Você está na página 1de 83

CHAPTER

CONTENT

2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8

CONTENTS
Preview
Expressing past time: the simple past
Spelling of ing and ed forms
The principal parts of a verb
Common irregular verbs: a reference list
Regular verbs: pronunciation of ed endings
Simple past and past progressive
Expressing past time: using time clauses
Expressing past habit: used to

CHAPTER 2: PREVIEW

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Alada rides the bus to work.


Yesterday it rained and her clothes got wet.
Today she is taking extra clothes to work.

CHAPTER 2: PREVIEW

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Alada rides the bus to work.


Yesterday it rained and her clothes got wet.
Today she is taking extra clothes to work.

PRESENT TENSE

CHAPTER 2: PREVIEW

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Alada rides the bus to work.


Yesterday it rained and her clothes got wet.
Today she is taking extra clothes to work.

PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

We graduated from college in 2010.

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(a) Our family ate lunch outside yesterday.

(b) Adrianna studied for six hours last night.

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(a) Our family ate lunch outside yesterday.

(b) Adrianna studied for six hours last night.

SIMPLE PAST

activities or situations
began and ended in the past
(yesterday, last night, in 2007)

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(c) They watched the movie last night.

(d) Alexandra answered the question yesterday.

watch + ed = watched
answer + ed = answered

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(e) We slept in tents at camp last summer.

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(e) We slept in tents at camp last summer.


(f) I understood most of the directions yesterday.
Irregular past:
sleep
understand
eat

slept
understood
ate
10

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(g) I was a lifeguard last summer.


(h) They were in Belgium last month.

Simple past forms of be

was and were

11

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

REGULAR VERBS
STATEMENT

I-You-She-He-It-We-They started
school last week.

NEGATIVE

I-You-She-He-It-We-They did not start


school last week.

12

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

REGULAR VERBS
QUESTION

Did I-you-she-he-it-we-they start

school last week?


SHORT
ANSWER

Yes, I-you-she-he-it-we-they did.


No, I-you-she-he-it-we-they didnt.

13

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

BE- VERB
STATEMENT

I-She-He-It was home last week.


We-You-They were home last week.

NEGATIVE

I-She-He-It was not home last week.


We-You-They were not home last week.

14

2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

BE- VERB
QUESTION

Was I-she-he-it home last week?


Were we-you-they home last week?

SHORT
ANSWER

Yes, I-she-he-it was.


Yes, we-you-they were.
No, I-she-he-it- wasnt.
No, we-you-they werent.

15

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-1 LETS PRACTICE

They were at the movies last


night at 8:00.

is
NEGATIVE STATEMENT:

They _______
werent at the movies last night at 8:00.
ACCURATE, AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT:

They were
____ at the grocery store last night at 8:00.
16

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-1 LETS PRACTICE

This airplane was made


in 1625.

1943

is
NEGATIVE STATEMENT:

wasnt made in 1625.


This airplane ______
ACCURATE, AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT:

This airplane was


___ made in 1943.
17

2-1 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Did Carla get a bad grade


on her test?
get

NEGATIVE STATEMENT:

Carla ________
didnt get a bad grade on her test.
ACCURATE, AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT:

Carla ________
an excellent grade on her test.
got
18

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

We are learning to speak English.

19

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

END OF VERB

-e
(a) smile
smiling
smiled

CHAPTER
CONTENT

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


NO

hoped
hope
hoping
-ing form: drop -e, add -ing
-ed form: add -d
20

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

END OF VERB
Two Consonants

CHAPTER
CONTENT

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


NO

(b) help
helping
helped

learned
learn
learning
Two consonants

add -ing
add -ed
21

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

END OF VERB
Two Vowels
+ One Consonant

CHAPTER
CONTENT

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


NO

(c) rain
raining
rained

heated
heat
heating
Two vowels + one consonant

add -ing
add -ed
22

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

ONE-SYLLABLE VERBS

END OF VERB
One Vowel
+ One Consonant

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


YES

(d) stopped
stopping
stop

planned
plan
planning
Double the consonant and

add -ing
add -ed
23

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS

END OF VERB
One Vowel
+ One Consonant

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


NO

(e) visited
visiting
vis
it

offered
offer
offering
First syllable stressed

add -ing
add -ed
24

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS
END OF VERB
One Vowel
+ One Consonant

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


YES

(f) prefer

preferring

preferred

admit

admitting

admitted

Second syllable stressed,


double the consonant

add -ing
add -ed
25

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

END OF VERB

-y
(g) play

enjoy

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


NO

playing

played

enjoying

enjoyed

vowel + -y

keep the -y

26

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

END OF VERB

-y

DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?


NO

(h) worry

worrying

worried

study

studying

studied

consonant + -y

-y + -ing
-i + -ed
-y
27

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-2 SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS

END OF VERB

-ie
(i) die

tie

dying

died

tying

tied

-ie

-y + -ing

add -d
28

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-2 LETS PRACTICE

rain
-ING form
-ED form

raining
________
________
rained

29

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-2 LETS PRACTICE

study
-ING form
-ED form

studying
_________
_________
studied

30

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-2 LETS PRACTICE

lie

-ING form
-ED form

lying
_____
_____
lied

Please dont
lie to me!

31

2-3 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB

CHAPTER
CONTENT

They became friends.

32

2-3 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB

CHAPTER
CONTENT

SIMPLE FORM
Regular Verbs
finish
hope
try

Irregular Verbs
see
sing
go

Simple Form
No final s, ed, or ing

33

2-3 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB

CHAPTER
CONTENT

SIMPLE PAST
Regular Verbs
finished
hoped
tried

Irregular Verbs
saw
sang
went

Simple Past
ed for regular verbs

34

2-3 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB

CHAPTER
CONTENT

PAST PARTICIPLE
Regular Verbs
finished
hoped
tried

Irregular Verbs
seen
sung
gone

Past Participle
ed for regular verbs
perfect tenses & passive

35

2-3 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB

CHAPTER
CONTENT

PRESENT PARTICIPLE
Regular Verbs
finishing
hoping
trying

Irregular Verbs
seeing
singing
going

Present Participle
ing for all verbs
used with progressive tenses

36

2-4 COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS:


A REFERENCE LIST

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Somebody spent all my money.

37

2-4 COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS:


A REFERENCE LIST

SIMPLE FORM:

awake

SIMPLE PAST:

awoke

PAST PARTICIPLE:

awoken

CHAPTER
CONTENT

38

2-4 COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS:


A REFERENCE LIST

SIMPLE FORM:

forget

SIMPLE PAST:

forgot

CHAPTER
CONTENT

PAST PARTICIPLE: forgotten

39

2-4 COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS:


A REFERENCE LIST

SIMPLE FORM:

shave

SIMPLE PAST:

shaved

PAST PARTICIPLE:

shaved/shaven

CHAPTER
CONTENT

40

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-4 COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS:


A REFERENCE LIST

SIMPLE FORM:

throw

SIMPLE PAST:

threw

PAST PARTICIPLE: thrown

41

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-4 LETS PRACTICE

SIMPLE FORM:

give

SIMPLE PAST:

gave
_____

given
PAST PARTICIPLE: _____

42

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-4 LETS PRACTICE

SIMPLE FORM:

sit

SIMPLE PAST:

___
sat

PAST PARTICIPLE:

___
sat

43

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-4 LETS PRACTICE

SIMPLE FORM:

read

SIMPLE PAST:

read
_______

read
PAST PARTICIPLE: _______

44

2-5 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF ED


ENDINGS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

She talked to me for an hour.


talk/t/

45

2-5 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF ED


ENDINGS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(a) talked
k = talk/t/
stopped
pp = stop/t/
hissed = hiss/t/
watched = watch/t/
washed = wash/t/

voiceless sound + -ed

/t/

examples: /k/, /p/


46

2-5 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF ED


ENDINGS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(a) talked = talk/t/


stopped = stop/t/
ss = hiss/t/
hissed
watched
ch = watch/t/
sh = wash/t/
washed

voiceless sound + -ed


/t/
examples: /k/, /p/, /s/, /ch/, /sh/
47

2-5 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF ED


ENDINGS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

ll = call/d/
(b) called
n = rain/d/
rained
lived = live/d/
robbed = rob/d/
stayed = stay/d/

voiced sound + -ed


examples: /l/, /n/

/d/

48

2-5 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF ED


ENDINGS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(b) called = call/d/


rained = rain/d/
v = live/d/
lived
bb = rob/d/
robbed
stayed
y = stay/d/

voiced sound + -ed


/d/
examples: /l/, /n/, /v/, /b/, all vowel sounds
49

2-5 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF ED


ENDINGS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

t = wait / d/
(c) waited
d = need / d/
needed
e

t or d + -ed

/ d/

50

behave__
?

1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e

2-5 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

51

behave__
/d/

1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e

2-5 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

52

plant___
?

1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e

2-5 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

53

plant___
/ d/

1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e

2-5 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

54

2-6 SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

He ran to work yesterday.


He was running when the bus drove by.

55

2-6 SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

THE SIMPLE PAST


X

(a) Edgar ran to work yesterday.


(b) Pat drove to work this morning.
began and ended at particular
time in the past
56

2-6 SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

THE PAST PROGRESSIVE


X

(c) Edgar was running when the bus drove by.


(d) They were eating when I got home.

in progress
was/were + -ing
57

2-6 SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

THE PAST PROGRESSIVE


X

(e) When the bus drove by, Edgar was running.


(f) The bus drove by while Edgar was running.
when = at that time
while = during that time
58

2-6 SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE

STATEMENT

I-She-He-It

CHAPTER
CONTENT

was talking.

You-We-They were talking.


NEGATIVE

I-She-He-It

was not talking.


wasnt talking.

You-We-They were not talking.


werent talking.

59

2-6 SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE

QUESTION

Was I-she-he-it
Were you-we-they

talking ?
talking ?

SHORT
ANSWER

Yes, I-she-he-it
No, I-she-he-it

was.
wasnt.

Yes, you-we-they
No, you-we-they

were.
werent.

CHAPTER
CONTENT

60

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-6 LETS PRACTICE

walk

were walking
Yesterday, the camels ___________
in the desert.

61

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-6 LETS PRACTICE

At 8:00, we began to work.


work

were working
At 8:30, we ____________.

62

2-6 LETS PRACTICE

was waiting for the bus.


Marie __________
wasnt waiting for a plane.
Marie _____________

CHAPTER
CONTENT

wait
OR
wait, not

63

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Our son called while we were using


the computer.

64

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

main clause
time clause
(a) After I exercised, I took a shower.
main clause
(b) I took a shower

time clause
after I exercised.

(a) time clause

main clause

65

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

main clause
time clause
(a) After I exercised, I took a shower.
main clause
(b) I took a shower

time clause
after I exercised.

(b) main clause time clause

66

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(c) I took a shower after I exercised.


(d) Before I took a shower, I exercised.
after
before
until
as soon as
while
when

subject
+
and verb

a time
clause

67

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(e) I exercised until I took a shower.


(f) As soon as I exercised, I took a shower.

until = to that time and no longer


as soon as = immediately after

68

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(g) Mary came home while I was studying.


(h) When Mary came home, I was studying.
main clause + comma + time clause

time clause + comma + main clause

69

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(i) When I rang the doorbell, it played music.


First: I rang the doorbell
Then: it played music
when

allows simple past


in both clauses

70

2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(j) She was learning to ski while he was


playing golf.
two actions at the same time
past progressive okay in both

71

2-7 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

attend
work

were working our children


While we ___________,
were attending school.
____________

72

CHAPTER
CONTENT

2-7 LETS PRACTICE

fall asleep
read

Lynn _________
fell asleep while she __________
was reading
a book.
73

2-7 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

First: I went shopping.


Then: I put the food away.
I put the food away
I went shopping ________________.
After _____________,

I put the food away after ______________.


I went shopping
________________

74

2-8 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO

CHAPTER
CONTENT

He used to be a baby, but now he is


man with a family.

75

2-8 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(a) I used to swim every afternoon.


Now I work in the afternoon.
(b) Fatima used to play piano, but now
she plays the violin.
(c) Jasmine used to laugh, but she
doesnt anymore.
used to

past situations
no longer exist
used to + simple form of a verb
76

2-8 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(d) Did you used to swim every afternoon?

(OR Did you use to swim every afternoon?)

did + subject + used to


(OR did + subject + use to)

77

2-8 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO

CHAPTER
CONTENT

(e) I didnt used to swim every day, but


now I swim every afternoon.
(f) Fatima never used to love school, but
now she loves it.

For negative ideas,


never is more common.

78

2-8 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Correct?
The children used to swam in the ocean.

79

2-8 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Correct? No
The
The children
children used
used to
to swam
swim in
inthe
theocean.
ocean.

80

2-8 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Correct?
Were you used to ask questions in school?

81

2-8 LETS PRACTICE

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Correct? No
Were
Did you used to ask questions in school?

82

PHOTO CREDITS

CHAPTER
CONTENT

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education and


its licensors. All rights reserved.

Images used under license from:


Shutterstock, Inc.
Clipart, Inc.

83