market for fear of a fall in price;
there is abundance
around, and the time of stint is far off. The simpleroutine
was

As

morning,

white

this

"

"

"

In

spring-timewe rear, we do sow, and we


lest after we
want.
summer
get victuals,

In

harvest

In

In winter

The

of
joyoushospitality

we

to

carry

in corn,

spend, as

Christmas

we

had

ind

need,

the

plant ;

fruit,

of each

suit."*

littlefears that the stock

would

be

maturely
pre-

spent ; and whilst the mighty wood-fire blazed in the hall to the mirth
of song and carol,neighbours
abundfrom house to house to partakeof the ance,
went
and

the

poor

were

fed at the

Tusser, chapter xvi.

same

board

with the

opulent.

I Ibid.,chapterxxiv.

As

the frost

breaks, the labourer

againin

is

understood, but the whole


ture

tended

the

hungry

are

sheep,

in their nests
fallen.
a

is to be

Then

the lambs
strange sight,
in the

milked

hoeingin

taken
the

the ceaseless labour

There

labour

of the

what

to

are

too

to

to

be

destroyed
timber

the

be
are

ewes

horse-

no

be

is

would

us

weed-hook

hemp

bees

be

to

before

their mothers, and

from

housewife's

pieare

to

sown

swarmed

supply
and

still. June

bringsits sheep-washing
where the farmer is captainin the field,
and shearing
; with its haymaking,
siding
prewallets
from the hour when
the dew
is dry to set
the bottles and the
over
Bustle is there now
to the mill," for the streams
of sun.
to get "grist
are
ing,
drybe fed ?
The
harvestand if the meal be wantinghow shall the household
for
out
time comes;
the reapers cry "largess" for their gloves
; the tithe is set
and the cattle have been
Sir Parson ;
and then, after the poor have gleaned,
herbs

be stored

to

are

for the

watched, for there

barked

and,
dairy,

wheel
spinner's

of the

and
be

to

the flax and

are

be

to

crow

are

of the

been

May
simpledays.

the

trees

demands

have

folds.

those

about

yet feathered

the active business

comes

fields,are

the

"

they are

ere

sown

again in
mongrels

now

mastiffs and

"

hedging and ditchingare somewhat


Wth
such agricul
drainageis very rude.
is
sleepas well as the earth. But nature
the
lambs
and
to be carefully
ewes
are
;

his winter

springcorn

again alive ;

fields ;

the

system of

have

to

seems

man

BIOGRAtlxi*.

"

"

turned

in

"

"

mouth

to

In

"

make,

ful

even
spirit

that

would

passionand
loftiest

Tusser

year, which
detail

Shaksperewould

have

When

pastures.

such

and

the

humour

But

that time

human

life and

causes.

had

have

must

work

imaginationmust

in the tempers and

habits of

the

contrasted

would

of

and
injustice

lead

and
quarrels

Small

ambition
;

and

"

"

and
the

him

to

obstinate

doit," of foes who

described
the

were

with

the

of

as

character

which

his

different
operationsin-

most

he

sickness, and

and

yet.
under

every varietyof
The
mankind.
In

his

father's

differences
striking

those

obvious

and

there

enmities,of friends parted "on

empty pridewould

bandry
hus-

amidst

to

even

child.

generosity,
parsimony with extravagance.
and of fidelity.
of uprightness
ingratitude,

bailiff's court

of office

of
operations

materials.

are

wonder,

deep-thoughtedhe

observe

would

their issues"
interjoin

insolence

not

was

with

interest

boy became

humblest

mankind

with

be

bitter

has

earlyexperienceof

some

upon

Cupiditywould
hear

ill understood, and


thingswere
He
would
hear of dearth
through.

has delineated

would
Curiosity

long."

beheld

the

he
amongst his father's neighbours,

home,

He

all harvest-time

merry

many

seek to know

poet who

be

farmer's

and

carried

The

let them

boy

perceivethat

would

fill out

And

the minutest

to

the

corn-fields

native

And

the ancient

was

servants
and all,
inie,harvest-folk,
all together,good cheer in the hall ;
the black bowl
of blythe to their song,

harvest-1

Should

Such

is left,

what

up

grow
"

Tusser,

would

to worry
some
bloated upon

thrust

he

would

learn

dissension

of

offender.

wretched
the

of

tions
distincpettiest

humilityoff

the

causeway.

chapterxlvii.
55

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

while
loyaltyand religion,
the sycophantwho
wore
; and
pious would be suspected
strive to crush the independentin spirit.Much
would

boy

be

would

There

loud

also would

see, but much

would

in the

concealed

be

peacefuland the

the

talk of

livery

the great man's


of this the

observing
generalhollowness that

when
he
periodof inquietudeand change. The time would come
meanwhile
what
but
was
would
upon
penetrate into the depths of these things;
be
there would
be food for thought. At the weekly Market
the surface would
housewife
from
her little
of buyers and sellers. The
the familiar congregation
with
laden
between
her
butter, eggs,
ride in gallantly
would
farm
panniers
would
farmer
stand by his pitched corn,
The
and, as
chickens, and capons.
handled the sample with the intent to purif the poor man
Harrison complains,
chase

belongsto

bushel, the

his humble
The

engrosser,

of many

man

the

according to

declare

sacks would

would
authority,

same

sold.

that it was

there with his understanding

be

against
successfully
evading every statute that could be made
of
best
could
t
he
the
statutes
no
price.
prevail
against power
would
their
stocks
the
and
extensive,
come
There, before shops were
many
for use
and wares
for
dealers from
Birmingham and Coventry,with wares
Sheffield
with
and
and
whittles,
show,
rings
posies.
horse-gear
women-gear,
nod,

because
forestalling,

"

it would

joyous Fair-season
emptied into Stratford ; not

At

the

that

seem

substantial

only the

the

wealth

of

the wine,
things,

malt, the cheese, the clothes,the napery,


their stewards
to the Fairs to buy,* but
every

such

wheat, the wool, the


lords

sent

world

was

the wax,
as

the

great

even

possiblevarietyof

pedler'spack, ribbons, inkles, caddises, coil's,


Great
there
stomachers,
dealingswere
tapes, shoe-ties.
and horses, tedious chafferings,
stout
affirmations,
these occasions in beeves
on
A
rides
into
the Fair
invoked to ratify
a bargain.
saints profanely
mighty man
It is the Queen's Purveyor. The best horses
who scatters consternation around.
taken up for her Majesty'suse, at her Majesty's
price; and they probably
are
such

trumpery

fill the

as

"

pomanders,brooches,

to the
find their way
considerable
profitto

blank
The

but

there is

ivy-bushis at
the

ale and

no

many

sack

morris-dancers, the

of Leicester's

Earl
Master

Purveyor.
There

remedy.
a

door, and

quaffed
jugglerwith

to

are

in

or

the

The

Earl of

Warwick's

is solace,however,

the

stables at

country buyers and

sounds

friendly
greetings.In

his ape, and the


of boys
group

if there is not

of merriment

minstrel

streets

with

redress.

within, as the

are

the

sellers look

there

his ballads.

are

We

to
a
listening
popular
imagine the foremost
barrels'
benches
and
these
heads,"
or
more
cantdbanquiupon
sung by
of the "blind
to some
harpers, or such-like tavern
minstrels,that
one
earnestly
their
for
mirth
the
for a groat ;
matters
most
being
part stories
give a fit of
wick,'
of old time, as 'The Tale of Sir Topas,' Bevis of Southampton,' Guy of WarBell and Clymme of the Clough,'and such other old romances
Adam
or
recreation
for
the
of
historical rhymes, made
the
common
purposely
'f
people.
is full of queer stories and cant phrases,
strikes a few notes
A bold fellow,who
around
him
and the lads and lasses are
ready to dance their
upon his gittern,
can

the

small

"

musics

'

'

'

Household

Seo the Northumberland


i Puttcnham's
5G

'

Art

of

Boole.

Pc3try,'1589.

country

He

measures.

is thus

BIOGRAPHY.

in the year

described

1564, in

by

tract

William

into this hall,in

Kendal
Sir, there is one
come
a green
coat,
Bulleyn:
lately
of
the
the
beard
colour,
russet
same
yellowhose, a
only upon
upper lip; a
hat, with a great plume of strange feathers, and a brave scarf about his neck,
in cut buskins.
he playeth
is playingat the trey-trip
with our
host's son
He
trick upon
Heie de Gie,' and telleth
the gittern,
and dances 'Trenchmore'
and
from
Terra
Florida."
news
Upon this strange sort of indigenoustroubadour
did the schoolboygaze, for he would
to
seem
knowing race
belong to a more
"

with

'

than
of

dwelt

Avon's

on

newstongues, before

story of home

wonders

Parliaments

and

His

side.

news

might

he had

London

seen

beheld

have

Terra

Doubtless

were.

newspapers
;

from

"

Florida"
such

he

as

beheaded,

or

of

had

he could

perhaps;

noble

tells us

an

age

many

tell of

Queens

heretic burnt

he

speak,we may fancy,of the wonders of the sea ; of shipsladen with rich
far from
this inland region; of other ships
merchandize, unloading in havens
rich by the ocean's spoils.
wrecked
made
on
coasts, and poor men
inhospitable
Food
for thought was
there in all these things,seeds of poetry scattered
care
but not wastefully,
in the rich imaginative
soil.
lessly,
could

"

[The Fair.]

The
the

them,
has

Fair is

commonest
are

found

over

the booths

people refuse

packed up
a
ready

again;
market

are

to

the

taken
wear

down

because

the woollen

there

prohibitedfelt hats

amongst

the

is

are

sturdy yeomen,

statute-caps,which

penaltyfor
all sold
who

not

are

wearing
millinery

the

careful
57

to

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

of

fashion

after the

their home-stayingwives
propitiate

husbands

the

Wife

Bath'l

of

"

"

hem

governed

bringen me

To

They

lawe,

well after my

so

full blissful was,

of hem

eche

That

gay

and

fawe

feyre;

thingesfro the

"c.
full glade,"

were

balls; the last

and

his cup

jugglerhas packed up
foughtout :

The

has
cudgel-play

been

"

"

dying

the

Near

will be

There

of the day
cudgel-play,

Where
a

But

the

will be broke,

coxcomb

good

Ere

word

anger

be

can

all

ends

spoke :

Prench'd in ale,or drown'

Morning
to

the

shadow
crowd

of

he

had

which

old

an

voices

yesterday,louder
"

old

The

earned.

once

tion.
only the quietsteps of its native populathat spreadsits broad arms
the walnut-tree
in
not noted
was
pensive,
solitary
man,
; he

under

the bench,
upon
little inn, sits
a

But

d in beer."

hears

Stratford

and

comes,

here,

bolder

and

faces

carried

the

rewards

is poor ; yet is his gown


of Kendal
The
tarnished.
harp laid by his side

man

though somewhat
welcomed
when he was
tells his profession.There was
a time
the bench
upon
starched ruffs,and a chain of pewter as
he might fitly
wear
at every hall,and
suspendedby a green
brightas silver,and have the wrest of his harp jauntily
He
dares
to
enter
times
are
worshipful
scarcelynow
lace.f Those
past.
of
love
short
Fairs
the
or
and
at
or
a
a
houses ;
good fellowship,
men's
song
are
dance
to the gittern,
preferredto his tedious legends. He may now
say
Sheale (who, if his own
chants are deplorwith that luckless minstrel Richard
able
of
Chevy
enough,has the merit of having assisted in the preservation
tattered

not

green

'

Chase'),"
is

There
But

now

That

There
one

two

are

of them

or

"a

he

as

for

name

so

him

on

the

returns

am

the

me

seen

merry
as

talk;

merry

as

hawk

with

phan'siesin my mind,
"nave
according to my kind.'''

merry

satchel

in hand

gazingon

that old minstrel

eye
and

and

boy, and asks


brightens."A
then, with

him

his

name.

"William

rightgood name,"

clear but somewhat

he

"

se a Skottishe
knight,
callydSir Hewe the Mongon-byrry,
the Duglas to the death
was
sawe
dyght
He
spendyd a spear a trusti tre :

all that

Was

He

"

Herri ek.
53

t See Laneham'a

of
description

Shak-

exclaims;

tremulous

sings
"Off

School time is over,


a penny,
goes his way.
is still sunning himself on the ale-bench.
old man

the

soldier:"

have

troubled

play

boys with

three

bestows

the

here

I cannot

boy
to
He
speakscheerfully
spere." The old man's

and

some

all my

and

My audacity is gone,

"

the Minstrel at Kenilworth,

voice,

He

rod

Till he

He

welcome

at

least in

one

old

"

Perse
soare

the poor
house

than

with

bore."

trumpet/' and

he

is not

content

old song of Percy and Douglas." It is


easy
minstrel lingered
about Stratford ; that he had

"

and

that from

time

side with

his syntax.

time

to

unprofitably
employed

not

by

more

of that

was

side

romances

Perse.

mighte tie
spear
thorow
the body he the Perse

the whole

boy
grammar-school
of

of

is moved

imagine,further,that

blane,
lord

good

full

was

suar

Clean

to

archery ;
never

lord

the

dynte, that

With

tillhe has heard

to the

came

set uppone
A

boy'sheart

corsiare

Throughe a hondrith
never
styntyde,nar

He

The

uppon

BIOGEArilY.

in

Could

the memory

treasuring
up
not

that old

the veritable legend of Sir

of the
snatches
tell all

man

Guy, how he wed the fair Phillis,and, all clad in


pilgrim-sort,"
voyaged to the Holy Land, and there slew the giant
grey
and the treacherous
Amarant
did redeem
Knight of Pavye,and how he utterly
from
Danish
the
tribute, by slaying
England
giant Colbrand, and moreover
of
the
and
the cow
of Dunsmore
Northumberland,
dragon
Heath,
destroyed
bones
then might be seen
whose
at Warwick
?
And
had he not viewed
even
the cave
at Guy's Cliff made
hands
of a craggy
out
by the champion's own
rock of stone, where
he long dwelt in poverty, begging his dailybread at his
This legend,
?
deeds done close
indeed, would tell of wondrous
own
castle-gate
would
desire
hand
and
the
at
to see
the famous
castle of
ardently
boy-poet
;
the lady of Sir Guy, having received
Warwick, and the hermit's cave, where
their wedding-ringby a trusty servant, came
in haste, and finding
her sick lord,
"herself closed up his dying eyes." The
minstrel
would
affirm the truth of
believe it all. There was
listener would
this legend; and his young
not only
faith in tradition even
in those days,but there was
boy-faith
amongst worldly
the
could
The
rest
distant
and the past.
men.
confidingly
imagination
upon
Even
in the middle
of the next
trious
century an antiquary,
unequalledfor indusand minute
inquiry,could surrender his belief to the generaltruth of
of Sir Guy: "Of
the history
his particular
adventures, lest what I say should
be suspectedfor fabulous, I will only instance that combat
betwixt
him
and
the Danish
noble Guy the
some
(to magnify our
champion, Colebrand, whom
have
been
The
however
it may
to
whereof,
be
more) report
a
giant.
story
there be those that make
forasmuch
as
a
thought fictitious by some,
question
if
whether
whether
there was
all be not a dream
such a man
ever
so,
really
; or,
which
is reportedof him, in regard that the monks
have
sounded
his
out
considerate
will neither
praisesso hyperbolicallyyet those that are more
"

in

doubt

the

one

the other, inasmuch

nor

for the encouragement


historians,
the

exploitsof worthy

therefore,should
*

Ancient

dust and

ballad

cobweb

we

of

'

of that

with

men

for that

Chevy

Chase

of

cause

'
"

the

as

it hath

been

unto
after-ages

one

usual with

bold

highestencomiums

the
be

so

so

which

conceited

as

to

Sidney describes

attempts,

our

to

ancient
forth

set

imaginable and
explodeit,all history
:

"

as

evil

appareled

uncivil acre."
59

in

th*

WILLIAM

times

of those

SHAKSPEKE

might as

well be villified."* We

minstrel

has

Is the

changed,

are

change

for the better ?


old

the

But

There

was

story of Richard
"

Against whose
The

which

told in

awless

how

homely verse
"

The

bette

the

was

the marvellous.

"

fury and unmatched

force

the

wage

of
altogether

not

fight;" t

"

his

of

simple burst

songs that are


Coeur-de-Lion

lion could not

lyon was

And

There

heroic

hongry and megre,


tayleto be egre."

exultation
patriotic

for the

victoryat Agincourt,

beginning
"

forth to Normandy,
myght of chivalry;
The
God
for him
wrought marvelously,
and
Wherefore
Englonde may calle,
cry
Deo
gratias:
Deo gratiasAnglia redde pro victoria."

"

Owre

kynge

With

grace

went

and

Many a long fitte" had he, which told of doughty deeds of Arthur and his
Sir Bevis, Sir Gawain, Sir Launfal, and Sir Isenbras ; and, after he
chivalry,
wise with
had preludedwith his harp, the minstrel would begineach in stately
"

"

hold

or
you still,"
Hood
tales of Robin

and
Listen, lordlings,

all the merry


we
over
of these were
for many
greenwood or by the

fresh in the memory


Christmas
fire. But

sing without

minstrel

welcomed

was

unclosed

was

made

by

be

to

were

to

true

and
spirited

in his

tear

by

adoptedin
natural

a
generous
shrines of Our

Unto

curtesy I

thee

the

of

Which

fine racy

me

little stond."

from
triplingly

people,and

had

sung in the
he could scarcely

were

which

songs
remembrances

Pass

his tongue,

of

days when the


and the buttery-hatch
abbey-gate,
meal.
They were
songs of pilgrimages
Lady, songs that two centuries after
school of poetry, but one
more
scarcely

herdsman, tell to

Gentle
Of

correct

more

fell

of the
he

to

"

"

"

has

which

eye, for theywere


the porter at the

give him

lovers to

Listen

"

town

is the

me,

pray,

Walsingham
rightand ready way,"

think, than
we
melody about it,pleasanter
"

Turn, gentle hermit

the somewhat

cloying

of the dale."
,

The

minstrel has

departed; but he has left behind him such lore as will be long
cherished by that wondrous
There are many
boy of the Free Grammar-school.
in the works of Shakspereof his familiarity
with old romances
and old
traces
ballads ; but, like all his other acquirements,there is no
reproductionof the
form,
Rowe
fancied that Shakspere's
same
thingunder a new
knowledge of
the learned languages
but small, because
it is without
was
controversy that in
"

60

Dugdale'a'Warwickshire,page

299.

| King John, Act

i.

Scene

i,

his

works

we

find

scarce

ancients."

the

his
his

It

invention

minute

critic,

in

vigour,

very

Shakspere's

moral
of

of

in

in

the

old

nations

author

it

as

gives

he

entered

to

bard,

quitting

the

of

that

ballad

to

have

been

into

the

in

the

an

credit

Englishman

of

of

of

of
and
;

the

Shakspere.

old

of

his

being
we

English

the

may

high,

something

the

which

he

impartiality
both

represents
on

smaller
believe
^triotism.

ancient

more

generous

tale

and
which

courage,

reflection

reproachful

any

ingredient

speaking
observe

the

knowledge

the

admired

out

of

pedantry

his
the

stood

poetry

and

popular
which

conclusion

the

an

patriotism

also

may

"

without

nation

Percy,

"One

when
field

was

in

not

something

was

most

were

to

misfortune.

says

There

people.

which

love

spere
Shak-

simplicity,

drawling

the

kept

ciated
unappre-

is

lore

ballad

gold,

which

The

the
the

to

ballads

the

those

countrymen

own

contrast

belonged

they

original

his

of

in

of

the

English

with

there.

and

thus

and

lore

ject
sub-

to

and

the

That

is

spirit
power,

The

stage.

were

of

knowledge

unknown

boyhood.

its

in

set

traditionary

very

dramatic

hearts

Chase,'

Chevy

'

his

Shakspere
his

substance

jewels

they
the

but

for
that

so

entire

imitation

an

of

remarkable

respected

which

truth,
of

the

told

demonstratively

ballad

in

tolerant,

and

from

shape,

essential

early

the

poetry

generous,

loved

the

boyhood

plays
real

familiar

palpable

pathos,

So

like

was

thought,

and

because

poet.

been

any

the

are

It

classical

the

there,

uneducated

have

must

writings

power

find

to

not

of

perfect

one

looks

that

imitate.

to

men

original

desires

they

the

by

his
become

who

that

inferior

for

anything

of

traces

any

to

should

proclaims

in

is

knowledge

BIOGRAF/IT.

either
;

number."
this
At

though
The

"

any

tial^"
imparrate

fg^ll

[The

Boundary

F.lm, Str.af.jrd.]

VI.

CHAPTER

HOLIDAYS.

is

It

general holiday
at

Westminster

courts
as

move

of

the

Stratford.

at
or

at

Palace

procession

in

their

richest

the

walls

of

terrible

the

the

advances

Sovereign glitter in

It

Windsor.
;

gorgeously

on

in

from

liveries.*

Chapel

of

See

St.

At
the

Nichols's

robes

the

Holy

neck

there

with

There

Knights
is

of

the

humbler

was

spear

the

high feasting
the

of

'Progresses of Elizabeth,' vol. i.,p.

Guard

the

Litany
Heralds
and

close

pageantry.

he

outward

the

Garter

the

round

Upon

painting of

wondrous
but

in

Chapel
of

is

is

chants

her

to

Shakspere

strewn

solemn

Yeomen

the

there

Cross

William

are

Hall
the

Stratford

the

rushes

Queen's

the

of

George's day.

lift up

coat-armour

velvet

birthday

green

choristers

their

their

is

The

dragon pierced through

C2

the

twenty-thirdof April, and

the

has

snapped

the

BIOGRAPHY.

in two with his fearful talons,and a gallant


knight in complete armour
weapon
he bestrides rushes upon
his sword, whilst the bold horse which
is uplifting
his

with

the monster

pointedchampfrein *
:

in

the

background is

crowned

king and queen watching the


of
the deliveryof the Princess
This story of Saint George and
combat.
the
of
wont
to
Silene from the power of the dragon was,
on
twenty-third April,
the altar of Saint George was
From
be dramatized
at Stratford.
annually
ancient suit of harness, which
taken down
was
an
duly scoured and repaired
;
also
which
had
o
f
and from some
storehouse was
produced the figure a dragon,
all needful
annual
sturdy labourer was
reparation.Upon the back of some
had
bear the dragon, into
the harness
to
fitted,and another powerful man
of the town
doubt entered.
whose body he no
Then, all the dignitaries
being
amidst
the
the
march
did
Saint
and
along,
duly assembled,
Dragon
George
ringingof bells and the firingof chambers, and the shout of the patriotic
Here is the simplestof dramatic
of
Saint George for England."f
population
series
of
exhibitions,presented
through a
years to the observingeyes of a boy
in whom
incident,
of going out of himself to portray some
the dramatic
power
be developed and
with incomparabletruth, was
to
or
character, or passion,
looked
that rude
As
he
matured
in the growth of his poetical
faculty.
upon
conceived
the capability
of a familiar legend he may first have
representation
of exhibiting
to the eye
a
moving pictureof events, and of informingit with
of
dramatic
life by appropriate
spirit
dialogue. But in truth the essentially
into the popular mind ; and
the ancient church
had infused itself thoroughly
of the ecclesiastical
most
had
thus, long after the Reformation
swept away
of
held to belong to the superstitions
ceremonials that were
Popery,the people
festivals ; and
retained this principle
of personationin their common
many
and the matron,
the maiden
the occasions in which the boy and the man,
were
mental
and
called upon
to
enact
were
some
bodilyactivity
part, in which
of
readiness
in which
something of grace and even
might be required
;
might be called forth; in which a free but good-temperedwit might
dignity
mellow voice,
command
the applauseof uncritical listeners ; and
sweet
or
a
receive the exhilarating
nation's songs, would
homage of a
pouring forth our
will supLet
follow the boy William
we
us
now,
Shakspere,
jocund chorus.
pose,
of
the
annual
course
ten or eleven
some
principal
years old, through the
and the
rustic holidays,
in which
and the peasant, the tradesman
the yeoman
artisan,with their wives and children,were
equallyready to partake. We
matic
not
onlythose peculiarforms of a dramay discover in these familiar scenes
tion
in real manners
which
degree have givena direcspirit
might in some
that poetical
his genius,
is perhapsof greater importance,
to
but, what
and
of imagery
lifewhich was
to supplymaterials of thought
aspect of common
lady with

lamb

and

distant

on

towers

"

The

t
the

It

horse's head, with

long projectingspike,so

as

to

make

the horse

semble
re-

unicorn.

appears

Guild

counts

for the

armour
an

show

that

from

accounts

which

on
given in fac-siniile in Fisher's 'Work
VIII.
the
in
of
Henry
reign
place

are

this processionrepeatedlytook

that it

was

continued

as

late

as

the

Chapol of

; and

1579.
63

other

ao

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

him

to

who

in the

become

to

was

"

degree the poet

eminent

most

of

humanity

In all its imaginative


relations.
man
opening year calls the husbandwith
its
plough dragged along
Plough Monday,
;
to rustic music, and its sword-dance, proclaimsthat wassail must
give place to
removed
work.
The rosemary
and the bays,the misletoe and the holly,are
twined
into
from the porch and the hall,and the delicate leaves of the box are
the domestic garland.* The Vigilof Saint Agnes has rewarded
or
disappointed
maiden.
The
the fateful charm
of the village
husbandman
has noted whether
Saint Paul's day
be fair and clear," to guidehis presages of the year'sfertility.
the day of
has been searched
on
Cupid's Kalendere
Seynte Valentine," as
Lydgate tells. The old English chorus, which Shakspere himself has preserved,
has been dulysung
The

festivitiesof Christmas

again to his labours

are

The

over.

and

"

'

'

"

"

"

'Tis merry
And

is come,

ball,when

beards wag
Sbrove-tide."

merry

all,

solemnity. The ashes wrere no longerblessed at


the palms borne
at the close ; yet there was
nor
strong
devotion
in the reformed
real penitenceand serious contemplation.
church
But the day of gladness
arrives
the great eye of the natural
a joy which
even
world
make
manifest.
there
beautiful
to
was
was
Surely
something exquisitely
in the old custom
of going forth into the fields before the sun
had risen on
him mounting over
the hills with a tremulous
to see
motion, as if
Easter-day,
it were
animate
in
with
the redeemed
of manan
kind.
thingbounding
sympathy
The young poet might have joinedhis simpleneighbourson
this cheerful
shall not, I
We
morning, and yet have thought with Sir Thomas
Browne,
t
he
Resurrection
of
Redeemer
if we
doth
our
hope,disparage
say that the sun
dance on Easter-day." But one
not
of the most
his
of
of
one
glorious
images
to the sun
earlyplayshas givenlife and movement

Easter
the

after

in

welcome

of

season

beginningof Lent,

"

"

"

"

Nigbt's candles
tiptoeon

Saw

he

not

belief that

the
the

the

road

he

he

as

out, ami jocund day


misty mountain's topa."

tbe

heard

danced"

sun

of
earlytwilight
On

dance"

sun

burnt

are

Stands

"

the

not

expressionof

the

undoubting

forth into Stratford meadows

went

in the

?
Easter-day
about
Henley-in-Arden,

to

three hundred
two
or
yardsfrom the
Henley Street where John Shakspere
once
dwelt, there stood, when this
Biographywas firstwritten, a very ancient boundary-tree an elm which is recorded
house

in

"

in

Presentment

the 7th of

on

The

of the Perambulation

April,1591,

boundary from

"the

two

elms

this day. At

that elm

in Evesham

Herrick.
61

"The

as

Elme

in the

Henley road
highway." Such are

period,then, when

t:= attend the annual

of the boundaries

it

was

of the

continued

came
original

usual for the

into tbe

in another

the boundaries of the

the

ford,
Strat-

end."f

direction to

borough at

boys of Grammar

perambulationsin Rogation-week of
Tbe

Borough of

at the Dovehouse-Close

the
clergy,

Schools
ma"ns-

possessionof R. Wheler, Esq., of Stratford.

tratesand publicofficers,and
There

bailiff and

be

carried

this Dovehouse-

might

Close

by

the

Doge

domination

of

would

psalm

traced

would

the

wave,

Under

young.
be one,

passage

With

sung.

espouse
Republic,but not

Stratford

people of

old and

Venice

of

the

and
parishpriest,

Banners

Elm

collect recited, a

the

the churchwardens.

would

read,

assembled

be

would

towns,* would

inhabitants,of parishesand

the

this oid

under
Shaksperebe found, in gleefulcompanionship,

William
elm.

BIOGRAPHY.

Sea

the
with

boundaries

more

more

in

the

boundary

schoolmaster, the

poles crowned with garlands


of which
each
Gospel-tree,
from
Scripturewould be
the

at

pomp

testimony
heartfelt

of

joy

perpetual
these

than

of their little sway.

season

same

the

the

tion
Reforma-

The

processions.In the 7th year of Elizabeth (1565)


parochial
was
the form
of devotion
for the
prescribed,
Rogation days of Procession
and it was
without addition of any superstitious
ceremonies heretofore used ;
the
shall admonish
subsequentlyordered that the curate on such occasions
peopleto givethanks to God in the beholdingof God's benefits,"and enforce
their neighbours'
the
denouncements
scriptural
againstthose who removed
Hooker
described
how
has Walton
landmarks.
encouraged these
Beautifully
omit the customary time of proannual ceremonials
He would by no means
:
cession,
of
desired
the
both
rich
if
and
preservation
all,
they
persuading
poor,
in
his
him
love and their parishrights
and liberties,to accompany
tion
perambulawould
he
did
in
which
and
most
usually
so
:
express more
perambulation
;
then always drop some
discourse than at other times, and would
loving
pleasant
the
next
and facetious observations,to be remembered
especially
against
year,
people; still incliningthem, and all his present
by the boys and young
love thinks
and love, because
kindnesses
and mutual
to meekness
parishioners,
to
And
multitude
of infirmities."
not
listening
evil,but covers
a
so, perhaps,
spere
Shakthe young
venerable Hooker
of his time, would
the gentlewords of some
walk the bounds
of his native parish. One
day would not suffice to visit
differences
its numerous
Gospel-trees.Hours would be spent in reconciling
the
to
fields ; in largesses
poor ; in
amongst the cultivators of the common
A wide parishis this of Stratford,
at convenient
halting-places.
merry-making
varied
and
district of beautiful
and
hamlets.
A
includingeleven villages
wood
and water.
Followingthe Avon
scenery is this parish hill and valley,
two
miles, the processionists
the stream, for some
upon the north bank, against
left us

these

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

would

walk

through low

and

little brook

falls into the

likelihood.

uplands of

Ingon, where, in

attests

fertile meadows,

spiteof

unenclosed

river, coming

modern

pastures then
down

improvement,

from
the

the

in

all

marshy

frequent bog

is traced upwards
brook
The
+
of Dugdale'sdescription.
accuracy
then for nearlythree miles from Welcombe
hills of Welcombe
; and

the

into the

passing
ridge,opening prospects of surboundary lies along a wooded
beauty. There may the distant spiresof Coventry be seen peeping
of Warwick
towers
above the intermediate
lyingcradled
hills,and the nearer
In another
direction a cloud-like spot in the
in their surroundingwoods.

Greenhill

the

"

See Brand's

'

by
Popular Antiquities,'
t

Liie.

See

Sir H.

Ellis,edit. 1841, vol. i.,p. 123.

p. 29.

65

WILLIAM

hills of

noble

the

lock-in

far-famed

is the

distance

extreme

Bredon-hill

looks

side

another

down

then

and

now

and

while

the vale of

upon

with
unrivalled fertility,

Wrekin

outlines.

in

The

distance

All around

is

considerable

are

Cotswolds

middle

the

Evesham.

plainof

the north-west

turning to

their well-defined

with

Malvern,

landscapeon

the

SIIAKSPEKE

country of

extent

the bold

but

more

vated.
but all cultiwood-crowned,
undulatinghills,some
commonly a
At the northern
extremityof this high land, which principally
belongs
which
and
doubtless
in
of Clopton,
was
to the
estate
a
park
earlytimes, we
in which
Stratford lies,with its hamlets
of
have a panoramicview of the valley
and
Drayton. As the marvellous boy
Bishopton,Little Wilmecote, Shottery,
that plain,
how little could
of the Stratford grammar-schoolthen looked upon
succession

he have

foreseen

he
to

was

be

the

an

almost

in
definite

untrodden

but in

Stratford, and

own

of

the

the

earlytomb

an

For

twenty years

affections.

would

He

his native

of his
town

but it

and

fame
gathering

be

hood
man-

lence
opu-

path,of which his young ambition could shape no


to bringhis wealth to his
prime of his life he was
the proprietor
cultivator of some
and the contented

become

fields that

loved

while, and

of his

life !

in that
dwelling-place

constant

no

home

image ;

of his future

course

have

to

was

the

of

he

now

under

mapped

saw

that grey tower

out

tomb

"

Then,

his feet.

at

to

so

be

little
in

honoured

all ages to come,


That

"

For

six miles

some

land which
Wild

the

such

Moor.

would

tomb

boundary runs

formerlybarren, and

was

wish

from

still known

north
as

to die."

to

south,

Drayton

partlythrough
and
ton
Dray-

Bushes

Here,
"

The

kingsfor

bank

Far

her nest

the

lapwing cries away."

of the
extremity
again reached at the western
old
with
its
and
trees
Luddington,
cottages
Avon
where
The
is crossed
standinghigh above the river sedges,is included.
the Stour unites with it ; and
the boundary extends
east,
the southto
considerably
the
to
town
Where
over
returning
once
were
Clopton'sBridge.
quiet
the Stratford Railway for the
coal
and
of
pastures there is now
conveyance
corn
of by the perambulators. But
a
there is a greater
thing undreamt
marvel of modern
science associated with the name
of Shakspere. Thn cliff at
green

boundary,and

of the

from

Avon

is

the pretty hamlet

of

"

Dover, whose

base

inaccessible except to

was

"

is

years, and

shingleand

lantern
will be
who
and

fishermen

piercedthrough by

now

with

The

amongst
the

the

arches

the

tunnel

of the

sea-weed, and
its rubbish.

that walk

tunnel

beach,"

railway. A

may

be

few

sand
centuries,a thou-

fallen in, its mouth

solitary
antiquarian
poking with

some

But

of

the

upon

the

memorable

rock

itself will be

unchanged

choked
his small
;

and

so

of
its high and bendinghead."
And
he
description
and
the
awful
turmoil
of
human
description, painted
passion
miseryassociated with that rock, is at the time of which we speak a happy
wrote

G5

"

that

Comedy

of Errors.

Stratford

schoolboyat

perhaps,with
joyful,

kind

word

to liimself at the recollection of

good

vicar.

All

the

his honest

his parishwith
perambulating

BIOGRAPHY.

"

from

two

or
some

where

group,
William

their honours

are

made

; and smiling
great esquire
"

facetious observations

lovingand

of that

rest

the

father

of the
?

now

It is

Shakspere was
somethingto know that when
years old, Henry
of the
William
the
and
vicar
of
Stratford,
was
Clopton
Heycroft
great man
parish. If they bestowed kindness upon that boy,as upon other boys ; if they
cherished
differences ; if they walked
the poor ; if they reconciled
humbly in
has
their generation,they have
their reward, though the world
forgotten
twelve

"

them.
mile from Stratford.
the prettiest
of hamlets, is scarcely
Here,
a
Shottery,
ence
in all probability,
dwelt one
who
in a few years was
to have an
importantinfluof the boy-poet. A Court Roll of the 34th Henry VIII.
upon the destiny
stantial
(1543) shows us that John Hathaway then resided at Shottery;and the subseveral
into
tages,
cotdivided
house
which
the Hathaways possessed,
now
remained
with their descendants
till the very recent
period of 1838.
of
There were
of Stratford, contemporaries
in the town
Hathaways,also, living
John
that Anne
cannot
Shakspere. We
Hathaway, the future
say, absolutely,
of maidens
wife of William
(for
Shakspere,was of Shottery; but the prettiest
tradition
she
is
that
the veracious antiquarian
there
was
a
eminently
Oldys says
Tieck
has
of hamlets.
beautiful)would have fitlydwelt in the pleasantest
written an
the
subjectof
agreeablenovelet, 'The Festival at Kenilworth,' on
He
another
the same
to
on
subject, Poet-Life.'
Shakspere introductory
harsh
and
to
think, John
we
makes, somewhat
Shaksperemorose
unnecessarily
William
his
that
obtain
consent
his boy ; and he bringsin Anne
to
Hathaway
took the graceful
shall go to Kenilworth
Anne
:
youth in her arms, and said,
know
William
is my
sweetheart, and
Father
Shakspere,you
laughingly,
belongsas much to me as to you ; we have promisedone another long ago, and
*

"

"

'

if I go

Kenilworth

to

ashamed, from

the

Cease, Anne

bear this

I cannot

scene,

the

of a
playfulfriendship
years younger, might grow
intercourse

William

must

arms

you know
is verisimilitude in this
'

go with me.'
of the mischievous

he

truth

if not

into

their

between

and

maiden

handsome

said,with great feeling,

and
girl,

too

am

for

young

it is easy to

for

himself, half-

withdrew

you/

"

There

comprehendhow

seven
interesting
boy, some
with
neighbourly
Assuredly,
be
would
at
Shakspere

an

dangerous affection.
families,William

Shottery,
"

FAid indeed, to be
was

"

just to

To

do observance

the

to

morn

of

May;

maidens

youthsanu

"*

Stratford and

of

Shotten

it
,

"

impossible
"

On

Pass

the

back

hereafter

have

of the cottage in which


to

F2

To

make

them

sleep

May-day moruiug." f

speak)and

enter

the

Hathaways dwelt (of which

that beautiful

Midaummer-Niglit's Dream.

meadow

which

we

shall

rises into

Henry VIII
67

SHAKSPER":

WILLIAM

gentleeminence
hedges,and

the

hamlet

here

the

fittestof

is there
is

impatientgroup

his

casts

sun

commanding

distant sound

not

"

Around

sacrifice.

hark

! I hear
morris
the

morris

use.

in

watchet-coloured

not

Maid

us

tells."

Marian

and

is there

"

Hood

but she is
flowers

and

not

May-pole

great,however,

so

of

as

and

their sheaves

tunic,with

forthcoming

shouts

Little John, in their grassof arrows


for show
more
are

mockery

"

coronets, and

smooth-faced
a

youth
but
mincing gait,

who
shepherdess

the

"With
the

"Was made

There

is the

bells,

far hence

foresters in green tunics.


Amidst
the
leapingand clappingits hands, is the

their bows

but

green
than

ing
morn-

the dancing,
prancing ;

and
old, childhood
young
raised.
But there are
great personages
There
Robin
ancient times.
in more
are
tunics

green.

There

"

and
kirtles,

in blue

maidens

elms, for the

old

that

An

leafyArden are thoy bringingin the May-pole. The oxen


the ponderous wain : they are
garlanded,but not for the
the pipersand the dancers
the spoilof the forest are

of the

slowlywith

the

the

"

nimble

bagpipe and
they are not

The
That

move

bagpipe:

Hark,

And

out

several

gatheredunder the shade of


beams
across
dazzlingly
slanting

of tabor and

From

points. Throw down


localities for the May-games ?

at

is farce amidst

lady of

the

garlands gay
May." f

the

pastoral.The age of unrealities has alreadyin part


arrived.
Even amongst country-folks
there is burlesque. There is personation,
with a laugh at the thingsthat are
represented. The Hobby-horse and the
their
shouts
of merriment.
But
the heartyMorris
Dragon, however, produce
dancers soon
of genialmirth
all the spectators. The
amidst
spreada spirit
-

clownish

Maid

Marian

will
"

Friar

Tuck

sneaks

now

Caper upright like


from

wild Morisco

"

companions to joinhands with some


undisguisedmaiden ; the Hobby-horse gets rid of pasteboardand his footcloth ; and the Dragon quietlydepositshis neck and tail for another
season.
like
the
chorus
is
of
Will
and
'Summer's
Last
Testament'
Something
genial
rung

out

away

his ancient

"

"

Trip
Up and
From
Two
A

go, heave

down,

the
and

ho,
fro,

to the

town

two,

and

to and

let

us

grove,

rove,

Maying,a playing;

Love
So

and

hath

no
gainsaying:
merrily tripand go."

The

still sees
the villagers
moon
on
early-rising
Piper leans againstthe May-pole; the featliest
music

that green
of dancers

of

still swim

"

Weelkes's
\

68

Nicholas

Breton,

1600.
Madrigals,
% Heray VI,

Part

Shottery. The

II.

to

his

JJTOGUAPHY

"

Piper stand

Tom

"

Set in
Built

was

not

Browne's

the

upon

The

"

our

golden age of poetry


youngsters"by

"

merry

the

with

When

envious

maidens

night commands

that

the

to the

jocund swains

bagpipe'sstrains,
them

to be

gone."f

Hathaway might have been the Lady of the


she bestowed
the enthusiastic boy upon whom
a
might have cherished that giftwith a gratitude

Anne

that

"

"

roses

for his peace.


'

haa

lady of the May

May-pole, whore

the

by

Dance

May of Shottery; and


garlandinterwove with
that

last of

the

arbour, (on a holy-day,)

an

believe

to

crew

of

one

"

bestowed
partinggifts

the

It is easy

him."

around

writer

beautiful

same

described

B^n

circularlythrew

gentle motion

Themselves

The

villagegreen,
with the May-pole, whilst a jocund

Back'd
In

have

So

our

upon

Britannia's

Pastorals/Book

Second
ii.,

Song

f Book

i\VV

'"

.v

J.-'"c

\-

[ShottOy.]

Fourth
ii.,

Song.

WTT.TJAM

SHAKSPERE

in the neighbourhoodof Stratford have been characterized in


Eightvillages
had
the talent of rhyme. It is
old resident who
lines by some
well-known
these
this day with
to
familiar all the country-people
are
remarkable
how
they ascribe them to Shakspere:
lines,and how invariably
"

"

Piping Febworth, dancing Marston,


Hillborough,hungry Grafton,
Exhall,Papist Wicksford,
Dudging
Haunted

is maintained

It

and

given

sensible

epithetshave

these

place the

must

we

so

that

of

account

of

scene

such

Bidford."

drunken

and

Beggarly Broom,

real historical trulh about

Whitsun-Ale

festivity

"

"

at

There

Bidford.
were

no

St. Michael

in my grandfather's
days; but for Kingston
In
did the business.
Whitsuntide
Church-Ale
of
the

poor

them

Aubrey

has

for the

rates

(no small

parish)

every parishis,or

was,

crocks, "c, utensils for dressingprovision.


belongedspits,
their
and
and were
Here
the housekeepersmet
charity.
merry,
gave
at
and
had
The
there,
dancing,bowling,shooting butts,
too,
peoplewere
young
All thingswere
civil,and
"c, the ancients sitting
gravelyby, and lookingon.
took
Stubbes
view
of
the
The puritan
without scandal." f
matter
severe
a more
certain
In
drunken
Bacchus
where
bears
towns
than Aubrey'sgrandfather
:
other time, the
and
Easter, Whitsuntide, or
some
againstChristmas
sway,
with the consent
of the whole
of every parish,
churchwardens
parish,provide
of
whereof
half a score
malt,
some
or
theybuy of the churchtwenty quarters
is given them of the parishioners
themselves, every one
stock,and some
ferring
coninto very
malt, being made
somewhat, accordingto his ability
; which
either
in
is
the
church
other
ale
set
to
beer,
sale,
or
some
or
placeassigned
strong
church-house,

to

which

"

"

that purpose,
soonest
to it,and
to

this is set

Then, when

spend

the

most

at

abroach, well

it." I

is he

that

can

get the

Carew, the historian of Cornwall

visit one
at those times
another,
(1G02), says, "The
neighbourparishes
lovingly
their
Thus
and this way frankly
together."
lovingly
might John
spend
money

Shakspere and his friends on a Whit-Monday morning have ridden by the


littleeminence
from some
now
beholdingtheir Avon
pleasantroad to Bidford
side and a wood-crowned
the
on
one
flowingamidst a low meadow
steep on
dam
other, turning a mill-wheel, rushing over
a
now
wending their
carefully
road
under
the
the
the free downs,
hill,or galloping
over
rough
way through
from
and
And
Icknield
rut
then
Street " is
the
to
quagmire.
glad
escape
the little town
with its gabled roofs ; and
crossed, and theylook down
upon
old
whose
tower
church,
givesforth a lustypeal; and the hostel
theypass the
there is the cordial welcome, the outstretched
at the bridgereceives them
; and
"

"

hand
But

and

the full cup.

nearer

home

attractive for William

Whitsuntide

Shakspere.

"| Miscellanies.

" The
70

has

its sports also

Had

not

Stratford

these will be

and
its

"

Lord

Sulky, stubborn,in dudgeon.


J Anatomy of Abuses, 1585.

Roman

way

which

runs

near

Bidford.

more

of Whitsun-

t_\SidfordBridge.]

tide?"

the

Might

freedom

like his

boy

behold

not

Perdita ?

own

In

Would

there

not

play

Whitsmi

be

such
representation,
page ?

in

flowers

your

them

seen

cheerful

some

his

face of

do

When

all

Julia

mansion
described

has

simple attempt

in

her

assumed

dramatic

at

character

nf

"

served

if the

As

me

had

Madam,

Certainlyon
Gower

Troilus

and

that

Creseide

me

height.

my

a-good,

weep

part

f
unjust flight."

perjury and

one

would

be

fragmentof

"

It hath

Tale, Act

been

ember

of poetry would

Winter's

judgments,
for

the

ready
'

to

recite

Confessio

tale

moving

Amantis

'

or

of

the

"

On

"

her

;
;

'

"

elements

made

gown

Ariadne, passioning

was

Chaucer

all men's

lamentable

holidaysome

from

or

't

Theseus'

For

part

Julia's

been

I mado

time

play

womau's

she is about

f herefore, I know
/I.nd at that

the

fit,in

as

play'd,

delight were

in madam

garment

F'or I did

Pentecost,
of

play

to

me

trimm'd

was

Which

At

pageants

our

youth got

And

The

wearinga

pastorals."

as

Our

'

take

Come,

I have

as

"

from

innocence

season

"

"

Methiuks,

this

at

iv., Scene

be

in.

at

sung

eves,

and

around

festivals,
J
holy-ales."

him

Two

the dramatic

Gentlemen

; I'ei ides, Act

of

Verona,

of
spirit
Act

the

iv., Sc.

J.

71

in.

people

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

would

be

to give utterance
struggling

and
thoughts,

its

to

cherish the desire to lend it a

sheep-shearingthat, too, is dramatic.


:
poet, has described the shepherd-king
The

then

even

he

might

voice.
of

Drayton,the countryman

"

our

"

to tell Low

But, Muae, return

"

there

that

chanc'd

flock hath

Whose

baldric sits at his low

In his gay

shepherd-king,

the

the earliest lamb

year

bring,

to

board,

grassy

With
flawns,curds, clouted cream, and country dainties stor'd
And, whilst the bagpipe plays,each lustyjocund swain

Quaffs syllabubsin
to their

And

"

there

are

the

have

we

the

amidst

the

pryingobservation

of

His

man

the cost

"counters"

of the

feast.
sheep-shearing

have

the

Cheese-cakes

currants.

true
absolutely

sing her

At

upper

On

his

dita

but such

brightvision is
The

to each

"

mistress

something

pound

dramatic

propriety,

swain

would

of rice and

one

her

o'

but

"a

to

quench

the

it

same

hand

could

unite the

Shakspere might have had some


feast,"who might have suggested his Per-

higherelements
than

here

face o' fire

thing she took


sip."

the

all

now

queen

than those of the earth.


of curds and

Such

cream."

says
with a hymn ;
pierceyour mistress'
her home with music,"f
Diana

Come, ho, and

wake

With

touches

And

ana

delicacies.
sheep-shearing

i' the middle

paintingof a Teniers ;
of a Correggio. William

more

"

sweetest
draw

Polyolbiou,Song XIV,
72

his

the

; and

labour

her turn

dance

table, now

shoulder,and

creation is of

poet who

"

song,

o' the

end

and

literal

grace
of

these

will this sister

the firstmention

the

Surely

town,

"Three

and

"

She would

boyish dreams

at

warden-pieswere
:
picture
following

is the

With

unrivalled

in his mouth

the

Warwickshire

and

Would

is the

might,with

the clown

Fie,daughter ! when my old wife liv'd,upon


both pantler,butler,cook ;
This day she was
and servant
Both
dame
: welcom'd
all,seiVd

"

This

then he asks, "What

and

; but
sheep-shearing

of cheese-cakes

flavour

the

How

of rice at

use

to

messenger

details.

suppliedall

might

"

know

such

have

the keen

upon

have

might

of circumstance

that it must

be

"

of the most

minuteness
shows

interested with

the

One

in which
sheep-shearing,

in all likelihood

his father's homestead

father's

upon
of sugar, five pound of currants, rice"
of mine do with rice ?
In Bohemia,
not

of the

is that

boy occupiedand

his father's pastures and

reckon

Tale

observation,and

actual

upon

circumstances.

Stratford.

above

poeticalshepherd-gwen. There is a
which
exquisite
poetry of this scene

more

founded

been

miles

two

Winter's

of the

scenes

wear,

bear."

rest the burden

of

scene

washing may
of Alveston, about
pretty village
delicious

plain;
they do

nosegays

Drayton'ssheep-shearing.But higherup
rich pastures; and shallow bays of the clear river, where
the
be accomplished. Such
a
bay, so used, is there near
is the

vale of Evesham

the Avon

the

roundelays do sing,

Some

The

whose
girls,

country

the

to all upon

cans

Merchant

ear,

of

Venice, Act

v., Scene

I,

BIOGRAPHY.

had

the

seen

Hentzner

Hock-Cart
Windsor

at

saw

happened to

of the
in

old

harvest-home.
"As

1598:

we

It

the

was

returningto

were

that Paul

same

inn

our

we

their Harvest-home.
Their
country-people
celebrating
last load of corn
with
besides
flowers, having
an
they crown
richly
image
would
Ceres.
This
dressed, by which
perhaps they
signify
they keep moving
and
and
about, while men
men
maid-servants, ridingthrough the
women,
in the cart, shout as loud as they can
streets
till they arrive at the barn."
In
the reign of James
made
of
I.,Moresin, another foreigner,
a
saw
corn
figure
drawn
in a cart, with men
home
and women
singingto the pipe and the drum.
And
then Puritanism
tell us
of the heart
that all such
to
arose,
expressions
and superstitious,
of the Evil One.
relics of Popery,abominations
were
pagan
Robert
of the Hock
Herrick, full of the old poetical
feeling,
sung the glories
Cart in the time of Charles
I. : but a severe
therefore
and
unwise
an
religion,
all such
denounced
festivals as the causes
of debauchery; and
the
so
one,
with
The
music
and
the
us.
debauchery alone remained
dancing were
meet

banished, but
of

for

the

the

Hock-Cart

of

makes

heart

in the

the
it grew

and

came,

to

to

faith.

And

be

made

what

are

we

money-getter
to

into

forgethis
the

crowded
amidst

the

eye,
doe

the

overhangingthe

cathedral

lived

upon

the

seasons

frosts cheerful.

principle.But

all the
"

we

Assuredly
spirit
;

the

when

the

citywhen
old

monials
cere-

it hallowed

And

thus

formalists

without

devout

visible world,

the
so

cloister of the

feelingbecame

to

rocks

monies
cere-

off the

the

tear

of flowers,in the

harvest, and

the

by

Devotion

and
authority,

and

with

associated
akin

and

requiredmen

tradition
rejecting

of man,

one

Religion. The

into

form

brings a

the

in silent forests where

impulse.
by
it waited
long antiquity
;

shout

seed-time

which

bosom,

goes like the breath

from

derived

againstthe

enforces

pennilesslabourer

the

is that

that

us

devotion."

great

natures

mountains, in the

the

and

comes
organ-peal
multitudes
joyous

gain, and

tells

worldlyshackles

the

dry

the unaccustomed

of

gorge

knocks

and

Devotion

throb

fearlessly
upon

gazes
sea,

the

which

forego his

to

toil.
hunger-satisfying
and

performed "with

hard

our

Herrick

left.

were

were

is that

spark out

moment

strong drinks

Devotion

theywere.
strikes

some

the

have
to
faith,
imagination
;
love
of
and
rence
revegenialimpulses
of
which
is
life,
practical
poetry

and

are,

not

what

God

would

have

us

be.
have

retained

eatingfor

all ages,

We

relations meet

Christmas
and

Christmas
starveling

Twelfth-cake

Christmas

for the
that

one

children.

for

It

day of excessive
is something that

in the

one
day
-day;
year the outward
visible
that
the
cousin
not
are
;
jealousy
puts on his
poor
host of the same
best coat to taste port with his condescending
name
; that the
have
annual
nieces
their
from
their
But
guinea
portionless
wealthy aunt.
where
is the real festive exhilaration of Christmas
the
all
ranks
of
;
meeting
children of a common
father ; the tenant
as
speakingfreelyin his landlord's
hall ; the labourers and their families sitting
at the same
great oak table ; the
Yule Log broughtin with shout and song ?

shows

of

on

rivalryand

"

No

night ia
*

now

with

Midsummer-Is

hymn

or

carol

blest."

Droaza.
ight'fl

73

SHAKSPERB

WILLIAM

Tliere

singers of carols

are

retained

nas

makers, accordingto the


time

of the

then?, no

But

unmusical

most

Commonwealth.

There

are

have

psalms to hornpipes."*They
provokemockery :

the

styleof
not

retained

Warwickshire
wretched

singersare
all the

"three-man

no

bases;" there is

and

"means

Stratford Christmas.

carols.

of its ancient

some

at

now

even

"a

even

such

chorus-

from the
generations
song-men" amongst
Puritan"
who
"sings

of the

carols

will most

as

"

Rise up, rise up, brother

"

Dives,
along with me,
For you've a placeprovided in hell,
Upon a sarpant'sknee."
And

come

then the crowd

And
we

may
innocent
of

laugh,and give their halfpennies.But in an age of music


believe that one
dweller in Stratford gladly
woke
of his
out
young
a
fter
the
bells
ness
stillhad
him
in
the
when
to rest,
sleep,
evening
rung
the night the psaltery
was
gentlytouched before his father's porch,

and he heard, one

voice under
"

As

another, these
Joseph

He

heard

This
Our
He

neither

an

shall be

in the

In
But

in

He

was

the love of what

was

stall.

in

rocks

carol

mistaken

all.

in

nor

wooden

pall,

linen,

shall be rock'd

silver

That

to

ox's

babies

were

in

But

perhaps this

born

hall,

place of Paradise,

purple nor

neither
In

real vocation

an

in

nor

all in fair

As

whose

"

neither shall be clothed

He

has

strains:

night shall be born


heavenly king.

But

London

solemn

a-walking
angel sing,

was

In housen

Nor

simpleand

on

gold,

cradle

the mould."

yet, amongst its halfpennyballads.


in his busy time, for he had a mind

beautiful in the

past, instead of being enamoured

the

of the present,has preserved it ;f but


uglydisputations
It
for
the
was
age.
Shakspere. It was
age of William
call it,had its poetical
as
faith :
superstition,
we

it was
for

Some

say, that

Wherein

our

This bird

ever

'gainstthat

season

age

comes

Saviour's birth is celebrated,

of

dawning singethall night long ;


say, no spiritdares stir abroad
;
The
no
nights are wholesome
planetsstrikft.
; then
No
fairytakes,nor witch hath power to charm :
So hallow'd and so graciousis the time."
+
And

then, they

"

t William
71

Hcne's

'Ancient

Winter's

Tale,

Mysteries,'
p. 02.

\ Ham'ei,

with

for another

the

"

"

msn

attuned

Act j., Scene

T.

when

Surelyit is the poet himself, who

Such

garnishedwith

house

but

the

tenants

the

from

the

hall

The
conviviality.

in

the

through the
the tables

are

fast

may

door

the

of the

slid away
make
him

"

Boar's

of

great

is

the

rout

is the

old

and

steward

the
courteously,

shout

for the
of

came

rare

and

with
of

due

the

reeking;
pipers is

marshals
master

steward, who

solemnity;
and

loves
his

the

heard

the guests ;

and

his father,the

Misrule, and

in the
there is

Waes-hael

with

scene

house, nestled

chimneys are

the

brought in

Lord

the

trumpeters

entrance

of

principalfriends

parishwas

deter

Its

the

advance,
head

the

There

perhaps the Saxon


The boy-guestwho

from

of

will not

little town.

filling.Then
The

"

the prayers
of an
happy Christmas ;
The
of Stratford
cross
Hymn, the Homily.
in every
and
the
w
as
ivy,
bay. Hospitality
"

snow

sound

of Horatio,

person

do in yart believe it."

Clopton.

the

the

the

great landlord

of

upon

goes round; and


still be shouted.

Ingon, has

or

welcome

of the feast.
cup

the

of the

offices;

open

heard, and

the
holly,

frost

woods, lookingdown
bustle

adds, in

for
preparation

Church, the Anthem,

earnest
was

nightwas

So have

"

BIOGTUPITY.

tress
mis-

the

the wineDrink-hael
tenant

boy, has

of
a

jovialattendants,

The
sightto
merry.
the
Stratford are
at
from
their
are
rehearsing
speeches; and the mummers
this
short
of
for
the
enactment
required
porch. Very sparing are the cues
closed with a merry
drama.
A speech to the esquire,
jest; something about
and
ancestry and good Sir Hugh ; the loud laugh; the song and the chorus,
Hall is cleared
of the feast. The
is now
Away
the Lord of Misrule
master
"

"

"

:^F"-

[CI pton House.]

WTLLTAM

the

with
is

dancing

pale
the

till Curfew;

beam

Clopton

where

some

and

who

and

is gone,

Eomeo

then

and

Juliet,Act

I., Scene

dark

the

upon

burn

walk

the

loiterers of the old and


To

court-cupboard,look

shining equally upon

"

"

the

remove
joint-stools,

STTAKSPTWE

in

(The Clopton Monument

moonlight

festal hall of

the

Stratford, the

to

the

There

lonely aisle

Clopton

who

torches."

"[ Antony and

Cleopatra,Act

Stratford Church.]

iv., Scene

of

remains,

still desire

night with

Y.

plate."*

the

resting-placein

the young

this

the

to

n.

J^Kr^f

"\y

Si

Shakspere

William

Was

delighted

record,

to

more

Hock-play,

Coventry

it

time

the

was

pleasures

of

the

purveyings

there

needed

had

was

not

had

visited

yet)

as

Robert

created
she

given

had

honourably
pageants."

It

IT

ust

Earl

Dudley

received

have

on

her

to

by

this

on

was

the

delighted

the

!On

the

of

Leicester,

favourite
mayor
occasion

Queen

Origin

with

of the

all

and
that

bore

with

Humphrey
impromptu

"

of

age

The

scale,

sunshine

to

Elizabeth
she

the

Coventry,
fair

many

Brownell,

speech,

vol.

worth

that

paragraphs

after

1565,

English Stage :' Reliques,

princely

'

mid-England.

passing through
citizens

these

distant."

the

In
her

young
doubtless

unintermitting,

so

(for

occasions.

our

magnificent

so

posts

paragraphs

she

miles

at

was

and

at

old

the

show

year,

fame

of

probably

country

on

the

and

his

or

few

were

previous

two

only

storial

had

have

bestowed

speaking

twelfth

his

curiosity of

the

roused

have

to

Kenilworth

is

enormous,

flourishings of

the

jiot

so

it

surrounding

the

entertainment

been

have

must

in

then

Stratford

celebrated

this

for

of

play

old

this

the

annalists

has

Percy,

when

1575,

which

days

own

Elizabeth,

was

whence

Kenilworth,'

preparations

who

inhabitants

the

any

Queen

to

spectator,

all

with

attended

says,

our

annals

Whatever

"

of

summer

splendour

of

one

of

that

exhibited

for

Shakspere

upon

than

with

which

that

in

Elizabeth

and

imperishable

Kenilworth

at

entertained

Dudley

great

S^Tiv

"

sions
posses-

she

shows
the
a

had

was

and

Mayor,
hundred

WILLIAM

SIIAKSPERE

orations of John
Elizabeth
had
magnificent
Throgmorton the Recorder.
their knees the
on
a
ready hand for the rich giftsof her subjects
; and when
of
her
her
satisfaction
Corporation Coventrypresented
Majesty a heavy purse,
broke out
into the exclamation, "A
hundred
a
good gift,
pounds in gold! 1
words
addressed
have but few such gifts!" The
to her
lords; but the
were
If it pleaseyour
honest Mayor boldlystruck in,
is
there
a
great deal
grace,
of the

"

in it."

more

"What

said

is that?"

the

Elizabeth

lovingsubjects,"
repliedthe Mayor.*
from

Kenilworth

In the

offended
of

Queen.

Leicester.

with

Had

"The
this

on

he

hearts

been

occasion
bold

too

of all your

or

departed
too

timid ?

"The
royal progress was againfor Warwickshire.
stained
weather
having been very foul long time before, and the way much
with
Warwick
t
he
into
her good town
of
Queen
was
carriage,"
conveyed
but
the
bailiff
not
and
the
so
through bye-ways
burgessesknelt in
quite miry ;
the dirt,and her Majesty'scoach was
brought as near to the said kneelers as it
could be.
The
followed.
long oration,and the heavy purse, of course
During
this visit to Kenilworth
in 1572
affairs
two
state
were
important
despatched.
Thomas
and the offer
beheaded
at York
was
Percy Earl of Northumberland
;
of marriage of Francis
Duke
of Alencon
was
definitively
rejected. In the
her Majesty
previousJune, Leicester wrote touchingthis proposal, It seems
meaneth
There
in the
to givegood ear
to it."
counsellor at Kenilworth
was
a
eminent
in a more
following
August who would possess the Queen's
good ear
summer

the

1572

"

"

"

"

degree

than

Montmorenci,

Dudley welcomed

his

the

French

sovereignwith

Ambassador.

In

1575, when

Robert

it is easy
regalmagnificence,
looked for a higher reward
to
than that of continuing
favoured
and counsellor.
It is tolerably
servant
clear that the
a queen'smost
is associated with
exquisite
speech of Oberon in A Midsummer
Night'sDream
of
devices
the
which
the
some
poetical
Shakspere might have beheld
young
a

than

more

believe that his ambition

a;

Kenilworth,

have

or

"

Ohe.

Since
And

heard

described:

My gentlePuck,
I sat upon

once

heard

dulcet

That

sea

the

And
To

rude

certain

hear the

on

shot

And

But

from

madly

their

spheres,

I remember.

the

all arm'd

cold

I saw,

(but thou
and

moon

certain

aim

he

the

couldst

not,)

earth,

took

by the west;
his bow,
loos'd his love-shaft smartly from
thousand
it should
hearts :
piercea hundred
I might see young
Cupid's fieryshaft
a

fair

Quench'd
And

breath,

civil at her song

time

very

Flying between

As

reniember'st

sea-maid's music.

Obe. That

Cupid

Thou

dolphin'sback,

Puck.

At

harmonious

and

grew

stars

hither

cume

promontory,

mermaid,

Uttering such

"

vestal,throned

in the

chaste

beams

of

the

watery

moon

the

imperialvotaress passed on,


In maiden
meditation,fancy-free."

See Nichols's

vol. i.,p. i"li


'Progresses,'

The

most

remarkable
the

mythology and

of

the

of

of lakes and

romance

towards

shows

the

Kenilworth
"

seas.

were

associated

with

Triton, in likeness of

the
maid,
mer-

Arion

appeared sittingon a
Majesty."
quaint
reallypoeticalGeorge Gascoigne,in his
rather a true
much
of as
Brief Rehearsal, or
was
as
presentedbefore
copy
coxcomb
her Majesty at Kenilworth.'
But
the diffuse and
most
entertaining
describes
Laneham
of Arion
with an
a
justifythe
ecstacy which
song
may
came

So

back."
dolphin's

Queen's

the

"

and

'

belief that

"dulcet

the

and

harmonious

breath"

of

"the

music"

sea-maid's

beside
by the young poet as
the lake at Kenilworth
so
Now, Sir, the dittyin metre
aptly endited to
the matter, and
after by voice
deliciouslydelivered ; the song, by a skilfui
clean
artist into his parts so
so
sweetlysorted ; each part in his instrument
tunable ;
and sharplytouched
again in his kind so excellently
;
every instrument

might

be

the

echo

of

the melodies

heard

he stood

"

"

day, resounding from the calm waters, where the


of her Majesty,
and
longing to listen,had utterlydamped all noise
presence
parably
and din, the whole
harmony conveyed in time, tune, and temper, thus incommelodious
what
pleasure(Master Martin), with what sharpness
; with
this might pierceinto the hearers' hearts,
of conceit, with what
livelydelight,
fair vestal
I pray ye imagine yourself,
be the
If Elizabeth
as
ye may."
throned
reasonable
be no
doubt, the most
by the west," of which there can
that very
be Kenilworth, and
appropriatescene of the mermaid's
song would
shall
time"
have
the summer
that
of
of 1575.
Of the hidden
we
meaning
song
to speak.
presently
and

this

in the

evening of

the

"

"

1*

WILLIAM

that
Percy,believing
with

his usual

the

boy Shaksperewas
judgment,that "the

and

taste

SHAKSPERE

at

Kenilwcrth, has remarked,

dramatic

of

cast

many

parts of

that

have
had a very great effect upon
a
superb entertainment must
young
world."
dramatic
w
hose
astonish
hereafter
the
to
were
imagination,
powers
Without
into
bard gained admittance
our
assuming with Percy that
young
the castle" on
the eveningwhen
"after supper there was
a playof a very good
theme
actors'
but
the
well
set
forth,by
so
handling,that pleasure
presented
;
and
mirth
it seem
made
good hours and
very short, though it lasted two
consent
to Tieck's
that the boy performed
morei''* yieldingnot our
fiction,
the part of
allowed to
in Gascoigne's
address to the Queen, and was
Echo
the whole
of the performances
see
by the especialfavour of her Majesty, we
shall run
the curious narratives of Laneham
and of Gascoigne,
to show
over
William
friends
his
with
that, without being a favoured
Shakspere
spectator,
have had, a very
must
might have beheld many thingson this occasion which
and
have
assisted
in giving
effect
still
further
great
upon a young imagination,"
it that dramatic
alreadyto pointout,
tendency which, as we have endeavoured
festivals of his
and the commonest
was
a
peculiarcharacteristic of the simplest
"

'

'

"

"

age.
It

"great cheer

pastime
shoot
be

"

in the

eighto'clock

was

in

dinner," at

at

first gate of
with

crowded

the

hunting by

of the

evening of Saturdaythe 9th of Julywhen, after


miles from Kenilworth, and "pleasant
placeseven
after," Elizabeth arrived within "a
nightway
The

castle.

the

spectators, some,

worn

open space before that gate would


with
out
long waiting,stretched

park, others gazingupon the leads and battlements,


stood,
hugely advanced, much
exceedingthe common
had likewise huge and monstrous
in this age, who
of men
stature
trumpets*
But before the real trumpeters
counterfeited, wherein they seemed to sound. "f
hidden behind them sounded, Sibylla, comely clad in a pallof white silk,pronounced
and
in
metre.
would,
we
"J
a
Sibylla
Englishrhyme
proper poesy
beneath

the

of

trees

where

"

the

six trumpeters

"

are

sure,

Hunnis,
verses

the crowd

repeat

to

master

of her

what

addressed

she had

to

the Queen

desire all honour

chapel,would
Majesty's

for Master

for his

pleasant

"

"

The

of

rage

Shall
But

never

peace

fast in chains

bound

war

stir nor

move

shall govern

all your

days,

Increasingsubjects'love."

It

the south side of the castle,and


on
through the gate of the tilt-yard,
Little would
by the great gate-houseon the north, that Elizabeth entered.
tall
of person,
the
of
crowd
hear therefore of the speech
mighty porter,

was

not

the

"

bigof limb, and

of countenance," who

stern

Tower, which

led into

Gascoigneand Laneham
than theyhas described
*

As

J Laneham.
refer

to them

80

on

we

every

shall

the

might

met

at the

base-court; and, indeed,

have

this part of the

spared their
ceremonial

quote fragments from

even

mer's
gate of Mortifor ourselves,

for
descriptions,
after his

own

mightier

fashion.

The

f Gascoigne.

Laneham.

occasion.

the Queen

each

writer,it

will

be

scarcelynecessary

to

gate croses

pool,where,
land,

be

Majesty with

endure

to

conveyedup

there

Lady of the Lake,


island, brightblazingwith
the

"

from

the midst

torches, she

of the

floated to

wearied
The
Queen had
well-pennedmetre."
she could
before
be
Latin verses
to
pronounced
then
after did follow so great a peal of
; and

were

her chamber

to

"

by firework,"that
lightning

such

guns, and

moveable

upon

her

met

yet more

the train, when

upon

BIOGRAPHY.

"

noise and

the

flame

were

heard

and

twenty miles off."

seen

Sunday

devices

dramatic
to

was

"

hear with the

day of rest ; but Monday brought another of the store of


open-airrecitations, which Elizabeth would be best pleased
peoplecrowding around her. In the evening of a hot day the

rode into the

Queen

chase

"

the

hunt

to

hart of force;" and

her
upon
with an

forth out of the woods


a savage
man,
there came
by torchlight
himself
his
hand,
foregrownall in moss
plant,plucked up by the roots, in
the
beside, countenanced
ivy,who, for personage, gesture, and utterance
Echo/
and his attendant
to very
good liking." The savage man,
"

return

oaken
and
ter
mat-

'

to

appear
man

us

all in

"

there would

device, and

rude

ivy" pouringforth such


"

The

rocks record

These
These

your

worth,

your

name,

resound

winds

The

be

as,

verses

little dramatic

may
in
propriety the

"

these dales, these woods, these


hills,
fame."
fields,
pronounce
your

waves,

had
drama
not yet come
; the
days of the gorgeous and refined masque were
able
of considerBut the writer of these lines, a man
almost whollyto be created.
and his
talent, was
evidentlyproud of his invention of the savage man
devised,
were
verses
echo, for he says, with a laughablehumility, These
heard
I
have
that
and
(as
penned, and pronounced, by Master Gascoigne;
William
To
Shakspere such
crediblyreported)upon a very great sudden."
been
have
rude as
must
exceedinglyimpressive.
representations,
they were,
The scene
That magnificentcastle,its stately
of romance.
was
one
altogether
The

"

woods, its pleasantlake, its legendsof King Arthur, its histories of the MontTable, the presence
forts and
revivals of the Round
the Mortimers, its famous
of

real Queen, the

who

had

the

devices

when

he

inhabited

once

and

"

heard

ness's horse's head

sleptin

recollection of the savage man's ecstacy might have


young poet tillit shaped itself into the passionof Biron
"

That, like
Bows

aees

and

not

his vassal
the

base

Lore's

the

savage

opening

first

"

Who

rude

the

Kisses

Lmr"

the extravagant,

"As

The

At

littleupon

submission, broke
this savage, for the more
almost lightupon her Highcast the top from him, it had
dismayed."
whereat
he startled,and the gentleman much

Laneham

asunder, and

address, bordered

the wild man's

pronounced

accordingto
his tree

Yorkists and Lancastrians


fiery
stir his imaginationeven
though he saw not
it, would
of Master
enthusiasm
the poetry. The
Gascoigne,
not
of the

peaceablesuccessor

of

the

head;

"

heavenly Rosaline,
man

of

Inde,
east,

gorgeous

and, strucken

ground with obedient


Labour's

the mind

Lost, Act

blind,
breast

IV., Scene

"

I.
SI

of the

nfe.

Thursday,the
There

fourteenth

thirteen

were

"

bears

July,saw

of
in

the

inner

change

court

of

in

the

diversions.

Queen's

Kenil worth, and

"

great

sort

and
face to face.
set
brought together,
"It
was
a
sport,"says the coxcomb-historian, "very pleasantof these beasts:
with
his pink eyes
the
bear
to
see
leeringafter his enemies' approach, the
the force and
nimbleness
wait of the dog to take his advantage,and
and
perience
exbitten
in one
of the bear again to avoid the assault : If he was
place
taken
in
if
he
then
how
another
free
that
he would
to
was
once
pinch
get
;
with
what
shift,with
biting,
clawing,with roaring,tossing,and tumbling, he
of ban-

would

dogs

work

twice

to

in

the outer.

wind

himself

thrice,with

They

were

from

them

and

when

he

was

about

loose, to

shake

his

his

a
visnomy, was
the
of a goodlyrelief." Oh, Master
is it you,
matter
Laneham,
always among
is
it
with
gentlewomen by my good will,"
your dancing,your gittern,
your
you,
cittern, your virginals,your
high reaches, your fine feigning,
deep
son,
diapayour
when
like bees to honey,
the ladies flock about
warblings,
your wanton
you
write thus of these cruelties ?
of the bears
that can
And
trulyin this matter
believe you
Cousin
we
speak more
accordingto the fashion of the politethan
he
said
Abraham
abide 'em."
Women,
Slender," when
indeed, cannot
They
into the inner court
for the diversion of the Queen
and
her ladies ; they
came
from London
of her Majesty's games
masters
had
were
brought especially
; the
travel
with
the
the Chamberlain's
warrant
to
bears, and to press all
peaceably
the lawful tenants
of Paris Garden,
ban-dogs that should be needful ; they were
Globe
the
before
the gloriesof
with
Theatre, and
they divided the town
in
that
Hamlet
theatre's
When
the
most
even
palmy days.
Shakspere
young
heard
the roaringand
the barking he knew
that his most
obstinate rivals
not
rivals that even
his friend Alleyn would
their vocation ;
build
his
at
were
in
and
found
best profits
future
of
their
blood
out
and
a
days,
college
upon
ears

or

the

blood

and

the

slaver

"

"

"

"

"

"

82

BIOGRAPHY.

Rut

slaver.

let

us

the

forgetthat they were

not

that

and

sovereignof

after,the

especialamusements
debauched

of

the

idle court,

and

fortyyears
;
althoughhe could enjoythe comedies of Shakspereand the masques of Jonson,
is petitioned
and
Edward
seeing
by PhilipHenslowe
Alleyn for some
gratuity,
of profits
the great diminution
they sustain by the restraint againstbaiting"on
the Sundays in the afternoon, after divine service/'more
account
on
particularly
of
the loss of divers of these beasts, as before the King of Denmark, which
lofct a goodlybear called George Stone ; and
last being before
at
our
your
killed four of our
best bears, which
in your
kingdom are not the
Majestywere
Laneham
like to be had." *
tells us
that the country-folks
recreated
not
were
with the bears
As this sport was
held at day-timein the castle,so was
there
abroad at nightvery strange and sundry kinds of fireworks."
The
of Thursday was
of a most
succeeded
bear-tragedy
by the enactment
After divine service in the parish-church
for
farce on Sunday.
extraordinary
the Sabbath-day,
and a fruitful sermon
there in the forenoon," Elizabeth was
of the
recreated with a mockery of the simpleceremonials
of her people,on one
A
serious
occasions
and
life.
of
human
most
was
joyful
village-bridal to be
yet
set in
was
burlesqued a "merry-marriage,"as Gascoignecalls it. A procession
make
its show in the Castle before the Great Court.
order in the tilt-yard
to
Sixteen wights,
most
riding-men,and well beseen," and then "the bridegroomforein his father's tawny worsted
his
fain
friends
that
he
were
jacket(for
should
be a bridegroom before
the Queen), a fair straw
hat with
a
capital
his
head
of
his hands, as a sign
on
on
crown,
steeple-wise
harvest-gloves
; a pair
of good husbandry; a pen
and inkhorn
be known
at his back, for he would
to
of
that
in
his
be bookish ; lame
a leg
youth was broken at foot-ball ; well-beloved
lent him
of his mother, who
tied to his
muffler for a napkin,that was
a
new
small sport to mark
in his full
this minion
no
girdlefor losingit. It was
had
action
became
formal
in
his
that,
tuition,
as
through
as
good
appointment;
Then
he been a bridegroomindeed."
the morris-dancers, Maid
Marian,
came
and
the Fool ; bride-maids,
breast
of
of
as
bacon,
brightas a
thirty
years old
lubber with the bride-cup; the "worshipful
apiece;" a freckled-faced,red-headed
beautiful
of
colour
bride, thirty-five
brown-bay, not very
years old,
other damsels
dozen
indeed, but ugly,foul, and ill-favoured;" and, lastly,
a
town

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

bride-maids, that for favour, attire,for fashion

"for

for such

meet

the
her

other

it

Courts,

bride

must

subjectsfor ridicule
processionhad
of that

old

gone

as

tureen-ladle

and

cleanliness,were

as

beth
do Elizaporridge-pot."We must
was
scarcelyagreeableto
justiceto believe that such a mummery
her
could
have
been
to
not
agreeable
people. In that Court, as in
a

there
in

have

what

dwelt

that

delightsthe

forth from

parish-church,

for

song

and

exclusiveness

multitudes.

happy cottages of

the

amidst

heartless
earnest

Kenilworth

music, with

which

Many
to

the

finds
bridal

porch

garlandsof rosemary

sisters smilingin tears ; and then the great


wheat-ears, parents blessing,
wife
innocent
lord "the
whose
heartless lord, as
the peasants might whisper,

and

Collier's

'

Memoirs

of Edward

Alleyn,'
p. K.

I?

If

lH

"

sport of their
perished untimely is to make
There
was,
homely joys before their Queen.
who
to
that
the
was
see
in
crowd
the
on
Sunday afternoon
perhaps, one
to
of poetry in such
picturethe shepherd,
simple rites who was
very heaven
of
the troth-plight
his mistress in the solemnity
thus addressing
"

"

"

soft

Or

Ethiopian'stooth, or

That

He

would
:

had

agree

not

told

'a bolted

with

him

down,

have

white

as

fann'd

the

Laneham

"

hand

it;

as

snow

twice

blasts

"

moved

his wife

that

and

northern

the

by

Master

it would

I believe

been

a.s

; this

tliyhand

I take

dove's

As

"

By

troth

my

to

man

o'er."

't

rightmerry

laydying." Leicester, as

we

was

mood
have

lively
pastime
though
seen,

it

had

Elizabeth.
to propitiate
rhymes of flattery
procured
Poor
enough.
This was
Gascoigne had prepared an elaborate masque, in two
for the time is a remarkable
and her Nymphs, which
production.
acts, of Diana
devised
and
Master
"was
the
Gascoigne,
penned
by
"This
show,"
poet,
says
his
in
garment) two or three days
and
being preparedand ready (every actor

together, yet
to

any

other

never

to

came

thing than

understand
easy to

occasional

of the

abundance

lack

to

that there

The

execution.
of

was

opportunityand
other

some

dared
Leicester, perhaps,scarcely
to

conclude

the masque

with

84

these

Winter's

lines

to

whereof

cause

set

seasonable
of

the

iv., Scene

weather."

attribute
It is

ment.
Gascoigne'sdisappointwho
were
moving
puppets

cause

"

Tale, Act

I cannot

in

"

of wealth

world
You

In

BIOGRAPHY.

henceforth

wedded
Hold

The
0
Yet

state,and
up

from

staff of your
queen,
never

But

at will
shall

such

enjoy

therewithal

great

annoy

estate

worthy queen,
wight felt perfectbliss
as

the

wedded

been."

word

marriage,the wilycouitier had his


bridal.
The
the
marriagesof the poor were
impromptu device of the mock
there
But
device
of marriage at which
fun of.
was
a
marriagesto be made
Gods
her Majesty should
other
all
the
when
would
and
Diana
rejoice,
weep,
lack of opportunity
Alas, for that crowning show there was
givethe word.
But

tlie Queen

when

laughed at

"

and

seasonable

weather."

tedious than the fulsome praise,


the
imagine anythingmore
the obscure
allusions to
Constancy and Deep -Desire,
pedantries,
mythological
of Elizabeth
which
were
during the nineteen days of
poured into the ears
It is difficult to

Kenilworth.
of
the
were

our

There

was

not, according

real old poetry

to

the

historians

the Queen
producedto gratify

of this visit,one
of

nation

that

ment
fraghad

still fresh upon


its lips. There
ballads of the chivalrous times
and
songs
unbidden
its halls.
Kenilworth
the
The
Minstrels
to
at
no
;
Harper was

[Lciccstcr.J

shakspere:

WILLIAM

We

dead in a scheming court.


English spiritof poetry was
Sheale,* that
besides the complaint of poor Richard
evidences
of the
the rich had begun to hold the travelling
depositaries
old

lore

of

unwise

in

England
by statute

"

Beggars they

"

his song,
for it."
found

This

"

of

act

device of

if
proffered,

and

of Middlesex;"

ancient

an

time

meet

himself, but

minstrel

the

consent,

one

parliament.")

ridiculous

been

is not

Squire Minstrel

"a

was

of

givesan account
prepared to have

with

are

rogues by

And

Laneham

man/

courtlyand
old traditionary
they were
scribed
pro-

the

after, and

few years

contempt.

have

and

and

place had

been

travestie of him.

He

narrative

absurd

an

minstrel

is put into

well known
of the
of Islington,
to be one
village
worshipful
this
Laneham
in
at
ancient and best towns
day."
most
England next London,
"fool
"who
the
to
in
how
was
describe
a
to
worshipfulcompany"
goes on
himself
than
cleverer
by one
put out of countenance
playthe Minstrel was
how
and
he
waxed
Laneham
Master
perhaps;
very wayward, eager, and
with fair words, and sack and sugar ; and after a
But
he was
sour."
pacified
his
forth with a
solemn
for story
littlewarblingon
harp came
song, warranted
of King Arthur's
acts, the 1st book and 26th chapter." Percy prints The
out
lenge,'
in his
under
the title of
Sonnet
Minstrel's
Reliques,'
King Ryence's Chalis
which
follow
This
of
them
modern
than
it,
more
saying
song
many
beth
Elizabut is placedhere for the sake of the subject. It was
sung before Queen
entertainment
Kenilworth
Castle
in
and
at
1575,
was
at the grand
bly
probaoccasion."
that
Not
Laneham
for
so.
composed
says expressly, it was
that' Percy does not
state
preparedto have been proffered."It is remarkable
intended
that this ballad was
to be a
what is so evident
burlesqueupon the
of the Minstrel
conceited description
of Chivalry. If all Laneham's
Romances
is decisive enough ; beingthe answer
did not show this, the followingstanza
to
in the languageof the
of King Ryence, who
the messenger
to demand,
came
Morte
Arthur,' the beard of the British king,"for king Ryence had purfeled
with kings'
beards, and there lacked for one a placein the mantell :
a mantell
of

mouth

his

the

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

'

'

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

"

But

say
That

And

With
Whether
And

It

was

there

in
reality

by

cue

They
of

"

Ryence,

shortlyewith
Out

Yet

to sir

for his bold

of

basins

North-Gales

swords
he

or

therewith

thou

and

not

king
he

the

dwarf, quoth
him

I do

message
and

defye

will him

pans

king,
;

ring

where

he

razors

ciuicklyshall tryo
will

Arthur

shook

his

and

prove

good

the

best

harbor

Excalabor."

sword

something higherthat in a few years called up Spenserand Shakspere.


the people,which
had
was
one
heart and
sport, emanating from
it.

Laneham

certain
made

argument

describes

this

"

as

good sport presented in

of

good-heartedmen
Coventry,my
that
renew
now
might
petition
they

how

the

Danes,

whilom
*

here

See Chapter

in
V.

lord's
their
troublous

an

historical

neighboursthere."
old

storial show

season,

were

for

BIOGRAPHY.

borne withal and suffered in peace ; that anon,


quietness
by outrage and urisup
portableinsolency,
abusingboth Ethelred the King, then, and all estates everywhere
beside, at the grievous
tain
complaintand counsel of Huna, the King's chiefin wars, on
Saint Brice's night,
Anno
Dom.
1012
(as the book says, that
falleth yearlyon
all despatched,and
the thirteenth of November), were
the
realm

rid.

And

because

for

that

the

mentioneth

matter

how

our
valiantly

themselves, expressed in
Englishwomen, for love of their country, behaved
action and rhymes after their manner,
mirth
some
they thought it might move
is
in
and
for
to her Majestythe rather.
said
The
story,
thing,
they, grounded
ill example of manners,
without
pastimewont to be played in our cityyearly,
else did so
and
or
papistry,
;
occupy the heads of a number,
any superstition
ancient beginning
that likely
meditations
would
have
had worse
an
; had
enough
and a long continuance, till now
of late laid down, they knew
no
cause
why,
unless it was
men
by the zeal of certain of their preachers,
very commendable
for their behaviour
in their sermons,
but somewhat
and learning,
and sweet
too
Laneham
is
the
in preachingaway
their pastime." The
sour
description
by
which
remains to us of the "old storial show," the
account
onlyprecise
sport
told
f
or
it
be
the
in
historical
It
show
to
not
cue."
was
a
despised,
presented an
from
had arisen to free themselves
peoplehow their Saxon ancestors
outrage
and unsupportable
and
how
our
Englishwomen, for love
valiantly
insolency,"
is
in his accustomed
of their country, behaved
themselves."
Laneham,
style,
of Coventry, mason,
intent upon describing CaptainCox," an odd man
more
than upon givingus
of story,"
in matters
ale-conner,who hath great oversight
"

"

"

"

"

rational

Danish

who

spear and
fought in rank

better, but

with

at

triumph by

and

as

brought all indeed

the

into

the

it was

down,
The

great court,

"

and

much

they had

led

adds,

"

"

furious
foot'

were

had

Danes

many

the

captivefor

This

the

was

of

good pastime,
Highness'swindow, to

matter

her

under

even

twice the

historian

made

that

the

were

target; that there

that

overcome,

court

handled

English;

and
and

squadron ;

Englishwomen."

effect of this show, that

then

shield,with sword

the last conflict beaten


our

find,however, that there

spectacle.We

horseback, and
on
lance-knights

encounters
men,

this

of

account

occupationwithin, saw but


Highness,having,pleasanter
ing
it therefore on the Tuesday followlittleof the Coventryplay,and commanded
of the
it was
to have it full out, as
accordingly
presented." This repetition
conclusion
full
leads
the
that
to
Hock-playin its completeness, out, necessarily
of a mockthe action was
somewhat
more
repetition
complicatedthan the mere
of the play,says,
combat.
Laneham, in his generaldescription
expressedin
of
the
and
has given
action and
none
rhymes,
rhymes." That he has preserved

have

seen."

But

"

her

"

very insufficient account


the tone of the courtiers.

us

of the

patriotic
feelingby
for their
at
laughed
that
appears to us
Hock
Tuesday,"It

The

their old
awkward

seems

"

Coventry

to

clowns

movement

have

Collier,'Aimala

and

there, not

came

traditionary
lhymes

conclusion

the

action,is characteristic of the


and

their

man,
to

dumb-show,

earnest

is somewhat

hastywhich says
merelya dumb-show."'

of the

Stage,'vol. i.,p.

234.

of

call up any
but

declamation

been

and

of this

to

be
It

piayof
Percy,rest-

SHAKBPEEE

WILLIAM

tluii
on
performance seems
reduced
dumbwithout
and
to
been
recitation
have
occasion to
mere
or
rhymes,
this we
doubt.
But certainly
it is difficult to arrive at any other
show."
Even
that of Percy,that the play, as
conclusion
than
originally
performed by the
of Coventry, expressedin action and
presenting
remen
rhymes after their manner,"
of tyranny, the indigthe insolence
event,
a complicatedhistorical
nation
the
the grievouscomplaint of one
chieftain,
of the oppressed,
injured
have offered us
the conflicts,the triumph, must
a
secret
counsels, the plots,
witness
If
the
of
drama."
a
a
Shaksperewere
complete
regularmodel
young
been more
have
to the performanceof this drama, his imaginationwould
highly
all
the
and
more
worthilyexcited than if he had been the favoured spectator of
the
shows of Tritons, and Dianas, and Ladies of the Lake, that proceededfrom
It would
be
conceit
so
deep in castingthe plot of his lordshipof Leicester.
this
storial
him
show
first
how
believe
that
to
much
to
too
not
might
suggest
dramatized
series
how
of
be
a
events,
terminatingin
;
English historymight
be
the
remarkable
presented to
some
might
fightingcatastrophe,
eye ; how
mimic
field
heroism
how
individual
marshalled
be
on
a
might
men
;
might
fit expressionof thought and
the mass,
stand out from amongst
having its own
passion; how the wife or the mother, the sister or the mistress, might be there
the Englishwomen assisted their warriors ; and how
as
to uphold the hero, even
the hearts of the people,as the old ballads had
to move
all this might be made
result would
Such
have
moved
them.
a
repaid a visit to Kenilworth
by
once
William
this,he, his father,and their friends,might have
Shakspere. Without
of Dudley'smagnificence,
most
retired from the scene
as
thinkingpersons in all
There
lavish expense ; but
was
retired, with little satisfaction.
probability
the
of Kenilworth
credible accounts, the possessor
was
accordingto the most
We
him
his
district.
show
of
his
to
not
Queen
a
see
delighting
oppressor
and
nobles
esquires
happy tenantry, such as the less haughty and ambitious
The
Elizabeth
under
the
windows
of
cultivate.
anxious
to
were
people come
Slavish
ridicule.
of
as
homage would be there to Leicester from the
objects
gentlemen of the county. They would replenishhis butteries with their gifts
his livery.There
was
one
they would ride upon his errands ; they would wear
who would
Edward
thus do Leicester
not
homage
gentlemanin Warwickshire
of
the
house
of
cousin
William
head
the
of
Arden, the
Arden,
Shakspere's
great
Edward
him
Which
But the mighty favourite was
for
mother.
too
powerful
in those virtues
though a gentleman not inferior to the rest of his ancestors
adorned, had the hard
wherewith theywere
to
to
come
an
untimely death
hap
in 27 Eliz.,the chargelaid againsthim
being no less than high treason against
foul
intentions
that Master
Somerville, his son-into
the Queen, as privy
some
law (a Roman
Catholic),had towards her person : For which he was prosecuted
whom
he
with so great rigour and
violence,by the Earl of Leicester's means,
ing
irritated in some
had
(as I have credibly
heard),partlyin disdainparticulars
in this country, of his rank, thought,in those
which
his livery,
to wear
many
them
honour
to
small
chieflyfor gallinghim by certain harsh
; but
days,no
before she
of Essex
to the Countess
touching his privateaccesses
expressions,

ing

upon

the

of Laneham,
authority

that

says

"

the

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

his wife

was

through the testimony of

that

BIOGRAPHY.

Hall,

he was
found
priest,
Rev. N. J. Halpin,who
of
The Shakespeare
publications
the Midsummer
Night'sDream,'

one

lost his life in Smithfield."*

guiltyof the fact,and

to the
tract
interesting
Vision
in
Society on the subjectof Oberon's
has explainedthe allusions in that exquisite
passage

has contributed

most

'

'

the belief of Warburton


that

Robsart

Amy

Arden,

"the

that when

saw,

the

"

at

the Countess

far

Boaden

that

Edward

considers

discovered

that the

expressionof

not," referred to this

passed on,"

he

"marked

where

flower," pure,

We

may
the
flower," retaining

add

discovery;

the

"milk-white"

love's wound."

than

success

of Mr.

Kenilworth,

of Essex;"

couldst

more

pointedat, or

was

He

"that

"

with

entertainments

little western

follows

what

'

flower."

but thou

spotted,"purple with

satire in
make

very

to

ImperialVotaress

fell ;" that

time, became
"will

those

very time, I

of Scots

little western

"

guilty"accesses

Oberon, "That

bitter

the

was

spectator of

Leicester's

Cupid

that the Queen

The

bolt

before

of

that

that there

is

originalinfluence,

Lettice, Countess

of Essex, was
madly dote," as
The discovery
infatuated by Leicester.
of Edward
Arden, and his "harsh expressions
be
traditions
in
concerningit, might
Shakspere'sfamily,and be safely
allegorized
by the poet in 1594 when Leicester was gone to his account. f
wait to
Laneham
asks a question which
in his giddy stylehe does not
to
or
even
answer,
complete: "" And first,who that considers unto the stately
hath
of Kenilworth
seat
Castle, the rare
beauty of buildingthat his Honour
well
bes
o
so
advanced, all of the hard quarry-stone ; every room
spacious,
or

man

or

woman

"

"

Dugdale's Warwickshire,' p.
Craik, in his most

t Professor
ihat

no

reader
and

who
a

"bhese lines has

shall

sufficient
now

been

come

681.

interestingwork,

to the
of

knowledge
discovered

Elizabeth, that the Earth


(Vol.i. p. 75.)

is the

perusal
the
that

"

of

Mr.

'

The

Romance

time, "will retain

Cupid

is

any

and
Lady Sheffield,,

of

doubt

Leicester,that
the

the

Kenilworth,in the 17tlicentury.

the

Peerage,'is
mind

that

Moon

little western

Essex."

[Ruins

of

Halpin's Essay, with

the
and

flower

free
secret
the

the

of

from

opinion
sessions
prepos-

meaning

Vestal

of

typify

Countess

of

WILLIAM

and
lighted,
;

in

roofed

high

so

day-tiineon

within
side

every

brightness of candle, fire, and


windows,

it

as

"

in the

was

Never

were

who

coast,"

riously.
Warwick

for

whose

through
of

the

of

agency

father's

Dudley,

who

paid ; yet
as

life,and

his heir.

upon
A

gone
the

time

of

sentence)

Cromwell

inheritance

to

the

widow

of

abroad.

death

the

of
than

Crown,
the

his

to

The

negotiated for
A

his

fifth

only

of

divided

amongst

his

"

lightsome

Alexandrian
worth

thus

complete

brother
Sir

son,

its
the

ruin?

Robert

cheat

to

Prince

contrived,
the

Sir

possessionof

castle

is that

and

its

was

the

and

out

upon

Robert

lands, thus

counsellors
of

son

Henry,

with

of

Dudley,

purchase-money

took

Earl

the

James

purchase

captainsand

Kenilworth

historyof

of

rapacious

the

the
Kenil

what

Leicester,

brother, Charles

Charles

all

generous

more

continual

splendour perish so inglo-

only

of

the

through

his

The

Earl

the

out
proportionwith-

nights,by

its present state

left doubtful.

be

due

at

unto

and

the

stronger

procured by
the

the

it with

contrast

bestowed,

was

had

finish

possessions.

great

Kenilworth

whom

relucent

Pharos

such

legitimacywas
the

torch-light,transparent

unequalled strength
bequeathed the possession to

fabric of

Leicester

sight by

to

glitteringby glass;

so

(we

will not

1575

seemly

so

Egyptian

considers

that

year

did

the

SHAKSPERE

ever

castle
justly
un-

from

gradual decay

BIOGRAPHY.

and

final ruin.

fifteen and

within

the

James

no

and

mines

no

"

laid his hand

"

carved

of freestone

described,as

are

placesof
ings
hang-

the

of
the rooms
of great
ceilings
exploded in its "statelycellars,all

carved

have

architecture

whole, and

buildings
when

same;"

and
pillars

were

its strong walls, in many


turbulent soldiery
has torn
down

"

architraves

destroyedthe

carried upon

battered

has

cannon

foot thickness

ten

and
state

No

of

Of

them.

wrought."

justquoted,in

have

we

and

the

outer

The

survey
walls the

upon
many
is stillas fresh and as perfectas if the stone
had
onlybeen quarried
masonry
half a century ago.
Silent decay has done all this work.
The
proud Leicester,
his rightful
who
would
have
been
inheritance
king in England,could not secure
his son,

to

whilst

he

was

whom
undoubtedlylegitimate,
No
living.
just possessor came

another,
worthlessness
The

so

of

historian

that

even

had

he

century ago Kenilworth

baseness

the

after him.
was

One
a

disown

to

succeeded
rapacity

of the

monument

ambition.
grovelling
Warwickshire

of

worth
ground-plotof Kenilin 1640.
the pool and
trace
Castle," as it was
we
may
the pleasance
the inner court, the base court, and
Caesar's
the tilt-yard
;
;
Tower
and
Mortimer's
Tower
Leicester's
and
King Henry's Lodgings
;
the
the
Presence
There
Hall,
Chamber, and the PrivyChamber.
Buildings
;
old fresco painting,
wall at
Newnham
was
an
Padox, which
too, upon
a
in
and
is
held
the
castle
in
the
time
of James
to
I.
was
copied 1716,
represent
Without
these aids Kenilworth
would
of
onlyappear to us a mysteriousmass
ruined gigantic
walls ; deep cavities whose
unknown
ways,
dooruses
are
; arched
which
from
the
chambers
led
to
narrow
staircases,
separated
they
;
with
their oriels looking over
suddenly opening into magnificent recesses,
corn-field and pasture ; a hall with its lofty
windows
and its massive
chimneystill
but
without
roof
mounds
of
earth
in
the
midst
entire,
or
pieces
flooring
;
of walled
chambers, and the hawthorn
growing where the dais stood. The
desolation would
of
probablyhave gone on for another century ; the stones
Kenilworth
and

would

still have

has

mended

given us
By this

roads, and

cottage,till the ploughsharehad

the

"

the

been
carried

been

built into
over

the

the

cowshed

grassy courts ;
forehead
lofty

of middle
twenty-five
years ago, a man
age, with a
but
withal
lame
active, entered its gatehouse,
a
grey eye, slightly
and, havinglooked upon the onlybit of carvingleft to tell somethingof interior
hours.*
two
magnificence,
passedinto those, ruins, and stood there silent for some
ruined
sanctified.
The
Then
the
henceforward
be
to
was
place
progress of
desolation was
The
torch of geniusagainlighted
to be arrested.
up
every
after to be associated with the recoland theywere
for ever
lections
room
so
spacious,"
of their ancient splendour. There
be visions of sorrow
and
to
were
there too ; woman's
Kenilworth
weakness, man's treachery.And
now
suffering
which
is worthily
is visited from
all lands.
The
artist sits on
a
place
solitary
had

not,

some

keen

and

"

Some

livingin
time

five and
the

of the

twenty

years

ago

there

Gatehouse at Kenilworth.
visit who

impressionupon

him

he

was

which

; and

the

He
frank

he described

to

was

venerable

remembered
and

manners
us.

The

and

intelligent
farmer, Mr. Bodington
visit,
although he knew not at the
keen inquiriesof the great novelist left an
Scott's

old

man

is dead.
91

SHAKSPEItE

WILLIAM

the

stone

Elizabeth

would

pretty
nature

in

the

same

again,

not

when

to

be

of

the

turret

and

down

the

mantle

green

the

poetical

the

material

again

man

over

power
creations

destroyed.

hall

the

in

that

grassy

which

rejoices
what
invests
of

would
the
ambition

that
be

ugly

lie

refuge.
made

ever-vivifying

the

desolate

took
who

wonder

and

narrow

Robsart

Amy

slopes,

fancies

he

where

ascending

antiquarians,

young

as

contemplative
its

way,

and,

up

The

throws

beauty,
up

run

ruin.

knot

sketches

and

bay-window,

great

identify

children

loppy

of

the

banqueting.

staircase,
1

of

seat

in

decay

places
perishing,

so

power
and

that.

with
builds

life

and
them

CHAPTER

VIII.

PAG

is

IT

the

middle

the

"

before

day

all the

roads

than

more

8.

be acted

feast

The

and

preachers

the

Majesty was
graciouslypleased
at
Kenilworth, that
Hock-play

sport,

again

dear

so

been

their

old

and

And

why,

gone
all

say

after

their

all untattered
of

robes

sea

by

from

gear

"

time

"the

and

near

to

in

See

day
'

of

country, and

city?

spiteof

proper

all

Conceipte

if

new,

some

is not

and

and

confluence

of

its blue

"

not

was

in
from

people

show

this

the
far

extraordinary

small

advantage to
pageants shall be played
no

the

preachers
is still to

1 f 81.

the

brought from
girdlessuperseded

The

English rollkve,'

Are

and

so

the bruit

its accustomed

see

Corpus Christi.

Briefe

their

thread

Coventry

had

formance?
per-

know

Moreover,

by

yielded
"

own

good city

town-clerk

see

the

Friars

goodly order,
?

London

great, and

the

out

old

this

the

of

the

not

they

not

its caps

beyond

prevent

their

city greatlydeclined

the

thrust

have

men

their

for

in

not

thread

to

act

Grey

Has

arranged by

as

the

to

the

needful

and

ips.trade

they,

not

Do

parts,

Guilds

from

obscurity?
is

try,
Coven-

of

men

the

preachers

accustomed

long

that

the

to

since

but

being suppressed.
should
they,
they be suppressed

Have

into

again ;

revived, and

pageants

pageants

on

have

sermons

Queen's

Guilds, been

crowds

for the last

with

the

to

are

them

struggled against the

through

trians
pedes-

pageants

their

far

the

has

goes

of

perhaps

in

have

denounced

ancient

thereof

share

The

On

Christi

Corpus

accustomed

horsemen.

to-morrow,

time.

spring."

of

leading to Coventry

their

and

summer's

the

Di

g"laJe.
93

WILLIAM

It requires

not

the

William

Shaksperewas
Coventry,with one

SHAKSPERE:

of
imagination

the

romance

-writer

to

that before

assume

when

sixteen,that is,before the year 1580,

the

pageants

he would
suppressed,
rare
were
finally
exceptions,
in a few
be a spectator of one
which
were
of these remarkable
performances,
drama
of
foundations
more
a
years wholly to perish
; becoming,however, the
the
suited to the altered spirit
universal in its range,
of the people,more
drama
of the laity,
and not of the church.
What
a glorious
citymust Coventry
Prince's
have been
in the days when
it the
that youth first looked
upon
third cityof the realm," a
shire-town," * full
Chamber," as it was called,the
of stately
of great antiquity,
in the splendourof its
buildings
unequalled once
monastic
and high
full of associations of regalstate, and chivalry,
institutions,
!
As
he finally
events
and the elm-groves
from
the rich woodlands
emerges
which
reach from
Kenilworth, there would that splendidcitylie before him,
surrounded
its
by
spires,
high wall and its numerous
gates,its three wondrous
which he had often gazed
in
less
matchfrom
the
hill
of
Welcombe, rising
upon
up
heightand symmetry, its famous cross
towering above the gabled roofs.
At the other extremity
of the wall,gates more
massive
and defying a placeof
dwelt therein
even
a
strength,
though no conqueror of Cressy now
placeof
had been there most
magnificence,
though the hand of spoliation
busy. William
and
his
ride throughthe gate of the Grey Friars,and they
Shakspere
company
i
n
the
heart
of
that city. Eager crowding is there alreadyin
are
presently
these streets
that eve of Corpus Christi,for the waits are
and banners
on
playing,
are
citizens gathered
The
hung out at the walls of the different Guilds.
round
the Cross are
t
he
show.
to-morrow's
eagerlydiscussing
particularsof
Here and there one
with a beetling
brow indignantly
the superstitious
denounces
and papistical
observance ; whilst the laughingsmith or shearman, who
is to
of
the
the
one
describes
the
his
robe
and
play
new
magi on
morrow,
braveryof
the lustre of his pasteboardcrown
that has been
inns are
fresh gilded. The
full, great and sumptuous inns," as Harrison describes those of this very day,
able to lodgetwo hundred
three hundred
or
persons, and their horses, at ease,
and thereto,with a
short
make
such provisionfor their diet as
warning,
very
that is unacquaintedwithal
to him
it is a
seem
to be incredible : And
may
world to see
how each owner
of them
contendeth
with other for goodness of
entertainment of their guests, as about fineness and change of linen,furniture
of bedding,
of
beautyof rooms, service at the table,costliness of plate,
strength
o
f
drink, variety wines, or well usingof horses."
So there would
lack of
be no
cheer ; and the hundreds
that have come
into Coventry
will be fed and lodged
better even
than in London, whose inns, as the same
tells us, are the
authority
in
the
worst
kingdom. Pipingand dancingis there in the chambers, madrigals
worth the listening.
But silence and sleepat last fitly
prepare for a busy dav.
Perhaps,however, a stray minstrel might find his way to this solemnity,
and
forgetthe hour in the exercise of his vocation, like, the very ancient anonymous
poet of the Alliterative Metre, whose
manuscript,
probablyof the date of
at

two

or

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Henry V.,
*

has contrived

to

escape

destruction

"

Coventry has altogetherseparatejurisdiction.It is the County


"a shire-town"
by Dugdale,to mark this distinction.
"

It is culled

91

of the

Cityof Ccveat'-y."

"

BIOGRAPHY.

ordayned, as y have ofte doon,


frendes, and felawes,frendemen, and other ;
And
on
Corpus Christi eve?
caught me in a company
of
oute
Six, other seven
Suthampton,
myle,
makes ;
To take melodye, and mirthes,among
my
With
and revelyng among,
redyng of romaunces,
The
drowe
into the west,
dym of the darknesse
in the grey day."*
And began for to spryng

Ones

me

With

youth from
Perhapsthe inquiring
man,

describe

dissolution

the

before
how

would

who

these

pageants,

this house, had

wheels, and

the

pageants

of their
'

'

acted

Stratford would

with

mighty

and

state

theatres for the several scenes,

drawn

contained

of spectators; and

very
of
the
parts

all the eminent

to

old

The

house.
religious

the story of the New

old

some

acted

they were

as

with

meet

by

Coventry
Grey Friars

the

would

man

by

reverence

tell him
friars of

the

high,placedupon
better advantage
composed into old

largeand

cityfor the
Testament

entitled Ludus
Corporis
manuscript,
been a
who
have
Christi, or Ludus
Coventrice."f That ancient man,
might
friar himself, but felt it not safe to proclaimhis vocation, might describe how
Henry V. and his nobles took great delightin seeingthe pageants; how Queen
Kenilworth
from
to Coventry
came
Margaret in the days of her prosperity
could
the play,and saw
all the pageants played save
to see
one, which
privily
drew
Richard
III.
be
because
how
the
not
came
on
night
played
triumphant
;
commended
VII.
them.
and
how
much
to see the Corpus Christi plays
X
Henry
;
nity
He could recite lines from these Corpus Christi playswith a reverential solemsounded
lines
that
for
the
rude
in
the
of
that
most
ear
youth,but
part
;
fit for the teachingof an
uninwhich, nevertheless,had a vigoroussimplicity,
would
tell how
in the play of
structed people. He
The
Creation
the pride
of Lucifer disdained the worshipof the angels,
how
and
he was
cast down

Englishrhyme, as appearethby

ancient

an

'

'

"

"

How

in the

playof

'

"

With

mirth

The

Fall/ Eve

In this

and

joy

never

sang

garden I will

And

tasten

That

and

how

He

could

the

be

firstpairlost that

repeat,too,

hymn

To

thee

For

Moreover,

and

full of

See

'

forth into the land

went

to

labour
.

in its music

of Abel, very sweet

:"

might,
of nought,

all thing is made


heart

is

ready dight,
thought."

thee is all my

playof 'Noah,'
'

when

the

Percy's Eeliques: On the Alliterative Metre.


Coventry Mysteries.'
t Dugdale.
J See Sharp'g quotationsfrom the manusci*iptAnnals
*

'

in the

my

upon

great plenty

"

garden,and

"Almighty God,
By whom

see

beauty,

the fruits of
in Paradise

to mell."

"

go

All the flowers of fair

more

dove

We

of

returned

givethe

lines

to

as

the ark with

corrected

Coventry, ' Dissertation,'


p

in

i.

95

the

Sharp'g

SHAKSPEItE:

WILLIAM

olivc-brancl),there
bf reels

of

was

joyfulchorus, such

as

could

now

be lieaid in the

never

Coventry:

"

"

Mare

vidit ct

Jordanis
Noa
Sed

Much

more

Guilds

should

fugit,
est

conversus

nobis, Doraine, non


noinini tao

da

retrorsum.

nobis,

gloriam."

in number,
plays,forty-three
but time would
instituted :
not.*
He
defended
the objectsfor which they were
the general spread of knowledge might have brought other teaching,
but they
familiarized the peoplewith the great scriptural
truths ; they gave them amusements
of a higher nature
brute
than military
contentions
of mere
and
games,
force.
and
be
and
like
Greece
the
drama
of
They might
improved,
something
Rome
But now
class of subjects
the same
were
might be founded upon them.
handled
to be
who
would
make
ridiculous.
There was
them
by rude artificers,
much
truth in what
the old man
said ; and the youth of Stratford would
go
to
rest.
thoughtfully
The morning of Corpus Christi comes,
and soon
after sunrise there is stir in
the streets of Coventry. The old ordinances
for this solemnityrequirethat the
would

he

have

told

ancient

of those

be at their posts at

five o'clock.

There

formerly,indeed, after the performanceof


of torches burningaround
hundreds
the figures
of

is to

the

"

be

pageant

a
"

solemn
and

sion
proces-

then, with

dlesticks
Lady and St. John, canof
and
the
silk,
canopies
members
of the Trinity
Guild
and the Corpus Christi Guild
fixes
bearingtheir cruciand candlesticks,
with personations
of the angel Gabriel lifting
up the lily,
the twelve apostles,
and renowned
Catherine
St.
and
St. Margaret.
virgins,
especially
The
Reformation
of this ceremonial ;
has, of course,
destroyedmuch
of it has in great part evaporated. But
and, indeed, the spirit
issuing
now,
from the many
that
lead
the
is
to
there
heard
the
of
cross,
melody
harpers
ways
and the voice of minstrelsy
banners
sound,
riding-mencome
wave,
; trumpets
thick from their several halls ; the
in their robes, the city
and aldermen
mayor
in proper
servants
S
t.
"and
Herod
and
the
back.
horseliveries,
on
George
Dragon,
The
bells ring,
boughs are strewed in the streets, tapestryis hung out of
the windows, officers in scarlet coats
in the crowd
while the procession
struggle
is marshalling.The
crafts are
ancient
order, each craft with
gettinginto their
its streamer
and its men
in harness.
There
ters
are
Fysshersand Cokes, Baxand Milners, Bochers,
"Whittawers
and
Glovers, Pynners,Tylers,and
WirWrightes, Skynners, Barkers,
Corvysers, Smythes, Wevers,
drawers, Cardemakers, Sadelers, Peyntours,and Masons,
Gurdelers, Taylours, Walkers, and Sherman,
Deysters, Drapers, Mercers." f At length
the procession
is arranged. It parades through the principal
lines of the city,
from
Bishopgateon the north to the Grey Friars' Gate on the south, and from
is thronging
crowd
The
Broadgateon the west to Gosford Gate on the east.

and

chalices

of silver,
banners

our

of velvet and

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

to

the wide

area

Seo

on

the

the north

'

LuJus

"

of

Church
Trinity

"

and

St. Michael's, for there is

Coventrise,'
published by the Shakespeare Society.
f Sharp's Dissertation,'
page 1G0.
'

"

Cburchcn

[Coventry

the

pageant

stood
the

six wheels

upon

lower

vehicle
and

room

painted

was

with

cloth

presented

stage

had

and

its
a

flame

Tailors

machinery,

storm

of

is

The

multitudes

Life.

too

There
h

Magi,
is

with
are

moveable

was

is

in

that

most

"

permitted
scaffold

to

was

to

for

the

of

the

erected

streamers,

representationof
concluded

was

company

and

within
the

the

Marder
a

more

of

in

simple

an

quake
earth-

the

Shearmen

Birth

of

of

the

reasonable

painted

This

performed.

subject of

for

ponderous

and

vanes

In

other.

curtains, and

be

the

Egypt

crowd

the
This

stage.

with

cases

pageant

Flight into

the

was

carriagewhich

or

above

one

burnished

round

fitted

performed,
the

rooms,

upper

hung

was

the

two

house

high

with

subject
it

pageant

It
be

the

the

to

now

the

car.

and

fireworks.

which

eager

gilt,surmounted

imagery

Offering of
the

performers

picture of

the

the
and

it

was

into

divided

was

Pageants.]

There

performed.
it

were

decorated

or

first

be

to

and

Christ

noise
and
and

Innocents.
distance

of

distinguished spec97

WILLIAM

The

tators.

harp

of the Guilds

men

trumpet the

and

which
blessing

the

Joseph,and

snd

the

of the

the darkness

are

the

"

changes
a nightso

Then

field where

dark that

the

Amidst

sound

of

prophesying
Mary the
a
dialoguebetween
Mary
are
abidingin
shepherds

Isaiah

Gabriel

Heaven.
the

to

night

their horses.

on

earth.

upon
he is sent from

scene

withdrawn, and

come

which

embassage upon

sit firm

curtains

is to

SIIAKSrETCE

appears,

to

announces

theyknow

where

not

cold and

their

sheep

shines,and

in great heaviness.
Then
the star
they
may be ; they are
Gloria in excelsis Deo."
music
hear the song of
A
soft melody of concealed
the whispersof the Coventryaudience ; and three songs are
hushes even
sung,
of the people,
such as may abide in the remembrance
and be repeatedby them
"

their Christmas

at

festivals.

"

As

I rode

Of

three

And

The

"

out

firstthe

this enders

jollyshepherds

all about

their

fold

shepherdssing

is then

the

"

song

"

sing:

women

night,
a
sight,
star shone
bright ;

"
"

sisters

two, how

we

may

do

this

day
This poor youngling,for whom
By, by, lully,lullay?
to preserve

king, in

the

Herod

hath

Charged

he

His

of

All

men

young

That

woe

And

ever

his

this

might, in

children
is me,

to

poor

mourn

and

up the song

do

sing

child,for thee,
say,

thy parting neither


By, by, lully,lullay."

shepherdsagaintake

we

raging,
day
his own
sight,
slay.

For

"

blow."

Lully,lulla,you little tiny child :


By, by, lully,lullay,you little tiny child :
By, by, lully,lullay.
For

The

"

saw

They sang terli terlow :


So merrily the shepherds their pipes can
There

"

say

nor

sing

"

from
heaven, from heaven so high,
a
angels there came
great company,
With
mirth, and joy, and great solemnity :
They sang terly,terlow :
So merrily the shepherds their pipes can
blow."
Down

Of

The
each

down
to
simplemelody of these songs has come
us
the
the
the
treble,
tenor, and
bass.f The star
having

the

to

"

crib of poor

Enders

theyare

conducts

the child lies ; and, with

part songs,
the

shepherds

which
simplicity

night last night.


curious
Pageant, essentiallydifferent from the same
very
portion of Scripture-history
'Imdiis Coventrice,'
is printed entire
in Mr. Sharp's Dissertation,'
of
as
well as the score
"

t This
in the

repast,"where

these songs.
98

BIOGRAPHY.

one
highlycharacteristic,
presents
the third his mittens.
Prophetsnow
the wonder
and the blessing
:

"

Neither

in halls

would

Neither
That

of Herod

messenger
periodwhen

his hat, and

second

in

lengthenedrhyme

This

be,

yet in

nor

towers

to see.''

were

of
very curious it is,and characteristic
delivered in the language of the Conqueror,
and

were

carry back the date of the


ized.
modernlanguageis occasionally

would

circumstance

III.,though

playto the

bowers

yet in

nor

not

in castles

succeeds

speaksin French.
reignof Edward

that he

he

seemly

king'slaws

the

declare

who

come,

pipe,the

"

Born

The

child his

the

is

the

kingswith their gifts.They are brought before


in his cruel decree.
them
but is inexorable
treats
Herod, who
courteously,
Herod
into Egypt takes pkee, and then the
rages in the streets ; but the flight
The address of the women
to the pitiless
soldiers,
massacre.
defying,
imploring,
is not the least curious part of the performance; for example
We

have

then

the three

"

"

Sir

knightes,of

This
But

is the mild

address

of

on

"

that

He

he

furyof

third is

more

strokes

Sit he

And

We

have

littledoubt

"

had

heard

lude de
The

the

"

never

Whiles

break

At

Herod's

his brains addle,

pot ladlo

my

will I

him

the mad

Do

high in saddle,

so

with

that he who

fight."

described

mothers

the

bowlingsof

taylarsand

here

With

their howl3

with
did

the

curious

all

are

for expenses

the

in the

women

The
scriptural.

of helmets

Smiths'

from

for Herod
*

siege,
"

confr.s'd

Jewry
"
"

Coventrypageant.

And

so

"fynes

scharmen."

their accounts,

of

wives

clouds,
bloody-hunting slaughtermen,"
as

of

the horrors

pageants thus performedby the Guilds


but

sight,
light,
may

but lost."

I shall make

But

in

him

on

"

squire or knight,

excessive

"

raves

child

slaysmy

I hold him

The

chivalry,
pity,"

your

Another

If that my
Be

not

child have

my

mother.

one

courtesy,'

your

shame

day

1449
and

of

pageant
till the

the

was

time

m., Scene

Crucifixion

of which

cloaks for Pilate

Henry V., Act

of various

Coventrywere

we

are

of tabards for

and

jects,
submost

speaking,
Oaiaphas

1:1.
W

SHAKSPERE:

WILLIAM

and
There
The
for

Pilate's wife ; of

for

gear

too, to

payments,

are

for

man

subjectof the Cappers'pageant was


making the play-bookand prickingthe

rehearsal and

the

rehearsal

second

the

Resurrection

songs

for

have

charges
the

at

spent

first

for breakfasts
play-day,

the

on

for Judas

cock-crowing.

They

for money

beard

and

hanging Judas

for supper

and

Demon,

staff for the

that of Doomsday ;
Drapers'pageant was
of their articles of machinerysufficiently
and one
explainsthe character of their
for the barrel
"Paid
world
link
the
fire,"following
to set
on
performance A
fast approachbelieve that the time was
for the earthquake."We
ing
may readily
than
tolerated.
It
is
be
such pageants would no longer
more
when
probable
subordinate
of the
those
to
of the Guilds were
that the performances
originally
Grey Friars ; perhaps devised and supported by the parochialclergy.* But
became
when, indeed, they
the Church
when
opposed to such representations
it is clear that the efforts of the
with the spirit
of the age
were
incompatible
be
successful.
could
not
to
long
They would be certainly
uphold them
laity
which
Their rude
once
belonged to them.
performed without the reverence
be ridiculed ; and when
of ridicule
the feeling
action and simple languagewould
would
be
and
would
become
their
altered,
nature
essentially
they
crept in,
curious
circumstance
connected
with
the
is
There
a
Coventry
profane.
very
that was
made
to keep the dramatic
spirit
pageants which shows the struggle
In 1584
the Smiths
after
of the peoplein this direction.
performed,
many
parations
prefor dinners.

and

subjectof the

The

"

"

"

"

rehearsals,a

and
Smiths

appliedto one
Coventry,and
playfor them.

School
this
"

Paid

Mr

to

educated

in their

the

1584

svth

to

daye

of

of

Jerusalem.
town,

own

The

in the

Free
write

St. John's, Oxford, to

belonged
following
entry appears

The

Oxford

of

Smythe

been
in

who

of

new

pageant, the Destruction

new

had

who

in the
for

aprill1581

cityaccounts
for

bys paynes

"

writing of tho

vjs,viijd."
tragedye" xiij1,

regret that this play,so

We

payments

preserved.
on

the

of

the

to

the

It would

liberally
paid

Jonsons

and

be curious

to

for

Dekkers

contrast

when

of the

it with

true

the

accomplishedscholar of

compared

with

drama, has

beautiful

quent
subsebeen

not

dramatic

day,also

poem
member

by
subject,
But the list of characters remains, which
of Oxford.
shows
University
that the play was
t
he
of
the
Jewish
contests
historical,exhibiting
essentially
factions as described by Josephus. The accounts
manifest that the playwas
got
in 1584 ; but it was
not playedagain till 1591, when
up with great magnificence
it was
then
once
more
performedalongwith the famous Hock Tuesday. It was
ordered that no other playswhatever
should be performed; and the same
order,
same

which

an

makes

all the

this concession

May-polesthat
Whitsunday next, and
the

saw

now

is

It

the

'

Friars.
100

Ludus

think, that

But

to

the

be

Marlowe

adaptedto

Coventriic,' which

own

the request of the Commons,"

hereafter

none

last of its pageants.

clear,we

at

standingin this

are

building
up somethingmore

from

"

our

cityshall be
up."

set

and

that age

In

directs

taken
that

down
year
in

Shaksperewere
more

pageants performed by the


Dugdale expressly tells

universal

Guilds
us

were

"

that

before

Coventry
London,

dramas

that

altogether different
performed by tho Grey

were

BIOGKAPHY.

of politicscan
or
change of manners
destroy. The Pageants of Coventry
her strong gates and
walls have
have perished,
as
perished. They belonged
times.
other
A
needed.
few fragments
to
are
no
They
longer
essentially
remain
what
to tell us
they were ; and upon these the learned,as they are
doubt
and
and the general
will
world heed them
differ,
not.
called,
no

And

the

now

of

men

Coventrylead

the strangersto another

of

the way

spot,

Hock-play,the Hock-play\" There was yawning and illseems


repressedlaughingduring the pageant, but the whole populationnow
with the spirit
of joyfulness.As one
animated
of the worthy aldermen
gallantly
Nycklyn,a
presses his horse through the crowd, is there not a cry, too, of "A
did
!
for
the
three
not
Thomas
Nycklyn
Nycklyn,
worthy mayor,
years ago,
Hock
cause
Tuesday,whereby is mentioned an overthrow of the Danes by the
inhabitants of this city,
to be againset up
mendation
and showed
forth, to his great com"*
Crossand the city's
of
the
wide
In
the
?
area
great commodity
that stately
assembled.
The
cheapingis the crowd now
strangers gaze upon
for
which
of
the
chief
Cross, beingone
thingswherein this citymost glories,
then
It was
not
in England.
"f
workmanship and beauty is inferior to none
venerable
for antiquity,
for it had been completedlittlemore
than thirty
years ;
work
above
wondrous
of
but it was
a
architecture,story rising
story,
gorgeous
with
with canopiesand statues, to a magnificent
vanes
g
littering
height,
upon
the square
decorated with numerous
and now
its pinnacles,
streamers.]: Around
floors
of most
form ; the balconies of their principal
houses
are
picturesque
roofs
filled with gazers, and the windows
immediatelybeneath the high-pitched
The
showingas many heads as could be thrust through the open casements.
is cleared,for the play requiresno
scaffold. The Englishand the Danes
area
shouts of
marshal
on
oppositesides. There are fierce words and imprecations,
understood
ill
of counsel.
heard
What
is imperfectly
or
defiance,whisperings
There
show.
with
the
familiar
those
who
is
the
are
explainedby
by
strangers
ing
is no ridicule now;
no
laughingat Captain Cox, in his velvet cap, and flourishof
the
women
Then
and
exultation.
all is gravity
come
his tonsword
;
much
of liberty,
enduring; and some
Coventry,ardent in the cause
courageous,
rode into that square, in a
tells in the pauses of the play,how there once
one
death-like solitude and silence, a ladyall naked, who,
bearingan extraordinary
with the cry of

"

The

"

"

"

"

besoughther husband
place,often and earnestly
it was
that grievousservitude whereunto
;""
subject
conditions upon which her prayer would be granted

that he would

affection for this


free it from
her the hard

from

Extract

telling

She

fortb,clothed

rode

manuscript AnnaiS

of

with

on

chastity."

Coventry in Sharp's ' Dissertation/p. 129.

Dugdale.

X The
missioners

Cross

has

The

hovels,and we call them


old Chapel of Ease
an
recumbent
fine
figuresof
place,and

he

legged chap ? Oh
" Dugdale.

and
Com
by the hands of Cominon-councilmen
to make
for their Athenian
mortar
Elgin marbles
These
barbarians.
on
things went
amongst us up to a very recent time.
in the neighbourhood of Stratford
of the very
few years
a
was,
ago, one

perished,not through

of Pavement.

In

the

he

"

"

and

asked

Turks

Templar.

the

! I mended

sexton
the

age,

but

up

the

broke

The

what
road

figurewas
had

wi'

become

he;

missed

by

of it ?

saved

deal

The

clergyman who
answer

was,

sometimes

"What

I that

o' limestone."

101

visited
cross

SIIAKSrERE:

WILLIAM

Noble-hearted

such

women

assisted their husbands


in

triumph ;

and

Cross, and

Swine

of

body

Henry

the

VI.

day

his

the ancient

copy.* Assuredlythere
employed in noting down

faithful

Joshua, David, and


Julius

Caesar

Boulogne, uttered

speaks
:

Judas

of

Troy,

Lowly will obey


Alexander

thus

lofty

presentedto

was

Leet-book

which

contains

the

fully
performancecare-

the

three

Hebrews,

the three Infidels,


Hector, Alexander, and

Christians, Arthur,
In

Charlemagne,and
Coventry pageant

the

Godfrey of
Hector

thus

And

kneel

knee."

my

on

of

pageant of

when,
comes

in to say

named,

"

benign

Nine

it

high and mighty,


and good."
not

were
'

Worthies

meant

presenteda

for
few

downrightparody,
years

"

The

armipotentMars,

Gave
A

man

am

Hector

of

lances the

gift,the heir

of

almighty,

Ilion

breath'

so

From
I

Alexander

most

men,

if
plagiary,

The

'

mortal

princes most

you,

littleless than

in

"

"

emperor

Welcome

"

and

you,

be,

conqueror,

I, Julius Cassar,sovereign of knighthood

"

that may

chief

am

princes."

you,

Julius Caesar thus

Surelyit was

that

"

Welcome

And

as

that

I,Alexander, that for chivalrybeareth the ball,


in conquest through the world am
Most
courageous

"

And

the

witnessed

loftyspeeches

pleasantprinces,recorded

Most

I, Hector

And

not

"

"

And

around

but gay with paintedcloths and


is to be performedby the dramatic

of which

one

the

In the space

scaffold erected

pageant, such

who

occasion.

that

on

was

Maccabseus

the three

and

'

Worthies

in 1455, and

Queen

chorus.

and

yet concluded.

shearmen,

Coventry who
captives

of

there theylead their

song

School, is another

those

were

and

with

not

are

Nine

The

'

School

Grammar

and

the Danes

drapersand

of the

pageant of

The

the

of

St. John's

near

scaffold like that


ribbons.

drive out

to

Godiva

Lady

Hock-playterminate*

the

solemnities

the

But

the

as

morn

d, that certain he would fight,yea,


till night, out of his pavilion.

that flower."

:"

When

in the world
I liv'd,
I was
the world's commander
;
By east,west, north, and south, I spread my conquering migb.'j
My 'scutcheon plain declares that I am Alisander."

Pompey, usurpingthe justhonours


"

Pompey

That

am,

oft in

Pompey

surnamed

with targe and


field,

of his

triumphantrival :"

the great,

shield,did make

Sharp, pago

115.

my

foe to awoat"

after,Hector

the

But

laugh

utterly dead
St.

John's
the

at

and

dance

Love's

for

tlio

old

Coventry

parody
in

merry

"

the

Fagcant

was

harmless

estimation.

popular

would

there

souls, ready

"

to

be

play

The

one.

Nine

Certainly
than

more

the

on

in

one

tabor

to

Worthies
the

were

before

crowd

who

would

the

Worthies,

laugh
and

hay."*

Lost,
of

the

Coventry

at

Labour's

speeches

the

gone

School

speeches

let thera

of

BIOGKAPITY.

Hector,

Act

v.

It

is

Alexander,

scarcely
and

to

necessary

Pompey.

is remarkable.

[Ancient

Cute

oi

Coventry,

184?

refer

tho

coincidence

The

reader
between

to

the
these

same

and

play
the

William

NOTE

Cheater

"

The

Mysteries," winch

dually suppressed
of ignorance would

in

"

of

which

he

ON

has

be

no

THE

COVENTRY

appear

greatly to
Rogers, who

Archdeacon

1574.

left

SHAKSPEftfi;

more

seen,

appears

PAGEANTS.

his

been

to have

the

in

those

resembled

have

of

'

"

"

"such

their

eye-witness of

an

following description: (See Markland's


of the Chester Mysteries.')
of the playes of Chester,called the Whitson
Now
playes,when
occupationsbringe forthe at theire charges the playes or pagiantes.

Coventry,

rejoicestbat

MSS.

Introduction

the

performance,
a
Specimen

to

what

played, and

weare

wera

cloud

of one
the worke
playes,weare
Chester, called the Whitson
the whole
hisWarburghe in Chester,who redused
in the
torye of the bible into englishe storyes in metter
englishe tounge ; and this Monke, in a
of Chester,namely, Sr John
the firste maior
Then
good desire to doe good, published the same.
which
thus :
he
the
of
the
be
caused
to
:
maner
Arnewaye, Knighte,
playes was
same
played
and
divided
Cittie
into 24 pagiantes according to the
of
the
comthey weare
every
;
copanyes
"

Heare

that

note

Moncke

Tlondell,a

these

of the

of

playes

of Sainte

Abbaye

"

broughte forthe theire pagiant,wch


a
playes weare
played, there was
and
there
throughe the Cittie,
published

panye

was

these

the

the

cariage or place wdl


ride,as I take

the

wch did

man

tyme

and

the

of

matter

played

the

in ; and
S'

it, upon

plays in
'

played

weare

ganne

at the

it

wheled

was

was

clonne

Mondaye, Tuesday,
Wensedaye
upon
Abbaye gates ; and when the firste pagiante was
played at
thense
the
from
to the Pentice,at the hyghe Crosse,before

the

seconde

Bridge Streete,and

unto

so

iheie

and
ajoparrelled

dressed

npon

vi wheeles

when

; and

after

one

daye, and so likewise


like a
hyghe place made

the firste
was

the

; and

came

with

had

doune

the

with

one

the

Abbaye
maior, and

the

first be-

gates, then
before

that

the

beinge

2 rowmes,

themselves, and

the

and

seconde

breeife

thei

Watergate Streete, and from thense


all the pagiantes weare
played appoynted for
the thircle daye. These
pagiantes or carige
into

other 'till

an

for the
bowse

firste went

And

weeke.

in Whitson

and

before

Georges daye

on

open

higher rowme
cariage in

the

theie
one

tope ; the

lower

played, and

place theie
pentise,then

rowme

theie

wheled

stoode

the

same

to the Watergate
Abbaye gate to the
streete,then to the bridge streete through the lanes,and so to the este gate streete : and thus
in everye
order
tha came
from
streete to another,kepinge a directe
streete,for before thei
one
the
before
seconde
the
from
the
seconde
and
firste carigewas
so
was
one
place
gone
gone
came,
in
all in order
donne
withoute
and so till the laste was
thirde came,
stayeinge
place,
anye
anye
from

tor

one

worde

tarye

streete

to

another, first from

beinge broughte howe


laitciwas
played."

till the

1U4

every

the

place was

neere

doone, the

came

and

made

no

place

to

Mill.

and

[StratfordChurch,

From

original drawing

an

at the

CHAPTER

beginning

of ths

last Coaiury.]

IX.

HOME.

We

endeavoured

thus

have

colours, the

very

Shakspere.

He

which

meagre
is

has

to fill up, with


some
outline which
exists of

will assume,

we

now,

held

been

of

furnish

imperfectforms
the

the age of

schoolboylife
fourteen

decisive evidence

feeble

and

William

of

the year

"

1578

worldly
family. The first who attempted to write Some
of the Life of William
Account
His father,who
Rowe, says,
Shakspeare,'
was
dealer in wool, had
so
a considerable
large a family,ten children in all,that,
his eldest son, he could
give hin no better education than his
though he was
He
had
bred
it
is true, for some
time at a free-school,
him,
own
employment.
he acquiredwhat Latin he was
of : but the narrow
master
where, it is probable,
a

year

his father

of

and

to

as

the

to

dition
con-

his

'

"

ness

of his

in
one

him

from

hundred

by his father.
manifestlylased upon

We

first,that his father had


circumstances

being taught
the

thence, and

of

his

assistance

unhappilyprevented his

for

school

that

have
two
a

he

no

hesitation

in

saying that

further

could

not

spare

even

the time

nothing; and, secondly,that the son,


he acquired what
Latin he was

where

the

assumptions,both of which
are
of
ten
children, and was
largefamily

"

record

master

the

"

he had

been
is

statement

incorrect

his

ficiency
pro-

written

was

so

"

narrowed

of his eldest

by

his

forced

home,

at

language." This statement, be it remembered,


and
thirtyyears after the event which it professes
to
of William
from
the
free-school
which
to
Shakspere

sent

from

the want

that

earlyremoval

his

and

circumstances,

father to withdraw

son,

The
in
he

earlyremoval
of,"

was

105

pre-

WILLIAM

SIIAKSrEKE

"an
his works
in that language,"
a
manifesting
attaining
"proficiency
this
in
should
of
that we
be convenient
It mav
place
ignorance the ancients."
endeavour
Mr. Halliwell,commenting upon
to dispose
of both these assertions.
this statement,
circumstances
John Shakspeare's
began to fail him when
says,
the grammar-school,
from
him
William was
about fourteen,and he then withdrew
for the purpose
of obtaining
his assistance in his agricultural
pursuits."Was
fourteen an unusually
earlyage for a boy to be removed from a grammar-school?
If
We
think not, at a periodwhen there were
at the Universities.
boy-bachelors

vented

"

he had

been

taken

from

an
certainly
earlyage,
as

the

of his circumstances
have

been

should

we

"

purchaser of two

would

he was
eleven,
years before, when
his father then recorded, in 1575,
seen

three
have

the

as

of

reason

exploded.

once

"

in

freehold houses

"

at

school

the

Henley Street,and

Shakspere's
"

the

better

no

"

narrowness

proficiency,"
utterly

Rowe
allegation

In his material

"

fails.
The

familyof

children.

In

John

the

Shaksperedid
1578, when

year

reasonably
supposed to
"

consist,as

not

the

we

periodhis

terminated, and before which

have

of William

education

school

of ten

alreadyshown,

have

"

be
may
assistance

embarrassingthan useful to his father,the


familyconsisted of five children : William, aged fourteen ; Gilbert,twelve ; Joan,
nine ; Anne, seven
died earlyin the following
Richard four.
Anne
year ;
; and
born ; so that the familynever
and, in 1580, Edmund, the youngest child,was
of John
still the circumstances
exceeded
five livingat the same
time.
But
The assertion of
with five children,might have been straitened.
even
Shakspere,
excited the persevering
Rowe
of Malone
; and he has collected together
diligence
at

home

rather

series of documents

John
at

would

both

one,

The

"

'

Life

which

he

is devoted

manufacture

to

of

consideration

which
gloves,

Stratford and Worcester

at

leaves

infers,or

was,

(in which

reader

the

their station of

sunk from
familygradually
depthsof poverty and ruin.

Stratford into the


*

from
his

Shakspereand

posthumous

been

have

The

to

infer,that

respectability

sixth section of Malone's

mences
subject. It thus comat this period,
a very flourishing
latter cityit is still carried on

of this

from
whatever
generallybeneficial,should seem,
The
afforded our
to have
cause,
poet'sfather but a scanty maintenance."
the
assumptionthat John Shaksperedepended for his "maintenance"
upon
manufacture
of gloves rests entirely
and absolutely
one
solitary
entry in
upon
the books of the bailiff'scourt at Stratford. In Chapter II. we have endeavoured
show
John
to
to what
extent, and in what
Shaksperewas a glover.
manner,
Glover or not, he was
of land in 1578.
and an occupier
a landed
proprietor

with great success),


however

"

"

We
was

proceed

about
:

to

fourteen

it rests

the

decisive

years

"

old," the

of

distressed

"

grounds

surer

upon

statement

than

Malone

that

situation

"

"

when

our

of his father

conjecture."The

author
was

dent
evi-

Corporationbooks

occasions,such as the visitation of the plague in


particular
1564, John Shaksperecontributed like others to the relief of the poor ; but now,
in January,1577-8, he is taxed for the necessities of the borough only to pay

have

shown

that

on

half what

other aldermen

aldermen

are

assessed

Shakspere shall
"

10G

not

be

pay

and

in November

fourpenceweekly towards
taxed to pay anything."

of the

year, whilst other


the relief of the poor, John
levied upon
In 1579 the sum
same

chargeof the borough is returned, amongst


for."
this
similar sums
of other persons, as
unpaid and unaccounted
Finally,
that this merciful
evidence of the books of the borough shows
unquestionable
in an
action
of his brother
forbearance
for,
townsmen
was
unavailing
;
brought againsthim in the bailiff's court in the year 1586, he during these
from
bad to worse,
the return
on
seven
by the Serjeants
years having gone
of
distress
John
has
that
warrant
at mace
is,
a
Shakspere
nothingupon
upon
which
distress can
be levied.* There
other corroborative
are
proofs of John
In this precise
Shakspere'spoverty at this periodbrought forward by Malone.
him

providingsoldiers

BIOGRAPHY.

for

the

at

"

year, 1578, he

Lambert
mortgages his wife's inheritance of Asbies to Edmund
ford,
for fortypounds ; and, in the same
year, the will of Mr. Roger Sadler, of Stratis
which
spere
Shaklist
shows
that
John
of debts due to him,
to
subjoineda
indebted

was

him

five

pounds, for

which," says Malone,


insolvent,if not as one

security,"By
"

considered

then

to

which

"it

Edmund

sum

that

appears

Lambert

John

dependingrather

was

Shakspere was

the credit of others

on

It is of littleconsequence
whether
to the present age to know
alderman
of Stratford,nearlythree hundred
an
unequal to
years past, became
maintain
his social position
but
enable
to
to form
us
;
a
rightestimate of the
than

his own."

education

of William

Shakspere,and of the circumstances in which he was


most
influential periodof his life,it
placed at
to
may not be unprofitable
consider how far these revelations of the privateaffairs of his father
support the
which Malone
holds he has so triumphantly
case
proved.
At the time in question,the best evidence
is unfortunately
destroyed
; for the
o
f
Court
the
of
Record
Stratford
is
at
from
registry
1569 to 1585.
wanting,
the

Nothinghas

been

It amounts

therefore

pounds
had

added

what

to

to

that he is indebted

become

contributed

security
; and
another.

to

Malone

has

this, that in
"

also five

that he is excused

in

Henley Street, bought

for

duringfour

in 1574.

he

1578

pounds

At this time

collected

to

mortgages

this
an

friend for which

preciseperiod.

of two

for

estate

forty

his mortgagee

publicassessment,

one

he is the possessor

Malone,

to

as

and

has not

freehold houses

lawyer by profession,
supposes
that the money
for which Asbies was
mortgagedwent to pay the purchase of the
Stratford freeholds ; according
to which
theory,these freeholds had been unpaidyears, and the
vendor
the
partedwith the

when

that

in

or
purchaser,

in

the

"

1578, when
at any

borough

rate the

and

good

and

"

lawful

money
hold, and

was

not

"

in hand

"

think more
we
premises.We
ably,
reasonJohn
became
Asbies,
the
mortgaged
Shakspere
of lands in the parishof Stratford,,
but not
occupier,

he

that, in either

case,

the

money

for which

Asbies

was

capital
mortgaged
employed in this undertaking. The lands which were
in 1601, are described in
purchased by William Shakspereof the Combe
family,
the deed as
within
the
of Old Stretford."
fields,or town
lyingor being
parish,
But the will of William Shakspere,
he havingbecome
the heir-at-law of his father,
his
lands
devises all
and tenements
within the towns, hamlets, villages,
fields,
and groundsof Stratford-upon-Avon,
Old Stratford,Bishopton,
and Welcombe."
was

the

"

"

We

print correct

copies of these entries

at the end

of

tho

Chapter. Malouc's

copies exhibil

Iub usual inaccuracies.

107

SHAKSPEEE

WILLIAM

different from
Bishopton or
essentially
Welcombe;
and, therefore,whilst the lands purchasedby the son in 1601 might
he might have derived from
be those recited in the will as lyingin Old Stratford,
of the purchase of which by
nis father the lands of Bishoptonand Welcombe,
But we have a distinct record that William
himself we have no record.
Shakspere
Old

did

is

Stratford

lands

derive

freeholds in

his father, in the

from

Mr.

Henley Street.

same

that he

way

of

which
recital,

proprietor.The
Blackfriars

the

any inference,a

without
prints,

Halliwell

inherited

1639 ;" that deed contains


Shakespeare's
Property,
conclusive
of the father
the position
to
as
appears

of Settlement

in

local denomination,

fine for the purpose of settlement is taken upon


at Acton
2, a tenement
; 3, the capital
messuage

remarkable

as

1, a

two

Deed

"

landed

tenement

of New

Place

of
acres
Henley Street; 5, one hundred and twenty-seven
land purchasedof Combe
lands, tenements
6, all other the messuages,
; and
in
situate
and
the
and hereditaments
whatsoever,
towns, hamlets,
being
lying

4, the

in

tenement

"

fields and
villages,
and Welcombe,
or
the

were

any

inheritance

could

heir-at-law

of his father.

John

onlybe

Shakspere,

500/."

used

The

upon
lands

he hath

lands of

in

legalsense

one

the

grant of

and

Bishoptonand

of

tenements,
Welcombe

Heralds'

wealth

good
in the

are

distinct confirmation

more

in the

arms

word

by descent,as

to him

they came

heretofore
The

Collegeto

and

substance,

parishof Stratford,but

in the

borough. Bishoptonwas a hamlet, havingan ancient chapel of


hold, then, that in the year 1578 John Shakspere,havingbecome
more,

not

We

a yeoman
agriculturist

an

of business,to be
rated

are

to

pay

he is described

as

"

for the purposes


Other aldermen

an

one,

which

Robert

relates to

brother

Bratt, nothing in

ordained

that every

this

deed

the

of 1579

ease.
pletely
com-

ceased,

"

of Stratford.

borough

the furniture of

towards

eight-pence
; whilst
less
than other
four-pence. Why

and
shillings

in

occupierwithin

and
archers, six shillings

"

difficult to find

be

which

deceased."

Shakspere,gent.,

It would

memorandum
"

in the said county of Warwick,

William

of

Stratford,Bishopton

Old
Stratford-upon-Avon,

of them

inheritance

of the

of

grounds

John

aldermen

alderman, suggests
place."

pikemen,billmen, and
Shakspereis to pay three

an

answer

Again, ten

The
to

next

the

months

entry but

:
question
"

after,
"

"

It is

alderman

shall pay weekly,towards


the relief of the poor,
John Shakspereand Robert Bratt, who shall not be taxed to pay
save
four-pence,
Here
John Shakspereis associated with Robert Bratt,who, according
any thing."
to

the

previousentry, was

Stratford,to which

the

pay nothingin this place; that is,in the borough of


orders of the council alone apply. The return, in 1579,
to

of Mr.

of three shillings
and three-pence,
Shakspereas leavingunpaid the sum
the return
in which, althoughthe possessor of
was
upon a ievyfor the borough,
he
resided,payinghis
might have ceased to reside,or have onlypartially
property,
in the parish. The Borough of Stratford,
assessments
and the Parish of Stratford,
different things,
are
as
essentially
regardsentries of the Corporationand of the
Court of Record.
The Report from Commissioners
of MunicipalCorporations
limits

says, "The

breadth, and
aldermen

108

or

borough

extend
*

over

space

of about

half

mile in

*. The
recorder, and senior
length
mayor,
also
of the peace, over
as
a
jurisdiction,justices
borough
suburb
the Church
of Stratford-upon-Avon,
called Old
adjoining

rather

of the

small town

of the
moie

in

have

Stratford,and
to

revert

this distinction

to

advanced

precinctsof

the

over

periodin' the

somewhat

his

withdraw

We

shall have occasion

the

parish, at

the

borough and
father,when
Shakspere's

life of

certain obscure

his utter

more

ruin has been

registers.

at

William

son

itself."

John
Shakspere purany rate, in the year 1574, when
chased
houses
in Stratford, it was
for
him
to
scarcelynecessary

that

freehold

two

church

tne

between

rashlyinferred from

Seeing,then,

BIOGRAPHY.

from

of his circumstances

school, as Rowe

(theeducation

has it,on

that school

of the

account

ness
narrow-

costingthe father

nothing),
period when
from
usuallywithdrawn
grammar-schools. In those days the
boys were
education
of the university
earlier than at present. Boys
commenced
much
intended
for the learned
for the church
and
more
especially
professions,
commonly went to Oxford and Cambridge at eleven or twelve years of age. If
intended
for those
the
not
at
professions,
they probably remained
they were
thirteen or fourteen ; and then they were
fitted
grammar-school till they were
articled to attorneys, a numerous
for being apprenticed
and
to
tradesmen,
or
in
also
those
of
the
went
to
cheap litigation.
Many
early
thrivingbody
days
it is not

Inns

difficult to

Court, which

of

that

school

of

the

were

the

universities

in direct
discipline
Shakspere did
obtain

to

of Greek,

and

remained

son

William

Stratford

knowledge

that

of

connection

study and

real
assume

believe

at

is to

it could

not

assume

law, and

been

where

there

Societies.

several

the

was

To

the

stay long enough


grammarin Latin," with
some
proficiency
"

absurdityupon

an

have

the
with

at

fair

very

till the

there

assumed

the

face

all,had

stances
of the circum-

Rowe,

setting
in
works
because
the
of
find
that,
scarce
we
theory,
Shakspere
upon
of
that
looks
like
imitation
held
of
the
that
ancients,"
an
anything
any traces
his
least
from
them
be an argument of
not
at
copying
therefore
something
may
his never
of Aubrey, much
havingread them."
Opposed to this is the statement
of
times
the
he
understood
Latin
Rowe
to
nearer
Shakspere
pretty well."
inference
led into his illogical
small Latin and
less Greek
had been
by the
mother- wit" of Denham
"his
of Jonson ; the "old
learningwas
; the
very
native wood-notes
wild
of Fuller ; the
little
of Milton,
phrases,every
is to be taken with considerable
of which
whether
one
we
qualification,
regard
;

out

never

at

not

false

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

the

of the utterers,

characters
peculiar

themselves.

The

the

or

circumstances

with

connected

the

question
upon
fact that the very earliest
authorityor that ; but upon the indisputable
imbued
of
with
classical
of
that
a spirit
writings Shakspere are
antiquity
; and
words

the

net

rests

of the dictum
interpretation

of this

the

allusive nature

the

best

which

proof

has

"

was

If,"said Hales

stolen from

that
learning
with
familiarity

of his

misled

learning which

of '.he

them."

those

who

never

displayedin
of Eton,

ancient

attempted
the

direct

to

writers, is

disputethe
his

pedantry of

it offers

circumstance

existence

of the

contemporaries.

he had not
read the classics,he had likewise not
Marlowe, Greene, Peele, and all the earlydramatists, overload

playswith quotationand
they steal,and therefore they have
not

the

itself in them, whilst

"

their

is assumed

manifests

to have

allusion.
mythological
read.

He

who

uses

According to Hales,
his

knowledge skilfully

read.
109

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

generalexamination of the various


ency
learningof Shakspere,and the tendopinionsthat have been held as
without
that he was
of those opinionsto show
learning.*We
only
in
desire to point out, by a very few observations,that the learningmanifested
that his profithe assertion of Rowe
bear out
his earlyproductionsdoes not
ciency
the
removal
from
his
in the Latin languagewas
early
interrupted
by
and Adonis, the first heir
His youthfulpoem, Venus
free-school of Stratford.
is upon a classical subject. The
of his invention,
Rape of Lucrece is founded
he have ventured
of
Roman
of
the
history.Would
beginnings
upon a legend
the
had he been unfamiliar with the ancient writers,from
these subjects
upon
would
which
he could alone obtain the knowledge
attentive study of which
His was
?
enable him to treat them with propriety
an
scholarship.
age of sound
It is not

dedicates

He

our

intention

both

to

enter

upon
to the

scholar,and

patron of scholars.

contemporaries
objectthat these classical

of his

ignorantof

man

poems

to

the

classics?

Will

the

most

subjects

were

Does

treated

critical examination

by

one

any
a

of

young
these

anythingthat betraysthis ignorance? Is there not the most


of
an
original
conceptionof the mode
keeping in both these poems,
perfect
advisedlyadopted with the full knowledge of what
treatingthese subjects,
tion
the vigorouspainting
of nature to any imitabut
preferring
might be imitated,
's Lost, undoubtedlyone
of the earliest comedies, shows
Love's Labour
?
laid down
the principle
by Coleridge,that a young author's firstwork
upon
spere
his
recent
almost
pursuits that the habits of William Shakalwaysbespeaks
and those of a student."
The Comedy of Errors is
had been scholastic,
ancients
in
critics have
imitations
of
the
full of those
particular
passages which
critics
been too apt to take as the chief evidences of learning.The
in all cases
of Shakspere are
puzzledby these imitations ; and when they see with what
Mensechmi
of
the incidents of the
skill he adopts,or
amends, or rejects,
but to contend
that his knowledge of Plautus
Plautus, they have no resource
derived from
wretched
translation,publishedin all probability
was
a
eight or
written.
The
three
Parts
of
of
after
the
Errors
ten
was
Henry
Comedy
years
the earliest of the historical plays. Those who
VI. are
disputethe genuineness
allusions to mythologyand
classical
of the First Part affirm that it contains more
in
authors than
Shakspere ever uses ; but, with a most singularinconsistency,
have
chosen
and Third
Parts which they
to pronounce
the passages of the Second
of
another
writer
of
the
additions
to
the
writers,
or
as
original
Shakspere
plays
allusions to mythologyand classical writers as in
there are
to be found
as
many
have remarked
be
these passages
to
the part which
his.f We
they deny
upon
that theyfurnish the proof that, as a young writer,he possesseda competent
not
it ;
but
unwillingto display
knowledge of the ancient authors, and was
which
remarkable
the
was
that, with that wonderful
as
as
judgment
digious
prohe
learnt
his
avoid
of
the
to
soon
imaginative
pedantry
p
owers,
range
inferiormen
to which
so
pertinaciously
clungin the prideof their scholarship."
detect

poems

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

"

question ia further touched


upon
Shakspere.' Section I.
+ Sec our
Essay on Henry VI. and Richard
*

This

in

our

'

History

of

Opinion

on

"

110

III.

Historic0,Vol. II.

page

432.

the

Writings of

BIOGRAPHY.

dramatic works of Shakspere,whenever


the whole
Ranging over
in Hamlet,
such
as
image or allusion,

find

we

sical
clas-

"

"

station

New

the

management

may

sustain
of his

or

contrast

in the

words, he

does

to

are

be

copyingextracts
miracles

the

"

the passage
graceful
; and
refined imitations of his contemporaries,
his Roman
plays he appears co-existent

most

In

characters,and

have

to

read

all the

pages of Roman
When
he employs

obscure

historian.
or
eye than philosopher
in the creation of
construction of his sentences, and even

clearer

Latinisms

we

with

Mercury,
heaven-kissinghill,"

always elegantand

is

imitator,Milton.

own

with his wonderful


with
history

lightedon

oi' the idea

herald.

like the

so

with

told, he
from

of talent and

managed

then,
unerringcorrectness.
a
nd
bad
translations,
by
by studying

dictionaries

and

grammars

industrv

all this

as

the

new

And

and
singularfacility

Farmers

and

as

if it was

the

reserved

Steevenses

to

for such

read Ovid

boy
schoolwhether
original
tongues, whilst the dull Shakspere,
to be contented
adult,was
or
through life with the miserable translations
believe that his familiarity
at
We
Arthur
Phaer.*
of
Golding and Thomas
late ; and
and continued
least with the best Roman
writers was
begun early,
ing
that he, of all boys of Stratford,
would
be the least likely
to discredit the teachthe
of
the
of Thomas
Hunt
and Thomas
Jenkins,
masters
grammar-school

Virgilin their

and

from

1572 till 1580.


William
Shakspereno longer
happy days of boyhood are nearlyover.
chamber
in Henley Street,
humble
close of the day when, in that
father shall hear somethingof his school progress, and read with him
some

The

looks for the


his

See

series of learned

Frazer's Magazine.

and

spiritedpapers

1839.

'v-j.
.

"
-

by Dr.

Maginn

on

Farmer's

Essay, printedin

WILLIAM

English book
had

of

or
history
cheaplyamongst

SHAKSPERE

"

the active presses of London


is arrived when
he has quitted

which

volumes

travel,

people. The time


The
a worldly
occupationis scarcely
yet made.
wishes of his father,whatever they
hinted
than
carried
rather
at
out.
are
be,
may
It is that pause which so often takes placein the life of a youth,when
the world
dhows afar off like a vast plainwith many
all
and
and
bright
losing
paths,
sunny,
themselves
in the distance,where it is fancied there is somethingbrighter
still.
{.t this season
we
paint the familyof John Shakspere at their evening
may
fireside. The mother
is plyingher distaff,
or
hearingRichard his lesson out of
sent

the free-school.

the ABC

His

book.

the

choice of

The

the elder

father and

chronicles,manly reading. Gilbert


all accord

of

ground

"

whilst

the lute which

upon
business

with

the

teachinghis

the littleAnne,

father,who

sister Joan

"

wisdom

What

Her.

And

tell 's

stirs

again : Pray

for you

Merry,
As

amongst

you

sit

us,

you,

as

merry

To

frightme

with

There

"

by

man,

And
"

'

sad."

or

merry
The
Palace

by

He

excellent

's have

powerful at

to

ear."

set

forth

"

the

then,

on

prodigiousmine

copy, well

thumbed

nouelles,selected out

great valiance

personages,

courageous

it.

the virtuous

of such

well

of diuers

of the Ordinaunce

of noble
minds

readingdays,of
furnished with pleasaunt
good
and

Ambrose

to

gentlemen,the

of

noble

stories,whether

his first

from

to the dedication of the translator


book, according
was

best

your

're

you

that,good sir.

"

Painter, Clarke

William

hear it.

in mine

access

had

"

Come, sir,now

of Pleasure,beautified,
adorned, and

histories and
authors

had

for Her-

't be ?

do

Come

give 't me

trulythat boy

read

not

we

"

Her.
And

their gentle brothei.

Nay, come, sit down ; then on.


churchyard. I will tell it softly;

crickets shall not

Yon

on, and

sprites:

your

was

Dwelt

Come

Her.
Mam.

in upon

goblins.
Let

on, sit down

Mam.

the

all the

tale 's best for winter

sad

Her.
Come

of

will.

spritesand

of

one

by

sad, shall

or

you

Mam.
I have

"

tale.

Mam.

Her.

book

then
crowd
room
;
group
laid aside his chronicle,to entreat
him for a

has

and for Mamillius, William


mione, Mary Shakspere,

am

Gamut,

neighbourcomes

and

even
joinsin the children's prayer to
story; the mother
Has not he, himself,picturedsuch a home
?
scene
May

upon

pettedchild,is wilfully
ing
twang-

quitsthe

intent

each

are

sister has laid down.

her

their elder brother,who

round

is

son

and

commendable

Armarie.'

Earl of Warwick,
terrible combats

dames, the chaste

ladies,the wonderful

In this

of

hearts of

the mild
sufferance
patienceof puissantprinces,
in
the
of
adverse
divers,
gentlewomen, and,
well-disposed
quiet bearing
Pleasant little apophthegms and short fables were
fortune."
there in that book,
which
the brothers and sisters of William
Shaksperehad heard him tell with
abided
and
therefore
marvellous
in their memories.
There
was
they
spirit,

constant

of

"

112

Winter's

Tale, Act

n., Scene

I.

biography.

-loth

lark and

of the old

fable
/Esop's

premonishthat hope

be fixed

in

trusted

and

delightful to

and

her young

of

confidence

and aptly
prettily
thingsattempted by man
ought to

who

Rome,

at

he

"

There

other but in himself."

none

child, of the bondman

wherein

ones,

the

was

story,most

brought into the open


lion of a marvellous
a

was

with
a
great multitude looked, to fight
placeupon
and afterwards
him
he saw
the fierce lion when
suddenlystood still,
; and
bigness
the
he
unto
man
as
in
little
and
though he
came
little, gentlesort,
by
told that he
had known
him," and licked his hands and legs; and the bondman
which

"

in former

healed

had

These

his friend.

tale,out

of the
had

of which

French

the

from

It

recitation.
graceful

and

Boisteau

Pierre

of

pondered;

often

"

was

tale which

he

tale,as

true

at Verona,
this day is so well known
as
whereof
to
memory
beheld that lamentable
and
blubbered eyes be yet dry that saw
Romeo
love between
of the true and constant
The
goodlyhistory

Then

familywere

himself

withdrew

with

variance

at

how

into

Romeo
his

corner;

into the hall of the

came

of
by reason
known
by

but

"

he was
burned very bright,
by and
company;" how he held the frozen

which
whole

Capulet,and
them

it warmed

and

"

unneths*

their
It

sight."
and

Julietta.'

whose
Capulets,

looked

by
daughterof
upon

bloodshed, and

the
love

moment

there

of her father's

"

was

father's
"

"

came

the

the

and

then

was

the

told that Romeo

the

how

lated
trans-

it, the

records

son
was
ladywas
before
her
little
street
in
the
how,
foe;"
capitalenemy
deadly
of the moon
Romeo
house, Juliet saw
walking, through the brightness
Friar
Lawrence
the
in
good
joined
holy marriagesecretly
theywere
by

between

like

and

that

that from
thrilled,
so

subject

sounded

very shamefaced,
lightof the torches,

of Juliet, the

hand

the

new

"

and,

Montesches,

the

own,

Painter

'

the youth described

became

now

into dialoguethat almost

itself in his mind

shaped

had

but William

he had

which

storehouse, upon

same

children

beast

the

lion, and

foot of the

for the younger

were

in his earnest

verse

the wounded

time

how

;
;

and

and the friar


of Romeo,
and
the banishment
grief,
like unto
death ;
which was
produce a pleasantsleep,

gave the ladya drug to


and she,
so
humble, wise, and

ordinarygrave of
the Capulets,"
as
one
dead, and Romeo, havingbought poisonof an apothecary,
wife awoke, and
and died ; and the sleeping
went
to the tomb, and there laydown
bered
blubThere were
with the aid of the daggerof Romeo
she died beside him.
also at that fireside of the Shaksperes,
for the youth told the story
eyes
debonnaire,"

"

laid

was

in the

"

"

"

with wonderful
half

animation.

dramatized

France

of

the

From

story of

"

the

painfulmalady,and

collection

same

Giletta

of

Narbonne,"

King

the

cured

he

before

King

the

marriage to

in

her

gave

tales had

of
who

of

the Count

despisedand
and felicity.
forsook her, but at last theywere
united, and lived in great honour
There
read, the
another
that youth had diligently
was
collection,
too, which
Gesta
old legends,,
come
in 1577,
Romanorum,' translated by R. Robinson
their
in
embodied
down
latter days from
who
had
monkish
to those
historians,
Beltramo, with whom

she

had

and

brought up,

been

husband

her

"

'

"

narratives
tell the

all the wild

story of

gold,a silver,and

the
a

traditions of the
rich

leaden

heiress who
casket
*

Life.

"

ancient
chose

and

and

modern

husband

another

by

world.
the

story of the

He

could

machinery
merchant

Unneths,scarcely.
113

of

whose

WILLIAM

inexorable creditor
flesh nearest
the cruel

SHAKSPERE

fulfilment

requiredthe

heart, and

the merchant's

cuttinga pound of
of the bond
interpretation

skilful

the

Emperor Theodosius, who had three daughters;


than themselves
him
said they loved
more
were
loved
him
said
she
much
who
as
as
only
youngest,
in his need, and

historyof

unkind

father

the

by

kingwhose

years, and

after many
such

Stories

youth

like the

bones

but
of forgottengenerations,

seeds that

they shall

told them,

He

very

we

may

Mamillius

coinageof
movements

the

believe

They

prostrate

the wreck

the

had

"

I have

cock, that is the trumpet


with

Doth

Awake

the

loftyand

god

of

sea

or

to

that

cities,lyingwith the
of

nature

will

"

man.

of

above

nature, but the

monest
com-

subjection
:

"

heard,

to the

morn,

throat
shrill-sounding

day, and at his warning,


in earth or air,
fire,
extravagant and erringspirithies

Whether
The

his

were

in

period,with

then, in his

not

were

and

and goblins."
sprites
an
assentingfaith,if
"the
philosophy,
altogether

tale

brain."
Such
were
appearances
of the natural world had them in

The

time,

genialinfluences
a

sea,

kept
wonderfully

of

of ruined

many

that

at

the

lost,and found

was

also

flowers,and trees, and food for

become

well

reason.

which

the stormy

bore

was

in the tombs

found

are

beyond all these, our

But,

not

as

him, but

in that collection also

was

then

mother

daughters

two
to

worthy,succoured

was

wife died upon

these, preserved amidst

life.

and
call into life,

the

he

There

daughter.

overboard, and the child she

thrown

body was

her

his true

was

feeble outline of the

those

and

the

who

him

legends,of

story too, in these

the

was

in

bond

his

of

by

There

defeated.

creditor was

in

his confine."*

To

for benevolent
theywere, but yet powerless.They came
purposes ;
discover
the
The
belief
in
to
them
the guilty
to warn
not a debasing
was
guilt.
;
associated
with
the
It
confidence
that
world
rested
was
a
enduring
thing.
upon
Love hoped for such visitations ; it had its dreams
beyond this material world.
loved
looked
the
where
of such
and spoke of regionswhere
one
smilingly,
and
not.
be
talked of, even
were
separation
They might
change
amongst
children then, without
terror.
of the soul which
had
They lived in that corner
which
believed
in
celestial
in
hierarchies ; which
listened
trust
angelprotections
;
music
to hear the stars moving in harmonious
Powerful

"

"

"

Still quiring to the

young-eyed cherubins,"

but listened in vain, for,


"

Doth

William

Shaksperecould
"

Of

All
The

114

In olde
that

it

muddy
in,we

decay

hoar it." f

how
greedylisteners,

the

Bretons

speken gret honour,

this lond

king Artour,

full filled of faerie ;


her

full oft in many

f Merchant

of

vesture
cannot

dayis of

with
elf-queene,

Danced

Hamlet.

this

also tell to his

which
was

Whilse

grosslyclose

of Venice.

jollycompagnie,
a

grene

mede."

J Chaucer, 'Wife

of Bath's

Tale.

BIOGRAPHY.

Here

something in

was

beautiful visions of
the

acorn

his favourite

old

poet for the youth

pleasantrace
by moonlightheld their revels
of their dance beingduly seen,
ringlets
a

of Arden, and

cups

of Avon-side, the

work

to

oi supernaturalbeings; who

Whereof

"

the

bites

not

ewe

lived
the

on

into

out

by day in
sward

green

;"

honey-bagof the bee, and held counsel by the lightof the glowworm
; who
kept the cankers from the rosebuds, and silenced the hootingsof
owl.
But he had his story,too, of a
shrewd and knavish sprite,"
whether

who

tasted the

the

"

named

Robin-Goodfellow,

Puckle, Tom-tumbler,

Kit-with-the-canstick,Man-in-the-oak,
Did

Hobgoblin.
midnight,and was

grind malt and mustard,


of white
standingfee a mess
sweep
*
Some
milk ?
make
little play of Fairies,and
Joan
a
day would William
should be the Queen, and he would
be the King ; for he had talked with the
their languageand their manners,
Fairies,and he knew
and they were
good
people,"and would not mind a boy'ssport with them.
the youth began to speak of witches there was
But when
fear and silence.
For did not his mother
recollect that in the year she was
married
Bishop Jewel
had told the Queen that her subjects
the death, and that
unto
pined away, even
their affliction was
the
increase
to
of
witches
and sorcerers
Was
?
it not
owing
and

the house

or

at

he

Fire-drake,

not

his

not

"

known

how

there

those that

help and

can

was

unsafe

the

murder

three sorts

were

hurt, and those

not

of Duncan

King

and

warriors

the

youth

of Scotland, in

had

in the midst

came

desired to be

the

and
story-teller

who

and

who

men

could

over

of the children said that

would

preserve them,

than

them

as

called to

charms

of herb

from

And

nightwas
*

to

the way together,


when
the
sisters suddenlyappeared to

weird

safer matters

to

on

pass

horse-shoe

their mind
or

to

"

in the

or

over

"

the door, and

told,from

that there

horse-shoe

all evil,seen

that Power

been

was

that there

unseen,

if such

devices

the

far
security
was

Power

were

offered up their hearts to


this household
then addressed
and

without

fear,and their sleepwas

See Scot's

'Discovery of Witchcraft,'15S4.

1 2

"

Macbeth

"

read the fates of mankind

they had

theyhumbly sought Him,

trust.

of
history

Holinshed

it/' that, as

deeplylearned, clothed in garments


of the earth, of the water,
the spirits

more

Some

their mother

the

older than

It

should

his listeners would

of those

command

had

three

help,

hurt ? f

of an
elder world, and
apparel,
resemblingcreatures
be King of Scotland ; and Macbeth
from
that
killed
and
the
his
lord.
so
And
then
good
King,
King
liege

hour

stars

laund

with

not

wild

that Macbeth
prophesied

of learned

of

hear

and

help and

met

chronicler

hurt

can

both

can

"

them, in strange and

if

But

that

that
so
softly,
yon crickets shall not
from
Forres, sportingby
Banquo journeyed

and he told

on

those that

"

talk of them.

to

even

of witches,

His

the

tions
calcula-

aspects of the
linen,

of white
and

of the

vervain

and

of sorcery.

that

dill,
But

be relied

to

more

air.

would

serve
pre-

graciouswill, and

Him, in all love


themselves

and

pleasant.
t K"id.

l]fi

and
the

[Stratford Church,

ON

NOTE

The

Parish

formed

The

hac

it

whether

first

the

each

for
of
to

him

we

the

are,

all

performance
the

churchwardens
The

in

the

following List
are

impoi'tant
no

leaves
the

transcript
of

copy.

year
is
to

the

of

indebted

for

is then

general

have

affixed

vicar

this

They
been
to

each

the

generally

from

as

this

of

testimonial
Book.

1558.

the

entries,

that

handwriting,

same

Register
and

from

are

be

to

of

thus

is

perfect
in

159G

to

only

ness;
correcttion
attesta-

1G10;

not

The

the

time

monthly;

but

made

entered

and

which

original Registers,

the

Registers
appear

March,

churchwardens,

Stratford

Register

the

the

longer intervals.

at

page

four

and
of

of

by Malone)
in

and

Marriages,

25th

authenticity

transcript

made

the

although
its

vicar,

Subsequently,

verbatim
reader.

But

was

on

exception,

doubt

to

Bifield

paper.

to

1G00.

Bifield, the

Church-office.
seems

year

Baptisms,

leaves

the

thickness,

of

stated

been

all, without

reason

no

Richard

transcribed

the

in
is

baptism,

have

to

entries

the
of

record

(it ought

Richard
"

probability,

loose
of

14

there

signed by

correct

likely on

sometimes

which

is

page

years,

the

Burials, are

or

September

to

forty-two

being

most

were

of

its

Marriages,

entry,

for

oue

considerable

of

book,

contains

book

with

commences

REGISTERS

tall, narrow

previously stated

been

Baptisms,

transcript

is

This

End.]

STRATFORD

THE

Stratford

of

vellum.

Register

not

of

from

fine

very

Burials.
But

Register

of

West

at

signature

of

the

its accuracy.
It includes

all the

entries

BIOGKAPni'.

BAPTISMS.

1558

Septcber 15

1562

December

Jone

Shakspere daughter to John Shakspere.


Margareta filia Johannis
Shakspere.
Gulielmus
filiusJohannes
Shakspere.
Gilbertus filius Johannis
Shakspere.
lone the daughter of John
Shakspere,
filia MagistriShakspere.
Anna

1564

April 26

1566

October

1569

April 15
Septeb 28
[15734] March

......

13

.....

......

1571
1573
1580

Richard

11

15S3

May
May

1584

February
[1584-5]

....

26

to Mr.

sonne

Edmund

John

to Mr.

sonne

Shakspeer.

John

Susanna

daughter

to William

Hamnet

" Iudeth

sonne

and

Shakspere.
Shakspere.
daughter to Willia

Shakspere.
There

are

entries

then

of

Ursula,
John

1588; Humphrey, 1590; Philippus, 1591;


Shakspere (notMr.).

"

children

of

MARRIAGES.

1607

Junii

1615

February
[1615-6]

1563

April 30

1579

April 4
August 11
Septemb 8
Sept 9
[1612-13]February
April 25
August 8
July 16
,'
1661-2] Feb. 9

John

1603

1612
1616

Anne

Hamnet

1649

...

1661

Mr.

It

the

by

appears

Shakspere, was

buried

peritissimus."

The

on

Johanes

Mrs. Susanna

Judith, uxor

*#*

Register of Burials
the

26th

Register contains

filius William

Shakspere.
Shakspeare.
Mayry Shaxspere, Wydowe.
Rich. Shakspeare.
Will : Shakspere, Gent.
Mrs. Shakspeare.

...

1623

Hall gentlema " Susanna


Shaxspere.
Queeny tow Judith Shakspere.

Margareta filia Johannis Shakspere.


daughter to Mr. John Shakspere.

1601

"

1596

Tho

10

November,

that
1635.
of

Hall, Widow.
Quiney.

Thomas

Dr.

Hall,
He

the

of

one

is described
burial

of

the
in

sons-in-law
the

entry

of William
as

"Medicus

Thomas

Quiney. Elizabeth,
the daughter of John
and
Susanna
Hall, was
baptized February 21, 1607 [1607-8]; and she
in her illustrious grandfather's
is mentioned
children of Judith, who
will. The
was
only married
before
beeia throe sons, nil of whom
months
the death, of her father,appear
died
two
to have
before

no

entry

their mother,

n;

SllAKhU'EKE

WILLIAM

NOTE

The

ON

following

principal

the

are

POVERTY

ALLEGED

THE

documents

which

upon

SHAKSPERE.

JOHN

OF

Malone's

is established

argument

"

'

"1P

"

ibm

xxix"

tent.

Januarii,

die

hall

is

yt

that

agreed

three

of

such

Plymley,

Mr.

Shaxpeare,

inhabitants

William

Brace,

"

Ad

aulam
Itm.

ibm

yt

that

John

thinge.

Lewes

Mr.

ijs.vicZ.
xili.

taxed

are

xiiijcZ.

this

at

hall,*

by

as

) Curia

Burgus.
hunc

notes

to

them

delivered

Reginec

shall

and

to

pay

ibm

taxed

weekely
xiii.

to
at

pay

xxi".

"c,

towards
shall

who

Bratt,

are

tent.

weekely

paye

Eobert

Plimley

taxed

are

Servien.

Shackspere

unde

the
be

not

weekely,

relsif
taxed

eyther

of the
te

of

"

Debtes

distr.

which

Imprimis,

ad
ad

Clavam

sect.

Ideo

potest.^

owing

are

of

Mr.

Item,

of

the

Item,

of

Richard

Item,

of

Edmond

M"lonc

poore

pay

them

any-

iijcZ.,+

ijcZ.apece."
Januarii,

die

regni,

anno

vicesimo

"c,

fiat

predict,

burgi

Johis
Ca.

retom.

pr.

distr.

de

qd predict. Johes

Browne,

ad

Shackspere

Johem

versus

eis

direct,
nihil

Shackspere
sect.

Johis

has

same

unto

John
J.

C,

due

Hathaway,

at

to

the

alias

Sadler.

elder,
by

me

and

Lambart,

omitted,

Roger

me,

Combes,

Cornishe,

Malone

for

3Z.

horse,
Christmas

at

Gardyner,

this hall.
Here

for

bond

of
the

debt

of

f
has

201.

next,

Shottery,

61. 8s.
Mr.

Malono

inserted, levari.

id.

John

here

Shacksper.

inserts,

versus

habet

Browne,

petatur."
i

yt

octavo.
diem

Johem

Mr.

and

dnaf)

every

Elizabeth,

regni dnse

a0

alderman

Shaxpeare

burgesses

every

"Stratford

Ad

place.

ijs.

Novembris

die

xix".

tent.

is ordeined

ihjcZ.saving

and

"

appear."

may

2,

iijs.ivcZ. :

ijs.vicZ.

Tanner,

ward

this

in

nothinge

Bratt,

every

pay

shah

excepted,

and
archer, vis. viijcZ.,

one

ijs.vicZ.

Brogden,

of

shall

excepted,

Sum,
The

and

iijs.ivrZ.

Thomas

Anthony

underwritten

ij billmen,

vs.

Walker,

Eobert

such

except

pikemen,

underwrytten

Mr.

John

alderman,

every

furniture

the

burgess, except

every

"c., vicesimo.

Elizabeth,

"

towards

paye

dnao

regni

a0

this

At

aulam

Ad

Stratford.

51."

ajpea.

si

NOTE

WiT

poet.
that

to say

did any

novelets

following extract

be

may
view

same

that he had

looked
his soul

possess

narrative

which

eye

not

the early career


scarcelynecessary
the

think

strict temper

school-

his

of

father,

early writings of Shakspere


Never

cheerfulness.

of untroubled

fears of

with

undisturbed

subjoin professes to

we

of all the
an

do

we

the

out

It is

Poverty's unconquerable bar."

"

The

with

existence

more

from

suffered

evidence

The

sketches

readers.

critic" that

German
he

SHAKSPERE.

he

Tieck, in which
interestingto our

of

; that

upon

WILLIAM

OF

the

as

slow
Shakspere was
of family misfortunes.

poet

young

take the

not

witness

far to prove

goes

to the two

William

the

waa

do

we

of

progress
and

The

LIFE

SCHOOL

already referred

have
the

of

THE

ON

BIOGHAPHY.

be

relation

to the

by the poet himself


'

in

The

Earl

ot

Academic

ago
appeared
years
Southampton. We give it from a translation
:
Chronicle/a literary
journal of considerable merit,but of short vitality
'
the poet, ' that I myself
of religiousand
It was
in a season
politicalcommotion,' resumed
and
the neighto Warwickshire
bouring
born.
It happened, too, that at that very period ithere came
was
in the course
of his travels had gained
counties a man
of superiorabilityand learning,who

which

some

"

"

made
afterwards
a
to the Catholic
was
Allen, who
Church, William
disquietboth in that little
placeshe visited Stratford, and excited much
town
and in our
family. He entirelyworked himself into the affections of my uncle, my father's
brother
time
and
father himself
for some
even
wavering in doubt, and greatly troubled
was
;
my
in mind.
The
of
who
was
latter,
was
always melancholy, and this agitation
a gloomy disposition,
his neighand
relations
with
his
of religiousopinionsled him
into many
with
both
bours.
own
disputes
intercourse
with
of peril to hold
while,
Besides
priests,
foreign
this,it wa3 a matter
any
over

converts

numerous

cardinal.

at the

time,

same

who

those

suspicious report.

My

much

of me,
a

many

was

tale of

"

other

Among

of

marvel

zealous
either evil-disposed,
Protestants, caught at
were
or
mother
of a gloomy cast ; my
alone,who
impressions were

were

earliest

cheerful
and

temper.

She

which

mystery

of

was

she

was

clever turn, and

wont

to

relate

to

her
me.

On

made

stored with

was

memory

every

intelligenceof

the

proselytes at least those


eve
reaching England, many
tragedy of St. Bartholomew's
their
sentiments.
lean
the
ancient
faith
towards
again changed
begun to
at school
for my
was
dissatisfied with me,
progress
My father,however, still continued
the
used
I
sit
the
to
at
in
where
that
I
free-school
Never
shall
slow.
Guildhall,
exceedingly
forget
I had seemed
and
old worm-eaten
till
what
oaken desk, poring over
sense
comprehension
task,
my
be
not
become
one
quite stupid. Would
ready to leave me, and I often feared that I should
tempted to think such schools had been purposely contrived to terrifychildren altogetherfrom
the
disturb
society? This eternal going over
study and learning,lest too much thinking should
such
for
as
been
calculated
has
only
learned,
same
already
thing,this useless repetitionof what

the

dreadful

who

"

"

had

"

'

apt in his studies, often


regard is had to him who is more
to me
familiar
what
of
prevented
was
already
very repetition
a
to such
increased
mode
of
this
from retaining it in my memory,
at
me
teaching
and my
disgust
degree,that I felt a horror of mind whenever I thought of this school and my instructors there.
altered
was
materiallyfor the worse, wished to have as Boon
My poor father,whose business
I by
was
in keeping his accounts
as
of it and
assistance in the management
; nor
possiblesome
aud
me
a
from
private
that
he
than
usual
took me
earlier
means
school,
gave
any
sorry
away
slow

are

drove

"

me

comprehension, while

to distraction.

Even

no

this

'

teacher
form

of

at home, while I
acquaintanceswith

was

lads

employed by
of

my

own

him

in

ago, who

his

own

would

affairs.

It

was

frequentlytake

natural
me

that

along

with
119

should
them

in

WILLIAM

their

little

excursions

entertained

indulgence,
family

could

nor

of

jolly

the

treated

me

me

An
her

if

had

the

lad

error.

Anne

fit

been

for

very

Hathawsy

me

little, and

one

(Tieck

her

calls

of

my

would

the

1G23,

Kitchen

in

but

aged

out

to

G7.

She

be

husband.

[Chimney

cornei

of

the

Henley

Street.]

was

about

fellow

and

town

our

"

years,*

ten

perceived

anything

tis""

lively

some

in

persons

kindness,
turn

by

the

In

them.

in

brisk,

was

senior

other

many
and

in

son

my

sinful

recreations

such

partake

should

was

never

died

Johaime)

time

Like

friendliness

who

however,

father,

My
all

accounted

who

Anne,

who

meetings.

their

that

consent

brother.

younger

showed

Hathaways

morality,

much

daughter,

join

to

of
to

spend

to
the

her

notions

brought

be

used

and

"me

invite

or

singular
easily

he

Hathaways

as

rambles,

and

boon-companion

neighbourhood,

than

and
strict

very

SIIAKSPERE

they

its

dered
consi-

extraordinary.'

seven

years

nlder

"

[The

Bailiff's

Hay.]

CHAPTER

PLAYERS

THE

ancient

The

of

number

of

nine

shillingsto

eightp^nce.
Lord

"my

Worcester's

Mr.

1576

"my

the

Earl

Leicester's

the

the

of

funds

of

Shakspere

Lord

twelve

of

is
to

pence

of

Leicester's

playersreceived

of

"Warwick's

players"

of Worcester's

players of

fourpence.

In

fifteen
1579

and

have

five and

1580

formances.*
per-

the

Earl

five

shillings

his

Life
from

of

Shakspere, presents
1543

to

us

with

voluminous

extracts

Lord

"my

entries

from

of

gratuityof

are

more

"

chamberlains

payment

eightpence.

shillings,and
the

exhibit

theatrical

high bailiff,there

players" receive

and

Stratford

of

corporation for

the

was

players,and
Earl

borough

Halliwell, in

of the

of

the

1573

players" three

circumstantial

books

In

shillings,and

seventeen

1577

In

John

Queen's

the

players.

of

out

when

1569,

STRATEOED.

AT

Chamberlain

the

made

payments

Worcester's
and

of

accounts

In

X.

the

1717.
121

account

In
of

shakspeee:

WILLIAM

"

Item

1579.

Mr.

paid

to

Lord

my

Strange

xith

the

men

day of February

comaundemeat

the

at

ol

vs.
Bayliffe,

PJ

at the

1580.

It thus
short

appears

distance
shall here

We

of

comandement

Pd to the Earle

this

of

view

It is

the

K. W.

volume,

called

be

givenin any

In

of

one

would

form

to

the

that

'

sketch

historyor
Upon

in the

born

interludes

the
to

come

of the

Stage-Plat

distinct sets

playersthere

of

entries.

account
interesting
performancesis from
Shakspere.
year as William
publisheda little
seventy-five,

theatrical

same

passage

was

is essential to

which

Child.

like

it is in other
the

first attend

when

saw

is (as I think

manner

the

small

earlystage.*

which

town, they

"

precise and

most

earliest of the

was

encouraged, in

amply

so

conceptionof

tolerable

in

chief instrument

trulypoeticaldrama

and

invite three

to

the

be

noble

is defined in the above

the

who

city of Gloucester

the

1 layers of

as
capital,

man

of

sets

(R. Willis),statinghis age to be


contains
Mount
Tabor,' which
a

"

"

reader

periodwhich

of

we
possess
the recollection of

1639

the

circumstance

which

In

of Mr.

highlypopular,and

so

from

three

him
who
upon
foundations
a

rude

enable

may
which were

been

make

then

curious

had

these

exhibit in the brief

to

plears,xivs. vie?.
viiia.iv^.rt
Baliffe,

Essex

of

Countys

playersat Stratford within a


sixteen years of age.
William
when
of the time
Shakspere was
of the state of the stage at
endeavour
to present a generalview
theatrical
its history
with reference
the impressionswhich
to
;

far distant

town

to the

playersat the comaundement

Darbyes

as

amusements

Baliffe

that there

point of
performanceswould
buildingup upon
such

Mr.

corporations)that,when
him

inform

to

mayor,

what

nobleman's

like the
actors,
public playing; and if the mayor
first
would
their
them
or
lord
he
to
show
and
to
their
play before
play
appoints
master,
respect
the
himself and
of the
and
council
aldermen
city; and that is called the mayor's play,
common
where
the
in without
that will comes
one
giving the players a reward as he
every
mayor
money,
made
with
took
thinks fit,to show
father
him, and
At
such
me
them.
a
play my
respect unto
and
heard
stand
where
me
between
his legs,as he sat upon
the
of
saw
we
benches,
one
very well.
The play was
wherein
called
The Cradle of Security,'
great prince
wa3
personated a king or some

they

servants

are, and

to

so

get licence

for

their

'

with

his courtiers

they, keeping him

of

several

in

kinds, amongst which


delightsand pleasures,drew

three

ladies

were

his

from

him

in

graver

specialgrace with him, and


mons,
counsellors,hearing of ser-

in
end
they got him to lie down
him
asleep,that
ladies,joining in a sweet song, rocked
he snorted
he was
clothes
the
wherewithal
time closelyconveyed under
again, and in the mean
the
chains
with
wire
fastened
three
covered
like a swine's snout
his
a vizard
thereunto,
face,
upon
other end whereof
being holden severallyby those three ladies,who fall to singing again, and then
him
disco vercd
his face, that the spectators might see
how
going on with
they had transformed
their singing. Whilst
all this was
the
end of the
of
forth
door
farthest
there
another
at
came
acting,
and

cradle

listeningto good

stage, two

old

red, with
and

the

upon

men,

drawn

they

stage,

the
sword

counsel

where

one

in

in

and

these

admonitions,

in

the

three

blue, with
hand, and

his

went
along in a soft
cradle,when all the court

that

sergeant-at-arni3his

leaning with

the

mace

other

on

hand

shoulder,the

his

the

upon

other's

other

in

shoulder,
last they

by the skirt of the stage,till at


old man
then
with
and
the foremost
jollity,
greatest
his mace
struck
fearful blow upon
the
ail the courtiers,
a
with the three ladies and
cradle,whereat
the vizard,all vanished
the
desolate prince,starting up barefaced, and
finding himself thus
; and
sent for to judgment, made
his
of
lamentable
carried away
and
miserable
a
was
so
complaint
case,
by wicked spirits. This prince did personate in the moral the wicked
of the world; the three
so

to

came

the

This

two

account

It has been
122

was

first extracted

given also,with

the

pace,

by

correction

round

about

in

was

in

Malonc
of

few

his

'Rise

and

Progress

of

inaccuracies,by Mr. Collier.

the

English Stage.

BIOGRAPHY.

luxury ; the two old


impression in me, that
had seen
it newly acted."

ladies, pride,covetousness, and


This

such

sight took

t'rcsh in my

memory

if I

as

men,

the

when

of

end

the

world

towards

came

and

man's

the

estate

last
it

ment.
judg-

was

as

why the bailiff of Stratford paid the playersout of the


in this town
the
The
first performanceof each company
was
publicmoney.
father
of
William
Shakthe
chief magistrate's,
when
and
bailiff's,
thus,
or
play;
his legsas he sat upon
between
the boy might have stood
one
bailiff,
spere was
The
Cradle
of
It would
Willis's
that
of the benches."
from
description
appear
It is probablethat he was
show.
Security was for the most part dumb
present
its performance at Gloucester
six or
of
when
he was
at
seven
years
age ; it
of the simplestconstruction.
evidently
belongsto that class of moral plays which were
its
drama
had
reached
And
it
the
after
was
English
popularlong
yet
When
the pageants and
highesteminence.
mysterieshad been put down by
the force of publicopinion,
when
of
spectacles a dramatic character had ceased
to be
instruction,the professional
players
employed as instruments of religious
who
had sprung up founded
the ancient
their popularity
for a long periodupon
habits and associations of the people. Our
formed
drama
was
essentially
by a
of steadyprogress, and not by rapidtransition.
We
accustomed
to
course
are
few
the
drama
and
created by Shakspere,Marlowe,
was
Greene, Kyd,
a
say that
foundation
worked
others of distinguished
all
but
of
them
a
genius;
they
upon
which was
The
ready for them.
superstructure of real tragedyand comedy had
be erected upon
the moral
to
the histories, which
were
plays,the romances,
be
in
the
first
continued
t
o
of
and
Queen Elizabeth,
beginning
popular
days
very
in their very rude forms, beyond the close of her longreign.
to be so, even
We
have very distinct evidence
in
that stories from
the Sacred
Scriptures,
character perhaps very little different from
the ancient
Mysteries,were
formed
perthe
London
classical
when
histories,romantic
stage at a period
upon
of intrigue,
attracted
audiences
both in the
jegends,and comedies
numerous
and
the
At
the
which
there
we
are
now
capital
provinces.
describing
period
fierce controversy going forward
the subjectof theatrical exhibitions ;
was
a
on
We

understand

now

"

'

'

and

from

accurate

which

the

then
tracts
very rare
estimate of the character

appeared in

Theaters,' we

God,

histories

and

of

of the

entitled

1580,

Plaies and

published we

have
the

the

Bible,

'

enabled

to

In

one

earlytheatre.

Second

are

and

Third

followingpassage:
forth

"

form

Blast

"The

tolerably

of Retrait

reverend

the

of these

tracts,

from

word

of

these

blasphemous
stage by
and so interlaced with
scurrility,
unclean
and whorish
of
draw any profit
out
to
speeches,that it is not possible
the doctrine of their spiritual
moralities.
For
that they exhibit under
ing
laughthat which
be
received
So
their
to
and
that
ought
reverendly.
taught
reformed
in
auditorymay return made
in
mind, but none
comes
merry
away

are
players,

corruptedby their gestures

so

And

manners.

holy thingsto

of
be

all abuses
handled

before
the

the

even

this

blame

was

o*

this

on

of

is most

undecent

intolerable,to suffer

and

of
by interposition
ancient
(Page 103.)
Mysteries,
productions of Bishop Bale which
appeared not thirtyyears
written, will agree that the playersought not wholly to have
the
of dissolute words."
it
But
interposition
unquestionably

dissolute words."
and

set

by

men

so

Those

profane,and
who

have

defiled

read

the

"

123

WILLIAM

great abuse

was

the

use

and

have

to

SIIAKSPLTvE

"histories

advantageof such

Bible

of the

the

on

stage;"

for
deed
In-

altogetherceased.

had

histories

dramatic

forth

set

h?ve
been
to
although Scriptural
subjectsmight have continued
sented
repretaken
from
in 1580, we
that
were
apocryphaprincipally
apprehend
they
even
stories,which, were
by those who were
regarded with little reverence
such a character is the ver'
in their hostility
most
to the stage. Of
earnest
curious play,printedin 1565, entitled 'A
Enterlude, both pithie
pretienew
of the third and
taken
out
and pleasaunt,
the
of
of.
King Daryus, being
story
This was
interlude that
fourth chapter of the
an
third book
of Esdras.'
of
the bailiff of
commandment
have
been
the
might acceptably
performed, at
and
Lord
we
in February, 1580;
Stratford, by my
Strange'smen,
request
describe what
endeavour
to
therefore the indulgenceof our
readers whilst we
such a performancewould have been.
The

hall

occasional

of

the

theatre

Guild, which

buildingbeing

the

Grammar

would
the

form

would

persons
Bailiff would
be

grudge

blanket"

of

forward

with

of

its

be

could

With

issue

expenditure of

the

five

stage is drawn
solemn
stride, to

King Daryus :
"

an

at

this

which

one

room

end

the

of

plain

side; and

explainthe object of

about

no

doubt

that

Stratford
curtain

"the
*

to

cloth

of his invitations,so
A
shillings.

low,

used

is

separate chamber,
and

The

the

was

somewhat

of

provisionof benches,
in

one

on

"

upper

Court

Hall,

and

room,

ancient

due

accommodated

liberal in the

long

for the

side is

one

on

retire.

now

floors, the

two

elevation

The

stage ; and

performers

is

It

into

divided

School.
the

hundred

not

Stratford.

of

the

Town

the

became

afterwards

Prolocutor"

worthy

"

at?

hall
which
three
Mr.

might
"the
comes

ment
Entertain-

'
"

Good
For

people,hark, and give car

certain

Whose

king

to you

This

king

And

at that

commanded

banquet

And

when

the

Two

lords

commanded

king

while,
style.

bring in

shall

we

and

Darius,good

was

name

I will declare the

of this enterlude

feast to be

virtuous

made,

people had.

many

in counsel
he

was

to be

set

fet,

;
concerning matters of three young men
brieflyshowed their fantasythen :
In writingstheir meanings they did declare,
to the king they did not spare.
And to give them

As

Which

Now

silence

For

the Vice

The

then
stage-direction

in.

This

I desire you

is

therefore,
the

enteringat

door."

The

comes
Prologue goeth out and Iniquity
III.
the
Richard
of
Ini"Vetus
;
Iniquity"
quitas"of 'The Devil is an Ass;' the Iniquitywith a "wooden
dagger,"and
terlude
a
But in the injuggler's
jerkinwith false skirts,"of The Stapleof News.'
of 'Darius' he has less complex offices than are
him
Gifford
assigned
by
to instigate
the hero of the piece to wickedness, and, at the same
time, to
"

is "the

says,
Vice
formal

"

'

"

"

124

BIOGRAPHY.

permittedto buffet and baffle with


sword, till the process of the story requiredthat both the protector
his wooden
should be carried off by the fiend ; or the latter driven roaring
and the protected
miraculous
in favour
of the repentant
the stage by some
from
interposition
which
first words
The
offender."*
Iniquityutters indicate, however, that he
protect him

he

devil, whom

the

from

the audience

familiar with the audience, and

was

l'

How
I

in

And

very
avail

most

come

; how

masters

gladlyto talk

at

was

familiar with him

goeth
you.''

with

he

world

talk ;

does

his command,

the

"

new

swaggeringand
in, and

till Charity
comes

for

bullyingas
reads

the impropriety
of his deportment. It
upon
friends of Iniquity Importunity and
Partialitycome

two

him

is of

lecture

severe

my

manner
extraordinary

world

whole

if the

now,

was

his

to

"

"

little

take

fairlydrive Charity off the stage. Then Equity enters to


for
quarrelagainstIniquityand his fellows ; but Equity is no match
up
has
This
for King Darius.
them, and they all make
very long scene
way
with
whatever
do
main
action
of
the
the
to
nothing
piece,or rather what professes
the
its action.
is a patientone
But
the Stratford audience
to be
; and
dull was
his profligacy,
contrived
make
them
Vice, however
to
laugh by the
whisking of his tail and the brandishingof his sword, assisted no doubt by
chuckle like that of the Punch
well-known
of our
some
own
days. King Darius,
with all his Council ; and most
do his
however, at length comes
capitalnames
chief councillors bear, not
be
of
in
Courts
to
even
unworthy
adopted
greater
of
business
refinement
whole
of this scene
Perplexityand Curiosity.The
feast
is
Darius
the
the
to
to
to
a
admiring spectators. Up
King
present
present
day the English audience delightsin a feast ; and will endure that two men
should sit upon
the stage for a quarter of an hour, uttering
the most
unrepeatable
drink real port.
and
to
pick real chicken-bones
stupidity,
providedthey seem
feasted whole
The
Darius
of the interlude
nations
the representative
upon
system ; and here, at Stratford, Ethiopia,Persia, Judah, and Media, ate their
have their end ; and so the curtain
filland were
very grateful.But feasts must
in
:"
closes upon the eaters, and Iniquity cometh
singing
assistance, and
the

"

"

"

"

"

La, soule,soule,fa,my,
I miss

I should

note

I dare

have

been

I shall have

Again
of their

come

faster and

re, re,

well say

low when

right anon

was

out

and

then

furious

them

that

Equity
is the

so

hi^h ;

verily."

his bottle-holders,Importunityand

gabble Iniquitytells

supporters go
and

it

"

the

Pope

attacks

him

and
Partiality;
is his father.
alone.

Loud

in the

course

Unhappily his
is their debate

talk when

in.
Constancy and Charitycome
The
ends
matter, however,
seriously
; and
they resolvingthat it is useless to
with
this
and
sinner,
longer
impenitent
somebody casts fire to Iniquity,"
argue
he departsin a tempest of squibsand crackers.
business of the play now
The
more

"

Ben

Jonsou's

\V0rk3.

Note

on

'

The

Devil

is

an

Ass.'
125

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

sleptwoke

while he

chamber

"

subjectof

The
as

we

to say

man

The

The

very

kept his

the other."

the

first

is

man

strong thing

king

is

stronger

than

third also I will declare


saith

Women,

Though by
the

texts
respective

this,

is ;

also I will declare to you,

second

That

The

of the

sentence

Wine

their

than

weightiermatter

who

disputewas, what is the strongest thing; and their answers


by the King'sattendants, had been reduced to writing:"

Of

by

men

murmuring,"

and
disputing

their

their

informed

are

Every

him

three

that the

tells his attendants

Darius

lengthbegins.

at

'

he,

we

three

had

whatever
certainly,
of that day, they must
degree to have enabled

thing verily
.

fall."'

young
defects

and

other

strongestof all,

is the

women

any

"

men

then

are

of

called in to

make

sition
expo-

exhibited

by the
audiences
have
possessedthe virtue of patiencein a
remarkable
these most
them
to sit out
prolixharangues.
Zorobabel
the
declares
have
be deservingof
But
end
and
to
an
King
they
;
is the strongest.
woman
signalhonours, in his demonstration that, of all things,
metrical
uttered
for
A
Elizabeth,
Queen
by Constancy,dismisses the
prayer
audience
their homes
in such a loyaltemper as befits the Corporationof
to
their friends on
cherish.
Stratford and
all public occasions
We
doubt
to
if
interlude both
William
the pretty new
Shakspere considers
pithy and pleasant
of the story of King Darius"
be the perfectmodel
to
of a populai
;

manners

were

"

drama.*
The

sojournof

Lord
at Stratford has
Strange'smen
my
of Essex's players
have arrived.
We
have

Countess

the

the

years
been

playersof

Lord

Stratford,and

at

In

later

Warwick,
each

on

periodof the

largesupport of
wealthy and

of Lord

occasion

been

the actors

short; but
that in

seen

Leicester, of Lord

theyhave

stage,when

been

now

previous

Worcester,

have

patronised
by the Corporation.
chiefly
depended upon the

ever
public,instead of receivingthe wages of noblemen, howconnection
the
of
of
with
the
a
powerful,
players
company
whose
called was
servants
than a
great personage
they were
scarcelymore
licence to act without
the interference of the magistrate.But in the periodof
the stage which
it would
that the playerswere
are
we
now
describing,
appear
retainers
the
of
who
literally
powerful lords,
employed them for their own
occasional
recreation,and allowed them to derive a profitfrom
tions.
public exhibiBlast of Retreat from
In 'The
Third
Plays and Theatres' we have the
which
decisive
this point:
What
credit can
following
appears
passage,
upon
the

"

"

"

"

return

to

to

countenance

sufferable in any commonweal


?
of honour
should retain any man

not
man

the nobleman

There

Museum

is

; and

is 1565.
12C

copy
a

of

this very

curious

transcriptof Garrick's

his

men

but

such

production in

copy

to

Whereas, it

is in the

the

Bodleian

exercise

as

was

Garrick

that

ancient

an

was

as

Its

custom

excellent

in

that
some

is
no
one

of plays in the British


date,as before mentioned,

Collection

Library.

which
quality

BIOGKAPHY.

good qualityor another, whereby, if occasion so served, he might get his own
house
commonweal
in itself. But since
a
living.Then was
every nobleman's
the credit of noblemen
of these caterpillars
hath decayed,and they
the retaining
live by
are
by permittingtheir servants, which cannot
thought to be covetous
will
live
and
for
whom
not
the devotion
nearness
maintain, to
themselves,
on
they
alms of other men,
or
passingfrom country to country, from one gentleman's
their service, which
is a kind of beggary. Who,
house
to
another, offering
become
for
their servants.
For
indeed, to speak more
a
re
monly
combeggars
truly,
bear to their lords makes
them
the good will men
draw
the strings
of
to them, where
their purses to extend their liberality
otherwise
would
not."
they
author
But
adds,
some
Speaking of the writers of plays,the same
perhaps
in
will say the nobleman
such
whose
humours
be conmust
delighteth
things,
tented,
partlyfor fear and partlyfor commodity; and if they write matters
the cunning heads."
pleasantthey are best preferredin Court among
(Page
old
of
'The
of
Shrew'
In
the
the
in
the
duction'
'Ina
Taming
108.)
play
players
tells the
are
presentedto us in very homely guise. The messenger
"

"

"

lord

"

"

And

The
and

or

playersbe

come,

honour's

your

pleasurehere."

then says,
Enter two of
stage-direction
To the questions
of the lord,
a boy."

the

"

with packs at
players

their backs,

"

Now, sirs,what

"

the

Your

do attend

Clown
what

plays have

have
may
ignorancethe other

will;" for which

you

of

lord,you

Marry, my

"

answers,

store

you

?"

"

a
or
a
tragical
commodity,
playerrebukes the Clown,

saying,"A comedy, thou shouldst say zounds ! thou 'Itshame us all." Whether
earlier period of the stage than the similar scene
this picturebelongsto an
in
whether
familiar with a better order
Shakspere was
Shakspere's Induction,' or
of players,
the players
it is clear that in his scene
appear as persons of somewhat
with
treated
more
more
importance.and are
respect
:

'

"

Sirrah,go see what trumpet 't is that sounds


noble gentleman, that means,
journey, to repose him here.
some
Travelling
"

Lord.

Belike,some

Re-enter
How

now

? who

Serv.

An

Players,that offer
Lord.

Servant.

is it ?

Bid them

it pleaseyour

service
come

to your

honour,
lordship.

near.

Enter

Players.

Now, fellows,you
Players.We
Lord.
2

Do

lord, however,

even

buttery," a proof that


"

your

intend

to

Play. So pleaseyour

Lord.

The

you

thank

With

in

all

my

this

are

welcome.

honour.

stay

with

me

to-nightJ

lordshipto accept our

du'-y

heart."

them to tin
gives his order, "Take
classed little above menials.
companies were

scene,

the itinerant

i2r

[Itinerant Players.]

The

welcome

of

the

Countess

of

Essex

peopleof Stratford
The
'

play

King

is neither
Good

and

and

verse,

is

in

buffet

to

similitude."*

It

f
*

Gosson.
Mr.

he
The
'

12S

is

buffeted.

dramatized

Conditions,
does

not

audience

belong

his

'

from
to

of Stratford

Plays Confuted,' second

Collier,in

It

with
The

playersof
and

the

so

different

Conditions.'

from
This

with

impersonationsof
Charity,and the Devil is
play is written in rhymed

dispenses

controversy

be

History

of

of

romance,

possibleaspect of

character, Common
that

to

Play.

Common

called

Comedie

the

is "set
with
out
sweetness
ambitiouslywritten. The matter
with
of epithets,
hyperboles,amphibologies,
metaphors, allegories,

very

it represents

import

or

perhaps as

was

Pleasant

It is 'A

of words, fitness

that

now

town

Moral
a
Mystery nor
holds
Evil ; Iniquity
no

brought

not

as

to be

are

which

Darius.'

acceptableto
kitchen
of the esquire's
the abundance
treated with the last novelty.
be performed is something very
to

corporate

human

life ;

which
and

the

the
name

title expresses
of the

chief

play derives its title,would


class of persupernaturalor allegorical
sonages,
have
something at which they
anticipated
which

the

the

action.
Dramatic

Poetry,' expresses

an

opinion that

the

character

or

BIOGRAPHY.

their

and

laugh ;

to

are

tinkers

three

when

provoked

is much

mirth

appear

the stage singing,

upon

Hey tistytoisty,tinkers good fellows they be ;


In stopping of cne
hole,they use to make three."

"

These

worthies

them,

theyagree
"

better it

to

But, masters,
That

havo

readiness

of

the

ye

them

little

robbing.

what

I have

heard

to

stage

in

Unthrift

this

the court

about

news

with

companions,

tells his

day,

lady gone away ;


parasitefull of money and coia."

little

tinkers agree

denounced

later, were

by

gentleman with

with

travellers the

These

wot

is

there

And

Shift; and, trade being bad

called Drift, Unthrift, and

are

rob

to

and

indulge in satire.
parliament,are, we

here

have

we

The

an

of the

few

years
Shift

who,

purveyors
here

suppose,

example
a

pointedat.

says,
"

to

which

Drift

We

will take away

their purses,

and

say

"

do it by commission

we

replies,
"

If thou

make

better

no

made

Who

of

commissioner

bar, thou

at the

answer

wilt

hang,

you?
true."

I tell thee

and Clarisia,then
gentleman and lady from the court, Sedmond
It appears
of the wood, accompanied by their servant, Conditions.
seek
him.
father has long been
and
to
are
absent,
travelling
they
heavy-hearted;and her brother thus consoles her, after the fashion
:
metaphors,and hyperboles

The

out

come

that their
Clarisia is
of

thets,
"epi-

"

"

"

You

the

see

But

you,

You

see

chirpingbirds begin you melody

ungratefulunto
the

make,

to

pleasantvoice forsake
and pleasantlay,
sweet

their

them,

nightingalealso,with

in chirpingwise to banish care


away.
Tellus,she with mantle fresh and green,
For to displayeverywhere most
comely to be seen ;
You
Dame
see
Flora,she with flowers fresh and gay,
Both
to display."
here and there and everywhere, her banners
Sound
You

The
his

lady will have


speech,ending

Conditions
of
indeed

we

comfort.

no

She

And

therefore,brother,leave

Not

all the

her

repliesto

brother

in

long echo

to

talk you

utter

can,

off talk ; in vain


sorrows

my

can

you

seem

to

prate :

abate."

takes part againstthe lady,by a declamation


in dispraise
ungallantly
which
is
tinkers
Now
short
the
in.
women
;
happilycut
by
rushing
have

which

movement

lady is bound

will stir the

Conditions

audience.

is to

be

The

brother
but

Conditions

way

tiailyand

is the

little knave,
roar.

Vice of the

They

the contrary, that the


to us, on
performance. It appears
all the
works
out
action, in the
restless,tricky servant
little,
that the Vice
had
formerly interfered with it in the moral plays; but that he is essen*
lude
purposely distinguished from the Vice. Mr. Collier also calls this play merely an inter-

ordinary craft of

is

Common

same

to

escapes

his adroitness,

tree
a
hanged ;
of another
excessively
diverting,
altogether
reminding one
of
is
Stratford
audience
the
in a
Scott,
Flibbertigibbet
setting

which
the

her voice

Dame

"

"

the

forth

see

it appears

Life.

to

cunning

us

knave

"

in its outward

"

form

to bo

as

much

comedy

as

the

Winter's

Tale.
129

WILLIAM

SHAKSPEKE:

"

"

up

notable

some

the

When
practised."*

cozenage

take
they generally
voice when
they see

theatres

In the
of Gosson,
the description
realizing
with
and
shout
wonderful
a
altogether
laughter,

are

one

tinkers

the

have

round

noose

persuadesthem to let him hang himself,and to help


determination.
him
They consent ; arguing
up in the tree to accomplishhis
the penaltyof hanging him ;
that if he hangs himself they shall be free from
like a squirrel,
ing
halloobranches
he
the
runs
into the tree he goes.
and
so
Up
and
chance
for help,whilst the heavy tinkers have
no
againsthis activity
his
Conditions
releases
mistress.
make
his Sheffield knife.
off; and
They finally
the

neck

of Conditions, he

The

next

Sedmond, the brother, alone.


presents us
which
he has
his sister,and the uncertainty

scene

from
separation
father
have

and

he

expresses

rested upon

the

Farewell, adieu,all pleasureseke, with comely

Farewell,ye nobles
Farewell,ye famous

all ; farewell each

hawk

the

findinghis

ever

to

seem

"

and

hound

martial
I

all,in whom

ladies

brave, attrapped to the ground

coursers

my

of

in lines which

of that Stratford audience

one

farewell now,

But

"

of

ear

his determination

griefand

his

laments

He

knight ;
did delight."

his lament, he says,


And, continuing

"

adieu,Arbaccas king ;
wight and martial knight; adieu each livingthing :
Adieu
woful
sire,and sister in like case,
my
Whom
I shall see again each other to embrace
never
;
For now
I will betake
myself a wandering knight to be,
Into some
strangeand foreignland, their comeliness to see."

"

Adieu,

When

Conditions
"

native soil ;

my

Adieu

each

released the

And, lady,it is not

learnt that the

ladywe
best

for

us

in Arabia

Arabia, his native soil,that Sidmond

audience

learn

by

is stuck

very simpleexpedientthat
"
with the word
Phrygia

up

Galiarbus, entereth
banished
of

from

Phrygia;

he

of

the

son

adieu.

But

change is

to

it, and a
upon
is the father of the

rich, and

his

have
of the

Arabia

"

Stratford

the
take

place:

character,

new

who,
fugitives,
lordshipfrom the Duke
laments
that theymust
children, and bitterly
arrived in Phrygia; for a new
character appears,

become

children

Lamphedon,

Phrygia." He

thinks

Those

meet.

never

of

"out

Arabia, has
but

bids

"

was

longerto tarry."

It is to

board

scene

obtained

Duke, who

has

fallen

in love
violently

with

'Plays Confuted,'"c.

t We

hare

analysed this very curious

comedy from the transcriptin the Bodleian Librarymade


only printed copy, and that an imperfect one, which is
supposed to exist. In the page which contains the passage now
has inserted the folgiven Malone
after quoting the celebrated lines in Othello, Farewell the
lowing foot-note,
tranquilmind," "c.
The
coincidence is so strikingthat one
is almost
tempted to think that Shakspeare had read this
wretched
piece." It is scarcelynecessary
for us
to point out how
constantly.the date of a play
under

the

direction

of

Malone

from

the

"

"

"

must

be

borne

that

this

fixe3 the date


for

1580;

romantic

in mind

play

was

at least ten

and

to

130

too

years

if,as a work
drama, except tho

individual genius.

allow

us

to

printed about
of
tme

early.

art, it

be

form
the

any
year

It appears
of

little

fair

opinion of
1570, although
to

us

that

its merits.

believe

we

it is

Malone
that

remarkable

worth, it certainlycontains
poeticalelement, which could only be the

the

himself

siders
con-

this

conjecture
production even
elements

result

of

of

the

nary
extraordi-

BIOGRAPHY.

ladywhom
that
are

know

we

his mistress

described and

married.
of

name

dramatic

rendered

not

bringsthe
The

to be Clarisia.
by his description
is equallyin love with Lamphedon

lovers

two

Sedmond,

with

and

him

has

all which

discovered

circumstances

for his

theyplighttheir troth, and

together,and

lost brother,

Nomides

Conditions,

then

and

Conditions

vantage,
ad-

own

are

finally

the
appearance
love.
fallen
in
Phrygianlady,Sabia, has
under

his

makes

next

the uncourteous
and
knightflies
unrequited
;
rejected,
ditions,
Duke's
court ; but Confrom her.
Lamphedon and Clarisia are happy at the
it obscurely
as
again,has irritated the
appears, wanting to be travelling
and theyboth, accompanied
Duchess
by Conditions,
againsther daughter-in-law,
receive them
who
on
They fall in with pirates,
flyto take ship for Thracia.
will
afford
been
that
Conditions
having
secretly
they
promised by
ship-board,
a
good booty. We soon learn,by the appearance of Lamphedon, that they have
who
him
are
thrown
overboard, and that he has lost his lady; but the pirates,
bad
specimens of the English mariner, soon
present themselves
by no means
which
with
transcribe
for
it
we
a sea-song,
;
again,
assuredly was fitted to rejoice
of a maritime
nation :
the hearts of the playgoers
But

her

is

she

is

love

"

"

let
Lustily,lustily,
lustily,
wind

The

All

trim doth

thingswe

serve

sail forth

us

us, it blows

from

north.

the

have

ready and nothing we want


ship that rideth hereby ;
Victuals and weapons
they be nothing scant ;
Like worthy mariners ourselves
will try.
we
To

furnish

our

"e.
Lustily,lustily,
Her

flagsbe new
ship for

trimmed, set flauntingaloft ;


swimming, oh, she doth exeel :
We fear no enemies, we have escaped them
oft :
Of all ships that swimmeth, she beareth the bell.
Our

swift

Lustily,lustily,".C
here is

And

And

our

here is

And

master

master's
a

boatswain

here is

And

in

excelleth
mate

he

skill,
to seek ;

is not

will do his

ship,boy, we

never

good will,
had

leak.

"c.
Lustily,lustily,
If Fortune

And

then

fail not, and

our

next

voyage

prove,

merrily and make good cheer,


together as friends link'd in love ;

will return

We

hold
The

cans

all

shall be filled with

wine, ale,and

beer.

"c."
Lustily,lustily,

The

action of this

comedy

is conducted

for the most

; an
part by description

don
Lamphedevelopment of plot and character.
of
tell him
force
he
them
arms
to
compels
by
it
She has been taken,
of the fate of his wife.
seems,
by Conditions to be sold
island chief; and then Lamphedon goes to fight
Cardolus, and
to Cardolus, an
he does fighthim, but finds not the lady. Conditions
has
however
got rid of
his charge,
her to assume
of Metraea, and enter the serthe name
vice
by persuading
for
after
of Leostnines.
her
have
must
a
Hardship
wonderfullychanged
;

easier

thing than

falls in with

the

the

dramatic

and
pirates,

131

WILLIAM

time her brother,Sedmond,


for

old

good

The

his assumed

arrives under

affections.

her

SHAKSPERE

under

man

adopted her as his daughter. Lamphedon


her, accompaniedby Conditions ; and thus by accident,
knavish

clear.

is the
is

He

oarasite,a

all those

servant,

Leosthines

turncoat

and

That

little knave,

him, except

to

Conditions

double

such

dealingscan

advantage he

what

trick.

It is

him

"set

didate
can-

to

way

mains
re-

seek

the

of
intrigues
by
in separation
: for

disposed
and

of

is not

so

craftyknave,

is my

derives
he

name,

frame."

his trickiness,
yet he

from

personated by some
always a new
make
the audience
performer, whose grimaces and uglinesswould
know
what to do
in
first
not
tinkers
the
The
scene
delight.
say they
'

with

? nay,

advantage

own

discover

It is difficult to

is

the

on

and

suffered

Conditions

he says,

Conditions

for my

have

who

How

callinghimself
constantly

"

has

reunited

are

father.*

banished

is

becomes

protectionshe

whose

has

the

and

name,

to

probablethat

keep

was

The

crows."

the

object of

writer

nutive
dimiroar

with

of

the

of
be to show
that the purposes
would
to
appear
any object,
unexpected by the craftyone, and that happiness
produce results entirely

comedy, if he had
craft may

which
to
through the circumstances
appear most
of
the
is
remarkable
for
none
containing
comedy
so
properlyobjectedto in the playsof the earlystage. It
ribaldrywhich was
of that melo-dramatic
is characterised, also, by the absence
extravagance which
of real
indeed, but not the power
belonged to this period,exhibiting
power,
Blast
of
The
Third
well described
author
These extravagances are
the
art.
by
gination,
of Retreat from Playsand Theatres ;
althoughhis notion that an effort of imacharacteristic
The
writers
of
and a lie,are
the same
is
:
thing very
led away with vain glorythat their only endeavour
time are
is to pleaour
so
sure
of men,
and rather with vanityto content
the humour
their minds
than
them with good ensample. The
notablest liar is become
the best poet ;
to profit
he that can
make
notorious lie,and disguise
the most
falsehood in such sort that
lie may
For the strangest comedy
pass unperceived,is held the best writer.
delectation
and
Our
nation
is led away
with
brings greatest
pleasure.
vanity,
which
the author
frames
himself
with novelties and
perceiving,
strange trifles
the
vain
of
his
to content
humours
rude auditors, feigningcountries never
heard
and prodigious
of, monsters
creatures
that are
of the Arimaspie,of the
not : as
Grips,the Pigmies,the Cranes, and other such notorious lies." Sidney,writing
of the same
of
hideous mona
periodof the drama, speaks of the apparition
ster
with fire and
smoke. "f
And
Gosson, having direct reference to some
romantic
dramas
formed
and legendary
Common
ditions
Contales,as
upon romances
Sometimes
was,
nothing but the adventures of an
says,
you shall see
from
amorous
to
knight,passing
countering
country
country for the love of his lady,enobtained
may be finally
This
impede its attainment.

'

'

"

"

"

'

'

"

many

terrible monster

wonderfullychanged,that he

so

end.

leaf
We

'

or

two

is lost of

learn that Noinides

Defence
in

of

Poesy.'

the

made
cannot

originalcopy, but

repents

of his

of

be

brown
known

enough remains
rejectionof Sabia.

paper
but

to

and

by
let

us

at

his return

is

in

his

some

see

posy
how

the

plot will

by

tablet,or
When

the

true

broken

of the

for the transformation


If

there

of

Common
performance of
and
rapidlydeveloping,

audience

whose

been

whom

the
upon
such

him

the

peopleprepared

witnessingthe
poeticalfeelingwas

1580,

formed

in

one

had

taste

cockle- shell."*

Stratford, in

at

Conditions,'

'

which

handkerchief, or

that

amongst

was

piece of a
romantic
drama
arose,
they found
the ridiculous into the poetical.

ring,or

masters

BIOGRAPHY.

better

models

than

perhaps was
perceivehow
fectly
imperShakspere
person
this comedy attained the end
of givingdelightto a body of persons
assembled
pleased
togetherwith an aptitudefor delight. And
yet they were
and
satisfied. There
in this comedy
bustle and
thing
was
change of scene ; sometheir
re-union
and
the feelingsin the separationof lovers
to
move
;
laughterexcited by grotesqueness which stood in the place of wit and humour
;
and
music
and
than all,loftywords
and, more
rhymed cadences which
song;
anything
in

there

real dramatic
would
their

be

of

doing or
sense
was

some

one

had

done
drama

be

most

the

critical listener the

one

of these
and

of
in

which

they

characters,

adventures.

emotions

realize

not

what

he
to

the

to

some

one

dialogue,it

self
him-

do,

"

diate
imme-

else

was

not

personationwhich

cultivate.

and

when
about

and

The

structure

him

altogetherunfit to
beingsengaged in working out
to

appear

of human

was

to

his
of

represent the
natural

train

the
be requiredto distinguish
stylewould
without
that
to
being altogether
opposed
ordinarylife,
whilst
it
idea
the
of
art,
language; something that would
poetical
convey
read.
had
make
visible.
real
the
He
art
too
was
sufficiently not to
diligently
'The
printed in 1571,
Tragedy of Ferrex and Porrex;' and the little volume
showed
the stage before the Queen's
was
on
containingthat play as the same
Majesty,about nine year past, by the gentlemen of the Inner Temple," was a
volume
the most
to him
to him
complete specimen of that
precious
; for it gave
fitted
for
the
of
of the higher drama.
which
species verse
appeared
purposes
The
of the
indeed
long, after the model
speeches were
statelyharangues
Sallust
forcible and impressive
which he had read in his
and
but
;
Livy
they were
his lipsthose lines on
the causes
and miserie?
he had often upon
; and
of civil war
had furnished such fearful examples:
of which our history

language from

Some

would

was

of the

explaintheir
present, through the

engaged,

principleof

the

total absence

reference

have

poem

one

were

of
description

moment

scene

were

understand

to

would

versification,
too,

the

writer

thus, though the

it did

the

perplexing.At

characters

upon
real life, would

that

formed
singularly

thoughtsand
of

that

"

would

he

"

to

action

the

offer to

"

mouth

the

But

spiritwould
fancyingwhat
of

could

William

the
feelings,
passions,peculiarities,

own

mind

of

discourse,like

business

his

drama

new

like poetry.

sounded

how

the

the

that

elevation

of

of

"

'

'

'

'

"

"

And

thou, 0

Whilom

Dismember'd
Thus

These

Britain

in wealth

wasted
be

! whilom
and

thus, and

thus

be

rent

defac'd, spoil'dand

and

the fruits your

in renown,

fame, shalt thus

'

civil

wars

in

be

torn,

twain,

destroy'd:
bring.

will

riays Confuted.'
133

SHAKSPEEE

WILLIAM

Hereto
To

it

This

when

comes,

advice,but

grave

is the

kings will

end, when

These

the

are

make

Thus

new

wreak

Naught
These
To

but

princes'hearts
hath
no
place.

in fond

rede

sage

murder

royal crown.

the

the

gods, when

the

blood

child may

own

No
As

Even
of
as

this

their

if the

of that

and

play.

play,correct
bursts
the

sudden

all

only

is the

to the

realm

is

And

truth

not

thereby

he

would

'A

to

impersonationof

known

to

be,

subjects'hearts."

in

might

improved. The entire play


it seemed
and
uninteresting
;
the
of
authors
genius of one

be

Sackville

wrote

in this

of the noble
compared with some
of
the
author
Magistrates'!Surely
have
written
a
tragedythat would
!
pity

were,

for
could
with

"

In his

in glittering
War
arms
yclad,
visagegrim, stern looks,and blackly hued
right hand a naked sword he had

That

to the

And

hilts

was

all with

in his left
and

Famine
He

wondered

bereaves,

Lastly stood
With

Still,he

life

certain heir

undoubted

they

War

kings.
the prince,
unto

finest lines which

Mirror

filled the heart with terror, if not

fail

do
be

monotonous

the

perspicuousas

Induction

"

made

vested

think

were

prince'sfact.

rightfulheir,

so

oppressedthe

inferior

of

such

him

to

was

lo !

hap

remains

But

form

How
and

in the

sublime

have

heir

Porrex,'

dramatic

when,

grow,
or

certain

versification

Ferrex

'

doth

wrath

'snago

rebels will arise,

spring when

judge
revenge,
noble
This, this ensues, when
men
In loyaltruth, and subjectswill
death

mean

mother's

that the

of her

and

this

is the

plagues,when

mischiefs

And

consent

heirs unto

work

Whom

not

wilful will.

follow

and
Flatteryprevails,

To

razed

that

and

(thatkings
Fire he held, and

towns,

and

threw

blood

imbrued

kingdoms rued)
therewithal

down

towers

and

example which Sackville had given of dramatic


verse
by the writers of plays for the common
He
theatres.
however, that a change was
saw,
takingplace; for the First Part
of
Promos
and
of
which
he
had
Cassandra,'
recentlyobtained a copy, was
had
Part, Master
wholly in rhyme ; while in the Second
George Whetstone
introduced
blank
In
little
book
which
the
verse.
freely
Stephen Gosson had
in answer
Thomas
to
just written againstplays, his second book
Lodge,"
which
had
been
lent him
to read
by a zealous minister of the church, who
disapprovedof such vanities, he found an evidence that the multitude most
The poets send their verses
such feet
to the stage, upon
delightedin rhyme :
rolled up in rhyme at the fingers'
is plausible
as
are
to
ends, which
continually
barbarous
the
and carrieth a stinginto the ears
of the common
peop'e."* And
from
another
of
the
he
collect
the
that even
same
writer,
yet,
might
passage
refined and learned were
delightedwith the poeticalstructure of the common
blank

had

the

all."

been

not

followed

'

"

"

134

'

Plays Confuted, in Five Actions.'

subtle is the

"So

dramas:

maketh

exercise

of

and

of

stick

the

join with the Gentiles


poetry, flowingin verse,
tied this

devil hath

the

devil, that under

learningin

of

fast to

souls

our

of

most

to

the

colour

of recreation

in

their

wonderfullytickle

plays,he

corruption. Because
the

don,
Lon-

in

universities,by seeing of

do

to

us

numbers

BIOGRAPHY.

the

sweet

hearers'

ears,

he would
plays,that whatsoever
in sugar by this enticement, for

our

might slipdown

have
that

swallow.
troubleth our
of love
Thus, when
never
delighteth
any matter
is interlarded,though the thing itself be able to allure us,
it
is so
set
out
yet
with metaphors, allegories,
of words, fitness of epithets,
with sweetness
boles,
hypersimilitude ; with phrases so
amphibologies,
picked,so pure, so proper ;
with action so smooth, so lively,
the poison,creepingon
wanton
so
cretly
se; that
chokes
in a dead
without
hurleth us
down
at last, and
us
sleep."
grief,
It was
difficult to arrive at an
from
of
the
truth
the
exact
knowledge
tion
descripof one
under such strong excitement
Master
who wrote
as
Stephen Gosson.
The
the lawfulness
remarkable
of stage-plays
feature
a
was
controversy upon
of the period which
to that
we
are
now
and, as pamphlets were
describing
;
which

are
newspapers
age what
small literary
of
society

known.

to

ours,

Stratford

there
the

little doubt

be

can

tracts

this

upon

contest
a
disputeabout the Theatre was
in
The
who
Puritans,
oppositeopinions
religion.

The

strong in their zeal if


their

objectof
frame

their

not

their

in

for its
indignation,

invectives

they might tell with


public amusement,
against poetry
with
the
againstdancing,associated as they were
Treatise

directed
been

John

Northbrooke,

against dicing,dancing,vain plays,or


student

Pleasant

of Christchurch, Oxford, had

his

in
publication,

Invective
of

learning,and

defeats its

for

indeed

This

the

with

no

of

with

vigour

common

so

to

in

two

or

Abuse,
and

purposes

too

plays
containinga
pillars
Cater-

ostentation

occasional

Poets, whatever

is
had

three

such-like

considerable

and

1577,

Gosson, who

eloquence,

character
by
largean
of their poetry, are
new-born
Tiberias the
the objectsof Gosson's
:
hostility
Scaurus
death
for
somewhat
when
he
to
Emperor saw
writinga tragedy;
judged
Ovid ; and
Nero
he banished
when
he charged Lucan
to
Augustus when
put
his
write
his
and
Music
for
in
the
more."
no
comes
pipes,to stay
up
pen,
of Pythagoras,who
the authority
them
condemns
same
denunciation, upon
for fools that judge music
ear."
and
The
three abuses
of the time
by sound
held to be inseparable
As
and
are
are
:
piping
cousin-germans,so
poetry
of great affinity,
and
all three chained
in links of
piping and playing are
abuse."
It is not
that
declamation
like
this
would
to be
thought
produce any
from
Master
that even
great effect in turning a poeticalmind
poetry, or
Gosson'3 contrast
of the "manners
of England in old time"
and "New
England"
would
refinements.
We
a
againstmodern
patriotic
indignation
go far to move
naked
have, on one hand, Dion's description
and
how
went
were
Englishmen
own

aim.

especial

them

press

written

School

book, written

the

of

were

force

interludes."

himself

of 'The

time

againstevery
general, against music,
of an
excesses
ill-regulated

againstPoets, Pipers,Players,Jesters,

Commonwealth.'

1579,

well

in

licensed

"

previousto

of

of

Theatre
allowed

double

of
description

stage. A

the

the

be

holders

the
that

at

even

unquestionableabuses

that

in

even

subjectmight
between

made

numbers,

that

the

be

"

"

"

"

"

"

135

SHAKSl'ERE

WILLIAM

soldiers

good

the chin

to

but the

"

exercise

all such

dancing,and
Quantum

dramatic

be

the

tract

illo!"

worthy

he

has

ambition

to
likely

in this

his

which

he

theatre

for the

turned

not

was

truth

in

and

sneaking kindness

up
hand,

other

the

on

his ambition

had

Shakspere

declamation

general

man

us

sixteen, that

was

stand

they would

banqueting,playing,piping,and
rock us
in sleep.
or
to pleasure,

is

us

win
may
the young

If

trees

victuals;" and,

without

among

poetry when
Gosson's

damped by

now

as
delights

ah

mutatus

towards

is

that

of

barks

and

they fed upon roots


days in marshes
many
;

first
can

abuse, so
of the playersare
"As
some
difficulty
suppress:
of their plays are
without
are
rebuke, which
easilyremembered, as
The
two
played at the Bell Savage,where you
quicklyreckoned.
prose books
with

from

far

"

some

shall find

never

placed in

vain.

the
other

snares

The

Jew,' and

with

their

seditious

slovenlytalk

neither

with

hurting the

with

estates

rebellious

the

of

their

representing
the
;

devices,

own

their

own

the

eye, nor
Blacksmith's

'The

hearers.

chaste

the

one

in

commons

letter

usurers

gestures wounding

amorous

of

ears

pith, never
Bull

at the

bloody minds

and

swords, and

own

without

line

never

Ptolemy,'shown

'

livelydescribinghow

overthrown

are

with

wit,

greedinessof worldlychoosers,

very
friends

false

'

without

word

Catiline's Conspiracies,'
Daughter,'and
usuallybrought in at the Theatre :
the first containingthe treacheryof Turks, the honourable
bounty of a noble
is known
it
The
because
the
to be
mind,
last,
a
shiningof virtue in distress.
understand
mine
less
of
it
of
the
I
will
to
own
giving
only
;
sow,
speak
you
pig
'

that the

whole

traitors in
of

it

Catiline, and

of

praise

never

word

is

character

of

dramas.

never

of

tedious

in them,

art

Gosson

that

'Ptolemy' and

succession

us

of learned

in

men

likelyto happen,

Bell

prose
Catiline'

letter

the
and

placed in
neither

exhibited

there

be

can

son
perstalls
fore-

contained

Savage," that
books

of

reward

no

doubt

monologues, having nothing of the


their outward

althoughin
These
playsare

"

says,

'

the

show

pith,never

these
the

to

was

is

the

at

line without

show

to

work

danger that
books

prose

wit,

that

government

necessary

"two

sufficient

dramatic

of
principle
be

the

passion. The

nor

composed

were

the

in

at

every
it take effect."

without

quite

I shot

foresees

ere
continually

"

vain,"

which

Cicero, which

The

to

mark

form

they appeared
good playsand sweet plays,and
liked,worthy to be sung of the Muses,
himself; yet are
they not fitfor every

of all playsthe best

plays,and most to be
the cunning of Roscius
out
or
seL
It is clear that these
mans
diet, neither ought they commonly to he shown."
the
elements of popugood plays and sweet playshad not in themselves
larity;
any of
The
real
barren
of
were
therefore
highest
they
poetry
poetry.
utterly
is essentially
the popular poetry : it is universal in its range, it is unlimited in
with

its duration.
lives for

When
the

The

Gosson

people

than
second

the

130

wrote,

contented

plays which

tract

is written

lowest poetry (ifpoetry it

littlewhile

in

narrow

the

corners,

poetry of

themselves
were

"

not

which, provokedby

with

much

more

the

with

the

be

called)is

thingof fashion

English drama
something else

fit for
answer

virulence

can

the pet

man's

every
of Lodge to

not

was

that

was

diet."
his

'

conventional
of

or

it

pedantry.

yet born; and


poetry

nearer

Gosson,
School

thus
againstplays especially,

in

his

of Abuse/
describes

what

delightedin
people most
sing,so hath he sought

the

"

Poetry can
drawn

and

BIOGRAPHY.

all kinds

beside

As

out

devil

into

of the

houses

that

hath

strain that

every

of instruments

the

the

is able

simple and

compass,

in

brought
Music

all that

pipe

to

mixed.

Foi

beauty
garish
eye,
morisces, hobbyapparel,masks, vaulting,tumbling,dancing of jigs,galiards,
horses,
to
set
out
showing of jugglingcasts ; nothing forgotthat might serve
ravish the beholders
with pomp,
the matter
with variety
of pleasure." Lodge,
or
School
in his reply to Gosson's
of Abuse,' had
indirectly
acknowledged the
the

and

the

stages, he

sendeth

in

'

moral

of

want

ancient
the

purpose

satirists

were

end.

in

the

stage exhibitions

reformers

of

manners,

so

but

might

he

contends

plays be

that,

as

the

properlydirected

Roscius, neither

there
are
Surely
great
of Terence's
dare not
profession but yet our men
scarcity
now-a-days presume
much
the old poets might ; and thereforethey apply their writings to the
as
so
should
now-apeople'svein; whereas, if in the beginningthey had ruled, we
found
small
have
of
but
of
truth
You
days
spectacles folly,
say
unless the thing be taken away
the vice will continue ; nay, I say, if the style
were
changed the practicewould profit." To this argument, that the Theatre
Gosson
thus replies
If the common
of manners,
a censor
might become
people
which
resort
to
theatres,being but an assembly of tailors,tinkers, cordwainers,
and such-like, be the judges of
sailors,old men,
men,
women,
boys,girls,
young
faults there pointed out, the rebuking of manners
in that place is neither lawful
and
convenient, but to be held for a kind of libelling
nor
defaming." The
notion
which
have
to
possessedthe minds of the writers againstthe
appears
this
fiction
and
lie were
the same.f
Gosson
that
at
a
a
period is,
stage
says,
The
the thing to seem
neither greater
perfectest
image is that which maketh
less than indeed
it is ; but in plays,either the thingsare feigned
that never
nor
as
Cupid and Psyche played at Paul's, and a great many comedies more
were,
in every playhouse in London,
at the Blackfriars,and
which, for brevitysake,
I overskip
if
it
is
like our
in
made
be
taken
true
hand,
shadows,
a
history
; or,
longestat the risingand fall of the sun ; shortest of all at high noon."
notion evidently
that nothing ought to be presented upon
The
the stage
was,
historical
but what was
fact ; that all the pointsbelongingto such
an
a
history
should be given; and that no
be used
in settingit forth beyond that
art should
them
to make
comprehend, all the facts. It
necessary to give the audience, not
will
little of the poetry or
is quite clear that such
the
us
a
present
process
of 1580, weak
masters
as
philosophyof history. The play-writers
they were,
knew
their art better than
Gosson
attractive
made
history
they
by changing
;
to

same

"

want

we

not

"

"

"

The
Shakspere Society reprinted in one volume 'The School of Abuse,
'Plays Confuted,' "c.
These
tions
publicaApology for Actors,'first published in 1612.
published in 1579, and Heywood's
completely
presented more
belong to different periods. The controversy of the first period was
in reply to Lodge, and
to Gosson, by Gosson's
by the Second
by Lodge's answer
Plays Confuted
School
of
The
counted
of which
and Third
Blast
of Retreat
from Plays and Theatres,'the author
Abuse
These tracts are exceedingly rare, and
the First Blast.
they open to us clearer notions of the
earlystage than any other contemporary productions.
t See Note
at the end of this chapter,
*

'

first

'

'

'

'

'

SlIAKSPEIiE

WILLIAM

it into

such

unto
or

melo-drama

points

as

the

set

when

"

best

may

the

show

agog with discourses


with scoffs and
taunts,

it is bare.

practiceof the

When

the

cobbler,and

the

history)most
commonly
in tragical
speeches
paint a few antics to fit their

of love, or

bring in

or

of itself

matter

their teeth

set

it (a true

majestyof their pen

heroes

humours

own

poets drive

The

"

leather

the

furnish

to

to pullit out.

Caesar and Pompey,' and the play of


of
The
Fabii,'at
history
both amplified
there where
the drums
might walk or the pen ruffle.
of the persons who
historyswelled or ran too high for the number
'

Proteus

it, the poet with


at
all, he
pomp

the

cut

brought

it to

his

to

same

rack

the

own

measure

make

the

stage

of this,they follow

short

comes

to

show

when

it

the

So

the

was

theatre

When

the

should

play

it afforded

no

Which

serve.
invincibly
of 'The
The
author
images of truth."
Blast of Retreat,' who
describes himself
affector
of that
as
formerly a great
vain art of play-making,"charges the authors of historical plays not
only with
and
the
render
them
no
expanding
curtailing action, so as to
images of truth,
but with
If they write of histories
changing the historical facts altogether
:
that are
life
the
of
affairs
of Csesar, and other
known, as
Pompey, the martial
like counterfeits
them
out
to
worthies, they give them
a
new
face,and turn
show
themselves
the stage." From
the author of 'The
Blast of Retreat' we
on
derive the most
of those comedies
of which
of intrigue
account
accurate
none
have come
down
this earlyperiodof the drama.
from
We
to
us
might fancy
he was
t
he
in
of
Mrs.
Behn
Mrs.
sentences
Centlivre,
or
describing
productions
that might appear
be quoted from
to
Jeremy Collier's attacks upon the stage
than a century later :
more
"Some,
by takingpityupon the deceitful tears of
the stage-lovers,
have
been
their secre'
moved
on
by their complaint to rue
whom
like
torment
friends,
:
they have thought to have tasted
some,
having
noted the ensamples how
maidens
restrained from
the marriageof those whom
their friends have misliked,have
there learned
a
policyto prevent their parents
t
hem
of
the stage-player
carried
one
:
by stealing
some,
seeingby ensample
away
with too much
of another
man's
wife, having noted by what practiceshe
liking

proveth

on

side that

my

plays are

to

no

"

"

"

"

has

been

assailed

that

and

overtaken, have

put the like in effect in

The
device of carryingand
rejest
their
tokens
with
pedlarsto transport
by laundresses,practising
other kind of policies
sell their merchandise, and
to
to
by colourable means
their
their
of
wifes, guardians
"of
beguilefathers of their children, husbands
of their servants, is it not
in
The
School
of
wards, and masters
aptlytaught
Abuse'?"*
the licence
Perhaps the worst abuse of the stage of this period was
earnest

afore

failed to

not

was

shown

in

carryingletters

'

of the

clown

dramatic

fool

or

writers

Blast

these

pastimeswere

yet because
showeth
there

of

found

'The

they

The

are

some

editor of the
138

not,

in

which

it essential to

Retreat'

himself

followeth

abuse

an

"

so

his

has

they are, to
abused
they

as

colours,

appends

note

greatest and

denounce

described

vanity,not

tract

the

this

and

the

put down.
"And

vividly:
simplyof
"

The
all be
their

be condemned
are

make

abominable.

For

successful

most

the

Fool

author

of
of

[although]
own
no

nature,
sooner

but

straightwaylightly
merry,
but
Yet
only superfluous, beastlyand wicked.
to

"

"lie

men

meaneth

plays,who

are

not

unfitlyso called."

A.

BIOGRAPIIY.

that
scorning,
by his unseemly gesture and unreverenced
seem
we
onlyto be delightedin him, and are not content to sport ourselves with
modest
mirth, as the matter
givesoccasion,unless it be intermixed with knavery,
clownish
drunken
conceits, and
merriments, craftycunnings,undecent jugglings,
in
odious
of
the sight
other cursed mirth, as is both
such
God, and offensive to

carried away

so

we,

honest

ears."

periodimmediatelybefore us we find no
of our
of those
out
direct mention
Histories, borrowed
English chronicles,
buried
in rusty brass
that have been
forefathers' valiant acts
wherein
our
long
raised from
the grave
books
revived, and they themselves
and worm-eaten
are
of oblivion and
brought to plead their aged honours in open presence." This
is a description
of the earlychronicle histories of the stage,as given by Thomas
of the
believe that in this description
some
in 1592;
and although we
Nashe
it
be
would
himself
can
included,
of
scarcelybe
necessarily
Shakspere
plays
attractive as well as
the inventor of this most
altogether
imagined that he was
the
Whilst
writers
for
the
of
drama.
obvious
most
stage previousto
species
L580
were
reproducingevery varietyof ancient historyand fable, it is not
neglectedthe copiousmaterials which the
likelythat they would have entirely
in another passage
Nashe
of their own
history
country would present to them.
V.
is
have
it
to
What
a
King Henry
representedon the
gloriousthing
says,
and forcing
both him
and the Dauphin
King prisoner,
stage leadingthe French
is
this
action
be
dramatic
in one
like
to
found
of
!
to swear
Something
fealty
The
have
down
Famous
to us,
tories
Victhese elder historical plays which
come
The
of
Battle
Honourable
the
of Henry V., containing
Agincourt.'
only
be safely
other English historical play that can
assignedto the dramatic period
It has been already
III.'*
The True Tragedy of Richard
before Shakspereis
Famous
Victories somewhat
The
to notice
fullyin connexion
necessary for us
with Shakspere's
plays of King Henry IV., and King Henry V., but the view
here endeavouringto give of the state of the earlystage would
which
we
are
to
be essentially
we
a class of dramas
so
were
important
incomplete,
pass over
in
connexion
with
believe
in themselves, and
what
to
we
so
interesting
may
of Shakspere's
dramatic
have been the earliest productions
genius,as the English
In

controversial

the

of the

writers

"

"

"

'

'

'

Histories

of these

and

'

The

'

Victories

Famous

is

authentic

an

and

very curious

example.!
There
the
be

is

full audience

performanceof

new

in the

collected
the

Earl

of

Town

Hall

France;

to

father
hero

on

and

now

the
a

will furnish

the
exhibiting
seat

of

conqueror.

ample

See the Notices

The

'

room

of Richard

The
for

Prince

wild

and
justice,

then

raised

witness

Darby's players.Slightpreparationwill

to
necessary for the performance, althoughthe history
regal story; its scenes
changingfrom the tavern to the

Stratford,to

of

after

floor at

all these

III. in the fourth

Victories' was
not
play of The Famous
celebrated Tarleton, who
died
in 1588, played
the period of which we arc writing.

strikingthe
a

palace,from England
of his
representative
the

end

of

upper

will be

painted

Prince

same

Town

the

Hall

will lead

board

of this edition.

printed till
the

performed

little while

the

displays.The

volume

be

clown

1594

in

; but

it; and

there
it is

is

no

doubt

that the

reasonably assigned to
139

SHAKSPERE:

WILLIAM

imaginationof

the

honourable
with

four

for

to

and

part of

me

no,

lord,it

my
familiar

Prince

who

with

the

of villains and

names

about

word

will

they go

We

are

would

be

the

to

wiil have

robberyhe

the

in

tavern

sirs ;

all

is

tell you,
The
scene

kings."

he

and

off with

the

an

their

With

John

with

they say
booty,then,
Prince

"

were
dead, we
Cobbler, Robin

ward

and

the

them
if

of the

father

king my

London,

now

invitation

the

that

threat

hanged.

them

Costermonger keeping watch

Lawrence

Pewterer, and

and

and, after bestowing upon

Eastcheap, upon

all fellows, I

"Why

passes by
the
informs

cry after the Prince's


accomplishedPrince then meets

drives them

rascals,ho

villainous

Oldcastle, who

hue

with

The

carrier.
poor
he lias robbed;

whom

was

his

are

answers,
charitably

very
Sir John

risen

has
Deptfoi'i

of

it

that

not

you

Ned

youth."

trick of

robbed

has

Think

Tom

and

Jockey,joins this pleasantcompany,

town

receivers

Prince

"

says,
father's receivers?"

but
of

the

the

my

was

name

that

man

when

rob

to

the

it

receive

not

we
preparation

without

profligacy.Ned

his

of

midst

and

is removed,

curtain

The
in

then

will

heart

hard

what

fly in represented

armies

fought,"two

be

the

when

another; and

to

country

one

bucklers, and

Prince

the

companions;

"

Agincourtis

and

swords

encounter

from

pitched field?"*

the

of

bathe

audience

the

in

the

accus-

for Derrick, the

for them

;
styleof going to sleep. There is short rest
is
London
to seek
Prince's
to
the
robbed
come
has been
servant,
by
roll
in a
about
audience
his goods.
But
begin to
why does the Stratford
words, but is set on
waits not
for laughter-moving
which
phrenzy of laughter,
It is Tarleton, the
words
irresistible than
?
by a look or a gesture, more
night.
tofamous
Clown, who
plays the Kentish carrier; and he is in high humour
written
down
for
has
of the play
little what
It matters
the author
him, for his "wondrous
plentifulpleasant extemporal wit" will do much
of the promptthan the dull dialogue
of his audience
better for the amusement
books.

omed

carrier who

In
the

cries,

before

scene

Chief

Lord

Justice

the

"

ing to the book,


but what
prisoner
;

"

"

"

the

Justice

Chief

much

probablydid
persons
Hartes

of any

to

catch the thief,and

you,

adds,

lord, I

my

is set

Court

the

bring the prisonerto

Hear
he

has

when

Justice; and
Gaoler,

he

us

having this hint

very
render

Henry

refinement.

Dreame,' written

dullness

the

pray
for

four

about

of

order, and

bring the bar


you
clown's licence,soon
The

the

real

wit

of

to

the

renders
Tarleton

production

death, thus

after Tarleton's

years

Chief

early stage endurable


curious

Chettle, in his

before

the

speaksaccord

bar," Derrick

the

insignificant
personage.

to

in

take him

to

'

by

Kind-

describes

The
in a vision :
next,
by his suit of russet, his buttoned
appearance
and
other tricks,I knew
his
the
to be either
his
toe,
tabor,
standingon
cap,
for his pleasantconceits was
resemblance
of Tarleton, who
the body or
living,

his

of

"

"

all

Sidney.

"(-From
upon

liked, and

men

the

'

Defence

of

'Palladia

Aristotlo, did

not

dying, for

mirth

his

left not

fellow."!

Poesy.

Tamia'

of

think

Francis

Tarleton

Meres

beneath

we

his
'

learn
notice

that
:

"

"

Case, the commentator


famous
was
Antipater Sidonius
dicere
versus
erat,'so was our

Dr. John
A3

in Greek, and
Ovid for his
Quicquid conabar
extemporal verse
Dr. Case, that learned
physician,thus speaketh in the
Tarleton,of whom
Theodnretum
Aristoteles suura
laudavit
chapter of his 'Politics :'

for

'

"

liO

Piince

The

seventh

quendam

book

and

teenth
seven-

peritum tragoe-

and

enters

The

demands

release of his servant,

the

which

scene

BIOGRAPHY.

when

ensues

Prince

the

which

the

strikes the

Justice

Chief

Chief

Justice

is

refuses.
able
remark-

of the

example

poeticalpoverty of the earlystage. In the representation


be exciting,
but the dialoguewhich
course
accompanies it
is beyond comparison bald
and
audience
however,
meaningless. The
was,
I'll
tell thee
compensated by Tarleton's iteration of the scene
Faith,
John,
:
shalt
be my
what ; thou
lord chief justice,
and
thou
shalt sit in the chair ;
I'll be the young
and
and
hit
thee
box
the
and then thou
a
prince,
on
ear
;
shalt say, To teach you what
I commit
the Fleet."
to
prerogatives
mean,
you
The
Prince is next
in
where
he
is
visited
presented really prison,
by Sir John
Oldcastle.
The
Prince, in his dialoguewith Jockey, Ned, and
Tom, again
exhibits himself
the
basest
and
most
of
ruffians
as
vulgar
hearing his
; but,
father is sick, he goes to Court, and
the bully,in the twinkling of an
eye,
Pardon
becomes
a
sweet
:
saintlyhypocrite
father, pardon me ; good
me,
lord of Exeter, speak for me
:
pardon me,
pardon, good father : not a
my
word : ah, he will not
thrice unhappy Harry.
speak one word : ah, Harry, now
shall I do?
I will go take me
But what
into some
solitary
place,and there
sinful life,and, when
I have
lament
down
and die."
done, I will lay me
my
Prince
The
where
the
the
it
is
in
removes
scene
as
ception,
poeticalconcrown,
poor
the

action

would

of

"

"

"

"

extemporizethat

Henry V.
forgiven
;
of the
the

and

be

France

swords

bucklers

and
Derrick

there

is

has

there

one

who

have

This

he

dies

Justice
the

is

course

of
clashing
stage representation

its

rendered

soldier.

IV.

Chief

off; the

is resolved

might

become

fancies

touching. Henry
cast

To trace
upon.
The
for the patienceof our
readers.

much

too

and

something more
companions are

evil

the

expeditionto

would

war

four

the

audience
into

scene

is crowned;

endurable, and
him

Stratford

the

touches
could

is the

wit

set

down

for

"

"Derrick.
John.

four

was

Four

or

or

five times

five times

slain.

slain !

Why,

how

couldst

thou

have

been

alive now?
0

Derrick.

John,

them

amongst
John.

never

say

so,

Why, what didst thou?


Why, I will tell thee, John

Derrick.

field,I

would

bleed

nose

he

me,

whereof

The

scene

which

fact

swearingof

then

would

called

bloody soldier

the

say,

straw,

I would

Peace, ah

and
go

every

thrust
into

the

day when

it into

my

field ; and

I went
and

nose,

when

bloody soldier; and

bid

the
me

into
make

the

my

captainsaw
stand
aside,

glad."

was

Nashe

as
a
glorious
represented
thing does not violate the
making Henry lead the French king prisoner;but there
:
fealtyin which the Dauphin participates

torical
hisis

"

V.

"Henry

actorem

was

in

must

diarum

take

; and

for

all.

needs

Well,

French

King.

Henry

V.

; Cicero

good brother

my

of

France, there

is

one

thing I

desire.

That

What

is

all your

that,my
nobles

good brother
must

be

England ?

Roscium
Angli Tarletonum,
; nos
capitelepidsofacetke habitant.'

suum

in cujus cerebroso
affectus,

of

to be

sworn

in

true

to

me.

cujus voce

et vultu

"

141

onn

cs

jocosi

SIIAKSPERE

WILLIAM

French
know

King. Whereas

they

duke

will

have

they

stick with

not

trifle

with

stuck

not

such

greater matters, I

begin

with

you

my

lord

upon

my

of

Burgundy.
Henry V. Come,

lord

my

of

Burgundy,

take

your

oath

sword.
to
of
Henry king of
Burgundy, swear
Burgundy. I, Philip duke
his league-man ; and
that, if
England to be true to him, and to become
the said Henry,
I, Philip,hear of any foreign power
coming to invade
Mb
or
heirs, then
I, the said Philip,to send him word, and aid him
with

all the

pcwer

can

make

; and

thereunto

I take

my

oath.

[lieMstsetAthe
Henry

Come, prince Doiphin,you

V.

must

sword.

too.

swear

[He Tcisscththe sword."

It

was

his

about

Defence

periodwhich

the

of

Poesy.'

The

we

are

drama

was

touchingupon

now

then

he

as

has

Sidney wrote

described

it, "much

which, like

abused
pitifully

be

that

an
nerly
unmancan
more
;
England,and none
mother
honour
her
causeth
bad
to
education,
Poesy's
a
daughtershowing
be called in question." The
scarcelyto have
earlyframers of the drama seem
desire for dramatic
tions
exhibithe daughterof Poesy. A
considered
that she was
direction
had
seized upon
desire,but takinga new
not
forcibly
new
a
it
best
be
demand
to
The
as
was
the English people.
supplied
might be, by
as
to profit
were
the playerswho
they always will be, the
by it. They were,
would
best judges of what
pleasean audience ; and it was to be expectedthat,
the rude plotof any popular
having within themselves the power of constructing
what
the languageof the stage is
and
in
story,so as to present rapidmovement,
of the dialoguewould
be a secondary
called business, the beauty or even
propriety
left to the extemporal
be pretty much
consideration, and indeed would
almost
wit
of
clown
the
the
of this
That
was
of
the
invention
actor.
entirely
distinct evidence.
have the most
Sidney,with all his fine taste, was
nature
we
the
two
and
time,
stickler for "place
companions of all corporal
necessary
a
the stage should
actions.
always represent one
place,
For," he says, "where
Aristotle's
it
should
both
in
time presupposed
be,
and the uttermost
by
precept
is
both
and
there
but
one
and
places
days
reason,
day,
common
many
many
builders of our
the rude
early
imagined." As the playerswere
inartificially
the
ruder
and
Moral
founded
drama
that
was
and
Mysteries
as
drama,
upon
could be gratithat the senses
all
so
which
was
in
fied,
disregarded,
propriety
Plays,
unities
time
and
the
of
observance
the
of
place,
rejected
they naturally
have
would
which
deprivedtheir plays of their chief attraction rapid change
it that they did so ; for they thus
And
fortunate was
incident.
and abundant
of our
national drama, the
and widening the foundations
on
went
strengthening

used

in

"

"

"

truth and
nature.

freedom
Had

of which

Sidney

could

lived five

or

not

exist under

six years

law

had
longer,

which
he

seen

is not
or

the

law

read

of

Romeo

Midsummer-Night's Dream, he would probablyHve ceased


the unmannerly daughter of Poesy ; he would
in all
as
to
regard the drama
defeclikelihood have thought that something was
through the
gained even
of
bounds
time
the
and
and
that
circumstances
place,
compel the
tuous
spurn
of the
to be utterly
to travel at its bidding,
to be still or
regardless
imagination

and

Juliet,or

"

"

142

A.

halt

or

the

of events,

march

all its faculties.

great work

of

it should

when

idea possess the


effected when
a
play was

be

only to

all the

dominant

one

conditions

unite

the

its excellence

of

the popular mind


subjecting
refined understandingcan
most

the

the young

of Stratford,who,

man

as

of

sway

become

to

be.

fully
highest

the

skill

the

through

appreciate.When
altogether

conceived, knew

have

we

its power,

to

and

soui

should

conditions

main

two

that of

"

only

which

that

so

was

when

art ;

comprehended;
excellence

this

But

BIOGRAPHY.

the

of his

drama

dialogue
without
altogether
delight,and laughed most
of the witty clown, a vivid though an
at the extemporalpleasantness
heartily
imperfectnotion of the excellence that might be attained by working up such
materials upon
of art must
common
a
principle
assuredlyhave been developed
If Sidney'snoble defence of his beloved
in his mind.
lished,
Poesy had then been pubhe would, we
think, have found in it a reflection of his own
opinionsas
"bad
education"
the
of the
their plays be neither right
drama.
"All
to
nor
tragedies
rightcomedies, minglingkings and clowns, not because the matter
but
thrust in the clown
so
carrieth,
by head and shoulders to play a part in
neither
discretion:
the
as
so.
majesticalmatters, with neither decency nor
admiration
and commiseration, nor
is by their mongrel
the rightsportfulness,
much
The objection
to the mingling
here is scarcely
so
tragi-comedyobtained."
the
"the
matter
carrieth,"as to
so
thrustingin the
kings and clowns, when
of art the familiar and
clown
Upon a rightprinciple
by head and shoulders.
The
the heroic
Here, in this play of
might be advantageouslyblended.
but
Famous
the
Prince
not
brutalized,
was
Victories,'
altogether
only prosaic,
time
of

through

'The

of itinerant
representations

the

Victories'

Famous

players,heard

rude

the

not

'

transition from

that the

so

But

surround

the

sort

balanced

and

same

with

by

the

make

will remain

so.

the

their

has

was
profligacy

intellectual

their

energy,

unnatural.
in

some

wit, their

gentleman in the midst of his most


it is gracehero is not merely probable,
ful

the

the

work

to

distasteful and

was

whose

expectation.But
He

hero

companions

Prince

the transition to

in itself,
it satisfies
he

ruffian to

counteracted

genialmirthfulness
wanton
levity
; and
and

the

Prince

out

young
his

poet is yet without

theory of art

own

models
but

that

He
has the
love of
formed.
be
theory must
graduallyand experimentally
in
his
soul
in
his
There
are
as
a
country's
presidingprinciple.
country living
annals many
stories such as this of Henry V. that might be brought upon
the
raise
from
the
of
for
to
"heroes
oblivion,"
gloriousexample tc
stage
grave
"these
degeneratedays." But in those annals are also to be found fit subjects
for
the high and
excellent tragedy,that openeth the greatest wounds, and
showeth
tissue ; that maketh
forth the ulcers that are
covered
with
kings
fear to be tyrants, and tyrants to manifest
their tyrannical
humours
; that, with
affections
admiration
t
he
of
and
teacheth
the
tainty
uncercommiseration,
stirring
of this world, and upon
weak
foundations
how
gildedroofs are builded." *
"

As

the

and

Hall
poet left the Town
young
his tricks ; he would
think that an

written
a

perhaps,

as

the

ambitious

Sidney.

Stratford

he

would

forgetTarleton

English historical play was

thought

task,the noble lines of Sackville would


*

of

crossed

his mind

be present to his memory

'Defence

of

to

yet

undertake
:

"

Poesy.'
143

to

be

such

WILLIAM

The

lively

The

sturdy

The

fields

It

The

die

looking

With

night's
erst

The
The

musing

Which
The

My

and

flickering
busy

Such

fall

That

oft
warn

reduced

presented

mind
of
I

peers

wish'd

the

rest

as

some

whom

in

near

this

find.

we

in

wealth

the

unto

sphere,

mind

thought,

than

faster

with

his

from

so

my

more

that

streams

golden

earth

worldly

goes

flame

in

blast.

learns,

down

to

that

this

on

comes

the

day

last

may

everywhere,

-powdered

oppressing

changes

time

heaven's

the

spread

Phoebus

sight

sundry

to

bom

be

winter's

to

glisteu'd with

so

sudden

That

long

thick

stars

dark

Beholding

nought
yields

showera,

beforn

so

things

upward

cheerful

That

for

the

earthly

beauty

Then

forlorn,

with

flourish'd

all

death,

the

flowers,

summer

lusty

that

well

leas

shatter'

so

fade

me

the

see

the

trees

summer's

Which

to

green,

so

taught

To

To

sorrowing

And

SHAKSPERE

see

we

fire

is

had

be

wrought,

me

realm

would

fortune

their
left

woes

descrive,

alive."

NOTE

BI0G11APHY.

SIDNEY'S

ON

think, been

'

DEFENCE

OF

POESY.'

of Sir Philip Sidney forms


the justly-celebrated
work
only against the Stage,but againstPoetry and Music, that
in England a little previous to 1580.
commenced
to have
Gosson, as we have seen, attacks
appears
it partakes of the
the Stage,not
general infamy of Poetry.
only for its especialabuses,but because
their
whole
practice of poets, either with fables to show
According to this declaimer, it is "the
their
their
with
to unfold
shame, discredit themselves,
abuses, or
plain terms
mischief, discover
has

scarcely,we
important part

It

an

the

of

noticed

that

not

controversy,

his
of Abuse'
'School
to
Gosson
dedicated
disperse their poison throughout the world."
of his letters to
how
Gabriel
Sidney received the
Harvey, shows
Sidney; and
Spenser, in one
books
I hear
called
New
of none
that, writing a certain book
compliment :
only of one
; but
*
for his labour
scorned
School
of Abuse,' and
The
dedicating it to Master
Sidney, was
; if, at
Such
to scom.
folly is it not to regard aforehand
least, it be in the goodness of that nature
books."
We
doubt
that
have no
the inclination and
to whom
dedicate
our
quality of him
we
the
'Defence
intended
it was
of Poesy,' or, as
first called, 'An
Apology for Poetry,' was

and

"

"

that
it was
written
in 1581.
There
is every
to believe
reason
reply to the dedicator.
the
of
of
avoid
Gosson
when
he
at
Poet-haters,"
as
can
scarcely
speaks
people
Sidney
pointing
do prodigallyspend a great many
seek a praise by dispraisingothers,"that they
who
wandering
in quips and
words
scoffs,carping and
taunting at each thing whicb, by stirringthe spleen, may
of the
the
how
a
subject." AVe have seen
stay the brain from
thorough beholding the worthiness
Liar
To
fanatical
writers
held
that
Poet
and
this
the
a
a
were
early
against
stage
synonymous.
for the lowest
ignorant invective, calculated
:
understandings,Sidney gives a brief and direct answer
but
That
be the principal liars,I answer
paradoxically,
truly,I think truly,that oi
they should
under
the sun, the poet is the least liar,and
all writers
though he would, as a poet, can scarcelybe
liar.
The
with
his
the
cousin
a
they take iipon
geometrician,can hardly escape when
astronomer,
do the
the height of the stars.
them
How
to measure
physicianslie,when
often, think
they
you,
as

"

"

"

"

"

afterwards
things good for sicknesses,which
And
to his ferry?
potion before they come

Now

for the

that

to

be

poet, he
true

things,can,
I said

his
to

believe

entry

tell you

things

not

Nathan

lied

what

affirmeth, the
true

the
is

what

sweet
or

true, yet,
in

affirmeth, and
So

the

as

of

cloudy knowledge

for

calleth

is false

which
the

before, never

to

you

in

nothing

is

he
Muses

not,

because

but
he

poet

write th
to

other

what

hardly

maketh
He

should
them

rest
lieth ;

never

any

citeth not
him
or

not

should
for

number

great

the

artists,and

mankind,

aspire unto

telleth

less of

no

therefore

never

Charon

send

aver

of

which

take

for, as

I take

souls

it,to

in

drowned

them

upon

to affirm

lie is to affirm

especiallythe historian, affirmingmany

escape

from

circles

about

authorities

good

lies

many

of

other

invention:

In

not

be.

true,

he

And
lieth

But

the

poet,

as

imagination,to conjure

your

histories,but

therefore,though
not,

even

for

troth, not labouring to

unless

wo

he

will

his

recount
say

that

wicked
durst
as
a
speech, before alleged,to David; which
scarce
man
say. so
think
I none
so
thinketh
that
simple would
say that /Esop lied in the tales of his beasts ; for who
it for actuallytrue were
well worthy to have his name
the beasts
chronicled among
he
jEsop wrote
writeth
of.
What
child
is there
written in great letters
that,coming to play and seeing Thebes
old door, doth
believe
that
it is Thebes
?
If then a man
an
arrive
to the child's age, to
upon
can
that the poet's persons
know
and
doings are but pictures what should be, and not stories what have
been, they will never
but
and
give the lie to things not affirmatively,
allegorically
figuratively,
written ; and
full fraught with
therefore,as in history,looking for truth, they may
false
go away
hood, so in poesy, looking but for fiction,
the narration
but as an imaginative groundthey shall use
'

plat

of

'

profitable invention."

Lifa.

145

[Guy's

"
-

Cliff

in the

17th

Century.]

XI.

CHAPTER

LIVING

earliest, and

The

impressed

are

It

time

the

difficult to

find

upon

England

excite

intensitythrough
the

The

most

every

in

of
the

belonged

to
H6

in
real

the

the

past

subsequent

mouldering
desired

the

to

those

document

know,
noble

or

may

age

were

indeed

days,

when

example,

towers

castles, and

of

be

celebrated

these
of

local

every

with

Warwick

much

had

not

tomb

inscriptionwas

the

1580,

in

year

upon

which

he

had

of

derived
and

vague,

yet arrived.
and

fect
per-

copied,

if William

precision, the

some

ruins

fresh

more

youth.

have

spots being

historians

themselves

past

his

monastic
to

which
interest.

of

strikingremains

reasonably considered

But

forth.

deep

those

are

historical

Shakspere spent

William

battle-fields, and

The

possessing more

history of

set

have

which

which

in

him,

part traditional.

monuments

than

district

neighbourhood

would

localities

by
a

poetical associations

of

permanent,

poeticalfeelingwhich

mid

for

most

mind

the

than

The

an

be

would

the

PAST.

THE

IN

history
often

and

spere
Shakwhich

gazed

BIOGRAPHY.

scarcelyrequiredto be based upon knowledge, he would


old people might tell kim
guide to his inquiries.Some
their fathers to have
that they remembered
spoken of one John Rous, the son
of Warwick,
of Geffrey Rous
who,
studied
at
Oxford,
and
having diligently
obtained
a
learning,rejected all ambitious
reputationfor uncommon
thoughts,
with
his
books
in
the
solitude
shut himself
of
and
was
Guy's Cliff,
engaged
up
Chronicles
of his country, and
the last in writing the
to
the history
especially
of
his native
Earls : and
there, in the quiet of that
County and its famous
pleasant place,performing his dailyoffices of devotion as a chantrypriestin the
live a life of happy industrytill 1491.
little chapel, did John
Rous
But
the
world
in general derived
little advantage from
his
labours.
Another
came
into
after him, commissioned
search
all
the
t
o
archives
of the
by royalauthority
from
damp and dust all ancient manuscripts,civil and
kingdom, and to rescue
with

look

in

delight that
vain

for any

ecclesiastical.
'was
knew

not

also

be

to

of

Leland

what

of Leland

Tittleuse
had

woodland

Guy's

and
Cliff in

its natural

few

and

generation.

own

about

performed

Warwickshire

but

William

how

the

described, in elegantLatinity,the

given

even

the

that would

characteristics
still be

an

his

of such

accurate

'

rary
Itine-

Shakspere
enthusiastic
beauties

of

place as
descriptionof
a

after the

Caves
hewn
in the
lapse of three centuries.
overshadowing wood, sparklingsprings,flowery meadowsriver rolling
the stones
with a gentle noise, solitude and
over

thick

grottos,the

quietmost

had

happy words,

features,even

livingrock,
mossy

river

well

was

his

to

written

half-poetical
antiquaryhad

and

the

commission

The

friendlyto

the Muses,

"

[Chapel

these

at

are

the

Guy's Cliff.)

enduringfeatures

of the

place

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

livingbefore

disadvantageby

some

still dwell

in

Chroniclers

The

had

who

aim

of their country did not


When
they dealt with
themselves

it

and

when

exactness

they

which

times

of

wrote

that

see

when

Very

the
systematize

fabulous

as

left not

was

present

them

Fabyan,

the

volume

whose

was

William

to

open

the

tion.
descripnoble

was

of

thus

Minutely
Shakspere'sboyhood,

King, fallen into impotent age,"believed in the professions


and divided with them
his kingdom, leaving
elder daughters,
of his two
daughter, who reallyloved him, to be married without dower to
younger
daughters and their husbands
King of France ; and then how his unkind
describe

his

chronicler

that

Of

of Baldud,

son

Brute.

than

accurate

"

of

Humber.

and

their narration : how


he, the
Of King Leir very exact was
4338
ruler over
the Britons the year of the world
made
was
in
land
and
wealth."
his
and
conditions,
subjects great
guided
does

poets

of

days

to

most

place.

or

the

as

Woodville.

for Elizabeth

could

they

records

appearance
singlemonumental

familiar

more

could

the

assumed

have

Edward

or

gates of King Lud

the

cities and

Clifford,

Rosamond

for

Henry

of

were

sustained

either of time

were

most

to

imagination.

own

they had to talk of the


privatehistoryof Albanact

they
Intimatelycould they decipher the
for El stride
fatal passion of Locrine
The

record.

his

beingsof

collect and

antiquity
they

to

easy

they
diffuse

the

any very great exactness

at

remote

was

with
to

Poet

minuteness, he
antiquarian

days

yet attempted

as

sealed

as

future

if the

Yet
of

people it

past, and

the

the

manuscriptswere

his

paintedby the fine old topographer.* But


the
Shakspereas those of John Rous.
young
as

"bereft

him

of the land," and

This

him."

in

called Leiceter

leir,now

sort

Leir

alter

Gallia,

"

for to

having knowledge,
was

Chronicle.

Leicester;" and

or

fled to

she

some

the

to
locality
; for, according

he

whereof

daughter Cordeilla,

comforted

kindness

"

the governance
his

of

the

how

he

"

be
of

story of William
made

the

town

"restored

was

forted
com-

natural
spere's
Shak-

of Caer-

again to

his

tion
The
local associalordshiphe died, and was buried at his town of Caerleir."
fix
in
the
that
its
have
which
in
to
mind,
helped
story
maturitywas
may
The
clers
to perceiveits wondrous
poeticalcapabilities.
earlylegendsof the chroniin
be
which
in
historical
not
to
even
an
are
things
despised,
age
many
compiled in good faith from the hisiustlyrequiresevidence ; for they were
had
been
toiies which
writers, who
compiled before them
by the monkish
from
down
1landed
generationto generation a narrative which hung together
with singularconsistency.They were
compiled, too, by the later chroniclers,
with a zealous
patriotism.Fabyan, in his Prologue,exclaims, with a poetical
which
is
commendable
than the poeticalform
which
even
he adopts,
more
spirit
"

"

Not

for any

This
But

work

only

The

antra

"Antra

in viro

Iceland's MS.
14?

'

hath

In

excellent

Of

whom

saxo,

per

saxa

yet

I taken

for

groat raced,
hand

to compile,
spread
honour
of this fertile isle,
a
continued,by many
long while,
honour, with many
a royalguide,
on

that I would

the deeds

nemusculum

rivi levis ct

muscosa,

have

because

famous

That

nor

pomp,

have

ibidem

discursus

Itinerary,'
a3
quoted by Dugdalc.

sprong

opacum,
;

necnon

to the

fontes

world

wide."

liquids)et gemmei;

solitudo

et

quies Musis

prata florida,
amicissima."

"

"

Lines

such

soil, when

they

seeds

as
homely though they are, were
read by William
Shakspere.

these,

as

BIOGEAI'IIY.

were

His

sown

goodly

upon

almost

patriotismwas

instinct.

civilization,the

ancient

of

monuments

roads, which

Foss-way. Upon these


present a singular contrast
of

later

of the
the work

that

Britons

otherwise.

of Gloucester

Robert
"

Faire
But
That
As

ben
ben

kynge

in this boke

schal

into

and

their

construction

Britons

of the

express

Dugdale

in
I

half ago would


the miry
to

words,
not

were

before

as

that

yet

he

would

his

niclers
chro-

the

sion
inva-

they were
tell him

to

Englondc

made

were

understonde,

aftir here

ere

this,

tell I wis.

takith
Erminge-stretc.
goeth Ikeneld-strete.
del grete
Frani South-est to North-west, that is sum
into Chestre
Fram
Dover
goth Watlyng-strete.
of alle that tilleth fram
The
ferth of thise is most
Tateneys.
the South-west
into Englondes ende
Fram
to North-est
Frain

the

South

Fram

the

East

Fosse

men

Thise

foure

Made

and

into

the

Ichnield-wayand

"

ther

on

old

thurglian
men

and

of all ther

most

work

the

says

many

weyes
four

centuries

tell him, in

Camden

and

the

remarkable

two

are

of

Shakspere often walk ; and


well as curiosity,
for
as

reverence

would

Fabyan

Romans.

two

the young

they were

there

roads

strengthof

the

with

ways

tell him

of the

in

period,would

naturallyregard these
would

great

"

the

lanes

Stratford

of

neighbourhood

immediate

the

In

the

North

West

that

callith thilke wey


weyes
ordeined

on

this

hem

londe

by
kyng

mony
Belin

town
the

doth

wende.

wise

gret fraunchise."

with

days of Lud and Cymbeline would


be that they were
of the
in many
a
powerfuland a refined people; excelling
tutions.
instifree
arts
of life; formidable
in courage
and
; enjoying
militarydiscipline
this period,he would
When
the matured
dramatist had to touch
upon
the
Roman
but
Britons
the
paint
yoke,
boldly refusing
yet partakersof the
Roman
civilization. The English king who defies Augustus says
His

notion, therefore, of the people of the

"

"

Thy Caesar knighted


Much
Which
Behoves

This is

him

under
he

to seek

me

me

keep

of

youth I spent
gather'd honour
again,perforce,

; my

; of him
me

at utterance."

the courage
of a king of painted savages.
intelligent
courage, and not
of
the
remarkable
intrenchments
which
surround
the hill of
depths
in the uplands,or
the evenWelcombe, hearingonlythe noise of the sheep-bell
ing
chime
from
distant
the
William
church-tower, would
Shakspere think
In

much

an

the

of the

the hand
the

No

mysterious
past.

for what

one

could

tell him

who

made

these

ments,
intrench-

they
they
Certainly
produced by
ceremonial
Was
?
they for defence or for religious
fort
looked
down
which
them,
a
loftymound, itself probablyartificial,
upon
or

of

man

purpose
but were

were

Cymbeline,

made.

Act

in., Scene

were

1*9

WILLIAM

when
little,

assuredlyknows
But

inquiries.
describe
the
of

does

Is

days?

own

motives

which

age ?

There

an

mistakes

and

devices of
that

he

know

and

trusted

the

deeds

truth, however,

of

the

which

annalists

insufficient to establish any


followed
by retribution

are

would

be

but

to

answer

are

nearer

undertakes

not

to

such
his

to

only

to

explainthe thoughts and


fixed the destiny
extent

to

was

be

amidst

found

all the

great poeticaltruth, that


command

permanent
;

an

certain

the

"

past

he

when

that to

explain everything,

things which

of

more

be

of the

demand

repeat the words,

to

prompted
was

to

everythingand

know

cannot

much

annalist

contradictions

men

crime

he

the

actions

the

would

who

Man,

temple ?

or

SHAKSPERE

evil

that

over

passionswould

the

events

become

that

be successful to the end ; that,


could not
injustice
and
although dimly seen
acknowledged, the great presidingpower
unwillingly
of the world could
the generalhappiness
make
evil work
for good, and advance
of the particular
that
out
This
the
mode, we
believe, in which
was
misery.
brief or elaborate.
thoughtfulyouth read the Chronicles of his country, whether
them
Looking at
by the strong lightof local association,there would be local
tradition at hand
to enforce
that universal belief in the justice
of God's
dence
proviwhich
is in itself alone one
of the many
proofs of that justice. It is this
affairs which
that young
cultivated when
he
man
religiousaspect of human
cherished
His
the poeticalaspect.
books
have
taught him to study history
the
medium
of
Mirror
The
for
through
Magistrates is a truer book
poetry.
for him
than Fabyan's Chronicle.'
the
He
the beauty and
understand
can
of
his
beloved
the
who
described
clearness
with
Froissart,
incomparable
power
their

own

tormentors

'

'

'

which

events

he

with

saw

his

own

gift of

eyes.
well as

To

do

this,as

Froissart

has

done

it,

requiresa
imaginationas
imagination
;
grouping and concentrating
thingsapparentlydiscordant, produces the
But the prosaic
and exhibits all the facts.
highestfaithfulness,because it sees
in its estimate
digestof what others had seen and written about, disproportionate
of the importance of events, dwellinglittle
the influences
of individual
upon
character, picturingeverythingin the same
of the same
and
monotonous
light,
height and breadth; this, which was
called history,
tedious fable.
to him
was
a
He
stands by the side of the tomb
of King John
at Worcester.
There, with
little monumental
lies
the
faithless
he
has
read, by a
as
King,poisoned,
pomp,
monk.
The
of
that man's
poeticalaspect
historylies within a narrow
compass.
He
was
treacherous,bloody,an oppressor of his people,a persecutor
intriguing,
of the unprotected. His life is one
of contest
and misery; he loses his foreign
his own
land
is invaded.
But
he
stands
possessions
;
againstforeign
up
and
that
domination,
a
priestlydomination.
According to the tradition,he
falls by privatemurder, as a
of his crimes, but of his resistance
not
consequence,
external
to
oppression. The prosaic view of this man's
historyseparates the
h
is
two
crimes
and
their
retribution.
The
them.
things,
poeticalview connects
is avenged when
Arthur
the poisonedking,hated
and
unlamented, finds a resting-place
of faithfulness

of

that

which,

from

his

of
paving-stones
man's
mind

grave,
:

"

150

own

passions and

the cathedral

when

his

last

their consequences
of Worcester.
But there

were
sufferings

shadowed

in the
was

out

in

earth beneath
tear

the

even

young

the

for that

poet's

[Tomb

Poison'

"

And

bid

will

of you

winter

the

icy fingersin my maw


kingdom's rivers take

his

let my

Through

my

burn'd

To

his

bleak

make

And

dead, forsook, cast off;

"

"

thrust

Nor

King John, Worcester.]

ill fare ;

d,
none

To

of

comfort

me

bosom

kiss

winds
with

cold."

my

natural

more

of

order

was

power

and

cause

effect.

course

the

north

parched lips,

working,as
of William
Shakspere,he
early,in the mind
events
might be brought together,not in the
dramatic

the

When

their
entreat

nor

corne,
;

we

have

doubt

no

would

look

exact

order

Events

would

it

working

was

historyto

at

of

time,

be made

how

see

but

in

the

prominent, not

the result of
they were
of opinion. The
epic of historyis a different
high passionsand fearful contests
In
the
the
the
dramatic.
of an event, perhaps the
epic
thing from
consequences
be
the
be foreseen
than
itself ; may
remote
event
more
important
may
consequences,
be
has
before
the event
comes
pened.
hapfullydelineated after the event
; may
in the
In the drama
the importance of an
action must
be understood

according

itself ; the

action
future.

It

attempted
been

to

is

not

hero

to

work

vividlypresent

certain

localities

were

be

must

easy
to

political
importance,but

absolute

their

not

many

instant

of the

local

youthfulfancy. The
capable of sustaininga
King John,

Act

v., Scene

the

not

great
dramatic

in the

events

which

possible

Shakspere

matured

associations

his

time, and

therefore, how

understand,
upon

to

great in the

as

must

connected

development.

vu.

151

have
with
There

SHAKSPEEB

WILLIAM

example, more

for

event,

no

was

have

Shakspere. About two miles and a


the villageof Twyford, where
neai
track.

The

Offenham

from

is not

Avon

returningin

town,

Here, then,

in peace

land
which

under

William

an

old tenant

road

Crown

have

by

for, flowing

been

that

Charl-

distance,to

same

continues, after it

Evesham

by the Avon, having


Twyford is a hollow
to the elevated
platform

ascends

battle which

put

the

The

'

point,
another

and for
Nobility,
energeticdespotism. The

an

sway
told in

would

young

bounded

and

of

Battle

the

miles, it encircles

of that celebrated

preceded that battle,as

Shakspere'stime

in

the

scene

the

the

the

to

Immediately below

the

was

terrible conflicts between

the

to

left the

Alcester

Battlewell, crossingwhich

called

of Greenhill.

either hand

on

three

of about

tongue of land

passes Twyford, through a narrow


considerable
varietyof elevation.
now

distant

the

elevated

an

is crossed

road

direction,about
nearlyparallel

great road, therefore,from

The

bury.

mile

is

Evesham

Alcester

the

distance

been

half from

than

more

Evesham,

to

than
its consequences
familiar
to
perfectly

importantin

battle-field must

The

Evesham.

of

"

read

season

stances
circum'

of Evesham

Chronicle

end

an

(which

remembered

and

by many
Montfort, the
Abbey), were
singularly
interesting.Simon
the arrival of his son's army
waitingat Evesham
great Earl of Leicester, was
Kenilworth
from
but
Prince
Edward
had
;
surprisedthat army, and taken
its
leaders
of
and
leave his strongMontfort
durst not
prisoners,
hold.
many
young
In that age rumour
did not
flyquite so quicklyas in our days. The
Earl of Leicester was
ignorantof the events that had happened at Kenilworth.
He

had

of the

made

forced

There

marches

solemn

from

Hereford
in

thence

and

Worcester,

to

the

Church

the

on
Abbey
for himself
the name
mighty Earl, who had won
the Righteous,'
felt assured that his son
that
at hand, and
was
On
the morning
uphold his cause
againsta perjuredPrince.

the

August
The

Earl

look

to

barber

Simon

the

barber

and

nearer

of Mortimer, and

accordingto

But

Montfort

have

led

shut
two

his

the

"

am

152

God

Over

of

Abbey

Kenilworth.

off,the banner

againthe Earl
hastilydescended

man

was

no

Edward, and

imminent

peril;

days are
our

be seen,

to

more

Prince

of
his

have, for

of

4th

the

top of the

And

souls all,our

our

souls

fly.

the

would

Heaven

hills from

host.

August,

Sir Simon

'

and

all done;

bodies

"

be theirs."

the

he might
bridge of Evesham
in
which
he was
perilousposition
escape
marched
northward, with King Henry his prisoner,at
hastily
the afternoon
of that day.
Before
the waters
of the
nightfall
a

as

was

to

man

from

to

blood-red.
there

Avon.

terrible conflict,was
out,

writer, "Our

forces,so

fled,but

perished in

have

Earl

of

ham.
Eves-

to

of

3rd

few miles

standards
the

saw

God

writer,

the

the

to

the

de Montfort

seen

Then
"

one

another

little valleywere
thousands

were

nearer,

not

He
up.
o'clock in

Nicholas

was

of young

of Gloucester.

he said,accordingto
or,

that

succour

for the banner

sorrow,

but, coming

his barber

sent

coming over
down
with eager gladness,
for he saw,
de Montfort
in advance
of a mighty
to the top of the Abbey tower, and

came

in fear and

Leicester

of

for the

of young
sent

masses

the

1265, and

tower,

were

Henry

was

The
saved

Thousands
no

old

escape

the

King, turned

from

of Winchester."

death

slain

were

but

at

The

by

the

loose
the
massacre

between

those

war-horse

upon
hands
of the

victors

of Evesham,

hills;

two

bridgeof Evesham,

and

amidst

they
the

by crying

where

hun-

[Bridge

acd

dred

eightybarons

were

knights,in

and

without

butchered

quarter,

was

great epic story. It had


dramatic.
If Shaksperehad chosen

was

for

Roses,

gallantcompany

might

he

tale

had

another

concentration

of

dramatic

vast

have

of

its events,

of its leaders.
The

ill

of usurpers,

the

"

upon
end
in

Battle

of Edward
"

that

"Were

to

Two

armies

in the

Which

came

The

prints of

Which

Shrill
And
The
With

not

father

word

hasty

to

this sad
as

most

Heaven

show, the

to

were

marked

the

indeed

is

God

would

out

more

sing

the

heard
son,

from
the

gleaves,swords, bills,and

day,
bewray

the

bloody
the

way

either
brother

ground

found

to entertain

time
act

they

morn

scene.

air do

side, but

fill,

kill ;

'gainstthe brother,

pikes, were

niurtkering

one

racters
chatate
medi-

evermore

fight,
the

on

the

wretched

the

climbers,

poet

would

in the

deadly cries,each

'gainstthe

in

amazing sight !

remaining

join'd,to

dismal

and

dread

earth, that

feet
a

to

were

Warwickshire

air discerned

armies

was

fall of

his
But

forgotten.

would

he

wars

and

"

horses'

shouts, and

its fortunes,

just

before

as

in

worked

near

but

came

Till th' angry

more

be

the

dramatic
essentially

of Evesham

the

of

Montfort

been

have

lessons

these

ensue

so

to

de

how

apparitions strange,
horrors

Simon

of civil dissension, and

Leicester

The

one

instead

Barons,

never

rapid changes

Another

night

as

battle-field

But

black

the

fate of

the

they call their liberties


It
royal vengeance.
it was
not
essentially

of

measure

of

wars

so

what

points, but

tell ;

of treason,

misery

and

In

war

histories.

other

the

to

the

success

punishing murder."*
in

told

the

On

final

theme,

been

civil

for

arms

dramatic

of the

Evesham.]

at

mother.

jfe he
133

phatically
em-

great

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

full luxurious

The

earth

Whilst

in his uncle's

Whilst

with

They
Dead
The

their

hear

their

men,

and

Great

Le'ster

When

many

Scarce

Bohuns

the

Saint

is peace
awhile
first Edward
dies, and,

Johns

of their
on

Edward

There

gets

fate of Gaveston.
the

onlysound

mill at

Guy's

In

of life about
Cliff.

The

were

land.

weak

bears

surroundingtrees
this tower
whose
the

chapel of

was

Mandeviles
of

end

the

that day
palm away."

On

is

man

the

on

the

of

Stratford

little knoll

The

throne.

succeedinghim,

there

is

was

there

called

Blacklow

Shakspereponder upon the


secluded
;
spot all around him would be peacefulness
of the old
be the dashing of the wheel
would
him
would

towers

of

and, higher than


called

William

Warwick

would

be

all, Guy's Tower.

from

seen

risingabove

their

Cliff.]

the

Saxon

He

would

have

heard

strelsy,
so
champion, the Guy of minbearingshield and sword, he had often looked upon in
called after
Mary Magdalen at Guy's Cliff. The Tower was
not

statue,

St.

all,

miles

ten

piles,

burial.

strong

1312.

tell,

slain

and

'

Drayton's Polyolbion,'22nd
15*1

could

fell ;

son
profligate

Within
year

son,

done.

times

Christian

[Mill atony's

that

the

and

had

side

and

ta'en

goal,and

Warwick,

that

upon

brave

sound.

lay heap'd on

there

Bassets

abound

dismal

those

meet,

feet.

horses'

earth

that

or

their

sides

in the

from

mile

the

on

that

seek,

the

again misrule and turbulence.


tragedyenacted in the
a

do

this

on

names

both

fearful

Hill, about

their

of which

house

slaughter'dmen
Beauchamps were,

thousand

Prince

under

brains,do give a

thereof

one

Segraves and
To give those
Ten

broke,
with

noble

there

and

groan

expir'd,with Henry his


high exploitthey in that day

some

Amongst

kinsmen

desperate horsemen

the

staves

there
a

was

that

But

th' unnatural

charged

weapons

blood,
nephew stood

surfeited with

seems

gore

bedash'd

drums,

Song.

the

whose

Guy

Gaveston

And

of Arden.

Dog

name

associated

was

"

common

with

then

itself to

would

but

they

are

of

tragedy of Blacklow
imagination. There

and

torn

unarmed

is

He

his

is

face

fixed

opprobrium

of his maternal

that

Castle.
soiled

Cliff.]

Guy's

name

"

r.t

ancestors,

Hill,

the

his

present
great hall of Warwick

of Guy

Statue

[Ancient

"

he

as

him

on

by
Black

the

Guy,

recollected

this,

prisonerstanding in the
is clad in holiday vesthe
ments,
;
fear
and
the
with
fatigue
pale
is

the
thirtymiles across
night journey. By force has he been hurried some
of
the
shouts
amidst
and
soldiery
Dedington, near
Banbury ;
country from
castle
of his
entered
the
has
he
rude
of
and
and
the
drum
clang
trumpet
and
and
Warwick
Lancaster,
the dais,
enemies, where
they are sittingupon
them,
Hereford
a
and
and
the
trembling before
Arundel,
prisoner stands
the
But
monarch's
whom
minion, but one
no
right to punish.
they have
of

"

"

is

sentence

he

had

sad

called

In

the

still

more

young

dog"

march

avengers

dies

He

picture
and

by

the

are

few

in

some

II.
a

remarkable

so

Another

daring genius,
Edward

of

an

event,

and

of

poet

would

fiery temperament,
his

wretched

fit for
at

or

so

strikingcontrast

te

arise,

who

would

favourite,
the

and

drawling

his

years

one

whom

A
they spurned him.
the
drawbridge is
opened ;
Hill, with their prisoner

Blacklow

those

to

mercy

but

hog,"

gates
to

In

axe.

for

be
passion, may
easilyconjectured.
his
have
particulars
judgment would

dramatized.

present

the

castle

sued

He
old

"the

and
The

die.

is, indeed,
a
miserably. Here
story
it,
Shakspere had essayed to dramatize

character
which

silence

midst.

dramatic

be

black

"the

shall

he

processionis marshalled.

let down.
in

that

pronounced

man

the

for

it

But

had

rate

any
fitted

rejected,

as

seize
a

of the

upon

earlier

display of
to

power,

of

the

drama

the

unworthy

undoubted

of

that
formed

story, also.,

was

falls

master

and

tragedy ;

produce

histories

unhappy

story

that

should

stage.
loo

of

The

WILLIAM

subject

which

upon

be

touched

reign of

to

the

of
those

that

of courts

into

produce
white

the

and

red

Rochelle

of Scotland,

enjoyment

composition
sense

meditate

can

store

his

to

no

in his memory

up

of Gaston

Foix,

de

is Edward

and

he

gave

among

to

them.

As

build

its walls

and

his

is

throws

proud

alone

faithful

to

and

greyhound ;

his

was

II.

Prince.
of

son

associations
it

his

upon

of David

court

glorious

The

glorious

connected

city;

own

its citizens,and

cherished

gates, and

fatiguesof

earlyviolets

travels

of local
in the presence
Shakspere was
Prince
of
He
was
Coventry;
prince.
especially
licence

most

luxuries

He

of the Black

the

Shakspere

enters

and

is in the

retinue

Wales,

ing
overflow-

night draught of claret

but

he

the

of

The

The

he

as

follower

in the
of

is

so

write

than

brilliant

dances.

moment,

one

for

The

nature.

and

another.

when

or

Prince

of

banquets
at

and

having

portmanteau,

and

charms
of

reign;

more

is thrown.

he

the

more

He

indifference.

which

field at

sports of the
own

sweet

He

his

or

not

upon

Philippa is

William

this

dwelt

his

are

Froissart

of

father.

and

roses

observe

can

for the

have

great characteristic

with

nothing

upon

boisterous

wine.

palfrey,with

with

him

virelayof

be

to

was

of this

colours

Queen

to

is

III.

Berners,

chamber

into
spiritof every scene
him
for a relish of the
not

unfit

himself

of the

the

only prepare

camps

hero

looks

Lord

by

present realities in

they

clerk

The

genial spiritwhich

Froissart

heartilyinto

he

of Froissart,translated

romance-writers

of fiction.

himself.

or

'

the

with

"

put forth his strength was

had

Shepherd"

his greater rival.*

by

Chronicles

charm
than

"dead

of weakness.
Edward
succeeds
to
one
power
William
is
familiar
with
the
Shakspere
great events

throne.
'

the

SHAKSPERE

in the courts
of the old hall of
poet walked
young
extensive
palace,he would believe that the prince

the

St.

Mary's,itself a part of an
his spurs at Cressy ; and he would
sojournedthere after he had won
picture
the boy-hero, as Froissart had described
him, left by his confidingfather in the
midst
of danger to strugglealone, and
alone
The
talion
to triumph
prince'sbatat one
period was
pressed ; and they with the prince sent a
very hard
little windmill
the
who
hill ; then
the knight said
to
on
a
was
king,
messenger
to the
king, Sir, the Earl of Warwick, and the Earl of Oxford, Sir Regnold
and
Cobham,
others, such as be about the prince your son, are fiercely
fought
withal, and
handled ; wherefore
desire
and
that
are
sore
they
you
you
your
battle will come
aid them
for if the Frenchmen
and
increase, as they doubt
;
ado.'
Then
the king said, Is
they will, your son and they shall have much
dead or hurt, or on
the earth felled ?
No, Sir,' quoth the knight, but
my son
he his hardly matched,
he hath
need
of your
aid.'
wherefore
Well,' said the
him
and
them
that sent
to
to
hither, and say to them that
king, return
you
had

"

"

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

they send
alive

of

The
any

no

and

also

notice
mention
of

say

to

the

lino from

this

Like
Marlowe, in As You
contemporaries.

is

of

It, is

great poet of his


Marlowe's
"

falleth,as

for any, adventure


that
them
that they suffer him

me

by Shakspere
by

to

more

Dead
Who

'

Hero

Shepherd
ever

Leander

and
!

now

lov'd that

This

day
of

one
a

"

I find

thy

saw

of

at first

might,

sight?"

to

the

kind

:'

lov'd not

long
win

as

is

son

my

his spurs, for,

few

examples

notice

conveyed

we

haya

in the

troduction
in-

Hall, Court

[St. Mary's

if God

be

the

him.'

about

that be

them

had

sent

the

to

of that great

the

domestic
life in

scenes,

jeopardy for

conqueror

There
other

Sir

"

averted

great
was

Poictters

by

is to

tended
come,

de

even

of

and

of

And

stirringevents,
were

after

the

subservient.
hero

has

rich

and

the

but

no

of

Cressy
marched

into

touching

the

the

stern

something
sustained.

not

was

fought,

through

be

of

great action
is

young

Calais, putting his

vengeance

interest
one

epopee

the

slaughter,its

there

arranging themselves
dramatic

in that

princes for prisoners,

would

burgher
and

town,

all
the

in

out

to

showed

whole

be, the

shaped

triumph,

and

and

they repined

and

be

thereof,
them,

to

daring, its fields of

his

good

queen,
here

them,

then, it may

might

Pierre, the
the

again

strength, kings
in

honour

the

returned

France

humble

gentle

But

succession

did."

superhuman
and

his

his, and

knight

its chivalrous

safetyof

drama.

actions

amidst

Eustace

the

be

greatlyencouraged

conquest

lowly

conqueror

the

they

as

almost

by

perilsovercome

like

the

imagination,and

man's

and

king

for

war

journey

Then

which

the

king's words,

they

will this

pleased,

Front.]

to

Calais

country,

which

all

is taken,

burning

WILLIAM

and

rights;

and

his bed,
that

belong

lend

to

then

them

to
a

so

but

the

interest.

not

the story of Edward


Warwick

"

Let

the

of

Guy

legend

of the

power
who

led

See

Hscribed

the

our

tc

Notice

who

and

is for

rejected
;

V.

Henry

ever

disputed

hero

These

Romance

strugglewith

the

of France

the chronicle

historyof

associations, but

has

events
come

is to be

to

dies in

are

in
weak

off his weakness.

cast

together; it has done


his judgment to unite
tize
attempted to drama-

his

play entitled

matic
earlyhistoryis not draShakspere will subsequentlywork
poets that are to follow sing the

William

the

heroic

combat

another

Guy
Cressy, shall
the

had

that

and

at

of

be

to

and

romance

father's

and

wars.

dramatist.

conqueror

Salisbury
;

the

notions

Saxon,

the

the

to

future

historical

ballad-makers

later
van

the

to

he
in

generate other

his

III.*

it is full of

according
out.

that

dramatic

the

the

mix

not

The
of

Countess

may

believe

and

and

chronicler,

human

drama

we

the epic

for conquest is to

war

lover at the feet of


The

war

mercenary

the

people, thinking only of


in Spain in a bad cause,

the

regardlessof

wasting,

and

SHAKSPERE

have

'The

to

with

Colbrand

dramatize.

his

with

fame

Reign

of

Edward

Shakspere.

[Warwick Castle, from

the

its

Island.]

the Dane.

Thomas
the

Earl

Cobhams

III.' in

the

The
of

and

stern

Warwick,
the Chan-

Analysis trf plays

BIOGRAPHY.

shall
posterity

doses, and

church
collegiate
also

(be
time

standingat the
and stately
tower
by

the

recollected

it shall be

King

north-east
could

at

feast to

imprisonedin
Richard

him

restored

his will

appointby
famous
Guy"
and

of

the

should
mail

which

he

Castle

the

here

the

by

eventful

that

"

of

aside

strong and

for he
necessity,

of the

Richard

II.

historyof that
statelytower

"*

Warwick.

at

choir

His
made

was

strong

prisoner

quently
invited,banished, subsetreacherously
s
eized
The
fall of
possessions
upon.
honours
and possessions
and he was
enabled
to
;
sword
and coat of mail sometime
belongingto the
was

Tower, and

remain

would

in

built

midst
cast

was

merged

in his

him

his

to

who

he

of the

stead

that the

"

be

in the

tomb

Earl

that

corner

not

his

upon
The
shall

Thomas)

named

was

but

look

Warwick.

at

his

to

have

his

and

son

been

his

heirs

after him.

This

sword

more
appropriate,
though perhaps not a
look
than the famous
to
Shakspere
young
upon
of
In
the
IV.
of
there
Earl
own
came
reign
porridge-pot our
day.
Henry
took the banner of Owen
the Percies
Richard, who
Glendower, and foughtagainst
at
Shrewsbury; who voyaged to the Holy Land, and hung up his offerings
the holy sepulchreat Jerusalem, and
at
was
royallyfeasted by the Soldan's
that
he
descended
from
Sir Guy of Warthe famous
lieutenant, "hearing
wick,
was
had
in
books
their
whose
of
And
it
own
he
f
was
language."
story they
France
who
for the marriageof Henry V. with the Lady
sent
to
treat
to
was
Katherine ; and it was
he who, after the death of the Conqueror of Agincourt,
had
and
tutelageof the young
lieutenant-general
Henry his son ; and was
realm
of
the
his
of
France.
The
remainder
of
be
read
historymight
governor
inscribed upon
which
that splendidmonument
he erected
Shakspere,
by William
in the chapelcalled after his name,
and ordered by his will to be built adjoining
the collegiate
church.
Visited by long sickness,he died in the Castle at Rouen,
His monument
is still a glorious
specimenof the arts of the middle ages, and so
is the chapel under
lord of Warwick
whose
roof it is erected.
Another
ceeded,
sucthe
been
created
Duke
moved
of
of
other
who, having
Warwick,
envy

coat

authentic, relic for the

more

great

in

ones

that

sister,the

his

castles,and

wife

time

of faction
Richard

of

by patent

her

but

he

died

husband

and

young,

Neville, succeeded

her

to

without
brother's

Earl of Warwick.

became

This

issue
lands
was

and
and

indeed

king-maker,he who first fought


St. Albans
in the great cause
of York, and after many
at
changes of opinion
of Lancaster.
in the cause
The
and of fortune fell at Barnet
historyof this,
the greatestof the lords of the ragged staff,is in itself a wonderful
drama, in a
series of dramas
held togetherby a strong poeticalchain.
that are
The
first
of this great series of dramas
scene
beginswhen the Duke of Hereford and the
a

the

mighty man,

Duke

of Norfolk

meet

but

last

is at

scene

courage

At

Coventry

Bosworth,

left the world


"

the

in the lists
"

The

of Warwick,

Earl

stout

upon

when

he

St. Lambert's

who

day."

is held

to

wanted

every virtue

exclaiming
A

horse,a horse,my

kingdom

for

horse !" "

Dugdale, quoting Walsingham.

I Richard

have

IT., Act

f Dugdale.
"

Richard

III.,Act

159

WILLIAM

The
and

family
illustre

amidst
upon
series
"

The

traditions
Families

which
the
of

he

dramatic

dwelt

who

Shakspere

Lancaster
must

'

Chronicle
learn

cannot

Tisck.

that

them

early

of

which

is not

Dramaturgische

yet

Blatter.

[JSeauclsamjiCimpel, Warwick.]

book

household
in

magnificent story

Histories/

'

his

"of

Chronicle

the

concurred

have

from

York,"

and

capabilitiesof

eight poetical

historian

William

of
of

SHAKSPERE:

the
;

fixing his
which

German

perfect

has
critic
in

his

noble

two

the

localities

imagination
given
has
own

us

said,

"

art."*

[St.Mary's

Hall"

Interior.]

XII.

CHAPTER

YOEK

Hall,

the

York/

about

noble

realm"

gentleman

AND

chronicler,
seventy
was

of

and

plagued

with

William

Shakspere, it

cannot

Life.

many
M

yeoman,

says,

stock

infested

and

the

after

years

ancient

any

his

writing

terminated,

LANCASTER.

or

this

"

history

of

'

nobleman

"What

progeny
unnatural

be

doubted

who

would

The

Families

liveth

is clear, whose
division?"
that

he

tell him

would
how

of

at

During
meet

with

day,

hath

the

or

this
what
been

not

boyhood

many

forefathers

ana

of

crown

this

lineage

their

Lancaster

the

for

dissension

continual

"

man,
gentle-

had
161

of

been

WILLIAM

thus

infested end

"

would

contest

be

traditions of the most

The

plagued."

this time

at

SHAKSPERE

events
of thtt
stirring
diluted
in
their
generally
;
but occasionally
generations,
narration
in
the
of some
inquiringboy

century old
lipsof three or four

about

by passingthrough the
presented vividlyto the mind
interest

the

of

hoary-headedeld," whose fathers


Tewksbury. Many of these traditions,too, would
the banished
the period when
back
to
even
the

amongst

had

"

fought

Bosworth

at

local
essentially

be
Duke

or

ing
extend-

of Hereford, in his bold

march
"

of followers

host

gathered a

Cotswold,"

Derby, Nottingham, Leicester,


had been
fought; towns, where

of

battles

ratified ;

been

assembled, and. treaties had

had
parliaments

castles,where

the

the terrified country


sallied forth upon
would
associate
with
the young
the objectswhich
an
poet
many
anecdote
of
his
of
and
the
an
chroniclers,
interesting
description
many

great leaders had


such

to

counties

in the

Fields,where

Worcester.

Warwick, and

Ravenspurg

From

were

elaborate

stood

had

bay,or

at

"

rapidlyto trace such portion of the


be placed in association with the localities that
as
may
familiar to William
were
Shakspere; for it appears to us that his dramatic
directed
this long and complicatedstory,by some
towards
was
ciple
prinearly
power
of the drama.
for the purposes
It
more
even
excitingthan its capabilities
him
in
the
the
which
around
to
think,
was
was
evening-talk
presented
story,we
ancient

neighbours.
of
history these events

the

of his

hearth

accessible

to

circumstance

which

he
No

has

other

historyin
but
virtue
with
own

act

but

it

was

which
men

such

day,and
as

ever

he

omitted, and
evidence

agents

wondrous

and

written

his

details

minuteness

rare

Out

most

were

picturesque

district had

own

of ten

of

been

EnglishHistorical

the

Plays

some

them

the

poeticalart,
dwell

we

have

that

contemporary

them
he

as

of warriors
and
passion,

we

are

has

as

if

made

told that

documentary historydoe3
narrative

there.
The
representation
general truth
shaken.
It is a philosophical
historyin

and

men,
states-

crime, and

also through that art,


filled,

amongst

spoken

of

men

but

It is in vain that

transposed
;
a

abstractions

hard

like ourselves

they must
act.

the

not

are

blood

life,that

feel that

here, that

with

stirringevents.

perhaps by

some

by

story whose

"

the

has made

Hall

story also of which

of flesh and

elevated

the

was

undoubtedlyamongst his first performances,


circumstances
eightto
belongingto this memorable
story.
of a century, a
possessed such a historyof the events

devoted

nation

it

being narrated

in many
of its most
written by him,
were

scene,

endeavour

us

childhood

him,
;

Let

somewhat

of

this

the

very

of our
they were
them speak,and
some

events

not

exhibit

militates

dramatic

are

its

againstthe

historycannot

be

of that somewhat
highestsense
be
can
only
produced by
the union
of the noblest imagination
with the most
just and temperate judgment.
It is the loftiness of the poeticalspirit
which
has enabled
Shakspere
alone
this historywith
to write
impartiality.Open the chroniclers,and we
abused

term.

It

contains

1G2

the

Richard

that
philosophy

II.,Act

n.,

Scene

in.

find

prejudicesof

the

of the

the

Yorkist

hatred.

factious

old

BIOGKAl'IIV.

Who

Lancastrian

the

or
can

which

to

say

has comprehended the whole, whilst others knew

He

manifestingthe intensity
faction

Shakspcrebelongs?

onlya part.

three pages of Hall's


Chronicle,' we
are
in
all
the pomp
of chivalry
the midst of a scene,
combat
; a
gorgeous
of a displayof regalmagnificence such
the occasion
death, made
After

first

the

two

'

or

into

plunged

for life
had

as

or

been

seldom

presentedin England. The old chronicler of the two Houses puts forth
He
the
strengthin the descriptionof such scenes.
slightly
passes over
the pride,
and
Hereford
and
Norfolk
and the passion,
original
quarrelbetween
the kir.gJy
left for others to delineate ; but the
theatre
craft,are
sumptuous
wondrous
and lists royal at the cityof Coventryare
set forth with
exactness.
We
behold
the High Constable
and the High Marshal
of England enter
the
all his

"

"

lists with

keep

of
his

field.
barbed

courser

green
he takes

that

He

will make

the

chivahic

ceremonial

oath,
One

the

by

the

walls

Probably in

might have
granted by Edward
event

as

yet the
of

Duke

the

look, at

Coventry,for

than

Black

of Cornwall, descended

of his

walls

the

chair of

and

The
with

he,

in his chair

of

Coventry
work.
goldsmith's

and

than

the

formal

words

of

to

paintedwith the minutest


present day,within the streets

of the

wars

Prince
his

south

had

not

Roses

might not have been


of
Shaksperethe precisescene
of Cheylesmore,which
manor

days
young
The
pointedout.
the

in

harness

lists where, if Richard

the

been

III. to

men

sits down

velvet

the

the

of

in

shall stillbe

scene

in vain

We

his warder, the story of the

down

written.

and

sits down

of the lists at
description

champions speak something more

defiance

lopes
ante-

adorned.
pleasantly
being barbed
and
mulberry-trees
;

field manfullv, and

of Hall's pompous
something richer

and

swans

lists,his horse
silver and

of

silver,to
his white

that
Holy Evangelists

thousand

the

lions

with
the

and

with

barriers,on

the lists,
and

enters

entry of
the

enters

the

upon

with

with

with

observance.

enclosed

honour

the

at

reader

scene

he

swears

ten
King,
richlyhanged
stage,

hovers

appears

he

the

upon

made

there
and

at

velvet, embroidered

green

just;

comes

seat

velvet.

will invest

was

Hereford

and

velvet, embroidered

having also

that

and

Then

his

crimson

thrown

and

silk sendall, embroidered

in

men

of

blue

true

Norfolk

of

once

Duke

goldsmith'swork

velvet.

crimson

The
with

quarrelis

Duke

of

great company

the

for the
Richard

son

of

better
;

and

support of his
in

the

eighth

this

on
citybeing not built,the
reign, the
part
thereof
the
humbly besought
commonalty
King to give them
mayor,
leave that they might go
with
that work, who
forward
thereupon granted
licence to them
condition
that they should
include
within
their
to do, on
so
walls his said manor-place standingwithin
the park of Cheylesmore, as
the
record expresseth,which
in
croached
Enthose
times."*
a
woody ground
park was
this
in the age of Elizabeth.
But
doubt,
no
was
park
Coventry
upon,

year

"

and
bailiffs,

would

then

have

perished. He

now

doy

abundant
who

wrote

in all probability
derived

The

challengerand

memorials

the

the

its ancient

gloriousscene

magnificence which

of the lists upon


the geniusloci.

from
inspiration
banished.
each
are
challenged
some

"-

of

John

have

St. Lambert's

of Gaunt

Dugdalc.
168

dies,

WILLIAM

and

the

seizes upon
the possessions
of his
which
is to harass England with a

King

that vengeance
Froissart make
and
that

the

were

of

the

to

that

the

possessions,and

among

his

upon

information,
traditionary

friends and

own

of

correctness

the

Ravenspurg
Bolingbrokeand
as

if the

retainers.

am

Draw

weeks

have
shows
The

miles, and

our

sustains

direct to
be

can

might

raise

him

and
don,
Lon-

doubt

no

enabled

him

numerous

knowledge of

the

decide

to

army

poet, founded
the
upon
direct from

Bolingbrokemarching
and
dialogue between
easy
local accuracy
in a single
much
as
Cotswolds
the
of
description

natural

laboured

midland

he

begins
Hall

very small
counties, where he had

stranger here in Glostershire.


high wild hills,and rough uneven

out

England

the

local

exhibits

given us

These

few

would

Northumberland

"

In

England. There
having brought with

The

which

statement

poet had

Then

century of blood.

of

in which

Berkeley Castle.

to

line

west

Duke,

into
quicklyas possible

as

castles and

dangerous son.

Lancaster, after his landing,march

proceed

wrong

force, marched
many

Duke

afterwards

they

SHAKSPEKE:

make

them

revolution.

"

ways,
*

wearisome."

The

is

deposed; the
and
intrigue,
years
and
then insurrection. Shrewsburycan
be called one
of Shakspere's
scarcely
native
familiar with
the
localities,yet it is clear that he was
place. In
Falstaff's march
London
from
to
Shrewsbury the poet glances,lovinglyas it
well-known
the
old
"The
red-nosed
at
scenes.
were,
innkeeperat Daventry
had
The
distance
from
assuredlyfilled a glassof sack for him.
Coventry to
Sutton- Coldfield was
known
when
makes
the burly
he
accurately
by him,
commander
bottle of
a
Bardolph, get thee before to Coventry; fill me
say
sack
soldiers
shall march
our
"f
through we '11 to Sutton Cophillto-night.
it
could
resist
the
of
the
to
seems
Shakspere,
us,
temptation
scarcely
showing
a

great Duke

is

the

on

throne.

Two

three

or

of

King

discontent

"

"

"

Prince

in

Warwickshire:

thou

dost

the field of

Shrewsbury
:

How
Above

Chronicle

Wales

to

informs

encounter

joinwith Glendower
thought it policyto

joinwith

their army,
suddenly to the town

Richard

+ All
Sutton

the

II.,Act
old

how

tho
164

common

word

How
or

two

mad

now,

tells

us

wag?

that the

What

devil

poet had

seen

bloodily the
busky
yon

begins

sun

to

peer

hill ! "

that

with a great army


towards
Henry had marched
Percy and Douglas, who were
coming from the north to
and
The
then,
;
King, hearing of the Earls' approaching,
us

"

encounter

and
of

EC, Scene

copies of
it is now
as
Coldfield,
introduced

see

"

"

"

The

Hal?

"What,

"

in Warwickshire

so

with
include

them
him

on

Shrewsbury.He

before
both
was

that

the

parts, and

Welshman
therefore

scantlyentered

into

should
returned
the

town,

in.

The

First Part
of Henry IV. have
Cop-hill. Thcr.; is no doubt that
properly
meant
spelt,was
by Cop-hill;but the old printers,we believe,imthe hyphen ; for Dugdale, in his
spellsthe word Cofeild;and it is ea?y to
map,
pronunciation would be Cojihill,
or
Cofill.

""

*""?;"""""*"'""":""?"
,

[Shrewsbury.]

but

he

that

ranged,

they

of

the

embattled

The

vigil of

Mary

either

of

his

is

well

upon

the

King

is

is not
side
hour

then,

his

The

hostile

poet, by
armies

poetical, but

Shrewsbury,

Above

see

that

sun

of

his

but

he

is

and

by Shrewsbury clock,"

rise

he

in

the

Henry

himself

more

the

as

the

border

who

"

this

busky

VI., Part

sun

of

scene

us

the
a

the

upon

this

great
east

contest

gate

the

The

hill.

plain

of

rising

sun

chronicler.

This

the

on

called, waiting, not

now

than

minishing

wooded

of

the

was

nearer

be

the

shows

than

stands

it is

morning
of

early,which

rising over

sun

He

night

was

gate

deceived,

was

battle

ceiving
per-

east

them

There

without

minute

waiting till the

when

the

The

King,

the

succours

the

courageous

The

long tarrying might

order."

so

without

morning

that

magical touches,

sees

Field

but

over

day

encamped

one

Battle

the

King's army."

and

displayed

and

host.

their

the

good

it is true.

"

will

in

has

King

looking eastward,

only
of

the

battles

his

himself

although

for, lest that

banners
hot

so

with

King, perceiving

the

looked

or

next

were

encamped

abashed

from

the

"

Magdalen,

strength, set

Shrewsbury.

far

not

thought

defined

out,

and

skirmish

and

nothing

Earls,

and

to

Earls, with

the

him,

began

issued

themselves

watchfulness

he

light horses
doings,

town.

that

toward

coming

were

with

their

posts advertised

his

by

was

battles

"

east

long

minute

shall

raise

his

car

horizon,"

hill," Haughmond

III., Act

iv.,

Scene

Hill.

We

may

vn.

165

well

SHAKSPEEE

WILLIAM

mind

in the

Shrewsburyhad lent a local


conceptionof the death-scene
crushed
at
Shrewsbury; but the

that
accuracy,
of Shakspereto the dramatic
this

therefore, from

lelieve

Insurrection

gallantPercy.
of its action

does

not

especialaffection

has

an

the

poet described

some

district of

native

for

these

of

the

familiar

familiar

"old

Double

the

Shallow

think

there

course

in

tear

and

him

Silence

and

was

"

the

Falstaff

perhaps through

faces."

dead ?

of

his

Yet

poet.

and

scenes,

good neighbours. We

his

assuredlythey were

not

was

lie in the

interest

Shadow,

his
and

Mouldy,
of
of the valiant men
representatives
for
the
whom
Corporation annually expended large sums
Stratford, upon
of rebellion at Gualtree
Forest,
After the treacherous
puttingdown
harness ?
fair
the
Robert
towards
of
Master
Shallow,
look
seat
Falstaff casts
a
longing
shire."
My lord, I beseech you give me leave to go through GloucesterEsquire."
the
of
of
far
out
We
not
now
Shakspere'syouthfuljourneys
are
range
he

when

eye

wrote,

Feeble

and

Wart,

is old

And

"

they

were

"

the

not

"

"

he

that

Wincot,"

have

should

"

sack

the

about

"

lost the

other

knave

who,

arrant

ChristopherSly's
of the parishof
the Wincot
of
history

of the

nothing
with

less

Puff

of Barson,"

happy

less

useful

one

of

the

"

Castle.

It

was

to be remembered

were

"

"

the

to

the

Harry

should
since

be

sung

ceased

longerthan
the

the

peace
108

but

long
his

rate,

in the

was

dead

the

gooaman
fame

no

beyond

fall of

Richard

victory,were

in

concentrated,

of

his

undoubtedly
the

was

influenced

II., the

career

the

of the

war

young

poet in

great degree,upon

Neville.
Richard
unquestionably
who
in
that
Agincourt
goodly company
was

wars

the world,"

"

chapelat Warwick
world
might endure."

chronicler passes
Did

had

"

him.

great theme

have

still stands, and

tomb

it.

records

and

the

the

lived

weak

over

The

has

suggest this

honour

Neville.

government,

which

masses

at

Here,
was

Agincourt,but
noble

those
his

towers

memory?

when
to

day
long

that will last

memorial

to

every
have

masses

his fame

with
poet'sfamiliarity

strongholdof the

sleepof

he

three

"

in his

the

as

The

his tomb.

Beauchamp

here, at any
at

dramatist

which

as

Even

us

deal

king, Bedford and Exeter,


Talbot, Salisburyand Gloucester."

in his will that

ordained

chroniclers

The

earth.

the

they tell

and

point;

Hill."

parishof

and

Warwick

He

these

be

fought at
endingof

who

Beauchamp

of

hero

The

daring
might

which

latter subjectwould

of the

choice

Warwick

this

the

Davy
a
neighbour
togetherin

of the

Henry IV., the wild

plays of which

associations

local

The

Roses.
the

four

after the

written

they dwell

Wilmecote

upon
exhibit the

which

chivalrous

other

he

in the realm," has

greatest men

inquietudesof

reign of

of

sojournerson

dramas

the
of Bolingbroke,

triumph
son
ending in

Perkes

charitable

and

did

the

wages
Visor of

William

"

request,"was
and

Silence has bestowed

Master

great historical

four

"

silent upon

are

Clement

"

honest

friend's

Aston- Clifford,or

and

which
the immortality
The

his

it in his

answer

Hinckley Fair."

day
accordingto
at

chroniclers

The

carter

poor

fat ale-wife of Wincot

"

the
at

countenance

some

of

Aston- Cantlow

make

will

Shallow

Stratford.

around

be

the

land

succeeded

in
But
was

by

"""J/lCK-s.,,,

[Entrance

fearful
his

the

action,

officer-at-arms

own

there
hospitality

who

only

not

William

When

within

dwelt

Grey

in

Castle,
the

but
the

keep

the

reign

anxiouslyout

to

see

was

buttery without
old

servants

followers
seemed
that

of
of

to

of

king.

of

fortress

if all

house

no

king

Here,

in

upon

then,

ever

England,
quiet

woods

blood

as

might

the
and

name

the
of

in

its

might

himself

young

poet

in camp,
Warwick
of

this

donjon

looked

refresh

of
launds

Warwick

glided by it,

warder

century

Jane

Lady

Kenilworth

or

ambitious

the

which

the

from

he

poundage.

by Mary.

river

the

road

the

in fortress
but

in

of

the

gather

for
was

castle,

not

bridge
drawin

from

previous,when

and

Great

as

peaceful Earl

make

to

county

but,
and

youth,
son

battlements,

traditions

the

the

"

whose

every

prisoners lingered

No

stranger, and

of

were

on

his

and

boundless

army

land,

the

attempt

restored

its

in

the

peaceful

quiet

was

the

in

palaces.

curious

some

in

death

was

not

great Earl

Leicester

an

King's tonnage

castle

proud

been

suspicion. Here,
the

the
be

Elizabeth,

for the

let down

had

of

blazed

beacon

upon
the

suffered
heir

this

in

the

use

of

almost

in

friends

whose

for

wants

Earl

every

own

the

having

pomp,
of

hundreds

with

numbered

be

to

monarch's

ragged staff;
for

as

over

his

of

had

whose

beautiful

most

of

were

to

brother

who

queen,

badge

the

looked

Shakspere
it, the

Northumberland

herald,

pre-eminence
received

than

more

Warwick

houses

and

had

Sea,

the

of

Captain

his

with

dailyprovision made

was

castles

and

manors

dwelt

called

about

dependants bearing

and

Earl

great

Castle.]

Wanvick

to

while

the
the
the
there

greater than
or

stretched
167

WILLIAM

the

on

bank

without
which
in

of

the
was

to

England.

with

his

Avon

own

authorityof
connect

the

In

scene

this

Plantagenet
;

"

and

SHAKSPERE:

beneath

chronicler, that

any

story of
the

the

Earl

Shall

In

the

connected

souls

This

plays which

the

brawl

red

death

to

form

first

have

imagined,

the

"

is to

prophesieswhat

faction, in the

send, between

thousand

France

in

he

Temple Gardens
with the
coming events
white rose
plucks the

in

scene

Warwick

who
"

to this

wars

of

it is Warwick

Grown

high walls, might

its

come

"

to-day
Temple garden,
and

rose

and

the

white,
*

deadly night."

Henry VI., the Earl


with some
of Warwick,
violation of chronological
is constantly
brought
accuracy,
forward
in a prominent situation.
unite
When
the
brave
of England
peers
in denouncing the
marriage of Henry with Margaret of Anjou, the Earl of
his
bold
heir :
to
Salisburysays
the

Three

Parts

of

"

"

"

Warwick,

nay

the

son,

comfort

of my

Thy deeds, thy plainness,and


Hath

In
two

subsequent scene,

onward,

Duke

and

won

"

calls him

after

"

Commons."f

ambitious

Warwick."

privatelyacknowledging

the

A
title of

scene

My heart

Henry VI., Part I.,Act

one

assures

day

n., Scene

me

make

that

the

the earl of Warwick


duke

t Henry

iv.

[Warwick,

of York

from

Lodge

Hill.]

king."

VI., Part II.,Act

II., Scene

or

Richard

"

Shall

"

of the

greatest favour

Beaufort

Warwick,

of York, exclaims

the

age,

thy housekeeping,

I.

BIOGKAPJir

It is he, the
him

upon

biunt-witted lord," that defies Suffolk,and

'

It is he

his banishment.

demand

to

who

the

sets

stands

by

of

men

the

bed

Bury

of the

dyingBeaufort, judgingthat
"

this

All

the

before
the

crown.

chroniclers

is

So bad

death

dramatist,

the

skilfully
managed by

life."

monstrous

argues

keep Warwick

to

constantly

in the great contest


eyes of his audience, before he is embarked
"Warwick
The
has
an
early importance,which
given
poet
of the

doing; but,

He
is dramatically
in so
correct
assignto him.
in
his
have
been
time,
some
same
judgment might
degree
in the great
Once
embarked
strengthof local associations.
is the presiding
:
geniusof the scene
do

age

not

the

at

the

governed by

for
the

Warwick
quarrel,

"

"

Now, by
The
This
As

sword

four

years of forced

I '11 wear
aloft my
burgonet,
mountain-top the cedar shows
keeps his leaves in spiteof any storm."
a

is first unsheathed

quietit

fangs into the blood


battle of Northampton.
her

badge, old Nevil's crest,


to the ragged staff,

chain'd

bear

day

on

That

The

father's

my

rampant

battle-field of St. Albans.

in that
is

again drawn.

of York
The

at

The

she-wolf

"

is achieved

by

the

has

or

plunges
the great

won

of York

son

three
"

of France

Wakefield, after Warwick

crown

After

at

the field

of Towton, where
"

The

hurries
poet necessarily

narratives

of the

historian.

of Warwick,
Lancaster.
of

to

rash

where

the

Earl

had

toward

Warwick

with

bull."

occupy
Edward
of
marriage
devoted
his

chronicler,

gathered

to
King likewise,sore thirsting
be revenged of the death
and

chafed

which

his power
is now
is
then
Shakspere
again in
the

events

over

The

and

Banbury, accordingto

Warwick,
The

rages like

Warwick

"

to

native
the

northern

resorted

men

of

murders

of his lords
All

the

toward

people

his loss late sustained,and

recover

in

ment
resent-

the fallen house


of
set up
localities. After the battle

great multitude

large space
provokes the

and

desirous

friends, marched

the

King'sdoings were
by espials
wise and politic
intending
to
a
captain,
not
to lose so
him
but
to
t
o
an
advantage
great
given,
trusting bring all his
final end
to
and determination, by only obtainingthis enterprise,
a
purposes
in the dead of the night,with an
elect company
of men
of war,
as
as
secretly
was
possibleset on the King's field,killingthem that kept the watch, and ere
the King was
ware
(for he thought of nothing less than of that chance that
happened),at a place called Wolney (Wolvey),four mile from Warwick, he was
taken prisoner,
and
that
The
statement
brought to the Castle of Warwick."!
is one
of many
Wolvey is four miles from Warwick
examplesof the inaccuracy
declared

of the

the

old

Earl

annalists

great army.
of Warwick, which, like
a

in matters

of

distance.

Henry VI., Part II.,Act

v., Scene

It is upon

in.

the borders

of Leicester-

Hall.
169

WILLIAM

between
lyingequidistant

shire, Coventry

the

dramatized

has

Castle,and,

ham

SHAKSPERE:

capture.
short banishment, lands

scene

after

placehimself again upon the


in history.* Shakspere describes
parallel

England,
one

to

of

mutinous

Not

is

forth in the

rapidly
put

forces.

his native

of

head

"

scene

is

far hence

1 Mess.

By

By

2 Mess.

this

Say, Somerville, what


nigh
guess, how
Southam

At

Som.

Coventry,which

King

Edward

from

thence

plainby
thither
bade

fiom

cornea

honest

says

him

your

his

the

all

city he
were

men

Earl

battle
he

as

great

valiant Oxford?

my

was

is at

now

his

with

forces,

hence.

hand, I hear

lord

of

event

the

heard.

his drum.

here Southam

hears marcheth

loving son

from

lies ;

Warwick."

of

encounter

dramatized
spiritedly

"
"

the
In

leaders

two

the

mean

at

season

and
people departed,
his power, toward
advanced
Coventry,and in a
diligence
field.
the
his
And
next
day after that he came
pitched
marshalled
in array, and
he valiantly
and
set forward
should
deceived
be
that
he
which, mistrusting
by the Duke
indeed, kept himself close within the walls. And
yet

to

with

now

fellow ?

hours

two

some

his,my
honour

poet has so
Warwick,

the
came

the

Clarence,

of

drum

chronicler tells the

The

Clarence

It is not

Som.

The

poet is

"

[Drum
Then

War.

of the

Somerville.

I did leave

here

expect him

do

knowledge
Coventry:

is Clarence

And, by thy
And

great-grown traitor,"

the

brother

our

Enter Sir John


War.

"

marching thitherward.
Montague ?

Dunsmore,

at

from
Montague ?
post that came
this at Daintry, with a puissanttroop.

is the

Where

post that
thy lord, mine

far off is

How

War.

:"

local

The

is the

Where

War.

How

only
speech

has

the

friends,
war

Warwick,

the walls of

upon

which

up."

Yorkists.

the

again seized by

the

is at

true-hearted

yet bold in

will I muster

Those

Henry

I have
in peace,

In Warwickshire

"

Henry

in

followers

countrymen, in

his

the great Earl delivers for the encouragement

which

escapes
few
a

with

again
throne, by a movement

Middle

from

Edward

of Edward's

Shakspere

Warwick.

and

Wolvey

where

he

found

all the

him with
toward
forward
perfectword that the Duke of Clarence came
a
King Edward, being also thereof informed, raised his camp, and
great army.
fraud to
And
lest that there might be thought some
Duke.
the
made
toward
be cloaked
between
them, the King set his battles in an order, as though he
Then
did likewise." J
a
without
would
longer delay; the Duke
fight
any
had

he

"

"

The

landing

of

Bonaparte

from

Elba, and

rapidityand their boldness, though very


t Henry VI., Part III.,Act V., Scene I.

their

Hall.

170

Edward

at

Ravenspurg,

are

remarkably similar in

different in their final consequences,

I J

"

"

fraternal

amity

and

the

of

great benefits
And

denounced

him

had
as

the

as

could

Coventry,

and

either

take

Coventry

of

store

citywith

his

hirn

the

Barnet

of

crown

away

officers

Field

Kings

"

he
cause

as

his

Sunday

and

were

Clarence

and

one

in

in

its

and

state

he

in

that

Thus
Whose

Under

yields the
arms

whose

cedar

gave
shade

to

shelter
tlv?

the

been

city

same

honoured

bestow
the

old

marched

out

crown

halls of
and
of

the
the

Easter-day the quarrel between

on

axe's

to the

the

equipments,
was

Edward

was

settled

"

"

in

received

churches,

many
He

servants.

in

wick,
War-

had

warlike

could

who

sate

luxurious

the

had

and
;

had

Warwick

who

weeks

few

and

his

for

up

forces, after Palm

perjured

rival

the

him

ordnance,

of

events,

which

Salisbury,and

city for

the

With

these

city

"

ruin

the

was

before

years

and

York,

"

held

went

prayers

proud city'smunicipal

upon

city

VI.

traitor.

Ten
of

great Captain lain in* this city for

who

and

Lancaster.

Warwick

now

proclaimed," which

and

same

Henry

greater than

one

and

this

in

from

attainted.

of

House

held

Parliament

concluded

was

Front.]

Street

Hall"

[St. Mary's

edge,

princely eagle ;

rainpicg lion elept ;


171

for

ever

SIIAKSPEKE

WILLIAM

top-branch overpeer'dJove's spreading tree,

Whose
And

The

Battle

Paston,

was

low

shrub3

fought

Lancastrian, writes

stout

kept

Barnet

of

for other tidings,


it
April: "As
is verily
landed, and her son, in the
"

0-

else the

drive
to

her

hint

winter's

the

on

his

to

powerful wind."

is understood
west

will

London

from

that

here

depart

from

Sir

the

on

the

I trow

country, and

Edward

April, 1471.

of

14th

mother

"

hence

as

the

sixteen

great crowning

event

days
of

the

the

Battle
terrible

of

Tewksbury was
struggleof sixteen

to-morrow,

the

fought.
years

of

Margaret

her

to

John

18th

Queen

that

again."f Sir John Paston, himself in danger


landing of Queen Margaret will again change

out

In

from

ward

of his head,

that

things.

day, the King

next

seems

aspect of

This

and

to

the

is the
scenes

spiritedof these dramatic pictures. "We


Tewksbury are amongst the most
fair park adjoining
looked
the
believe
that
had
Shakspere
readily
upon
may
the Duke
of Somerset
the town," where
to
pitched his field,against the will
which
would
that he
should
other
have
drawn
of
and consent
captains
many
aside;" and that he had also thought of the unhappy end of the gallantPrince
stood
in
the church
of the Monastery of Black
Monks
in
he
Edward,
as
"his
homely interred with the other simple
Tewksbury," where
body was
at

"

"

"

corses." i
"

'

Paston

Henry VI., Part

Letters,'edited by

A.

III.,Act
Ramsay,

[Tewksbury |
.

v., Scene
vol.

ii.,
p.

n.

GO.

% Hall.

There
death

years of
Then
IV.

twelve

were

of

Edward

Pitiful Life

of

Richard

Third.'

the

the

Roses
those

three

playsof

the

last

playof

series

the

criticism

of

yet in

be

may

his

III.

The

doubt

cannot

we

poet's mind.

The

which
locality,

for

young
own

is,

course

the

the

whole

that

the

century had

it with

the
especially

the

of

wars

power
other

the
is

so

sistent,
con-

that, whatever
is incorrect,we

of

of

Shakspere

character,

the

as

very earlyfamiliar to
of
the great event

subjectwas
fixed

King

view

exhibition

Field

of

uniform,
our

plays of Shakspere,and

of Bosworth

the

entitles, The
'

of character

that

and

matured

more

connect

so

show

to

Tcwksbury
Hall

treatment

wonderful

Battle

Reformation, and

of the

of

of

TragicalDoings
belongs to the

links which

store

speak of them all as


confidently
in its
alone.*
Matured, especially
Richard

The

series which

the

with
altogether

now

i he

'

unbroken, the

so

are

and

the

poeticalconception

the

Buttle

historywhich

Fifth/

which

and

the

the

came

Edward
The

between

peace

unquestionablywritten
preceded it ; yet

is

than

amount

King

BIOGRAPHY.

was

government

dissolution

of the

of

England.

Monasteries,

in
in operation at
time
the
produced great social changes,which were
born
William
whose
he
effects,for good and for evil,
Shakspere was
;
have
ledge
must
seen
working around him, as he grew from year to year in knowthose
and
indeed
of too
and
events
too
were
recent,
experience. But
the poetical
delicate a nature,
abided
still
in
his
mind.
to assume
They
aspect
and controversy. It was
in the region of prejudice
dangerous to speak of the
of
the
divisions
with
tolerant
kingdom
a
History
impartiality.
great religious
could
scarcelydeal with these opinionsin a spiritof justice. Poetry, thus,
is permanent
which
has regard to what
and
universal, has passed by these
But the great event
which
matters,
important as they are.
placed the Tudor
and
sionally
occafamilyon the throne,
gave England a stable government, however
would
which
distracted by civil and
event
division,was
an
religious
that of William
seize fast upon such a mind
as
Shakspere. His ancestor, there
had

which

be

can

little doubt,

faithful services

assured,

by

have

him

to

to

lands
a

"

that

his

adherent

an

conqueror
Warwickshire.

family as
was

well

at

as

about

born

of the

Bosworth

Earl
he

was

That

field of

local

interest.

ten

years

after

very

short

stature, but

active

and

rewarded,

Burton,
William
of

we

as

would
the

his

For

of Richmond.

Bosworth

John
Hardwick,
great-great-grandfather,
of

man

been

the
in

Leicestershire, who
us

had

are

therefore

historian

ot

Shakspere,tells

Lindley,near

courageous,

tendered

worth,
Boshis

Henry, with some


troops of horse, the night he lay at Atherston,
to profit
in the attack,and how
his guide to the field,advised him
became
by
habitants
Burton
further says, writingin 1622, that the inthe sun
and by the wind."f
properlythe plain
livingaround the plaincalled Bosworth Field, more
in memory,
of Sutton, "have
and
fresh
occurrences
by
yet
many
passages
which
battle
that some
the
living
were
thereabout,
reason
saw
fought,
persons
and have
within less than forty
some,
myself have seen
years, of which
persons
service

to

See

our

'

Essrvyon the Three

Parts

t Ilutton's

of

King Henry VI.,"and King Richard

'Bosworth

Field.

III.'

'

L73

WILLIAM

heard

of

within

less than

SHAKSPERE

their disclosures,though related

This "living
by the second hand."
fortyyears would take us back to about the period which we
are
now
there is
viewing in relation to the. Ufa of Shakspere. But certainly
somethingover- marvellous in Burton's story, to elable us to think that William
Shakspere,even
as
a
boy, could have conversed with "some
very young
persons
thereabout
who
had seen
battle fought in 1485.
Burton
That, as
a
more
of
himself
heard their discourses at secondhand"
reasonably
says, he might have
is probable enough. Bosworth
Field is about
miles
from
ford.
Stratthirty
Burton
from
that
not
Bosworth,
says that the plain derives its name
this battle was
flat
this
in
and
at
a
place
(it
plain,
fought
large,
beingfought
(lie towns
of
spaciousground, three miles distant from this town, between
"

"

"

"

Shenton, Sutton, Dadlington, and

worthy
That

of

town

this

for that this town

but

the most

was

therefore called Bosworth


Field.
adjacent,and was
remarkable
in
this
appeareth
fought
plain
by many

note

battle

Stoke);

near

was

the common
cast
places: By a little mount
report is, that at the
up, where
first beginningof the battle Henry Earl of Richmond
made
his pareenetical
oration to his army ; by divers piecesof armour,
and other warlike
weapons,
and
arrowheads
here
accoutrements,
found, whereof, about
by many
twenty
of the lordshipof Stoke, great store were
years since, at the enclosure
digged
of
which
I
have
in
of
some
now
a
(1622)
up,
custody,being
long,large,
my
and big proportion,
far greater than any now
in use ; as also by relation of the
inhabitants,who have many occurrences
and
yet fresh in memory."*
passages
Burton
one

him,
the
and

tell two

to

on

goes
the

was

vision

of

him
suffering

not

tradition

thus

"

terrible dream,

"

with

divers

The

battle.

The

ghosts running

about

"

'

it seemed

for

eventful

the

fearful

Hall relates
any rest, still crying Revenge.'
fame went
that he had the same
night a dreadful

like terrible devils, not

images
to
says, previous

connected

take

to
"

stories

King Richard, of

to

him, being asleep,that he

him
suffering

take

to

any

quiet

divers

saw

rest."

or

Burton

of the dream,
The
vision is reported
to be in
description
his
this manner."
And
of
the
fearful
still
account
certainly
crying
ghosts
different from
that of the chronicler.
Revenge is essentially
Shaksperehas
of the old local historian ; which, however,
followed the more
account
poetical
his

"

"

"

couid not

have

been

known

"

to

him

tent

to my

To-morrow's

Did

Shakspereobtain
of

the
"

to

meet

termination was

from

have

topographerhas

every
on

the

one

the

same

did

head

murthcr'd
threat

of Richard."

source

occurrences
many
another
story, not

as

and

Burton
passages

"

174

and

"

from

yet

"

tion
rela-

fresh in

which
quite so poetical,
did
Richard
if
It was
that
touch :
not
ever
foretold,
King
whose
his adversary
in a placethat was
compassed with towns
be
the
in ton
number
is
(what
pcradjacentmay, by
map,

The
?
memory
the dramatist does
come

who

vengeance

his notion

inhabitants

"

souls of all that I have

the

Methought
Came

From

Burton's

Manuscripts,quoted by Mr. Nicholla.

BIOGRAPHY.

should

that
ceived;,

there

occasion, did

happen to
(as this

of
syllable
that

An

wicked

he

of

murder

The
and

Sibson, and

days of

else,upon

or

the

same

lodge at a placebeginningand endingwith the same


lose his life,to expiate
of Anbian), that there he should
his late wife Anne,
daughter and coheir of Richaid

Salisburyand
a
nd
the vision
prediction

Neville Earl

great distress

to

come

Warwick."

of

local
a
essentially

tradition.

rife in Sutton, and

Shenton,

in all likelihood

were

and
Stapleton,

Dadlington,and

and

Coton,

is

This

boyhood. Anbian,
Shakspere's

AmDiam,

or

small

Atherston,

wood,

in

the

is in the centre

hillock where
Field.
Tradition
has pointedout
a
plaincalled Bosworth
called
little
his
also
and
a
King Richard's
spring,
harangued
army ;
in dirty,
Well.
Dr. Parr, about forty
mossy ground,"
years ago, found out a well
to
Latin
to be
set
in the midst
of this plain; and then a
was
inscription
up
of the spot
and to preserve the memory
enlightenthe peasantry of the district,
have
about the well in Shaksperewould
for all time.
Two
words
given it a
better immortality.
nicler,
Accordingto the ChroKing Henry is crowned upon the Field of Bosworth.
took
Lord
which
found
the
of
Richard,
was
crown
Stanley
King
amongst
the spoilin the field,and set it on
the Earl's head, as though he had been
elected king by the voice of the people,
in ancient times past in divers realms
as
it hath been accustomed."
the same
Then,
nightin the evening King Henry
with great pomp
the
of
town
In
to
came
Leicester,"where he rested two days.
the mean
the dead
of
Richard
carried
to
season
was
as
King
shamefully
corpse
the town
of Leicester, as
he gorgeouslythe day before with
and
pride
pomp
of
said
the
town."
out
departed
roll on.
Years
There
another
but by peaceful
was
not
by arms
conqueror,
who
had
moved
the
land
in
but who
intellect,
and pride,"
once
through
pomp
in humilityand heaviness
to Leicester
of heart.
The
victim of a shifting
came
Leicester
ambition, Wolsey, found
at
a
scarcely
policyand of his own
grave
of the

Richard

"

"

"

"

"

more

honourable

than

"

that of Richard

"

At

to Leicester,
last,with- easy roads,he came
Lodg'd in the abbey ; where the reverend
abbot,
With
all his convent, honourably receiv'd him ;
To

whom

An

old man,

Is

him

him

Pursued

wotds

with the

broken

weary

little earth

to bed

went

these

gave

lay his

to

come

Give
So

he

'

"

0, father abbot,
of

storms

bone3

among

state,

ye ;
'

for

charity!
eagerlyhis sickness

; where

still; and

three nights after this,


eight,(which he himself
be his last,)
Foretold should
full of repentance,
Continual meditations,tears,and sorrows,

About

He

the hour

gave

of

his honours

His blessed part to

to the

world

heaven, and

again,
sleptin peace.*'

Henry VIII., Act IV., Scene

"

n.

115

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

is

Wolsey
large
trace

as

it

the

hero

Shakspere's

belonging

is, and

something

of

of

the

influence

to

the
of

last

historical

play

period

philosophical
the

principle

lifer*!

[Leicester.]

of

Local

ana

of

in

even

the

poet's

Association,

this

life,

history,
we

may

~:V:

[Evesham.

The

Bell-Tower.]

CHAPTER

KUINS,

"

XIII.

NOT

High towers,

fair

OF

TIME.

temples, goodly theatres,

Strong walls, rich porches, princely palaces,


Large streets, brave
Sure

gates, sweet

Wrought
All
And

Such

is

These

were

would
than

Spenser'snoble
"

the

The

Ruins

Life.

fair

these, 0 pity !
overgrown

pillarsand
now

with

of

Time."

black

sepulchres,
imageries ;
to

dust,

oblivion's rust."

what
But
and

awe
Shakspere gaze
time's
The
decay.'''
by
produced

young

fine

turn'd

are

descriptionof
in

"

any

with

houses, sacred

gardens, statelygalleries,

was

once

within

sixteen

wonder
ruins

the

of

"goodly
miles

ruins
upon
Evesham
were

of

Verlara."
Stratford
solemn

more

the
177

fearful

WILLIAM

of

SHAKSPERE

revolution which
William
political
Shakspere himself
but which, in the boyhood of his father, had
shaken
the land
seen
;
its
down
had made
and, toppling
earthquake,
highsteeples,"
many
monuments

had

not

like

an

"

"

For

Such

the

before, stood
the

Kings of

The

ruins

the

were

belonging

the

to

formed

he

of

lime

to build

and

her

sand,

baleful

bower."

looked

cumbering the ground where, fortyyears


upon,
magnificentabbey whose charters reached back to the days of

an

buildingof

the

monastery

which

entrance

the conventual

to

Lichfield

in

held

twenty-sixyears.

for

heap

Mercia.

last great

which

An

the screech-owl

In

1533.

the

1539

His

of

Abbey
has

escaped

good

is the

Evesham

cemetery

abbot

only one

destruction.
was

The

commenced

resignedthe

properly
campanile
by Abbot

office which

he

had

placed in authorityfor a few


which
to carry on
was
enactingthrough the kingdom, of a
of the religious
voluntarygrant and surrender of all the remainingpossessions
which
"for dissolution of abbeys." Leland,
houses,
preceded the Act of 1539
visited the place within a
who
after the suppression, ramblingto
two
or
year
and fro in this nation, and in making researches into the bowels of antiquity,"*
In the town
is no
other famous
foundation, but the late
or
hospital,
says,
indeed
have
been
abbey." The destruction must
rapid. The house and site
of the monastery were
with
to
remarkable
a
granted
PhilipHobby,
exception;
namely, all the bells and lead of the church and belfry."The roof of this
months

the

successor

was

farce

"

"

"

magnificent fabric

thus

first; and

went

Fuller, writingabout

quarry.

longlease

it was

in the

grandchild,livingnow

in

few

years

the walls became

stone-

century afterwards, says of the abbey, By a


father and son
Mr. Andrewes,
possessionof one
; whose
"

Berkhampstead in Hertfordshire, hath better thriven,


did with
than his father and grandfather
by
blessingon his own
industry,
Evesham
sale
the
of
the
of their
whereof
he
stones
a
cause
Abbey ;
imputeth
ill success."! All was
The
abbey-church,with its sixteen altars,
swept away.
and
its hundred
and sixty-four
its chapter-house,
its cloisters,
gildedpillars,!
its library,
refectory,
dormitory,buttery,and treasury ; its almery, granary,
and storehouse ; all the various buildings
for the service of the church, and for
the accommodation
of eighty-ninereligious
and
inmates
servants,
sixty-five
with
few
ruins
in
William
time
a
the
of
were,
exceptions,
Shakspere. Habingat

God's

don, who

has

centuries ago,

left

manuscript Survey of Worcestershire,'


*

"

says,
the

in former

Let

us

but

guess

what

this monastery

written
now

about

dissolved

gate-houseyet remaining; which, though deformed

two
was

with

days by
as
largeand stately
gateway
any at this time in the kingdom." That
conventual
Of
the
of
the
mass
Habingdon
buildings
perished.
great
with
left beyond
a
states that nothing was
huge deal of rubbish overgrown
the chapterto
house,
grass.''One beautiful gateway, however, formerlythe entrance
let
to our
even
day. It admits us to a largegarden,now
yet remains
age, is as
has since

"

"

178

t Church
Wood, 'Athense Oxon.'
History.
% Dugdale's ' Monasticon,' ed. 1819, vol. ii.,
p. 12.

^m

in

out

small

allotments

is very

change

to

and

poor

industrious

inhabitants

independentpossessionof

striking.The

of

Evesham.

few

roods

The
of

land

comfort
the labourers
of Evesham
their
as
perhapsbestow as much
upon
conventual
But
the
doubt
cannot
we
that,
buttery.
dependence upon
violent dissolution
for a long course
of years, the sudden
and
of that great
have
wretchedness.
Its
abbey must
produced incalculable
poverty and
seized
heartless
the
be
revenues
to
were
princely
by
despot,
appliedto
upon
may

former

his

unbridled

his

luxuryand

and

appropriationwas
always a gentle landlord,
of

creatures

end

and

of

Howes

and
in

Crown

the

the

came

dissolution

time

of

with

city,and

VIII.

such-like

at

like the

with

which

county, and

process

country.

of

destruction

The

Church,

its

sat

corporate, and
houses

sumptuous
regular,minories,

in

for

very

that

the

every

Parliament

and

upper

Bishops.

The

birth,and

Lords,

and

Lord
had

Ladies

Abbot
free

remote

many

religious
persons

and

voices,

Abbesses,

of

Lord
as

Prior

Barons,
which

as

chantries, nunneries,

the

aforesaid, as

in

towns

clergywas
exceeding rich and powerful,
so
stately
palacesand great possessions,

and secure,
clergygrew proud,negligent,
their
Knights Templars, upon
greatness, as well
proper

reasons

the

time

the

wondrous

places,then were
very
monks
f
riaries,
abbeys,priories,

mitre

in

same

the

possessionsby the grasping


of
the
houses
the
at
was
an
almsgiving
religious
The
and
of
of
general
poor-laws.
vagabondage
age
been
well described
of the abbeys have
by Edmund

Henry

endowed

were

every

the

throughout

on

succeeded

was

strong and

of

The

wars.

"

the

In

"

the

then

effects

as

absurd

carried

and

ing,
presumin

regard

that

wore

subsistent

houses

sometime

were

of the blood
as
men
usuallyof noble
royal,as well women
;
for by this time, through the charitable devotion
and
affection
former
of
special
much
common
were
kings,princes,peers, and
so
people, the monasteries
builded
and adorned, and
endowed
with
increased,gloriously
plenteously
large
all thingsnecessary.
and
Albeit they relieved the poor,
privileges,
possessions,
and
took
raised no
excessive
fines, yet they many
rents, nor
neglected
ways
N

179

WILLIAM

their
be

duty

God

to

and

safe and

more

houses

than

secure

repaired,their

were

beautified,even
upon
flattered

supremacy

said

survey and reform


the King, because

day :

whereat

but

of

them, razed them

expected
consent

the

unto

freed

should

being

forty earls,threescore
soldiers,with
should
the

to

for

be

the

way

want

in

laws, subsidies, and

fifteens than

in

as,

the

which

five

they
have

rest

Parliament

the

that

was

the

abbots, monks,

placesshould

have

nor

people be

all, ever
sors
succes-

be

beholding
charged with

to
more

have

created

and

King

cause

any

time, there

them

for

doing,the

so

be

fortythousand

knights,and

maintenance

competent

Since

their

thousand

should

the

the

wit, that the

taxes, to

of their own,

neither
subjects,

this

to

kingdom and nobility


subjectsacquainted [acquitted]

then

so

threw
over-

because

monasteries

the

persons

work,

testimonythereof

enriched,

three

revenues,

of treasure

of

common

and

and
captains,

fifteens.

been

statute-

more

And

long
years
of
sums
granted,and borrowed
great
money,
houses
debt, and the forenamed
were
religious
utterlyruinated,
all sore
but could
clergy,peers, and common
people were
grieved,

after that

the

and

in

whereat

came

and

been

suppressed,that

loans, subsidies,and

died

and
denly
sud-

to

people murmured,

common

ever

services

churches'

never

common

builded

houses

next

go
remain

alteration

or

barons, and

skilful

of the ancient

out

the

of them

have

increased, and

nuns,

of all those

abuses
would

and

peers

all former

from

friars,and

ruins

should

reformation

strengthenedand

the
he

only reformed, and


general plausible
projectwhich caused

The

King's exchequer
and

the

abuses

the

still remained.

many

of

many

that

new

generaldissolution,which

their

deluge. For, whilst the religious


persons
secured
themselves, the King obtained the ecclesiastical
and therewithal had power
particular
possession,
given him

his

by Parliament, to
above

increased, their churches

rents

very day
like the universal

and

into

being verilypersuaded tlicir estate and safetyto


of people,because* their
ever
was
any condition

the

to

them,

thus

man,

siiaxspere:

the

King

had

hundred

before.

not

subsidies

help it."*

not

The

which

sense

accustomed

us

produced by
VI.

The

shut

to

the

justlyentertain

we

our

eyes

the

of civilization.

Leland

of

abbey."
large and

whatever

says, "There
Wherever

advantagesof

tremendous

of
iniquitous
spoliations

houses,
religious
the

to

of the

the

might
was

of

been

Henry

Reformation

has

have

been

must

VIII.

Edward

and

their abuses,

at Evesham

town

no

there

evils which

days

have

the

centres

were

before

ation
the found-

well-endowed

house,
religious
was
a
a
regularexpenditure,
employing the
industryin
the way best calculated to promote
the happiness of the population. Under
this expenditure,
not
onlydid handicrafts flourish,but the arts were
encouraged
inconsiderable
in no
surrender
take
to
degree. The commissioners
employed
there

of

the
that

monasteries

in

in this town

was

local

Warwickshire

reported

then

of

the

were

and

the

ISO

monasteries

Continuation

stood, there

of Stow's

was

'Chronicle.'

no

act

Polsworth,

plough,the
livelihood
by this

but

their

"

whilst

of

nunnery

tenements,
forty-four
residue
of the inhabitants
who
had
being artificers,
In
another
Nor
is
it
house."f
placeDugdale says,
"

one

little observable

for relief of the

poor,

so

t Dugdale's 'Warwickshire,'p. 800.

that,
amply

BIOGRAPHY.

did
age,

houses

those

namely 39th
of

House

gi'vesuccour

did

than

the

less

that
than

purpose."*
industry in the

for that

Commons

of

encouragement
monastery

them

to

of Elizabeth, no

great deal
accustomed

"

render

to

more

We

bills

have

whereas

little doubt

populationupon
acts

with

of

law-makers, did

in

the

spiritof

lands.

own

not

The

become

detestable

poor,
curse

that

the

neighbourhood
provisionfor the poor

state

who

in want."

were

It

as

to

until
severity,

far
the
the

as

we

up

can

country, and
law- makers

the

cious
judieach

of

houses
was
religious
systematicand uniform.
would
raise
and
improvident almsgivingwhich
their

into

brought

were

of the
ostentatious

in the next

immediate

to those

succour

in want

were

eleven

cessary
unne-

The

volence
benethe

not

was

idle pauper

an

judge

from

were

not

had

the
dealt

dried

up

profitableindustry. Leland, writing immediately after


dissolution
of
the
the
Abbey of Evesham, says of the town that it is meetly
is fair and
large; there
largeand well builded with timber ; the market-sted
in the town."
While
the abbey stood there was
be divers pretty streets
an
annual
disbursement
be
there going forward
which
has been
to
equal
computed
The
to
eighty thousand
principally
pounds of our
revenues,
present money. f

the

of

sources

their

"

'

'

Dugdale's Warwickshire/ p. 803.


local guide.
History of Evesham,' by George May, A remarkably intelligent

airMiiiS;

iSii

[The Parish

Caurches, Evesham.]

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

"

eightdifferent counties,are seized upon


The
abbey is sold or grantedto a privateperson,
by the
will derive his immediate
who
advantage by the rapid destruction of a pile of
buildingswhich the piety and magnificenceof five or six centuries had been
hundred
and
than
a
fiftyinmates of this monastery are turned
rearing. More
miserable
loose upon
the world, a few with
pensions,but the greater number
Half
the
absolute
ot
reduced
to
populationat least of the town
indigence.
the expenditureof these insubsistence
from
mates,
derived
Evesham
have
a
must
dried
In
the
almost
is
fountain
this
and
now
wholly
youth of
up.
could have
been
other than a
William
Shakspere it is impossiblethat Evesham
monastic
would
its
be
Not
ruined and desolate place.
buildings destroyed,
only
its reduced
and
would
be untenanted
but its houses
dilapidated
population
;
situated
beautiful
close
the
idle and
to
parish churches,
dispirited.Its two
destruction
of
1539 ; but till
precinctsof the abbey, escaped the common
St.
Lawrence
had
been
of
within the last seven
long disused, and
years that
derived

fvom

and

manors

Crown.

had

fallen into
and

noble

tenements

site of

It is

ruin.

have

neglectwe

in

the

restored; for after three

now

begun

to

cherish

centuries

respect for what

some

of destruction

remains

of

our

ecclesiastical edifices.

The

the

suppressionof

the

for

act

smaller

houses
religious

sin, vicious, carnal, and

(27th Henry

abominable

living,is
and
amongst the little and small abbeys,priories,
daily used and committed
and
all
such
small
in
But
other
houses."
suppressing
confiscating
religious
hundred
is
not
annual
two
statute
houses, whose
pounds,the same
expenditure
VIII.)

recites

affirms

that, in the

is
religion

that

"

rightwell
the

accordingto
majesty for
virtue

"manifest

in

of

kept
through

yet, in

And

church."

this realm, wherein, thanks

be

houses

of

be

God,

to

destroyed,
King's most
royal

the

exaltation

and

increase, advancement,

said

desire

ardent

the

smaller

The

observed."

statute,

"the

the

monasteries

and

of this realm, thanks

monasteries

great solemn

of

were

doctrine

true

and

four

"great solemn
years, the
is rightwell kept
God, religion

to

utterlysuppressedand annihilated, under the pretence


surrendered
the
the
to
been
that they had
King. It was
voluntarily
mately
ultiservice they may
who, whatever
policyof the unscrupulous reformers
of superstitious
have
worked
in the destruction
observances, were,
as
it
their
when
dishonest
and
was
the
most
(to
policy,
rapacious
politicians,
driven
the crows
and destroyed
their own
heartless cant) they had
use
away
their nesi.3, to heap every
opprobrium upon the heads of the starvingand
it has been
houseless
were
computed that fiftythousand
brethren, of whom
all
in
The
probability
Shakspere was
wandering through the land.
young
had
been
driven
who
from
of
the
with
into
men
contact
some
aged
brought
in
scholastic
of their youth,where
the peacefulhomes
they had been brought up
and

observed,"

also

were

"

"

exercises,and

Some

littleworld.

Evesham,

must

prosperity
;
labour

had

one

he

nave

sheltered

with his
m

looked

forward

of the

to

Grey

encountered,

perhaps

hands, and

in

upon

in honourable

advance
Friars

of

Coventry,or

hovering

the
whom

round

cottage of
the

common

the
some

the

scenes

old

in

his

Benedictines

of

office,each

of their ancient

servant

misfortune

who
therefore

could
had

[Old Houses, Evesham.]

fallen

friars of

lightly. The

characters

either

formed

would
;

with

extinct.

be

These

it is manifest

and

It

respect.

greatness and

was

he

Chaucer

abundance.

It

was

The

ridicule

days

had

in those

for

To

pray

times

come.

The

men

of their

represent the

Thomas,
As

monastic

nought

of

for you

Church's

of the

hatreds

and

character

is aye

graceful

going
weeds

poet, to

young

forth
and

his

from

flowers,and

yield poison
Friar

hereafter

as

Lawrence

medical

vouring
endea-

"

desire

coveut

our

diligent."

that

pridemight

of
Juliet
been
into
Friar

virtue
and

the
the

be

and

benevolence.

One

of the

rhymed portions
of
desultorycompositions a
many

dramatic

Lawrence.

form.
The

Such
kind

is the,
old

to fill his osier basket


morning twilight
moralizingon the propertiesof plants which at

in

the

all the

truth

of

of

individual

man

with
once

portraiture.But

Infirmarist of a moThe
of a class.
nastic
representative
the
in
had
sick
often
of
the
brethren,
was
earlydays
charge
their sole physician. The
book-knowledge and the expe-

is also

science

so

moulded

cell

tresor
all

first introduces

medicine, has

and

house, who
of

be

soliloquywhich

according to

but other
salutary
;
tolerant moralist
that ever
encumber
helped to disendeavoured
to
prejudiceshas consistently

and
Shakspere'searliest plays is Romeo
of that delicious tragedymight have
very

necessity,be

bench, and

of his money

out

man

your

churl's

the

upon

that

myself, but

just and

most

moulded

In his mature
life the race
early associates.
ent
are
representations
wonderfullyconsistlooked
the persecutedorder with pityand
upon
monastic
life in the days of its
satirize
the
to
the
for this rare
to show
painterof manners

friar,sittingdown
grasping,dissimulating
wheedle
the bed-ridden
to frighten
or
"

would, of

dramatic

his

that

for

his

his

general impressionsof

the

great dramatist
early observation,or

llie future
of

out

the

183

WILLIAM

rience
to

of such

valuable

exercise useful

spere

have

may

functions
known

accused
with

by

Much
him

much

as

should

is the friar who, when


her

been
:

To

face ;

The

Measure

manners,

confidants

agents and

prejudicesof
of

the

the

ancient

resolved

book

multitude

satisfies

us

than

that

Shakspere
people.
A
deep reverence

the
did

the

play was
of

"

me

fool ;

the

not

my

age,

divinity,
here
guiltless

lady lie not


biting error."

plotis

carried

active

Thomas

character,

basest
written

Duke

the

In

stimulated

by

assumingthe
friar

and

the

little more
Old

calumnies

by

one

the

than

King John,
against the

who

formed

poet'soffice,as

his

the
age when
ridicule
abuse and
an

Shakspere always exhibits it so as


poisoningof King John by a monk,
with

dignityof

by

Peter.

Friar

flattered and

were

on

benevolence, of

and

Shakspere wrote

exaggerationof

Call

; trust

nor
calling,

whole

Friar

are

that

appear'd a fire,
these princeshold

truth

professingthe

ecclesiastical

believe

Germans

blushes

hath

The
respect and affection.
villain,"is despatchedby him

command

vulgar

some

the

and

mark'd

shames

those

away

that

of my

tenor

for Measure

there

errors

reverence,

Under

In

I have

my

If this sweet

reverend

unjustly
reputation

her

reading,nor my observations,
with experimental seal doth warrant

not

Which

My

and

rence.
Law-

is

Hero

vindicates

husband,

innocent

bear

maiden

Against her
Trust

wisdom,

"

"

thousand

eye

the

burn

Shak-

young

blushing apparitionsstart

in her

And

the

axiomatic

have

angel whiteness

In

and

well-meaningFriar

like the

management,

thousand

Into her

world

full of

man,

"

the

hiin

still allow

would

body

Nothing,it

charitable zeal

as
sagacity

into

thrust

own

about

who

conventual

kindly old

some

Ado

of

when

in his

confident
sufficiently
In

member

SHAKSPERE

an

The

Parts.

The

monastic

an

allusion.

in two

much

to
"

lower

character
estimate

instructor

of the

is one
of the clearest indications of the intimate
antiquity
able
writer
and
the
An
poetical
philosophical
temperament.
of our
the love of antiquity
own
producesa sort,
day has indeed said, In some,
the very sight of those buildings,
of fanciful illusion : and
so
magnificentin
in their present ruin, begetsa sympathy
their prosperous
hour, so beautiful even
founded
and inhabited them."*
for those who
ful
But, rightly
considered, the fanciillusion becomes
reasonable
a
principle.Those who founded and inhabited
for
these monastic
buildingswere
ages the chief directors of the national mind.
in truth, the possessions
Their possessions
of all classes of the people. The
were,
in some
bestowed
the
were
cases
highestoffices in those establishments
upon
noble and the wealthy,
but they were
the
humblest.
The
studious
to
open
very
and the devout
here found a shelter and a solace.
The learning
of the monastic
bodies
in
has
been
underrated
the
which
flourished
have
been
they
;
ages
union

for

of the

"

184

Hallam's

'

Constitutional

History of England.'

ages ; but
land.
They

dark

called
of

the

they

almost

were

the

were

BIOGRAPHY.

the

sole

historians,the

of
depositaries

the

knowledge
They
poets.

grammarians, the

barriers
the
that checked
the
magnificentlibraries. They were
brute
of
force.
cherished
ambition
and
an
more
empire
higher
They
martial spirit.They stood between
permanent than could belong to the mere
the strong and the weak.
They held the oppressor in subjectionto that power
the cultivation,however
which
results from
misdirected, of the spiritual
part of

accumulated
universal

our

Whilst

nature.

the

baron

proud

continued

live in the

to

dismal

same

castle

from
the churchmen
went
on
predatoryfathers had built or won,
age
to age
adding to their splendidedifices,and demanding a succession of ingenious
artists to carry out
their loftyideas.
exercises of their life
devotional
The
touched
the deepestfeelings
of the human
Their solemn
heart.
services,handed
down
from
remote
its
music
to
a
most
antiquity,
ennoblingcultivation ;
gave
that his

and

the

beautiful of arts

most

thus

became

amongst them,
instances
luxurious, idle, in some
and
mandate
could

apparent security
of

pampered

destroy the

tyrant,

with
years
institutions may
be
mansions

of

not

could

still

full of
antiquities,

and

its green

leaves
be

thing not

to

nature

make

to

of

be

the

edicts

of

Church

were

Their

The

longer put

no

thinkers.

have

But

been

instruction.

were

deep

nature

results.

had

destroyed.

despised. The

great revolutions

is the

these

of
it

sordid,

great prosperity
the

not

was

corrupt parliament,that

produced by an intercourse of
the great body of the people. The
form
of venerable
The
changed, but their spiritis indestructible.

reverence

holy places and

the

nor

which

eight hundred

them

produce

class, might be

the

upon
It
profligate.

to

loftiest enthusiasm.

the vehicle of the

bringing odium

Individuals

forth

the

subsided, there

but

which

always

must

the

they

the

torn

and

wonder

as

but

memory

the
be

were

were,

old

the

gnarled trunk

the

had

blasted

lightninghad

convulsion
After

swept away
ruins, recent

land

oak,

was

was

of

disappointmentof
an
outgushing of

be the result
thought may
may
scientific. By a
historical or
of accident ; it may
be poeticalor metaphysical,
combination
of one
of circumstances, perhaps by the circumstance
man
being
mind
born who
had
the most
marvellous
and whose
nature,
insightinto human
the
became
the
could
all
the
of
the
social
drama
state,
disguises
penetrate
It was
new
a
altogether
great exponent of the thoughtof the age of Elizabeth.
been
have
had
the
for
The
form
drama, as we
English poetry to put on.
seen,
it
ceased
humblest
vehicle
for popular excitement.
When
the Church
to use
earnest

thought.

The

form

which

that

assume

"

"

as

an

instrument

of

instruction,it fell into the hands

of illiterate mimics.

The

busy with their affectations and their flatteries to


of society.
state
to the
new
recognise its power, and its especialapplicability
Those
who
watched
the manifestations
of the popular
of the people; who
were
stirred up by the political
minds
had
been
feelingand understanding
; whose
fluence
violence
the
of
which
had
indeed
storms,
passed away, but under whose in-

courtlywriters

the
build

up

whole

our

they were

too

were

social

state

great national
for the

most

still heaved

drama.

But,

part boys,or

like
at

disturbed

the

very

sea

"

periodof which

young

men.

those
we

It is

were

to

speaking,
perhaps forare

185

SHAKSPEKE

WILLIAM

for

tunate

the

that

us

eminent

most

of these

introduced

was

dedicated

to

the

knowledge

of the
advantages;
particular
any
of
adherent
in an
cloistered not
an
learned
university
; was
professions
; was
his
of
tenance,
mainthe
forward
look
to
own
to
necessity earning
no
obliged
party ; was
William
humiliated
and yet not
by poverty and meanness.
Shakspere
which
with
he
of
surrounded,
state
remarkable
was
the
looked
society
very
upon

life under

of

with

no

spirit.But

free

He

past.

knew
of

characters
matters

with

belongs

to

be

never

he

they come
general,and

the

antiquated,because

he

indestructible

the

mind.

human

modes
prevailing

in

the

But
of

temporary

at

the

time

same

even

to

of

his

that

no

progress

with

His

whatever

and

less

as

individual

the

universal.

the

present and the

influences

remote

day.

own

one

the

thing of

nature,

it is

to

time

same

is

primarilydeals

aspects of external

thought

called humours,

his time

the

state

in

which

and

and

one

social

dependent upon
dailycontact;

much

as

are

at

saw

entire

the

that

men

the

not

was

in the
faithful

Individual

that
upon

the
the

essentially
drama

can

is permanent
constitution

of

of the
transcript
in
peculiarities,

he left to others.

disregardof all party and


principleof looking at life with an utter
individual
observations
all
his
of massing
character,
sectarian feelings,
upon
the
of
from
could
have
a
knowledge
only
profound
proceeded
past, and a
have
endeavoured
to
than
common
more
apprehensionof the future. As we
favourable
his
vation
cultihe lived were
to
show, the localities amidst which
highly
his unerringobservation
of
for antiquity.But
of a poetical
reverence
illusion.
He
had. always
the present prevented the past becoming to him
an
which
of the blessings
had
had
been
earnest
a
an
patriotism
; he
strong sense
of
and
his
the
out
conferred
w
on
own
security
peril
suffering
day through
upon
This

by

middle

the

classes.

The

destruction

of

the

old

institutions,after the first

the
people, had diffused
mitigatedby
energy
it to be employed with more
had
caused
and
activity.But he, who
capital,
his
notice
of
forbear
the
to
own
ever
political
day, cannot
aspects
scarcely
stops
the sufferings
of the very poorest, which, if not
an
indignantcomment
upon
coincident
of the property of
least
the
caused
at
with,
great spoliation
by, were
is whipped from
Poor
and stocked,
the Church.
Tom, "who
tithingto tithing,
fanciful
and
is
he
the creature
of the
punished,
imprisoned,"*was no
portrait;
half
of
Exhortations
in
for
the
the
a
churches,
legislation
century.
pauper
of
relief
of
such
in
the
furtherance
as
were
unfeignedmisery,"were
prescribed
Edward
of
the
of
but
the
1st
the
directs
statute
statute
VI.;
that the
same
by
after
certain
forms
of proving that he has not
offered himself
unhappy wanderer,
V with a hot iron upon
for work, shall be marked
his breast, and adjudged
slave" for two
who
be "a
to
of the
bringshim before justices
years to him
evil

effects

had

of

the

been

"

peace

and

the

statute

goes

on

to

direct the

slave-owner

to

cause

the

said

Three
the
by beating,chaining,or otherwise."
years afterwards
it
could
that
be
carried
into
effect
not
bv
repealed,seeing
or
reason
the multitude
the extremityof their wants.
of vagabonds and
The
whipping
and the stockingwere
of Elizabeth.
The
appliedby successive enactments
slave

statute

work

"

to

is

186

King Lear, Act

in., Scene

jv,

make
end
to
an
always at hand
tithing to tithing,they inevitablybecame

gallows, too,

compulsory provision for

England

from

of

quantity

years

fearful

destruction

vast

is evident

misery
in things evil,"
:

in

the

Thou

the

people
for.

natural

restlessness

of

hatred,

and

by

the

observances, who
that
the

even

of

those

education

daring
the

had

descry

of

the

but

saved

that
for

the

many

capital of

witnessed

much

soul

"

the
this

of

of

goodness

heartlessness

of

petty

be

fostered

had

the

and

Shakspere

must

most

have

the

arts

the

an

age

favourable

in

looked,

held

and

wonderful

favourable

the

frowned

poets

who

for

of

upon

enjoyment

[Bengewurth

Church,

Lear, Act

seen

iv., Scene

through

the

Arch

vi.

of

the

Bell-TWer.]

avarice

ancient

all

for

of

blishment.
esta-

sports and

the

of

of

check

be

to

"

and

pillars
cater-

intellect

the

society,as

wisdom.
*

the

pipers

cultivation

cordial

been

establishment

the

upon

the

ancient
had

received

stirringup
the

looked

spiritof

by

had

yeomanry

who

sect

and

utterly failed

had

riches

poor

by

regret and

which

protection and

the

English

those

to

with

promises

State

the

up

yet the

But
it

The

by

who

"

attacked

Reformation

was

The

progress.
state,

unwillinglyconceded

powerful

the

Shakspere's youth

traditionaryceremonies

swallowed

spiritof

made

the

its bosom.

been

had

who

of

age

unsettled

universities, and

the

intellectual

an

upon
its

should

despised

had

of

up

commonwealth."

looked

enemies

the

great
in

was

sprung

of

thy bloody hand."

in

genial

who

"

nation

literature

who

those

statesmen

intolerance

of
the

unsettled

yet

hatred

him,

about

making

grammar-schools,

recreations

of

have

threv

disposition

Church

The

preservationof

few

evils

were

rigid

had

The
from

then

monasteries

the

when,

Nothing

doubted

to

beadle, hold

rascal

social

provided

made

could

poor

Shakspere

indignant

wanderers

reasonably be
the

upon

That

constant

his

from

and

of

dissolution

the

country.
his

from

many

which

ill

were

Jacquerie.

the

of

cannot

the

thieves.

"

yet, with

one

It

superfluous labour

"

And

maintenance

the

capitalby
of

ordinary industry of

authority

of

was

from

hunted

BIOGRAPHY.

highest

the

young

practical

JffisiiIe

ifi

SR3^^P^1

[Welford.

The

Wake.]

CHAPTER

XIV.

HOURS.

SOCIAL

I."

society

of

power
what

folly

the

abbeys
churches

is

church

church
ever,

was

up

188

be

which

old

extinct,

not

wickedness

the

in

the

reign

of

the

bears
the

of

Avon,
the

people

usages

in

date
would

connected

Wake.

the

the

men

of

down

pulled

bank

new,

the

to

or

were

rose

opposite

the

by reproduction, is

followed

Decay,

The

their

the

order
of

Elizabeth.
the

of

1568

cling,
with

has

VIII.;

Henry

Within

carved

upon

and

perhaps

their

church.

but

of

to

humble

repair
tuous
Sumpparish
-

Stratford,

of

Welford;

its wall.
more

vital

the

destroyed.

miles

four

village

pretty

if

so,

generation attempt

one

of

and

nature;

predecessors

reign

is

of

and

on

here

Although

the

pertinaciouslythan
They

certainly

would

BIOfiRAPIIY

forego their Wake,

not

"

ancient

an

"

keep a feast every year upon


of the buildingof their
finishing
to

custom

the

among

certain

week

Christians

day

or

of this island

in remembrance

of the

and of the first solemn


cating
dediparish-church,
For fifty
after
the
of
which
period
years
less, throughout England. The
are
more
or
we
writing,the wakes prevailed,
Puritans had striven to put them
down ; but the oppositeparty in the Church
I. spoke the voice of this party in one
Charles
as
zealouslyencouragedthem.
of his celebrated
declarations
for sports, which
such deep, and
in some
gave
In
declaration
in
offence.
1633
the
favour
of
wakes
was
King's
respects just,
follows :
counties of this kingdom, his Majesty finds that, under
In some
as
of
not
taking away abuses, there hath been a generalforbidding,
only
pretence
of ordinarymeetings, but of the feasts of the dedication of the churches, commonly
will and
called Wakes.
his Majesty'sexpress
Now,
pleasureis, that
these feasts,with others, shall be observed; and that his justices
of the peace,
of it to

the

of God."*

service

"

"

in their

prevented

punished,and

or

lawful

and

divisions,shall look

several

to

that

all disorders

all

that

neighbourhood and
Neighbourhood and

used."f

exercises, be

it, both

there

be

may

freedom, with

manlike

freedom, and

manlike

At
the period
English characteristics of the wakes.
William
when
Shakspere was
just enteringupon life,with the natural disposition
of youth, strongest perhaps in the more
t
o
imaginative, mingle in the
cordial spirit
recreations and
of enjoysports of his neighbourswith the most
ment,
denounce
the Puritans
of
the
to
were
beginning
people
every assembly
that strove
to
keep up the character of merry England. Stubbes, writingat
this exact
of keeping of Wakesses," that
epoch, says, describing The manner
time of the year, some
at one
at
some
other,
anparish,and village,
every town,
but so
that every one
keep his proper day assignedand appropriateto
make
itself (which they call their wake-day),useth
to
great preparationand

exercises, were

old

the

"

"

provision for good


near,

are

which

cheer

the

Charles

proclamationof

them

occasions

as

the

were

of

all their

which

the

to

Such

invited."

friends

and

kinsfolks,far and

friendlymeetings in all mirth

and

calls

Puritans

"

The

neighbourhood."

gluttonyand

drunkenness.

Excess,

freedom

But

amongst
there

was

in all matters

ancestors

our
a
man

without

suspicionin

and

man,

which

these

"

coat-armour

was

social intercourse,constituting
a

of
heartyspirit

between

in which

"

enabled

all ranks

publicceremonials

mingle

to

and

thus

excess.

of ranks

concerned,

practical
equality
offence

without

the

doubt,

no

old hospitality
could scarcely
The
exist without
there.
occasionally
whatever
distinction
it must
be
the
be
not
might
forgottenthat,

was

nounced
de-

and

civilization of the

educated
who
than
the

writer
classes told upon
of the uneducated.
is no
There
the manners
furnishes us a more
complete pictureof this ancient freedom of intercourse

Chaucer.

best, and

The
drink

who
at the
meet
Tabard, and
company
the strong wine, and submit
themselves

and

tell their tales upon


only the very high and

Brand's

t Rushworth's

the
the

pilgrimagewithout
very

humble, but

the
the

men

eat
to

the
the

victual
merry

restraint, are
slightest
of

and
professions

'Popular Antiquities,'
by Ellis,1841, vol. ii.,
p. 1.
'
Life of Charles I.'
Collections,'
quoted in Harris's
'

189

of

host,
not

the

WILLIAM

of trade, who

SHAKSPERE

in these later

days too often jostleand look big upon the deAnd


existed to a considerable
doubt, this freedom
no
gentility.
so,
in
the days of Shakspere. In the next
extent
even
generationHerriclc,
writes,
parishpriest,

men

bateable

land

of

"

"

Come, Anthea, let ns


to feast,
others
as

two

Go

Tarts
Are

and

the

Unto

With
the

the

"

"

tribes

well-fed

yeoman

daughtersthere

exchanged
upon
by the

frowned

were

who

thought not

mortification.

that

Some

after there

the

had

smiles
severe,

proper
of

even

freelyfeast, sing, and


tabors, crowds, bagpipes,"c,
and recreations theylike best !

"

resort,

is the

sport."

statelysquire,the reverend parson, and


of more
was
importance,their wives and
these
and
courtesies.
The
more
meetings
would
the more
they be cherished by those
was
destinyof man
unceasing labour and
would
exclaim, as Burton
pure
for fifty
the matter,
years upon

most

contest

them

cakes,
:

the

the

been

tribes

business

what

and,

the

the

mingled

were

and

junkets still at wakes

which

Where

do.

custards, creams

claimed
ex"

Let

their

dance,

have

play at

ball and

puppet-plays,
hobby-horses,
and
barley-breaks, what sports

From

sunrise, then, upon


a
morning, are the country people
brightsummer
It is the Baptist's
holidaydresses hasteningto Welford.
day. There
were
some
bonfires upon
who
had
the
amongst them
lightedthe accustomed
hills on
the vigilof the saint
maiden
and
the
t
o
or
two,
clinging
perhaps a
;
ancient
had
superstitions,
tremblinglysat in the church-porch in the solemn
or
more
twilight,
daringlyhad attempted at midnight to gather the fern-seed
which
should
make
mortals
invisible."
"walk
Over
the
bridges at Binton
the hill people from
come
Grafton
and
Billesley.Arden pours out its
Temple
hamlets.
Bidford
and
Barton
send in
scanty populationfrom the woodland
their tribes through the flat
either
bank
of the river. From
ford
Stratpastures on
there is a pleasantand not
circuitous walk by the Avon's
side,now
leading
through low meadows, now
ascendingsome
gentleknoll,where a long reach of
the stream
be traced, and now
close upon
the sedges and
alders, with a
may
of
the
river sparkling
It is a merry
glimpse
who
through the green.
company
follow along this narrow
road ; and there is a clear voice carolling
in their

"

Jog

jog

on,

heart

merry

they hear

Weston,
'

"

cross

soon

Anatomy

t Winter's
and

in

Mr.

of

the

ferryat

foot-path,
way,
the

stile-a

all the
a

day,

mile-a." f

Ludington,and, passing through the villagecf


of Welford
sendingforth a merry peal. At

church-bells

Melancholy,Part II.,Sec.

Tale,Act iv., Scene


Chappell's admirable

Chappell for many


190

the

goes

Bad tires in

Your

They

on, the

merrily hent

And

u.

The

2.

music

collection

of the facts connected

with

of
our

'

of

this song

is

English National
ancient music

given in the Pictorial Shakspere,


Airs.'

noticed

We

are

indebted

in the present

to

chapter.

Mr,

lengththey
tables

the

reach

of the

in every house.
Englishbreakfast

substantial

The
;

and

In a little while
hospitality.
tolls
bell
for
matins.
The
single
The service
church
fills with a zealous congregation
seat is empty.
soon
a
; not
with
and
when
for this particular
feast is attended
the
to
pious reverence
;
the
peopleare invited to assist in its choral parts,theystill show that,however
national taste
have
been
the
of
the
for music
injured by
suppression
may
chauntries, they are familiar with the fine old chaunts of their fathers,and can
but the
perform them with spiritand exactness, each accordingto his ability,
with some
science.
The
is
The
musical
ended.
most
of
homily
knowledge
shines glaringly
church ; and some
oi
sun
through the white glassof this new
the Stratford people may
think it fortunate that their old paintedwindows
are
is off the green that skirts the churchyard
not
The
dew
;
yet all removed.*
the pipers and
Thomas
is
be
chosen.
the
first
dance
to
crowders
are
ready;
has left us
of Shakspere'spleasantcontemporaries,
a
Heywood, one
dialogue

the farmer's

emulates

with

out

set

are

welcome

is cordial

village.There

Hall

Manor

BIOGRAPHY.

kitchen

the

sends

which

embarrassing

shows

how

JacTc.

"

Come, what

Jenhin.

'

Sisly.

I love

Rogero

Nicholas.

Jenhin.
'

no

ere

Rogero ?
'

well

as

'

John,

deserv'd

now

choice

will dance

we

;
so

"

'

beginning of the world.'

The

kiss

come

now.'

me

; call for the

cushion

'

Cushion-dance.'

'

Tom
Tyler.'
nothing so well as
The
hunting of the fox.'
; we'll have
hay, The hay ; there's nothing like The. hay.'
round.' "t
Sellenger's
me
speak for all,and we'll have

part, I

my

like
'

No

Jack.

'

shall it be ?
'

note.

such

was

dance

no

I have
For

Roger.

bounteous

same

forth another

the church-tower

'

'

The

'

JcnJcin. Let

The
for
Beginning of the World,'
rejects Rogero,'is strenuous
of
modern
and he carries his proposalby givingit the more
name
Sellenger's
is
mentioned
in 'The
it
for
VIII.
old
Round.'
The
tune
was
as
as
;
Henry
Deloney, whom
Kemp called the
History of Jack of Newbury,' by Thomas

Jenkin, who

'

'

great ballad-maker

taking off
answered,

their
'No

In

"

"

were

hear, good fellows,what


World.'

"

boisterous

if

can

in

its character, but

will ;
as
many
succession of

who

have

music

enough.'

'Tut!'

by

and

take hands

nimbleness

do

calm

of

and

play

whatever
and

go
circular

figuresvaryingthe

of individual grace and

would

you
is this,

quaint tune
"

in

they

merry

"

musicians

noise

asked

caps,

they

comes

any
said the

it be

name

graceful
;
"

round

The

me

movement,

and

'let

man;

Beginning of
known

round

twice, and

widow

The

old

who,

coats,

tawny

back

"

air not

an

dance

us

the

for

"

again,"with

allowingthe

as
a

display

"

of idolatry are
removed, taken
images, shrines, tabernacles,roodlofts,and monuments
of sufficient store
defaced
stories in glass windows
excepted, which, for want
; only the
into
of new
of extreme
stuff,and by reason
by the alteration of the same
charge that should grow
httle
but
white
abolished
at
the
in
most
by
not
are
once,
realm,
places
altogether
throughout
panes
son's
Harriand
little suffered
white
to decay, that
glas3 may be provided and set up in their rooms."
1586.
'Descriptionof England :
*

"AH

down,

and

"

'

t A

Woman

Killed with

Kindness.

1600.
191

SIIAKSPERE

WILLIAM

"

Each
Will

elegant.

Glad

this

hearts

the

there

are

with

and

mop

mov.e."*

"

With

'

carried

John,

vulgar

the voices
kiss

come

This

tune.

daffodils

for
now.'

me

was

who

at

and,

as

and

once

are

Tripping the comely country-round

"

If Jenkin

into the dance

joyous
merely lookers-on
and there was
itself happiness
;
the youthsand maidens

those

amongst

even

sightof happinessis in
unreprovedpleasures"of

The

scene.

happinessin

with

here

of Shaksperes time put their hearts


countryfolks
musical
ears
were
by education, their energy was

The
their

upon
real

his toe,

trippingon

one,
be

'

be gratified
must
next
Round,' Sisly
Sellenger's
Let it not be thought that Sislycalled for a
the

of

one

daisies crown'd."

and

favourite

most

airs of

Queen

Elizabeth's

into
VirginalBook,' and after being long popularin England it transmigrated
which
of
is in two
The
the first part
tune
a
"godly song" of Scotland.
parts,
little
is
full
this
of grace and
in
the
sweet
is
and
Book,'
a
melody
only
Virginal
desire something more
ring,
stirThe
tenderness.
more
joyous revellers may now
and call for Packington'sPound,' as old perhapsas the days of Henry VIII.,
Jonson
survived for a couple of centuries in the songs of Ben
and
and which
dancers
and
has
fixed
the
date
The
about
pipers,
players,
Gay.J
controversy
melodies
the young
of some
of these
old tunes, showing us to what
Shakspere
in
round
have
moved
or
a
a
galliard.Stephen Gosson, for
might
joyously
know
that
Trenchmore
of an
But
Trenchmore.'
at
we
was
example,sneers
'

'

'

earlier date

than

'

'

'

Gosson's

book.

writer

who

son
twenty years after Gos-

came

scarcelyto be reckoned amongst the


like one
dances :
In this case,
dancing the Trenchmore,' he stamped
graceful
his
the leaping,
and
down
the
hips in his hands. "|| It was
yard, holding
up
of animal
spirits
delights. Burton
romping dance, in which the exuberance
shows

that

us

the

'

'

Trenchmore

was

'

"

says
has

We

"
"

dance

must

'

'

Trenchmore

tables, chairs,and

over

stools."

Selden

Trenchmore,'
capitalpassage upon
showing us how the sports of the
until
boisterous
the most
of the dancing
adopted by the Court,
country were
drove out
and ancientry." He
state
delightsof the people fairly
says, in his
Table Talk,' "The
Court
altered.
of England is much
At a solemn
dancing,
first you had the grave measures,
and the galliards,
then the corantoes
and this
Trenchmore
the
Cushionand
kept up with ceremony ; and at length to
dance :
then all the company
lord
and
and
dances,
kitchen-maid,
lady
groom,
distinction.
So in our
Court
in Queen
Elizabeth's
no
time, gravityand state
were
kept up ; in King James's time things were
pretty well ; but in King
Charles's time
there has been
Trenchmore
the
and
Cushionnothing but
omnium
toite."
It was
in this spiri
dance,'
gatherum, tollypolly,hoite come
'

"

'

"

'

'

'

'

'

'

that

Charles

II. at

J See

Ben

Tempest, Act

Jonson's

song
"

" See
192

court

in

'

iv., Scene
Bartholomew

My masters,
p. 56.

ball called for

and

II.

'

Cuckolds

all arow,'

f Herrick's

'

which

'Hesperidea.'

Fair,'beginning
"

friends,and good people,draw near."


Craft:' 1598.
||Deloney's 'Gentle

he

said

BIOGRAPHY.

old dance

"the

was

would

to

seem

From

England."*

of

be

of

one

its

its

and

name,

jerkingmelody,this
They were each

lines.
parallel

of

country dances

the

have been the


by the people; but the round dance must unquestionably
with
of
it
fine
It was
writes
enthusiasm
Old
Burton
a
a
most
:
graceful.
knots
and
The
and
those
to
sun
see
swimming
figures.
sight,
pretty
pleasant
union
(some say) dance about the earth, the three upper planetsabout the sun
in apoga?o,
direct, now
their centre,
now
now
retrograde; now
as
stationary,
round,
then in pcrigrco
swift, then slow ; occidental, oriental ; they turn
; now
with
Maculae
those
the
and
about
and
sun
or
?
trace,
?
thirty-three
jump
Four
Burbonian
planets,circa solem saltuntcs Cytharedum, saith Fromundus.
and
all
Austrian
about
Mediccan
about
dance
t
wo
stars
Saturn,
"c,
Jupiter,
old
'Joan's
of the spheres."
Placket,' the delightful
(belike)to the music
f
followed
When
I
the
of
time
when
beat
that we
tunc
to,
inspiriting
yet
song
danced

"

"

"

'

lass

Welford

across

comes

of
to

surrender

himself

dance

he

must

attraction

of

part in

Pcpys's 'Memoirs,' Svo., vol.,i. p.

of

the

'Anatomy
caught the idea from Sir John
of Dancing:'

upon

think

the
the

green at
excellent

the

of

star

'

even

which

I did

'*

has

in and

been

out

of fashion

III., Sec.

universal

Burton, the

2.

Davies's 'Orchestra;

or,

reader, might

expressingtbe Antiquity and

Poem

"

"

Dancimr, bright lady, then


When

tbe

The

first seeds

Love's

To

leave

And

in

such

Since when

do

But

every

Wherein

wondrous

For

dancing

The

And

X
Life.

Love

in

in

round,

in another's

doth

dance

is Love's

bid
did

miracle

it turn
Love

proper

or

trace

devise,

exercise.

of
his

and digestingpower,
through-piercing

turned

"Whose
As

earned

preserve.

this,he fram'd the gods' eternal bower,


a
shapelessand confused
mass,

And

By

doth

one

the

observe,

should

place ;
mingle nor confound,
keep the bounded
space
one

the}-neither

This

Like

motion

they stillare

And, changing, come


Yet

to

measure

their

spring,

agree,

mighty king,
combating ;

first disorder'd

dance

did

world

did

water,

be,

to

the

persuasion,Nature's
their

all the world

As

began

-whereof

fire,air,earth, and

By

vault

starry

of

wheels

heaven
he

hath

formed
so

that

their movings do a music


they theinsolvos still dance

Yilla/o

for two

359.

Part

Melancholy,'

for

dance

favourite

by
might
galliard,""
Sweet
air of
Margaret/ and willingly
its gentleand its buoyant movements.
the squireand the squire's
not
ladycan-

under

of
inspiration

the

"

in

formed

take

be

after-times said,

was

the

to

resist its charms,

who
it

resist the

strive not

One

our

surelyhe
thy leg

and

constitution

would

memories, J

'

" Twelfth

was

made

to pass,

frame,
unto

the

same."

Night, Act L,

Scene

id.

193

have
cellency
Ex-

SHAKSPERE:

WILLIAM

and

centuries

waltz

Sir

the

half, and

has

de

Roger

its

again asserted

all know, upon


Coverleywho to the

quadrille.We

and

Sessions, and

the

rightsm

England,in despiteof
that
testimony,
all mankind
caught a
of the
great-grandson

undoubted

most

of

lastingregret

the

died, in

1712, was
County
famous
of that
who
inventor
of
was
or
Cowley,
Coverley,
worthy knight
that
William
him."*
Who
then,
doubt,
which
is called after
can
country-dance
with
hall
have
danced
this
famous
in
dance,
on
or
greensward,
might
Shakspere
its
chain
its
its
bows
and curtsies,
its gracefuladvancingsand retirings,
figures,
cold

the

at

"

horrible vice of

was

denounce

Stubbes

remarkable.

very

fashion

better, after the

making people

about

and

to

of

the

threatens

blood

In vain for the young

movement

in his outcry

mind

peril body
The manner
dancing."
pestiferous

Stubbes

might

1580
"

in simultaneous

unravelled

pretty knots

in which
harsh

the firstPuritans
to

nurse

with

dancers

of

againstthe

froward

lameness

set

child,
broken

and

with
well as
but, being constrained to acknowledge
severer
penalties
as
;
legs,
is both ancient and general,
that dancing
having been used ever in all ages as
the following
well of the godly as of the wicked," he reconciles the matter
upon
man's
for
used
If
it
be
and
comfort,
recreation,
:
godly pleasure,
principle
music
with
otherwise,
or
privately(every sex distinct by themselves),whether
"

"

"

it cannot

but

be

tolerable exercise."

very

We

doubt

if

this

arrangement

to
the young
and maidens
at the
men
satisfactory
altogether
Stubbes
had
himself
if
Welford
Wake, even
Philip
appeared amongst them,
with his unpublishedmanuscriptin his pocket,to take the place of the pipers,
Give
therefore, your occupations,
over,
pipers,you
cryingout to them
you

would

have

been

"

"

fluters,and

the

whole

make

town,

Dost

"

cakes

ale

and

to

drummers,

song

himself

think

they

as

do? "X
thou

because

One

art

by

Avon

the

reach

ancient

mill of Welford,

the

risingground upon
haunted
Hillborough
Hillborough. This is the
ascribes to Shakspere.
inhabitants
the
|| Assuredly
btill venerable

of

in

Welford.

at

their

"

and

the

They
the

walls

press
to

the

an

old

house, and

Spectator,Noa.

The

2 and

" Twelfth
194

its mullioned

descend

should

be

day,and
have
no

swered,
anmore

shovel-board

for the

lots

517.

Night, Act

sun

will be
are

cast

and

is not
a

the hamlet

of

tradition

lines which

of

the

of

that fine old farm-house,

windows, would

tric-trac

be

at

go a
is dance

for

behind
yet setting

the

little out

the

and

sedentary.

Bardon

Hill,

at Barley-Breakin the field


game
three damsels
and three youths are

1 Anatomy
n., Scene

for

the stream

stands

Stratford

There

earlymoon.
House.

and

the

we

which

to
neighboursfrom
their
T
here
own
hospitality.
accept

evening is brilliant ;

there is

before

its massive

homewards

way
merriment
within
But

shall

been

have

might

man
young
virtuous
there

"

wake

flowingcup

he

?""

mile, till we

story,would

lifted up his voice, exclaiming, Wherefore


parish,village,and country, keep one and the same
he

thou

Crossing the
about

the

Neither, when
and

tabretters,you

you

"

gluttonousfeasts

such

elders

the

amongst

heeded, had

much

of

all other
round

going

was

musicians, you
you
brood." f
that wicked

minstrels, and

tiddlers,you

in.

J Ibid.

of Abuses.

flSec

p. C9

4.

'

""-"

^HvV

"i'^-.-

-" '-I

'',,j

Barley-break.]

[Great Ilillburough.

for

chosen
in

each

hell.

of
In

the

sport

which

that

plot of ground is
couple is placed, the

marked

"

the

into three

out

middle

division

compartments,

bearing the name


vulgarly. Sidney

word

of
and

used profanelynor
not
was
age
in this conare
demned
Massinger describe the sport. The couple who
from
the other
divisions, and we
place try to catch those who advance
the
noise
and
resistance
and
the coy
the
the
of
imagine
laughter
vigorous
may
on
yieldingsthat sounded
Hillborough,and scared the pigeons from their old
of
dovecote.
The
consisted
in this
that the couple in the
difficulty the game
middle
ever
whennot
to
place were
might loose hands
separate, whilst the others
alludes
this
of
the
to
they pleased. Sidney
peculiarity
game
Browne

and

"

"

There

may

you

see,

Do, coupled,

They,

But

half

described

century

the game

of

false

middle

the

undo."

hands

fearful,do their

and

two

couple make,

of poets,
Sidney, the sprightliest
Barley-breakwith unequalledvivacity
:

play

to

mates

Love, Folly took


And

Hate

did

Hate,

Love, Reason,
Three

coupled last, and

That

Love

and

But

Hate

Fancy

and

Reason,

for

they

Pride,

Suckling,

"

and

so

dance

they

in hell.

Reason

would
on

Fancy
;

it fell

were

Love

two

Pride
so

nimbler

was

looks

Hiea, and

Folly

John

bespeak

once

with

Love

Sir

barley-break ;

at

; and

consorts

They break,

as

either

after

"

soon

towards

"

her

moot,

feet ;

thither

hug together

1W"

WILLIAM

Yet

this

Love

The

rest do

Hath

now

Hate

and

Folly

and

break

Folly was

Friilo

again,and
her

on

side ;

Fancy meet, and stand


by Love in Folly'shand
dull, but

So Love

in hell.

were

got Reason
d

coupling stilldoth tell

new

That

Untouch'

The

SIIAKSPERE

and

Love

well,

ran

in hell."

Folly were

writingstouch lightlyupon
country
would
be
the
foremost
always
things,
in these
diversions.
would
"ride
He
the wild mare
with
the boys,"* and
and
at
at
well/'f
"play
quoits
"change places"
"handy-dandy,"]:and put out
all his strength in a jump, though he might not
a lady at leapfrog,'^
expect to "win
and
and
the country-base"with
be
run
a
[|
striplings,"
"very good
bowler." ^J
It was
in solitude only that he acquired his wisdom.
He
not
Shakspere,whose

young

sports,but

mentions

who

mature

them

familiar

as

"

knew
All

"

intercourse

through his
The

restingat
rest

his

with

which

"

checkered

all

spirit,

apply

the

not

dewy fields,for there is to be


to
Grange,who has succeeded
They are alreadyunder
all anglers. Look ! down
at
with

theymake

teamed

tions.
by meditatingupon abstracexperienceand raise it into philosophy.

and
fellows,

to

was

make
to
men
temptationfor the young
Hillboroughthrough the night. No spritesarc
has been
earned by exercise.
Before the sun

is

There

meditation

with
qualities,

dealings,"* *

Of human

busy."

otter-hunt

an

the

otter-hunt

had

the

up they
The
owner

is

his

has

marl-cliffs,
busilyseekingfor the
bottom

in

of

lady-smocks;
all busy ;
Walton

hill there, in

the
there

you
and

men

describe
but

in those

an

dogs.
otter-

of

enemy

meadow,

what

dogs; dogs

such

of the
of

that
see

the

in the

and

animated

work
men

scene

days, when

field-sports
of their exercise and of their usefulness, the otterjustification
hunt
rivers.
the delightof the dwellers near
was
Spear in hand, every root
and hole in the bank
is tried by watermen
and landsmen.
The
water-dog, as
the otter was
is
found
in
her
her
at
called,
length
fishyhole, near
whelps. She
takes to the stream, amidst
men
the barkingof dogs and the shouts of men
\ horsedash into the fordable places
hither
thither
the
boatmen
and
push
dogs
;
;
have

bit

to

there

breathe, and

bites

she

rare

double

lost her, and

surface

now

England ;

may

are

pack

the

water-lilies and

is

disturb

to

the

look ! look ! you may


see
Izaak
Thus
does honest

The

day'sholiday,

there

Bidford.

below

of Evesham,

monks

another

him, and

is

short

the

dogs

he

swims

Henry IV., Act n., Scene IV,


" Henry V., Act v., Scene
% Love's Labour 's Lost, Act v.,

li"3

silence
are

for

one

after her.

away

howling;

f Ibid.

she

ii.

dog

she
has

is under

up to the
seized
her,
just
comes

again,and they

% Lear, Act IV., Scene

|| Cyrubeline,Act

ir.

Scene

instant
One

**

v., Scene

OtbeVJo. Act

m.,

vi.

iv.

Scene

m.

t.^.r'f.f

fault.

at

are

Sweetlips has
and

above,
is

the

her

some

Izaak

sport of

verse,

and

angling. Shakspere
"

recreation

as

if he

The

"

Cut

And

The

oldest

enthusiasm
of
"

the
the

'

books
about

Treatise

of

of

air of

sweet

harmony

the

fowls;"

sweet

and

money

only,

body,
in

and

will

greedily

your
desire

not

Much

golden

oars

devour

the

have

an

of
the

the

describes

her

some

past losing." This


Somerville,

the

in

his

huntsmen.

they

otter,
the

"

your
for

about

to

the

see

their

to

go

contemplative

man's

when

fish

silver stream,

treacherous

of

the

bait."

that

half

'

Book

of

mead-flowers,"
thus:

the

ye

to

the

purpose

to

with

in., Scene

go
you,

not

health

on

of

of

this
your

of your

disports

your

which

talks

use

sparing

the

author

melodious

"

shall

cause

devout

the

St. Albans,'
and

"Ye

"

Even

increasing and

persons

Nothing, Act

poetical,half

delightful.

so

solace, and

greatly many
Ado

to

the

'Treatise'

covetyseness

the

made

Angle,' in

savour

soul

of

killed

have

dogs

Walton.

to

spears

something

Walton

for
principally

speciallyor

fishing ye

no

lines

the

is tired, and

Now

"

vents.

"

her

with

concludes

craftydisport for

have

pleasantest angling is

Fishing with
the

the

language,

all

she

by

three

which

art

foresaid

but

in

angling

upon

die

friends

enjoyedit

had

Now

according

her

his

technical

now

now,

otter-hunt
makes

Walton

the

!
Svveetlips
but

the

in

or,

her,

water

of

grandiloquentblank

rises,

hold

under

catastrophe

When

she

Again

Bidford.]

Cliffs,near

[Marl

might

i.

197

let

SHAKSPERE

WILLIAM

of

vou

vices."

his

on

this

years

ago,

fish in

to

he

which

he

not

try the

to

Stratford

void

and

doubtless

was

quiet nooks

the

would

eschew

of his

water

at

Avon.
BidforJ

of the otter-hunt.
mile

from

other

many

general notion
when

genialfancy of

crab-tree
which

tradition

like

of Bidford

the town

ancient

an

The

age

ye
advice, with

good
him

about

companions

Crab-tree.

an

poet go

shall

doing

thus

alone

devoutly in saying affec

God

serve

may

and

the young

merry

day

About

ye

prayer,
According to this

familiar, would
With

then

customable

tuously your
many

And

game.

your

well

on

known

associates

his

the

regarding the
were
qualities
was
by some
joviality
social

excess

of

the

dwellers

at

Stratford

twenty

some

was,

Shakspere's
it with
the name
of Shakspere is,
attempt to embody the
poet, an
remarkable
his genius. In
as
as

to

traditions

that

the road

may

country round

considered
have

been

as

almost

pleased to

virtue, the
confer

upon

shelteringShakspere from the dews of night, on


him
from
ward,
his merrymakingshad
when
occasion
returninghomedisqualified
an
It is
its spreading branches.
laid down
had
to
he
and
sleep under
this
of
apocryphal story. But
scarcelynecessary to enter into an examination
of
the scene
be made
is associated with
the crab-tree
Shakspere,it may fitly
as
"cleave
Ve
He
of his youthful exercises.
pin" and strike the
some
may
well
the
of
crab-tree,
as
as
sleep heavilybeneath
quintainin the neighbourhood
enthusiasm
honest
shall diminish
We
no
its shade.
by changing the assocbthis crab-tree

'The

the

honour

Treatyses perteynyng

of

to

ITawkynge, Iluutyngc,and

""".'"".!, '""jfSvi

yiidlox-d.]

Fissbynge with

an

Anglo.'

1496

BJOGIIAI'H*.

Indeed, although

tion

accepted a challenge from


and

bivouacked

there

tradition
the

after

hearsay evidence

the

crab-tree

the

the

Shakspere'sCrab-tree,

of

he

known

ago

the

name

of

party who

had.

by

amongst

was

Bidford

could drink hardest,


topers to try which
debauch, is difficult to be traced further than

the

Mr.

Samuel

will tell you

folks of Stratford

long

was

that

Ireland.

this

In

the

that the

the merry
way,
in that town
was

same

inn

Falcon

day
Shakspere'snightlypotations,after he had retired from London
his native home
to
and
he
they will show you the shovel -board at which
;
traditions,ye are
was
delightedto play. Harmless
yet baseless ! The Falcon
inn at all in Shakspere's
not an
but
time,
a goodlyprivate
dwelling.
About
the year 1580
the ancient practice
revived
in England.
of archeryhad
The
famous
of
the
bv "e
use
English long-bow had been superseded in war
would
be
not
arquebuss; but their old diversion of butt-shooting
readily aban
bold
doned
still
did
in stories of their
delightingas they
by the
yeomanry,
familiar
in
them
chronicle
ballad.
The
to
and
'Toxocountrymen'sprowess,
book
well fitted to be amongst the favourites of
was
a
philus of Roger Ascham
would
think
with
he
and
that fine old schoolmaster
that the
our
Shakspere;
book
the bow
and
might well go together.* He
might have heard that a
John
of
who
had
founded
the grammarMiddlesex,
Lyon,
wealthy yeoman
instituted
had
school
Harrow,
at
a
prize for archery amongst the scholars.
Had
the fame, too, gone forth through the country of the worthy Show
and
not
Shootingby the Duke of Shoreditch, and his Associates the Worshipful Citizens
of
The
of London,' f and
Friendlyand Frank Fellowshipof Prince Arthur's
of Stratford
men
Knights in and about the City of London ? I There were
had seen
who within a year or two
the solemn
processionsof these companies of
the wealthycitizens and
their
archers,and their feats in Hogsden Fields ; where
ladies sat in their tents
most
gorgeouslydressed, and the winners of the prizes
field
of
the
with drum
and
out
were
by torchlight,
brought
trumpet, and volleys
of shot, mounted
great geldingssumptuouslytrapped with cloths of silvei
upon
himself talked with an
and gold. Had
he not
ancient
who, in the elder
squire,
Green"
had
End
days, at "Mile
played "Sir Dagonet at Arthur's Show?''"
the

to

of

scene

'

'

'

'

did

And
bow

he

and

i' the

dead

clout

fourteen

for
"

"

Would

of

God

to

that

all

This

is the

"greatly revived,

The

chief

title of

" Henry IV.,

shoot

and

title of

for

they
old

the

men

the

and

book

been

sundry

fine

score

of

Wingefield,in the
had

twelve

archery;
still,
accordingto

That

"

shot

Double,"

who

was

Dead

carried

did

bow."

tract
and

"

received
of

wont

bring

as

up

"

truth

the

sons,

like my

tract

by Richard

II.,Act

drew

shaft

have
a

men

worshipful

to

of
use

master

and

see."

||

Bidford

of

should

good

fourteen

good

maxim

clapped

Ascham,

"

it for the

Sit Henry

AscnAir.

published
within

in

these

Mulcaster

in., Scene

would

young

the

England, youth

their

He

"
"

heart

man's

of

1583

; but

five

years

the

author

sot

forward, at

citizens."

Part

he

forehand

you

dead ?

now

have
done
half, that it would
a
be the invitation
him, then, would

to

day

"

old

"

he

at

and

Welcome

know

not

n.

1531.

|)Ibid.

says

that
the

these

great

mock
cost

solemnities
and

charges

WILLIAM

pastime in peace."

honest

most

looks

upon
butts of

VIII.

Henry

long pastures
town,

statute,

do

nor

provideeach
of

made

the

seventeen

butts

which
and

but

kept

with

"

is

each

their

Their

the

shafts," until

two

butts

they
having a
"

statute,
mounds

are

pin in the
mark
picturesque
a

of turf,
The

centre.
:

"

garlondc,
lyne.
AVhoso
faylethof the rose garlonde,'sayd Robin,
' His
takyllhe shall tyne.'

"

'

syde a

of

statute

fathers, accordingto

and

with

the

not

are

the

to

willingto obey the

arrows

On

These

Avon.

bow

an

according

up

for himself."
continually
which is fixed a small pieceof circular paper
on
of Robin Hood's
more
young poet probablythought
four

and

bow

It is

skirt the

open fields after


elevated spot, which

in the

erected

are

compel

men
young
of them

Stratford road.

the

to

of the age

are

The

the

on

the

down

ancient

same

Ichnield way

the

cross

we

SIIAKSPERE

every

shot

They

rose

under

the

"

At the crab-tree

the young

are

"

The

eight:

"

bowstrings."

cut

or

of

the hour

at

emulated

be

would

squire's
yeoman

of Chaucer's

costume

assembly:

Hold,

archers to meet

by

of the

some

"

"

He

in cote

cladde

was

hode

and

of grene

bright and kene


Under
his belt he bare ful thriftily.
he dresse his takel yemanly :
coude
Wei
His arwes
drouped not with fetheres lowe.
he bare a mighty bowe.
in his bond
And
shefe of

Upon his
lots

The

"cry aim."
short

"
"

the

on

Away
"

on

fliesthe first

arrow

third

shoulder

"

"cleaving the pin."


word

in his

bow-boy'sbutt-shaft. ""
arrow

from

the marker,
"

is

He

The

He

drew
la

Lear.

fifth

"

his

handles
he

Stratford, and

down

butt;
him

bow

is within

place,to
second

be

like
an

clapped
a

crow-

inch

dart

and

"

"

shoots
did

trim,

so

hie

shot at him,

he

I.,bcenc

" Romeo

did lie." |j

u.

and

||Ballad of 'King Cophetua


200

Let

"

"

the while
boy, that

Act

the

over

"

place where

Midsummer-Night's Dream,

takes his

of

gazing on the sport; she whispers a


pin of his heart is cleft with the blind
whilst he receives his
his self-possession,

very

heaven
a

it is

hits the white,"

"

from

recovers

blinded
From

"

marker

The

maiden

humming

side.

"gone"

"

"

the

then

"

either

youth

There

and

ear,

gaie bracer."

fourth

called Adam

and

Lastlycomes

keeper."\

"

wide

"

arwes

he bare

arme

archers

cast ; three

arc

peacock

Much

Juliet,Act
and

tho

Ado

about

ir., Scene

iv.

Beggar-Maid.'

Nothing, Act

I,

[The Crab-tree.]

After

the

repeated contests

cf greater skill,requiringthe

practicewhich
he

who

has

drawn

before

ground

flies the

away

This

spot.

the

on

School
the
not

is?
the

"

And

by

Is his

arrow

low

to

lost.

is sometimes

bovish practiceunder
"

In

The
To

his

fellow

self-same
find

tbe

I oft found
Because

is

of the

way,

both

in

is much

English

the

hills :

dead

from

rising
crow

the

stirred

more

This

natural

with

I had

lost

self-same

one

shaft

flight

advised

more

I urge

this

is pure

Positions:

childhood

innocence.

1581.

excitement
Merchant

was

tances.
disof
lors'
Tai-

than

the

archer's

premonitionsends
Grange. But as they pass
with shout and laughter.
flight/'
in after-years
recollected
his
who
the

at

one

the
of

same

what moving ol
praised,
the roving archer hath

which

watch

forth; and, by adventuring both,

follows

or

tria

the

upon

shoot

"

other

what

each

"

school-days,when

my

I shot

''

many

up

mishaps :

such

bush

be

old

into

up

first Master

heat

dinner

there

But

is

the

"

weasel-skin,

or

dales

the archer's ?

send

go

onward

foot

natural

they

meadows

there

men

Mulcaster,

noon-tide

eye

to

now

the mark
archery,where
and
variable
at
always
ground,

young

their

accurate

archers

archer

the

on

Is his

is

there

ancient

more

in hills and

than

appetitebetter

party homeward

the
The

the

hunting on

whereas

body hath the foot-hunter


in varietyof grounds ?

along the
An

"

of

fellows

go the
Richard

dale

But

suddenly stops ;
hangs some
rag,

sometimes

lauded

and

Agincourt.

of the

roving

hill and

their exercise,so

arm

at

the

high, and

Over

strong

which

and

arrow,

is decided.

first lot

the

him, from

was

sometimes

day

the

won

match

proof,

SIIAKSPEHE

WILLIAM

To

which

other

are

is lost

owe

did

you

the

I will watch

Or

bring your latter


thankfullyrest

sports

self way
do

first,I

the

youth,
please

if you

doubt,

not

hazard

both,
back again,

debtor

for the first."*

aim,

to find

or

triumphs

other

played,and

be

to

wilful

but,

that

arrow

shoot

As

And

There

another

shoot

Which

and, like

much;

you

owe

That

achieved,

be

to

the butts, i3
little distance from
day closes. In the meadow, at some
Horsemen
are
It is the Quintain.
construction.
of singular
fixed a machine
beginningto assemble around it,and are waitingthe arrival of the guests from
But the
orchard."
of mine host's
in
arbour
the Grange,who
an
are
merry
experienc
and their horses are
ready. To the inmatters;
stirring
youths are for more
before the

"

"

eye the machine

which
"

Is but

wooden

It is the
the

"

up,

lifeless block." f

The

in hand,

grinninghideouslyupon

form

horsemen

lane

either

on

side,

his spear and


rides violently
at
one,
strikes
his wooden
who
post. The spear
enemy,
appears to stand firm upon
receives not
the
wooden
his
the
left
but
Saracen
man
on
shoulder;
just

the
the

the

chorus

of

the

the

horseman

horse

has

cleared

Another

centre, and

and

of

the

fail.

At

won.

sand-bag

at

swings round

with

his

misbeliever's

rider

The

he

thump

of the

range

another

blow

the

formidable

the

victoryis

pivot,with

the

upon
I have

action

the

laughtergreets the unfortunate

rear.

the

couches
challengers,

hits

pivot,and
before

of

for by
patience,

with

wound

"

him.

"

stands

here

mere

Saracen, sword

confront

boldest

the

whilst

up

figureof

assailants who

which

That

in the field

erected

has been

quintain,a

"

he

as

extended

his
upon
sword

Then

weapon.

one

back
dolefully

comes

to

last the

quintainis struck rightin


conquered,a flat board is set

Saracen

end, such

one

Stow

as

has described

:"

a
quintainset upon Comhill, by Leadenhall, where the attendants
of merry
disportshave run and made great pastime; for he that hit
board end of the quintainwas
and he that hit it full,
laughedto scorn;
seen

of the lords
the

not

if he

rode

the faster,had

sound

blow

his neck

bag full of sand


hanged on the other end." { The merry guests of the Grange enjoy the sport
Master
the quintainat Kenilworth
The
as
Laneham, who
as
saw
:
heartily
of the sport was
how
of his slackness had a good bob with
to see
some
speciality
the bag ; and some
for his haste to toppledownright,and come
tumbling to the
much
at the first setting
so
a question
striving
out, that it seemed
post ; some
not

upon

with

"

"

the

between
or

foot

man

and

the

beast, whether

and, put forth with

the

thickest of the

By

my

the

throng,that

troth, Master

Martin,

down
't

the

spurs, then

was

came
a

should

course

would

be made

his

run

by

race

theytogetherhand over
goodly pastime." And now

horseback
us

head.

among
*

they go

supper,
"

What

In his loose traces

The

Merchant

of
+

202

Venice, Act r., Scene


Survey of London.

time
from

I.

the labour'd
the furrow

"

ox

came."

As

"

Lika

You

Milton

'

Ic.

Comua.

\ct

r.,Scone

m.

to

DTOGTUriTT.

The

shines

moon

mill-wheel

is at

the silence which

just ceased.
voices

three

stream

lute

is struck

window

command

Suddenlya
the

the

within

the

Grange. The
breaks
pleasantly

dam
the

chorus

the

upon

of

garden
over

gentlenight-breeze.The

the

beneath

terraced

is merriment

There

is around.

welcome

casements

brightlyupon the
The
rippleof the

rest.

house, whose

of

of

terrace

open

jovialsong

the

has

garden, and

attention.

They are singing


then
lovelycompositionswhich were
just
becoming popular in
the
which
the
England
Madrigal,
Flemings invented, the Italians cultivated,
which
and
few years after reached
its perfection
in our
a
own
country. The
beautiful interlacings
fine bindingsand strange closes,"*
of the harmony, its
its points,each
emulatingthe other,but each in its due place and proportion,
But the young
who sang
men
requiredscientific skill as well as voice and ear.
the madrigal were
task.
their
There
who
listened
till his
was
one
equal to
one

of

mute

those

"

"

heart

throbbed

earth

by
:

and

his

eyes

thoughtswhich

he

with

wet

were

afterwards

tears

for he

expressedin

lifted above

was

lines of wondrous

the

ness
loveli-

"

"

How

the

sweet

will

Here

Creep

in

Become

our

the

Is thick

of sweet

Look

the

the floor of heaven

how

inlaid with

's not

There

patinesof bright gold.

smallest

orb

But

in his motion

Still

quiring to the
harmony is in immortal

Such
But

of music

sounds

and the night,


stillness,
harmony.

soft

"

ears

let the

touches

Sit,Jessica.

this bank

moonlight sleepsupon

sit,and

we

like

which

behold'st,

thou

angel sings,
young-eyed cherubins
an

souls

whilst this

muddy vesture of decay


grosslyclose it in,we cannot hear it."+

Doth

had been
thus evoked
of harmony which
spirit
Watkin's
The
allowed
overlaid by ruder merriment.
to be
Ale,' and
not
was
Carman's
Heartease,'
we
be,' and
Whistle,' Peg-a-Ramsay,' Three merry men
fresh
reserved
for another
a
occasion,when
were
might be
stoup of wine
coziers'
their
catches
called
and
the
out
roar
for,
loudly
jollycompany
might
"old
there was
without
of voice." J
But
an
remorse
or
many
any mitigation
and antiquesong." full of eleganceand tenderness,to be heard that night. We
music
musical
was
no
new
were
a
people in the age of Elizabeth ; but our
abundant
music
fashion of the
times."
There
"brisk
and
was
giddy-paced
with which
sad or
the people were
familiar,whether
quaint or simple.
lively,
it might
nicest
the
There was
air
be
to
taste, of which
not
an
despisedby
many
The

madrigalceased

but

the

'

'

'

'

'

"

"

"

be said,
"

spinstersand

The
And
Do

the
use

free maids

to chant

And

dallies

Like

the

old

with

It is old and

the

knitters

that

weave

plain:

in the

sun,

their

thread

with

bones,

it ; it is
the

sillysooth,
innocence of love,

age.""

Morley's ' Treatise :'1597.


X Twelfth Night, Act n., Scene

f Merchant
in.

of

Venice, Act

" Ibid-

Act

v., Scene

n., Scene

i.

iv.

2C

WILLIAM

Such

the

was

which

air
plaintive

has been

snatched
"

Such

the

was

'

for

For

in the

:"

bonny

the

"

the

to

by Ophelia :
is all my

Robin

sweet

is

Hood

oblivion

old

favourite

dramas.

night with

mistress

mine, where

Greenwood

line of

gone,'a

"

joy."

of poets, if

Such

Ihat

Shakspere heard
friend

Robin

'

from

Lighto' Love/

repeated mention
young

of

SHAKSPELE

the

was

may

judge from

graceful tune

which

words

we

had

ho

which

himself

its
the

written

"

0,

are
you roaming ?
hear; your true love's comiug,
That
can
sing both high and low :
Trip no further,pretty sweeting ;
Journeys end iu lovers' meeting,
Every wise man's son doth know.

0, stay and

is love

What

mirth

What

's to

In

say, with

received
challengewas
Wyatt,
She

was

with

unsure

plenty ;

no

and

sweet

in

twenty

endure."

all kindness

caught in her

me

And

to

lies

stuff will not

Therewithal

for he

is still

come

and

the

happy

lover

might

Sir Thomas

"

aldine

hereafter

present laughter;

kiss me,

come

Youth's

the

hath

delay there

Then

And

? 'tis not

Present

her

be"
"

softlysaid, Dear
'

accepted "servant,"
the

all the

"

handfasted
; they would

make

of

the

their
*

old

did

and

such

small.

kiss,

me

heart,how

recognisedlover,not
ardour

long

arms

sweetly she

this ? '

like you

"as

"servant

yet betrothed, but

chivalry.In

publictroth-plight.

Hamlet,

Act

iv., Soene

[Bidford Grange.]

v.

few

"
"

Surrey sued
devoted

to

days they

to

Ger-

his mistress
would

be

IPv

[Charlcote Church.]

The

II.
"

Chahlcote

presented
world's
"

An

the

"

to

extravagance

and

that way

be

blemish

his

upon

known

was

the

in

the

dramatic

up

and

exerting
He

him

and

of

by

and,

to

here
of

out

him, yet

he

and,

first to

it afterwards

amongst

ever

enough

to

made

that

some

in

that

than
once
more
robbing a
deer-stealingengaged him
For
Stratford.
this
of
Sir
Thomas
Charlcote,
near
belonged
Lucy,
too
severely;
prosecuted by that gentleman, as he thought, somewhat

in

order

was

to

to

revenge

though this, probably the


been

country,

at

common

them,

frequent practice of
park

the

repeated:

his

it seemed

misfortune

not

with

greatest geniuses that

the
a

be

must

though

it is

but
,

associations

both

misfortune

one

had,

ill company,

Rowe,

by

Shakspere

of

pleasant

forced

taken

manners,

poetry.
into

of

first told

had

of

reader

every

guilty of

was

good

to

influence

was

he

occasion

fellows, fallen

young

he

that

livingwhich

of

happilyproved

under

story, which

The

poet.

is familiar

name

world

the

Wedding.

so

that he

very

obliged to

was

time, and

bitter, that

shelter

Some

himself

Accc

unt

that

ill usage,

first essay

it redoubled
leave
in

of the

his

he

of his
the

business

made

poetry, be

ballad

family in

London."*

The

Life of William

Shakespear, written

good

him.

lost,yet it is said

prosecution againsthim
and

upon

old

to

to

that

Warwickshire

gossip Aubrey
by Mr.

And

degree,

for
is

Eowe.
205

have

some

wholly

WILLIAM

about

SIIAKSPEPvE

the

and
the flight
London,
to
deer-stealing
merely saying, This
William, being inclined naturally
to London, I guess
to poetry and
c
ame
acting,
about
other
eighteen." But there were
antiquariangossipsof Aubrey's age,
left us
have
their testimony
who
Reverend
William
this
subject. The
upon
died in 1688, bequeathed
Fulman, a fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, who
3ilent

and

"

his papers
to
the Reverend
the death
of Mr. Davies, in

on

Christi.

libraryof Corpus
the biographyof our
dates

of

his

and

to

us

death.

these

1708,

and

the

under

the

of

followingpiece
venison
stealing
whipped, and sometimes

all unluckiness, in

his

to

bore

name,

chronicler, as
wrote,

inferred

from

Justice

Clodpate is a new
diminished
strangelyfrom
Mr.

Davies's

white

dozen

calls the
has

ballad

'

new

first essay of

the

the

way

that

in

it descended

him

to

Mr.

into

before

this
he

him.

to

have

rampant
Slender.

In

of his

fuel,he

added

'

Life,'

says, to

prosecution;'and

'

of it, which

stanza

one

editor

Capell,the

the

hands

with
preserver),

many
years
this account
of

Jones, who

Thomas

great,

so

years

writer

editor's

the

him

of

Master

But

'redoubled

its

Sir

ing
through which, accord-

"

The

"

Shakspere'spoetry

of

which

fact

much

accuracy

louses

of

ballad

was

accessible

was

"

was

that, in allusion

hundred

lost ballad,'which
and

genuine, was
appearance
put
ingeniousgentleman (grandson of

an

and

three

luces

of the

to

'

the

by

testimony
first modern, [Rowe] speaks of a
knight's before-conceived
anger,

the

the

He

friend's

last made

at

The

his

revenge

arms."

what

to

from
particularly

man,

happened

and

mention

no

great

poet revenged his "ill usage."

young

Shakspere,found

the

"

his

But

in

for

"

imprisoned,and

correctness

character

have

we

the

Rowe,

to

of

account

have

to

his

collections

notes

rabbits

for his

rampant

supposed

events

to

be

may

louses

three

the

Shakspere he gives the

information

depositedin

some

added

and

Lucy, who had him oft


flyhis native country, to his great advancement.
that he is his Justice Clodpate.and
calls him

made

name

Davies, who

But

were

papers

have

to

appears

Englishpoets,

birth

manuscripts,affords
given

Fulman

of Sandford, Oxfordshire

Davies

Richard

dwelt

at

ago
the

Tarbick,

in Worcestershire, a few miles from


died in the
and
Stratford-on-Avon,
village
heard
from
several old
remembered
to have
year 1703, aged upwards of ninety,
Stratford
Sir
Thomas
the
of
at
people
Lucy's park ;
Shakespeare'srobbing
story
and
their account
that the
of it agreed with
Mr.
Rowe's, with this addition
ballad written againstSir Thomas
stuck
his
park-gate,
by Shakespearewas
upon
which
to
exasperated the knight to apply to a lawyer at Warwick
proceed
him.
Mr.
of
Jones
had
down
in
first
the
the
stanza
ballad,
against
writing
put
a

"

which

all he

was

transmitted
The

first stanza

membered

remembered

it to my

of

omittingit.

father

It is

been
follows

as

"

A
At

Notes
206

by

memory,
ballad which

of the

it,has

of it, and

often

so
:

Mr.

who

Jones

Mr.

Wilkes

Thomas

also took

it in

put down

that
reprinted,

we

can

(my grandfather)
*

writing."
in writingas all he robe justified
iu
scarcely

"

p:\rliamcntemember,
home

and various Readings

poor

to

scare-crowe,

justiceof

peace,

at London

Shakespeare, Part

an

III.,p. 75.

asse

Sec

Note

to this

Chapter.

If lowsie is
Theii

Lucy
He
Yet

irrooRAriTY.

volko miscnlle it,


Lucy, as somo
ia lowsie,whatever
befall it.
thinkes
an

himself

allowe by his eares


but
Lucy is lowsie, as some
Sing lowsie Lucy, whatever

But

greate,

iu his state

asso

We

with

If

volke

to mate.

asses

miscalle

befalle

it,

it."

quarian,
antirespectable

tradition sprang up in another quarter. Mr. Oldys,the


also preservedthis stanza, with the following
remarks

the

has

"There

"

was

aged gentleman livingin the neighbourhoodof Stratford (where he died fifty


of Shakwho had not onlyheard from several old peoplein that town
years since),
but could remember
of that bitter ballad,
the first stanza
speare'stransgression,
very

and here it
he preservedit in writing,
acquaintance,
his
but faithfully
transcribed from the copy, which
is,neither better nor
worse,
communicated
relation very courteously
The copy preservedby Oldys
to me."*
with
w
ord
word
that
by
corresponds
printedby Capcll; and it is therefore pretty

which,

to
repeating

evident

that each

the

from

verses

looks rather

more

of his

one

down
derived from the same
the person who wrote
was
source,
the memory
of the one
old gentleman. In truth, the whole matter
like an exercise of invention than of memory.
Mr. De Quincey
"

expresseda very strong opinion that these lines were a productionof Charles
II.'s reign,
and appliedto a Sir Thomas
Lucy, not very far removed, if at all,from
who
first picked up the preciousfilth the phrase parliament
the age of him
member'
of Queen Elizabeth."
believe to be quiteunknown
in the colloquial
we
use
He
of the ballad.
But he has overlooked
the authenticity
a stronger pointagainst
since
the
scurrilous
that
the
has
been
rondeau
to
ever
Shakspeare
imputed
says
This is a mistake.
Rowe
expressly
daysof the credulous Rowe."
says the ballad
half
lost."
is
It was
tillthe
time
of Oldys and Capell,
not
a century after
nearly
found.
It was
Rowe, that the singlestanza
not
was
publishedtill seventy years
after Rowe's
Life of Shakspeare." We
have littledoubt that the regret of Rowe
lost was
that the ballad was
productive not only of the discovery,but of the
discovered, and the
creation, of the delicious fragment. By-and-by more
was
has

"

'

"

"

"

found
entire song
was
near
Tyler,of Shottery,

in

"

chest of drawers

ballad is

Mrs.

formerlybelongedto

Dorothy

who

just as genuineas

the other

believe,however, that the first stanza


a

that

This is
Stratford,who died in 1778, at the age of 80."
his
inserts
the
entire
in
the
to
account,
posthumous
Appendix
song
"
Life of Shakspeare,"
with the expression
that one
of his persuasion
part of this

Malone's
"

modern

one.

If the

ballad is held

is
to

be

and the
forgery,
all of one
piece,it

old

an

entire song
the new
forgery.But in the
the versification of the first attempt
imitating
of a brutal doggrel-monger.
"

"

forgery."We
remainingstanzas

is

that is,that the whole

have

stanzas
to

not

is

self-evident
the

even

degradeShakspereto

merit

of

the character

tradition.
This, then, is the entire evidence as to the deer- stealing
Accordingto
Rowe, the young
in robbinga park,for
than once
Shaksperewas engaged more
which

he

was

prosecuted by

and

then, being more

MS.

Notes

upon

Sir Thomas

Lucy;

he

made

severelypursued,fled

Langbaiue, from which

Steevens

to

ballad

London.

his prosecutor,

upon

According to

published the lines in 1778.


207

WILLIAM

Davies, lie
for

which

much

was

he

given

often

was

to

RIIAKSI'EIIE

all unluckiness

in

imprisoned,and

whipped,sometimes

and

stealingvenison
at

rabbits

last forced

to

correct
was
to
as
flythe country. According to Jones, the tradition of Rowe
stuck
the
ballad being
a
park-gate,
robbing the park; and the obnoxious
upon
The
tradition
authorised
offender.
is
Warwick
the
thus
of
to
was
lawyer
prosecute
would
be so, for each ot
full of contradictions upon the face of it. It necessarily
that must
have happened a hundred
the witnesses speaks of circumstances
years
examine
We
the credibility
of the tradition therefore by
before his time.
must
Shakthe state of the law as to the offence for which William
what was
inquiring
been prosecuted; what was
the state of publicopinionas to
said
is
to have
spere
what
the positionof Sir Thomas
the offence ; and
was
Lucy as regarded his

immediate

chapter
Crown

made

neighbours.

law

The

21.

and

in

period in questionwas
forest-laws had regard only to
the 32nd of Henry VIII. an Act

operationat
ancient

The

therefore

in

the

of ''every inheritor and possessor of manors,


of deer, and the takingof rabbits and
the killing

the
the
was

land, and

5th

of

Elizabeth,

of the
possessions
for
the
passed
tection
pro-

tenements," which

hawks, felony. This Act

was

quicklyre-enacted in the 3rd and


it
VI.
and
Edward
4th of
1550),
(1549
being allegedthat unlawful hunting prevailed
extent
to such an
throughout the realm, in the royaland privateparks,that
five hundred
deer were
of the king'sparkswithin a few miles of London
hi one
dav.
For the due punishment of such offences the taking of deer was
slain in one
made
felony. But the Act was againrepealedin the 1st of Mary. In the
again
the offence a
it was
to make
5th of Elizabeth
more
attemptedin Parliament once
resisted
it
this
successfully
and
enacted
But
that,if any
was
was
;
felony.
capital
break or enter
into any park
person by night or by day "wrongfullyor unlawfully
several
closed
with
other
wall,
or
pale,
hedge, and used for
ground
empaled,or any
and cherishing
of deer, and so wrongfully
the keeping,breeding,
hunt, drive, or
chase out, or take, kill,or slayany deer within any such empaled park,or closed
ground with wall, pale,or other enclosure,and used for deer, as is aforesaid,"he
shall suffer three months'
imprisonment,pay treble damages to the party offended,
But there is a clause in this Act
and find sureties for seven
years'good behaviour.
doubtful
the
for takingdeer could be
renders
it
whether
which
penalties
(1562-3)
Lucy.
applied twenty years after the passingof the Act, in the case of Sir Thomas
contained
extend
this
That
not
to
Provided
Act,
therein,
or
anything
always,
any
park or enclosed ground hereafter to be made and used for deer, without the grant
licence of our
or
SovereignLady the Queen, her heirs, successors,
progenitors."
or
no', a deer-park
not an
At the date of this statute
Charlcotc, it is said,was
; was
that
Malone
licensed.
It
the
to
enclosed
us
case
ground royally
puts
appears
maintains
Charlcote
when
he
that
not
was
the tradition too strongly
a
f.gainst
to be unprotected
licensed park in 15G2 ; and that, therefore,its venison continued
The Act of Elizabeth clearly
tillthe statute of the 3rd of James.
contemplates
any
closed with wall,pale,or hedge,and used for the keepingof
several ground
deer;" and as Sir Thomas
Lucy built the mansion at Charlcote in 1558, it may
of Charlcote was
be supposedthat at the date of the statute the domain
reasonably
whatever
the state ot
The
with
however,
closed
was
wall,pale,or hedge.
Lucys,
repealedin the

1st

of Edward

VI.; but

it

was

"

"

"

"

203

"

the law

as

Thomas

of the ballad sent

The

their

to

park,had

present of

Charlcote, accordingto Mr.

Lucy

and

conveyed

he

The

of

to

its

Ireland,

Upon

it has

the

not

the Ordnance

of the

successor

Keeper Egerton

as
locality

was

advanced

place of

Sii

in 1602.
in

age.

lucky
Shakspere'sun-

the property of Sir Thomas

was

old house

an

for the

the Lord

Fulbrooke, he says,

drawing of

after his detection.

buck

shifted

has

Samuel

Park

givesus

in deer,
proprietorship

tradition
deer-stealing

adventures.

BIOCRAHIY.

where

the young

of

Map

own

our

offender

was

is the Deer

day

K"

[Deer Barn, Fulbrooke.]

Barn, where,

engraving here

accordingto the
given is founded

by W. Jackson,
that

in 1802,

into my
entitled

Museum

at

came

The

I found

1798."

"

tradition,the venison

same

concealed.

was

of the Deer
representation

upon a
it amongst

and
possession,
Shakespeareno

Barn,

papers belonging
the author of a tract,
to

some

Mr.

The

rude

di awing is

The

drawn

Waldron,

presentedit to

Deer- Stealer."

"

published
in the

now

Stratford.

author

of this tract, Mr.

C. Holte

be named
cannot
Bracebridge,
by ourselves,
without a feeling
of deep respect.
His
nor, indeed, by any of his contemporaries,
exertions
alleviate
miseries
the
the
in
to
the
Crimea,
war
accompanying
generous
those of Florence Nightingale. But he
as
originatedin the same
high principle
if we
hesitate in our
belief that the shifting
of the scene
must
of the deerexcuse
us
from Charlcote
adds much
additional value to the credibility
to Fulbrooke
stealing
of the tradition.
The argument of Mr. Bracebridgeis in substance
follows :
as
"From
Park was
held in capiteof the Crown
1553
to
1592, Fulbrooke
by Si;"

Francis

Englefield, From

Francis

had

been

1558

attainted,and

to

the

time

his property

of his death, abroad, in

proceeds

It follows,